Sir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter

Sir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter

Male 1542 - 1623  (80 years)

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  1. 1.  Sir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of ExeterSir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter was born 5 Mar 1542, St. Mary The Great, Cambridgeshire, England (son of William Cecil, KG, 1st Baron of Burghley and Mary Cheke); died 8 Feb 1623, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Lord Burghley

    Notes:

    Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, KG (5 May 1542 – 8 February 1623), known as Lord Burghley from 1598 to 1605, was an English politician and soldier.



    Family
    Dorothy Neville, first wife of Thomas Cecil (1549–1608)

    Thomas Cecil was the elder son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, by his first wife, Mary Cheke (d. February 1543), daughter of Sir Peter Cheke of Pirgo, London. He was the half-brother of Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, Anne Cecil, and Elizabeth Cecil.

    It has been said that William Cecil considered Thomas to be, "hardly fit to govern a tennis court". This quotation is both unproven and unfair. Whilst Thomas's career may have been overshadowed by those of his illustrious father and half-brother, he was a fine soldier, a useful politician and had a good deal of influence on the building, not only of Burghley itself, but also two other important houses: Wothorpe Towers and Wimbledon Palace.
    Arms of Sir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, KG - Barry of ten argent and azure over all six escutcheons sable, three, two, and one, each charged with a lion rampant of the first.
    Career

    Cecil was educated privately and at Trinity College, Cambridge.[1]

    He served in government under Queen Elizabeth I of England, first serving in the House of Commons in 1563, and representing various constituencies for most of the time, from then until 1593. He was knighted in 1575 and appointed High Sheriff of Northamptonshire for 1578. He accompanied Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester to the Dutch Republic, where he was distinguished for his bravery. In 1585, he served as governor of Brielle - an English Cautionary Town. He did not have good relations with Dudley, but he was very loyal to Sir John Norreys. In 1584 and 1586, he was Member of Parliament for Lincolnshire, and once more in 1592 for Northamptonshire. In 1588, Cecil completed the building of Wimbledon Palace in Wimbledon Park, London, a leading example of the Elizabethan prodigy house.

    His father's death, later in 1598, brought him a seat in the House of Lords, the 2nd Lord Burghley, as he then was, served from 1599 to 1603 as Lord Lieutenant of Yorkshire and Lord President of the Council of the North. It was during this period, that Queen Elizabeth I made him a Knight of the Garter in 1601. During the early reign of King James I of England, he was created Earl of Exeter on 4 May 1605, the same day his younger half-brother, Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cranborne, was created 1st Earl of Salisbury. Unlike his brother, however, he did not become a government minister under King James's rule.

    He attempted to build up a family alliance with one of King James's leading ministers, Sir Thomas Lake, by marrying his grandson, William Cecil, 16th Baron de Ros, to Lake's daughter, Anne Lake, in 1615, but the marriage collapsed amidst a welter of allegations and counter-allegations of adultery and incest. The ensuing scandal fascinated the Court and dragged on for years, until in 1621, the Star Chamber found that Anne, her mother, and other members of the Lake family, had fabricated all of the original allegations.

    The Cecil family fostered arts; they supported musicians such as William Byrd, Orlando Gibbons, and Thomas Robinson. The latter, in his youth, was in the service of Thomas Cecil.[2]
    Marriages and issue

    Thomas Cecil married, firstly, Dorothy Neville, the daughter of John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer and Lady Lucy Somerset, daughter of Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester; and, secondly, Frances Brydges, the daughter of William Brydges, 4th Baron Chandos and Mary Hopton, and the widow of Thomas Smith, Master of Requests.

    By his first wife, Thomas Cecil had ten children who survived to adulthood:

    William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter.
    Lady Lucy Cecil (d. October 1614), who married William Paulet, 4th Marquess of Winchester.
    Lady Mildred Cecil (d. 23 December 1611), who married firstly, Sir Thomas Reade (d.1595), and married secondly, Sir Edmund Trafford (c.1560-1620).
    Sir Richard Cecil of Wakerley.
    Edward Cecil, 1st Viscount Wimbledon.
    Lady Mary Cecil (d. 18 March 1638), who married Edward Denny, 1st Earl of Norwich.
    Lady Dorothy Cecil (b. August 1577, d. 10 November 1613), who married Sir Giles Alington of Horseheath, Cambridgeshire (1572-1638). Their daughter, Mary Alington, married Sir Thomas Hatton.
    Lady Elizabeth Cecil, who married, firstly, Sir William Newport alias Hatton (1550-1597), and secondly, Sir Edward Coke of Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire.
    Thomas Cecil, esquire.
    Lady Frances Cecil (b. 28 February 1580/1581, d. 21 June 1653), who married Nicholas Tufton, 1st Earl of Thanet.[3]

    The Earl of Exeter was buried in the chapel of St John the Baptist, Westminster Abbey, London.

    end of biography

    Thomas Cecil
    Also Known As: "Lord Burghley"
    Birthdate: March 5, 1542 (80)
    Birthplace: St. Mary The Great, Cambridgeshire, England
    Death: February 8, 1623 (80)
    Westminster Abbey, London, England
    Place of Burial: London, England
    Immediate Family:

    Son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and Mary Cecil
    Husband of Frances Cecil and Dorothy Cecil
    Father of Georgi-Anna Cecil; William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter, PC, KG; Lady Lucy Cecil; Cathrine Cecil; Lady Mildred Cecil and 14 others
    Brother of Marguerite Cissell
    Half brother of Frances Fransica Cecil; Anne de Vere, Countess of Oxford; Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Elizabeth Wentworth
    Occupation: Earl of Exeter (04 May 1605), Politician, Soldier, Knight
    Managed by: Private User
    Last Updated: September 3, 2017


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    Thomas Cecil
    Also Known As: "Lord Burghley"
    Birthdate: March 5, 1542 (80)
    Birthplace: St. Mary The Great, Cambridgeshire, England
    Death: February 8, 1623 (80)
    Westminster Abbey, London, England
    Place of Burial: London, England
    Immediate Family:

    Son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and Mary Cecil
    Husband of Frances Cecil and Dorothy Cecil
    Father of Georgi-Anna Cecil; William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter, PC, KG; Lady Lucy Cecil; Cathrine Cecil; Lady Mildred Cecil and 14 others
    Brother of Marguerite Cissell
    Half brother of Frances Fransica Cecil; Anne de Vere, Countess of Oxford; Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Elizabeth Wentworth
    Occupation: Earl of Exeter (04 May 1605), Politician, Soldier, Knight
    Managed by: Private User
    Last Updated: September 3, 2017
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    Immediate Family

    Frances Cecil
    wife
    Georgi-Anna Cecil
    daughter
    Dorothy Cecil
    wife
    William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exete...
    son
    Lady Lucy Cecil
    daughter
    Cathrine Cecil
    daughter
    Lady Mildred Cecil
    daughter
    Sir Richard Cecil, Earl of Wakerley
    son
    Edward Cecil, 1st Viscount of Wi...
    son
    Mary Denny
    daughter
    Susan Cecil
    daughter
    Lady Elizabeth Hatton (Cecil)
    daughter

    About Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter
    Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter

    Sir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, KG (5 May 1542 – 8 February 1623), known as Lord Burghley from 1598 to 1605, was an English politician and soldier.

    Thomas Cecil was the elder son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, by his first wife, Mary Cheke (died February 1543). He was the half-brother of Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, Anne Cecil, and Elizabeth Cecil.

    His father, although fond of both his sons, recognised that only Robert had inherited his political gifts: Thomas, he said sadly, was hardly fit to govern a tennis court. He did however inherit Burghley House.

    Cecil was educated privately and at Trinity College, Cambridge.[1]

    He served in government under Elizabeth I of England, first serving in the House of Commons in 1563 and representing various constituencies for most of the time from then until 1593. He was knighted in 1575 and appointed High Sheriff of Northamptonshire for 1578. He accompanied the Earl of Leicester to the Dutch Republic, where he was distinguished for his bravery. In 1585 he served as governor of Brielle. He did not have good relations with Leicester, but he was very loyal to Sir John Norreys. In 1584 and 1586 he was Member of Parliament for Lincolnshire, and once more in 1592 for Northamptonshire. His father's death in 1598 brought him a seat in the House of Lords, the 2nd Lord Burghley, as he then was, served from 1599 to 1603 as Lord Lieutenant of Yorkshire and Lord President of the Council of the North. It was during this period that Queen Elizabeth made him a Knight of the Garter in 1601. He was created Earl of Exeter on 4 May 1605, the same day his half-brother Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cranborne, was created 1st Earl of Salisbury. Unlike his brother, however, he did not become a government minister under James I, which may suggest that James shared their father's low opinion of Thomas's political skills.

    The Cecil family fostered arts; they supported musicians such as William Byrd, Orlando Gibbons and Thomas Robinson. The latter, in his youth, was in the service of Thomas Cecil.[2]

    Thomas Cecil married, firstly, Dorothy Neville, the daughter of John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer, by his wife, Lucy Somerset, daughter of Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester; and, secondly, Frances Brydges, the daughter of William Brydges, 4th Baron Chandos, of Sudeley Castle, Gloucestershire, and widow of the Master of Requests, Thomas Smith, of Abingdon, Berkshire (now Oxfordshire), and Parson's Green, Middlesex.

    By his first wife, Thomas Cecil had eleven children:

    William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter.
    Catherine Cecil.
    Lucy Cecil, who married William Paulet, 4th Marquess of Winchester.
    Mildred Cecil.
    Sir Richard Cecil of Wakerley.
    Edward Cecil, 1st Viscount Wimbledon.
    Mary Cecil, who married Edward Denny, 1st Earl of Norwich.
    Dorothy Cecil, who married Sir Giles Alington.
    Elizabeth Cecil, who married firstly Sir William Newport alias Hatton, and secondly, Sir Edward Coke.
    Thomas Cecil, esquire.
    Frances Cecil, who married Nicholas Tufton, 1st Earl of Thanet.[3]

    Lord Exeter is buried in the chapel of St John the Baptist, Westminster Abbey.

    From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Cecil,_1st_Earl_of_Exeter

    __________________

    Sir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, 2nd Baron Burghley1
    M, #52373, b. 5 May 1542, d. 8 February 1623
    Father Sir William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley2 b. 13 Sep 1521, d. 4 Aug 1598
    Mother Mary Cheke3 b. c 1522, d. 22 Feb 1544
    Sir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, 2nd Baron Burghley was born on 5 May 1542 at St. Mary the Great Parish, Cambridgeshire, England.1 He married Dorothy Neville, daughter of Sir John Neville, 4th Lord Latimer and Lucy Somerset, on 27 November 1564 at Yorkshire, England.1 Sir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, 2nd Baron Burghley married Frances Brydges, daughter of William Brydges, 4th Baron Chandos and Mary Hopton, circa December 1610.4 Sir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, 2nd Baron Burghley died on 8 February 1623 at London, Middlesex, England, at age 80.1 He was buried on 10 February 1623 at Westminster Abbey, London, Middlesex, England.1
    Family 1 Dorothy Neville b. c 1548, d. 23 Mar 1609
    Children
    William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter, Lord Burghley+5 b. Jan 1566, d. 6 Jul 1640
    Dorothy Cecil+6 b. 11 Aug 1577, d. 10 Nov 1613
    Family 2 Frances Brydges b. c 1580, d. 1663
    Citations
    [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. V, p. 216-218.
    [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. V, p. 217.
    [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. II, p. 429.
    [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. V, p. 217-218.
    [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. V, p. 218.
    [S61] Unknown author, Family Group Sheets, Family History Archives, SLC.
    From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p1743.htm#i52373

    _________________

    Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter1
    M, #3935, b. 5 March 1542, d. 8 February 1622/23
    Last Edited=31 Dec 2011
    Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter was born on 5 March 1542.1 He was the son of William Cecil, 1st Baron of Burghley and Mary Cheke.1 He married, firstly, Dorothy Neville, daughter of John Neville, 4th Lord Latymer and Lady Lucy Somerset, on 27 November 1564.3 He married, secondly, Frances Brydges, daughter of William Brydges, 4th Baron Chandos of Sudeley and Mary Hopton, in 1610.3 He died on 8 February 1622/23 at age 80.3
    He held the office of Member of Parliament (M.P.) for Stamford between 1563 and 1567.4 He held the office of Member of Parliament (M.P.) for Stamford in 1571.4 He held the office of Member of Parliament (M.P.) for Stamford between 1572 and 1583.4 He was invested as a Knight in 1575.4 He held the office of Member of Parliament (M.P.) for Lincolnshire between 1584 and 1587.3 He held the office of Member of Parliament (M.P.) for Northamptonshire from 1592 to 1593.3 He succeeded to the title of 2nd Baron of Burghley, co. Northampton [E., 1571] on 4 August 1598.4 He held the office of Lord President of the Council of the North between 1599 and 1603.3 He held the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Yorkshire between 1599 and 1603.3 He was invested as a Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) in 1601.3 He was created 1st Earl of Exeter [England] on 4 May 1605.4 He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.5
    Child of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter and Frances Brydges
    unknown daughter Cecil3
    Children of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter and Dorothy Neville
    Lady Lucy Cecil+3 d. Oct 1614
    Lady Mildred Cecil3
    Lady Dorothy Cecil+6
    unknown son Cecil3
    unknown daughter Cecil3
    unknown daughter Cecil3
    William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter+3 b. Jan 1565/66, d. 6 Jul 1640
    Sir Richard Cecil+3 b. 1570, d. 4 Sep 1633
    Edward Cecil, 1st Viscount Wimbledon+3 b. 27 Feb 1571/72, d. 16 Nov 1638
    Lady Mary Cecil+7 b. 1573
    Thomas Cecil3 b. 1578, d. 3 Dec 1662
    Lady Elizabeth Cecil+3 b. 1578, d. 3 Jan 1646
    Lady Frances Cecil+8 b. 28 Feb 1580/81, d. 12 Jun 1653
    Citations
    [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 430. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
    [S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family."
    [S37] BP2003 volume 1, page 1363. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
    [S37] BP2003. [S37]
    [S18] Matthew H.C.G., editor, Dictionary of National Biography on CD-ROM (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995), Cecil, Thomas. Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.
    [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume I, page 106.
    [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 32.
    [S15] George Edward Cokayne, editor, The Complete Baronetage, 5 volumes (no date (c. 1900); reprint, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1983), volume I, page 150. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Baronetage.
    From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p394.htm#i3935

    _______________________

    Thomas CECIL (1º E. Exeter)
    Born: 5 May 1542, St. Mary the Great, Cambridge
    Acceded: 4 May 1605
    Died: 8 Feb 1622/3, London, England
    Buried: 10 Feb 1622, Westminster Abbey, London, England
    Notes: Knight of the Garter. Lord President of the Council of the North. Present at the storming of Edinburgh in 1573. Suppressed the rebellion of the Earl of Essex. The Complete Peerage vol.V,pp.216-218.
    Father: William CECIL (1° B. Burghley)
    Mother: Mary CHEKE
    Married 1: Dorothy NEVILLE (C. Exeter) 27 Nov 1564, Yorkshire
    Children:
    1. William CECIL (2° E. Exeter)
    2. Richard CECIL (Sir M.P.)
    3. David CECIL
    4. Edward CECIL (1º V. Wimbledon)
    5. Thomas CECIL
    6. Dorothy CECIL
    7. Lucy CECIL (M. Winchester)
    8. Elizabeth CECIL
    9. Mildred CECIL
    10. Frances CECIL
    11. Mary CECIL
    Married 2: Frances BRYDGES (C. Exeter) 1610
    Children:
    12. Georgiana CECIL (b. Jun 1616 - d. 1621)
    From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/CECIL.htm#Thomas CECIL (1º E. Exeter)

    ___________________

    CECIL, Thomas (1542-1623), of Burghley House, Lincs. and Wimbledon, Surr.
    b. 5 May 1542, 1st s. of Sir William Cecil by his 1st w. Mary, da. of Peter Cheke of Pirgo, Essex; half-bro. of Robert Cecil. educ. privately; Trinity Coll. Camb. 1558; G. Inn 1559; travelled abroad 1561-3. m. (1) 27 Nov. 1564, Dorothy (d. Mar. 1609), da. and coh. of John Nevill, 4th Lord Latimer, 5s. inc. William, Richard and Sir Edward 8da.; (a) 1610, Frances, da. of William Brydges, 4th Baron Chandos, wid. of Thomas Smith, 1da. (d. inf.). Kntd. 1575; suc. fa. as 2nd Baron Burghley 1598; KG 1601; cr. Earl of Exeter 1605.
    Offices Held
    Jt. steward of Collyweston and other Northants. manors and of Gretford, Lincs.; jt. (with his fa.) keeper of Cliff park, Northants. 1566; j.p. Lincs. (Kesteven) 1569-73, q. Lincs. (Holland and Lindsey), Northants. by 1573; sheriff, Northants. 1578-9; gov. Brill 1585-6; dep. lt. Lincs. by 1587, Northants. 1588; col. Lord Hunsdon’s force to protect the Queen at Tilbury 1588; custos rot. Northants., Lincs. and Rutland 1594; ld. pres. council in the north and ld. lt. Yorks. 1599-1603; PC, ld. almoner for coronation 1603; ld. lt. Northants. from 1603.2
    Cecil, a ‘soft and gentle child’ a tutor called him, did not distinguish himself at Cambridge, and it was with misgivings that his father sent him in the summer of 1561 to complete his education abroad, in the charge of Thomas Windebank. Before the end of the year, there were complaints about the size of the bills he was running up, and apologetic letters from Windebank, who could not control his charge. The young man rose late in the day, was ‘negligent and rash in expenses, careless in his apparel, an immoderate lover of dice and cards, in study soon weary, in game never’. When his father reduced his allowance, he borrowed from other Englishmen in Paris, or broke open Windebank’s strongbox and helped himself. Still, the English ambassador reported that Cecil had made a good impression at the French court, and it is possible that what brought about his removal from Paris was his seduction of a young French lady in 1562. He was then taken to Antwerp, where he lodged in the house of Sir Thomas Gresham, and then to Germany, where Henry Knollys I put him up. Knollys objected to a proposal to send him to Italy, but in the event the death of his young stepbrother William led to his return to England in January 1563, in time for him to be sent, still under age, to Parliament for the family borough of Stamford.3
    Cecil now combined attendance at court with a military career, taking part in tournaments, commanding 300 horse during the Northern rebellion, fighting at the siege of Edinburgh (1573) and serving against the Armada. Only once, as far as is known, was he given an appointment outside England, the governorship of Brill, to which he was appointed before the end of 1585, though he did not arrive there until the end of January 1586. In April he was back in England, sick. Leicester, who had not wanted him in the first place, animadverted upon Cecil’s courage. Burghley replied that the arrangements for paying the Brill garrison were inadequate. The governor had had to dip into his own pocket ‘so much, as he came home with ¹5’. There was a sequel to this when it was reported in the Commons committee on the Netherlands, 25 Feb. 1587, that ‘it cost Sir Thomas Cecil ¹5,000 in service in the Low Countries’. Cecil himself had made a brief intervention in this debate on the previous day.4. Cecil returned to the Netherlands in June and resigned in September, not an heroic tenure of office.
    The standing of his family brought Cecil election to seven Elizabethan Parliaments. He made no known contribution to the business of his first two, nor to the first session of his third. The first mention of him in the journals is as a member of a legal committee on 24 Feb. 1576. In 1581 he was appointed to committees on the subsidy (25 Jan.), Arthur Hall (4 Feb.), the preservation of game (18 Feb.), and the fortification of the frontier with Scotland (25 Feb.). He was also concerned in fetching and carrying bills to the Lords. Cecil was knight of the shire for Lincolnshire in both the 1584 and 1586 Parliaments, and he was appointed to the subsidy committee in each (24 Feb. 1585, 22 Feb. 1587). He was named to two other committees in 1584, concerning Westminster (15 Dec.) and grain (19 Dec). He was not in the 1589 Parliament, the only one he missed from the age of 20 until he succeeded to his father’s peerage in 1598. Why he did not come in has not been ascertained—he was not abroad, for he was sorting out a muddle over Richard Stoneley’s accounts for his father on 26 Dec. 1588.
    Cecil represented Northamptonshire for his remaining appearances in the Commons. He was appointed both to the standing committee on privileges and returns and to the subsidy committee at the outset of the 1593 Parliament (26 Feb.), to a conference on the subsidy (1, 3 Mar.), and it was on the vexed subject of the 1593 subsidy that he made his first reported contribution to a full-scale debate in the House (7 Mar.), suggesting three subsidies payable within four years, to be levied on assessments of ¹10 and above. It has been suggested that this intervention may have been inspired by Cecil’s father, who was thus letting it be known that the Lords, who had hitherto held out for a three year period, were ready to compromise, but the proposal to exclude the ‘men of ¹3 goods’ was certainly unwelcome to the chancellor of the Exchequer, as this category included half of those who paid the subsidy. In another speech in the same debate, probably next day—the sources are confused—Cecil was concerned that the Cinque Port men should not escape paying the tax. He is reported to have spoken on disloyal subjects (4 Apr.). Other committees to which Cecil was appointed in this Parliament concerned recusants (28 Feb.) and maimed soldiers (30 Mar.), and, in his capacity as a knight of the shire Cecil could have attended the committee on springing uses (9 Mar.).
    Cecil’s activity in his last Parliament was more impressive. He was again named to the committee of privileges and returns (5 Nov. 1597), and his other committees concerned armour and weapons (8 Nov.), penal laws (8 Nov.), the subsidy (15 Nov.), a bill concerning Northampton (16 Nov., and reported by him on 24 Nov.), the poor law (19, 22 Nov.), double payments of debts upon shop books (2 Dec., and taken by him to the Lords on 16 Jan.), and defence of the realm (12 Jan. 1598). This last resulted in a conference with the Lords, suggested on 23 Jan., of which Cecil was a member. Cecil also took a prominent part in bills concerning the private affairs of two Members, 19 and 24 Nov.
    In view of his reticence throughout six Parliaments, it is odd that he took the initiative no less than three times in 1597, twice on matters that concerned the royal prerogative. On 11 Nov. he moved for a committee to draw up a bill to deal with ‘abuses by licences for marriages without banns’, a matter squarely within the royal prerogative, and likely to be the thin end of the wedge as far as the reformation of ecclesiastical abuses was concerned. Thus when the committee reported a few days later it
    did not conclude of anything by reason that it was doubtful whether they were to treat of that matter only, or else both of the same, and also touching the stealing away of men’s children without assent of their parents [a hardy perennial this—the abduction of heiresses] and touching the abuses in the probates of testaments and processes ex officio by ecclesiastical officers ...
    Perhaps it was not Cecil’s intention to embarrass his father, his brother and the Queen, but this is what he did. On 28 Nov. he took the initiative again, this time innocuously, introducing a bill
    concerning watery and surrounded grounds in the Isle of Ely and in the counties of Cambridge, Huntingdon, Northampton, Lincoln and Norfolk,
    or, as it became, the ‘Act for the draining and drying of certain grounds drownded in Norfolk and the Isle of Ely’. Finally, least to be expected, was Cecil’s motion on 8 Dec. ‘for a bill of petition to her Majesty, to be drawn and presented unto her, touching monopolies’. As a knight of the shire Cecil was automatically a member of the committee on monopolies set up on 10 Nov., but repeated attempts to raise this subject, in which Queen and courtiers had a vested interest, had been blocked by the Speaker, by the solicitor-general and by Robert Cecil. It is tempting to imagine that someone with a sense of humour had thought of the idea of putting up Robert Cecil’s half-brother to make the definitive motion on this subject, the one actually adopted by the House.5 It would have been interesting to have heard the two Cecils discussing the events of 8 Dec. 1597. Perhaps fortunately for the family peace, Thomas Cecil’s succession to the peerage had removed him from the fray before the subject came up again in the Commons of 1601. As it was, relations between the two were, as far as can be seen, friendly, despite their differences in temperament and Burghley’s own clearly demonstrated preference for Robert. Writing to the latter in June 1603 Thomas was ‘void of envy or mistrust’. He confessed
    that God hath bestowed rarer gifts of mind upon you than on me. I know you have deserved far greater merit both of his Majesty and your country.
    All the same, Thomas Cecil was tireless in his performance of the duties of president of the council in the north to which office he was appointed soon after succeeding his father. His instructions were to exterminate recusancy, and within two months he had ‘filled a little study with copes and mass books’. At the 1601 Lammas assizes in Northumberland over 150 recusants were convicted. Archbishop Hutton even complained to Whitgift that the recusant prisoners in York castle, who were being forced on Cecil’s orders to attend protestant services, created so much disturbance that the rest of the congregation could not hear the preacher. Cecil was satisfied with a modest success, writing to Robert in June 1601:
    I find this country by certificates returned since my coming down, daily inclining their obedience in coming to church; I mean only Yorkshire, for the remoter parts I cannot yet write so much.
    He was back in London by the time of the Essex rebellion, when he commanded the troops raised to defend the city, and in November 1602 John Chamberlain wrote ‘the lord president of York is come hither to his old winter garrison; belike he finds his government too far from the sun’.
    His appointment was not renewed by James; perhaps he was too closely associated with the anti-Catholic policy which James proposed to abandon. He was appointed to the Privy Council but at first declined advancement in the peerage. However, he changed his mind when Robert was about to become Earl of Salisbury, and was created Earl of Exeter on the same day. He kept up great state at Wimbledon, a house given him by his father before 1570, and he several times received James there, as he had Elizabeth. He was granted the lease of the manor of Wimbledon in exchange for two Lincolnshire manors in February 1590. Cecil’s second marriage in 1610, when he was nearly 70, ‘gouty and diseased’, provoked adverse comment, and a child died in infancy. His second wife was suspected of poisoning the wife of his grandson Lord Ros, and a Star Chamber case resulted, the King himself giving judgment.
    Cecil died 7 Feb. 1623, and was buried in Westminster abbey. ‘There was neither dinner, supper nor banquet, nor so much as a cup of drink, it was called a dry funeral.’6
    From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1558-1603/member/cecil-thomas-1542-1623

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    Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 09
    Cecil, Thomas (1542-1622) by Augustus Jessopp
    CECIL, THOMAS, first Earl of Exeter, second Lord Burghley (1542–1622), eldest son of William Cecil, lord Burghley, by Mary Cheke [see Cecil, William], was born on 5 May 1542. He seems to have been brought up under tutors at his father's house, and never to have received a university education; he gave no signs of more than average ability, and it was probably because his father knew him to be deficient in capacity that he felt compelled to keep him in the background during his own lifetime. In June 1561 he was sent with Sir Thomas Windebank to travel on the continent, but he had hardly got to Paris before he began to exhibit a taste for dissipation, and he seems to have indulged that taste with much freedom. His father was greatly distressed by the reports he received, and in one of his letters expresses a fear that his son ‘will return home like a spending sot, meet only to keep a tennis court.’
    Windebank, when he had been in Paris for more than a year, wrote home in despair, saying there was no doing anything with the young man, whose idle and dissolute habits had quite got beyond his control, and recommended his being recalled. To this, however, his father did not agree, and we hear that in August 1562 they left Paris ‘secretly,’ and slipped away to Antwerp and thence made their way to Spires, Heidelberg, and Frankfort. Young Cecil's conduct showed no improvement, and though his father wished him to visit Italy and Switzerland he had no desire himself to prolong his stay abroad, and returned in the spring of 1563. In 1563 he was M.P. for Stamford, and again in 1571 and 1572. In 1564 he married Dorothy, second daughter and coheiress of John, lord Latimer, negotiations for the marriage having, it appears, been begun two years before. During the next five years we hear little of him, but during the rebellion of the northern earls in 1569 he showed a commendable activity, and did not forget to claim his reward. In 1570 the Earl of Sussex, under whom he had served, recommended him to the queen as deserving some recognition, and he wrote a letter of thanks, which has been preserved. If it be a fair specimen of his style of composition, he must indeed have been a man of but small ‘parts.’ Next year, on the occasion of the French ambassador visiting Cambridge, accompanied by Lord Burghley as chancellor of the university, and other notables, Cecil was admitted M.A. by a special grace of the senate. At a magnificent tournament held at Westminster during this year he took a prominent part, and received a prize at the hands of the queen for his prowess at the barriers. He had always had a desire for a military life, which his father would never allow him to gratify; but in 1573 he volunteered for the Scotch war without asking leave, and was present at the storming of Edinburgh on 28 May. In July 1575 he received the honour of knighthood on the occasion of the queen's visit to Kenilworth. When Leicester went in command of the English contingent to the Low Countries, Cecil accompanied him and distinguished himself by his valour in the campaign. In November 1585 he was made governor of the Brille, one of the cautionary towns. There was little cordiality between him and Leicester, for whom he entertained a scarcely disguised contempt; on the other hand, he was one of those who showed a loyal admiration for Sir John Norris.
    In August 1587 we find him among the mourners at the funeral ceremonies of Mary Queen of Scots, which were celebrated at Peterborough. In 1588 he was among the volunteers who served on the fleet equipped to resist the Spanish Armada. In 1584 and 1586 he was M.P. for Lincolnshire, and in 1592 for Northamptonshire. At his father's funeral in 1598 the queen gave order that he, as chief mourner, should ‘mourn as an earl.’ It was not until the summer of 1599 that he received his first preferment. He was made president of the council of the north. The instructions addressed to him by the queen give a most curious account of the condition of Yorkshire at this time, and of the widespread discontent that prevailed. Lord Burghley is charged to resort to strong measures to reduce the recusant gentry to obedience, and to hunt down the papists and the priests. He showed no reluctance to obey his orders, and before he had been in office two months he writes to his brother, Sir Robert Cecil, boasting, ‘Since my coming I have filled a little study with copes and mass-books.’ In October 1600 he had leave of absence, and being in London during the so-called rebellion of Robert, earl of Essex, in the following February, he took a leading part in suppressing the foolish riot and in proclaiming Essex a traitor with due formalities. In recognition of his service he was made a knight of the Garter, and installed at Windsor 20 May 1601. On the accession of James I (1603) he was sworn of the privy council, and on 4 May 1605 he was created Earl of Exeter. In April 1609 his wife, Lady Dorothy, died, and about the same time Sir Thomas Smith, master of requests to James I, being carried off by a fever, Lord Exeter consoled himself for his own loss by marrying Sir Thomas Smith's widow, though she was thirty-eight years his junior; she was daughter of William, fourth lord Chandos.
    He appeared but little at court after this—indeed, he was nearly seventy at the time of his second marriage. He had suffered a great deal from the gout for many years before, and he spent most of his time at Wimbledon House in comparative retirement, though his name occurs now and then upon commissions, upon all of which he certainly did not serve. The last years of his life were embittered by the scandalous lawsuits in which he found himself entangled through the quarrels that arose between his grandson and heir, Lord Roos, and the violent and wicked woman to whom that son was married. The story of the hateful business may be read in Mr. Gardiner's ‘History of Prince Charles and the Spanish Marriage.’ Lord Exeter died 7 Feb. 1622, in his eightieth year, and was buried in Westminster Abbey three days after, in the chapel of St. John the Baptist, where a splendid monument to his memory still exists.
    It is clear that the first Lord Exeter was a person of very ordinary abilities, and that if he had been born of other parentage we should have heard nothing of him. By his first wife, Lady Dorothy, he had a family of five sons and eight daughters. His eldest son, William, who succeeded to the earldom, was the father of the despicable Lord Roos who died before him, in 1618, and as he had no other son the earldom passed to Sir Richard Cecil, the first earl's second son, from whom the present Marquis of Exeter is lineally descended. The third son, Sir Edward Cecil, was created Viscount Wimbledon 25 July 1626, but dying in 1638 without male heirs the title became extinct [see Cecil, Sir Edward, Viscount Wimbledon]. Of his daughters, Elizabeth married, first, Sir William Hatton, and secondly Sir Edward Coke. The violent quarrel between this lady and her second husband was a cause câeláebre before the law courts in 1617. Lord Exeter imitated his illustrious father in founding a hospital for twelve poor men and two women at Liddington in Rutlandshire, and was a liberal benefactor to Clare College, Cambridge. By his second wife he had a daughter, who died in infancy. His widow survived him more than forty years. She died in 1663 and was buried in Winchester Cathedral.
    [Many of the authorities for the life of Thomas Cecil are given under Cecil, William, Lord Burghley. To them must be added: Calendars, Domestic, covering all the period of his life, passim; Birch's Court and Times of James I; Nichols's Progresses of Eliz. and Jas. I; Strype's Annals, II. i. 36, and elsewhere through his works; Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, ii. 278; Gardiner's Hist. of James I, vol. iii. chap. iii.; Spedding's Bacon's Life and Letters, vi. et seq.; Collins's Peerage, ‘Marquis of Exeter,’ ii.; Life and Times of Sir Edward Cecil, lord Wimbledon, by C. Dalton, 2 vols. 8vo, 1885; Froude's Hist. of England, vol. ix.; Motley's United Netherlands, i. and ii.; Col. Chester's Westminster Abbey Registers, p. 21, n. 5. There is a curious document quoted in the fourth report of the Hist. MSS. Commissioners, p. 125, which appears to throw some doubt upon the marriage of Thomas Cecil to Dorothy Nevill. The fact of that marriage is so certain that it is not worth while to discuss the matter here.]
    From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Cecil,_Thomas_(1542-1622)_(DNB00)

    __________________

    Thomas "Earl of Exeter" Cecil
    Birth: May 5, 1542
    Death: Feb. 8, 1623
    Soldier and benefactor of Clare College, Cambridge. Husband of Dorothy Nevill (q.v.) (bio by: David Conway)
    Family links:
    Parents:
    William Cecil (1521 - 1598)
    Maria Cheke Cecil (____ - 1543)
    Spouses:
    Dorothy Neville Cecil (____ - 1608)*
    Frances Brydges Cecil (1580 - 1663)*
    Children:
    Dorothy Cecil Alington (____ - 1613)*
    Lucy Cecil Paulet (____ - 1614)*
    William Cecil (1566 - 1640)*
    Mary Cecil Denny (1573 - 1638)*
    Thomas Cecil (1578 - 1662)*
    Sophia Anna Cecil (1616 - 1621)*
    Siblings:
    Thomas Cecil (1542 - 1623)
    Anne Cecil De Vere (1556 - 1588)**
    Margaret Coke Smith (1562 - 1616)**
    Robert Cecil (1563 - 1612)**
    *Calculated relationship
    **Half-sibling
    Burial: Westminster Abbey, Westminster, City of Westminster, Greater London, England
    Plot: Chapel of St. John the Baptist
    Find A Grave Memorial# 20617
    From: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=20617

    ________________

    CECIL, Sir Edward (1572-1638), of Wimbledon House, Surr.
    b. 29 Feb. 1572, 3rd s. of Thomas Cecil, afterwards 1st Earl of Exeter, by his 1st w. Dorothy, da. and coh. of John Nevill, 4th Lord Latimer; bro. Richard and William. educ. G. Inn 1591; travelled abroad 1594. m. (1) 10 July 1601, Theodosia (d.1616), da. of Andrew Noel, sis. of Edward Noel, 2nd Visct. Campden, 4da.; (2) 27 Feb. 1617, Diana (d.1631), 3rd da. of Sir William Drury of Hawstead, Suff., 1da. (d. inf.); (3) Sept. or Oct. 1635, Sophia (d.1691), da. of Sir Edward Zouche of Woking, Surr., 1s. (d.inf.). Kntd. 1601; cr. Visct. Wimbledon 1625.
    .... etc.
    From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1558-1603/member/cecil-sir-edward-1572-1638

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    CECIL, William (1566-1640), of London, Newark Castle, Notts.; later of Burghley House, Lincs.
    b. Jan. 1566, s. of Thomas Cecil by his 1st w., and bro. of Richard and Sir Edward. educ. Trinity Coll. Camb. 1578; travelled abroad 1585; G. Inn 1589. m. (1) 1589, Elizabeth, s.j. Baroness Ros (d.1591), da. and h. of Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland, 1s. d.v.p.; (2) Elizabeth, da. of Sir William Drury of Hawstead, Suff., 3da. Kntd. Apr. 1603; KG 1630; styled Lord Burghley 1605; suc. fa. as 2nd Earl of Exeter 1623.
    .... etc.
    From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1558-1603/member/cecil-william-1566-1640

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    CECIL, Richard (1570-1633), of Wakerley, Northants.
    b. 7 Dec. 1570, 2nd s. of Thomas Cecil, and bro. of Sir Edward and William. educ. St. John’s, Camb. 1585; G. Inn 1591, travelled abroad 1594. m. 1603, Elizabeth, da. of Sir Anthony Cope, 1s. David afterwards 3rd Earl of Exeter. Kntd. 1616.
    .... etc.
    From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1558-1603/member/cecil-richard-1570-1633

    _______________________

    http://www.harrold.org/familytree/webtree2/3250.htm

    Family Links

    Spouses/Children:

    Dorothy Neville

    Edward Cecil+

    Thomas married Dorothy Neville.

    _______________________________
    Other References

    "Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter", Westminster Abbey

    end of biography

    Thomas — Dorothy Neville. Dorothy (daughter of John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer and Lucy Somerset, Baroness Latimer) was born 1548, Snape Castle, Snape, North Yorkshire, England; died 23 Mar 1608, London, Middlesex, England. [Group Sheet]

    Children:
    1. William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter was born 0Jan 1565, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England; died 6 Jul 1640, Exeter House, St. James, Clerkenwell, England.
    2. Richard Cecil
    3. Edward Cecil was born 29 Feb 1572.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  William Cecil, KG, 1st Baron of BurghleyWilliam Cecil, KG, 1st Baron of Burghley was born 21 Sep 1521, Bourne, Lincolnshire, England (son of Richard Cecil and Jane Heckington); died 4 Aug 1598, Westminster, London, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Lord High Treasurer

    Notes:

    William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley KG PC (13 September 1520 – 4 August 1598) was an English statesman, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign, twice Secretary of State (1550–53 and 1558–72) and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. Albert Pollard says, "From 1558 for forty years the biography of Cecil is almost indistinguishable from that of Elizabeth and from the history of England."[1]

    Burghley set as the main goal of English policy the creation of a united and Protestant British Isles. His methods were to complete the control of Ireland, and to forge an alliance with Scotland. Protection from invasion required a powerful Royal Navy. While he was not fully successful, his successors agreed with his goals.[2] Cecil was not a political genius or an original thinker; but he was a cautious man and a wise counselor, with a rare and natural gift for avoiding dangers. In 1587, Cecil persuaded the Queen to order the execution of the Roman Catholic Mary Queen of Scots, after she was implicated in a plot to assassinate Elizabeth. [3]Derek Wilson (2013) says, "Few politicians were more subtle or unscrupulous than William Cecil."[4] He was the founder of the Cecil dynasty which has produced many politicians including two Prime Ministers.

    Born William Cecil
    13 September 1520
    Bourne, Lincolnshire
    Kingdom of England
    Died 4 August 1598 (aged 77)
    Cecil House
    Westminster, London
    Kingdom of England
    Resting place St. Martin's Church
    Stamford, Lincolnshire
    United Kingdom
    52°38'56?N 0°28'39?W
    Spouse(s) Mary Cheke (d. 1543)
    Mildred Cooke
    Children Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter
    Frances Cecil
    Anne Cecil, Countess of Oxford
    Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
    Elizabeth Cecil-Wentworth
    Parents Sir Richard Cecil
    Jane Heckington
    Residence Burghley House
    Cecil House
    Theobalds House

    Early life

    Cecil was born in Bourne, Lincolnshire, in 1520, the son of Sir Richard Cecil, owner of the Burghley estate (near Stamford, Lincolnshire), and his wife, Jane Heckington. Pedigrees, elaborated by Cecil himself with the help of William Camden the antiquary, associated him with the Welsh Cecils or Seisyllts of Allt-Yr-Ynys, Walterstone,[5] on the border of Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, and traced his descent from an Owen of the time of Harold Godwinson and a Seisyllt of the reign of William Rufus. Seisyllt is the original Welsh spelling of the anglicised Cecil. There is now no doubt that the family was from the Welsh Marches and Lord Burghley himself acknowledged this in his family pedigree painted at Theobalds.[6] The family had connections with Dore Abbey.[7] However, the move to Stamford provides information concerning the Lord Treasurer's grandfather, David; he, according to Burghley's enemies, kept the best inn in Stamford. David somehow secured the favour of the first Tudor king, Henry VII, to whom he seems to have been Yeoman of the Guard. He was Sergeant-of-Arms to Henry VIII in 1526, Sheriff of Northamptonshire in 1532, and a Justice of the Peace for Rutland. His eldest son, Richard, Yeoman of the Wardrobe (died 1554), married Jane, daughter of William Heckington of Bourne, and was father of three daughters and the future Lord Burghley.

    William, the only son, was put to school first at The King's School, Grantham, and then Stamford School, which he later saved and endowed. In May 1535, at the age of fourteen, he went to St John's College, Cambridge,[8] where he was brought into contact with the foremost scholars of the time, Roger Ascham and John Cheke, and acquired an unusual knowledge of Greek. He also acquired the affections of Cheke's sister, Mary, and was in 1541 removed by his father to Gray's Inn, without having taken a degree, as was common at the time for those not intending to enter the Church. The precaution proved useless and four months later Cecil committed one of the rare rash acts of his life in marrying Mary Cheke. The only child of this marriage, Thomas, the future Earl of Exeter, was born in May 1542, and in February 1543 Cecil's first wife died. Three years later, on 21 December 1546 he married Mildred Cooke, who was ranked by Ascham with Lady Jane Grey as one of the two most learned ladies in the kingdom, (aside from another of Ascham's pupils, Elizabeth Tudor, who was later Elizabeth I) and whose sister, Anne, was the wife of Sir Nicholas Bacon, and later the mother of Sir Francis Bacon.

    Early career

    William Cecil's early career was spent in the service of the Duke of Somerset (a brother of the late queen, Jane Seymour), who was Lord Protector during the early years of the reign of his nephew, the young Edward VI. Cecil accompanied Somerset on his Pinkie campaign of 1547 (part of the "Rough Wooing"), being one of the two Judges of the Marshalsea. The other was William Patten, who states that both he and Cecil began to write independent accounts of the campaign, and that Cecil generously contributed his notes for Patten's narrative, The Expedition into Scotland.

    Cecil, according to his autobiographical notes, sat in Parliament in 1543; but his name does not occur in the imperfect parliamentary returns until 1547, when he was elected for the family borough of Stamford.

    In 1548, he is described as the Protector's Master of Requests, which apparently means that he was clerk or registrar of the court of requests which Somerset, possibly at Hugh Latimer's instigation, illegally set up in Somerset House to hear poor men's complaints. He also seems to have acted as private secretary to the Protector, and was in some danger at the time of the Protector's fall in October 1549. The lords opposed to Somerset ordered his detention on 10 October, and in November he was in the Tower of London.

    Cecil ingratiated himself with Warwick, and after less than three months he was out of the Tower. On 5 September 1550 Cecil was sworn in as one of King Edward's two secretaries of state. In April 1551, Cecil became chancellor of the Order of the Garter.[9] But service under Warwick (by now the Duke of Northumberland) carried some risk, and decades later in his diary, Cecil recorded his release in the phrase "ex misero aulico factus liber et mei juris" ("I was freed from this miserable court").

    To protect the Protestant government from the accession of a Catholic queen, Northumberland forced King Edward's lawyers to create an instrument setting aside the Third Succession Act on 15 June 1553. (The document, which Edward titled "My Devise for the Succession", barred both Elizabeth and Mary, the remaining children of Henry VIII, from the throne, in favour of Lady Jane Grey.) Cecil resisted for a while, in a letter to his wife, he wrote: "Seeing great perils threatened upon us by the likeness of the time, I do make choice to avoid the perils of God's displeasure." But at Edward's royal command he signed it.[10] He signed not only the devise, but also the bond among the conspirators and the letters from the council to Mary Tudor of 9 June 1553.[11]

    Years afterwards, he pretended that he had only signed the devise as a witness, but in his apology to Queen Mary I, he did not venture to allege so flimsy an excuse; he preferred to lay stress on the extent to which he succeeded in shifting the responsibility on to the shoulders of his brother-in-law, Sir John Cheke, and other friends, and on his intrigues to frustrate the Queen to whom he had sworn allegiance.[12]

    There is no doubt that Cecil saw which way the wind was blowing, and disliked Northumberland's scheme; but he had not the courage to resist the duke to his face. As soon, however, as the duke had set out to meet Mary, Cecil became the most active intriguer against him,[13] and to these efforts, of which he laid a full account before Queen Mary, he mainly owed his immunity. He had, moreover, had no part in the divorce of Catherine of Aragon or in the humiliation of Mary during Henry's reign, and he made no scruple about conforming to the Catholic reaction. He went to Mass, confessed, and in no particular official capacity went to meet Cardinal Pole on his return to England in December 1554, again accompanying him to Calais in May 1555.

    He was elected to Parliament as knight of the shire for Lincolnshire in 1553 (probably), 1555 and 1559 and for Northamptonshire in 1563.

    It was rumoured in December 1554 that Cecil would succeed Sir William Petre as Secretary of State, an office which, with his chancellorship of the Garter, he had lost on Mary's accession to the throne. Probably the Queen had more to do with this rumour than Cecil, though he is said to have opposed, in the parliament of 1555 (in which he represented Lincolnshire), a bill for the confiscation of the estates of the Protestant refugees. But the story, even as told by his biographer,[14] does not represent Cecil's conduct as having been very courageous; and it is more revealing that he found no seat in the parliament of 1558, for which Mary had directed the return of "discreet and good Catholic members".

    Reign of Elizabeth

    The Duke of Northumberland had employed Cecil in the administration of the lands of Princess Elizabeth. Before Mary died he was a member of the "old flock of Hatfield", and from the first, the new Queen relied on Cecil. He was also the cousin of Blanche Parry, Elizabeth's longest serving gentlewoman and close confidante. The Queen appointed Cecil Secretary of State. His tight control over the finances of the Crown, leadership of the Privy Council, and the creation of a highly capable intelligence service under the direction of Francis Walsingham made him the most important minister for the majority of Elizabeth's reign.

    Foreign policy

    Dawson argues that Cecil's long-term goal was a united and Protestant British Isles, an objective to be achieved by completing the conquest of Ireland and by creating an Anglo-Scottish alliance. With the land border with Scotland safe, the main burden of defence would fall upon the Royal Navy, Cecil proposed to strengthen and revitalise the Navy, making it the centerpiece of English power. He did obtain a firm Anglo-Scottish alliance reflecting the common religion and shared interests of the two countries, as well as an agreement that offered the prospect of a successful conquest of Ireland. However, his strategy ultimately failed. His idea that England's safety required a united British Isles became an axiom of English policy by the 17th century.[15]

    Though a Protestant, Cecil was not a religious purist; he aided the Protestant Huguenots and Dutch just enough to keep them going in the struggles which warded danger from England's shores. But Cecil never developed that passionate aversion from decided measures which became a second nature to Elizabeth. His intervention in Scotland in 1559–60 showed that he could strike hard when necessary; and his action over the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, proved that he was willing to take on responsibilities from which the Queen shrank.


    Engraving of Queen Elizabeth I, William Cecil and Sir Francis Walsingham, by William Faithorne, 1655
    Generally he was in favour of more decided intervention on behalf of continental Protestants than Elizabeth would have liked, but it is not always easy to ascertain the advice he gave. He left endless memoranda lucidly (nevertheless sometimes bordering on the ridiculous) setting forth the pros and cons of every course of action; but there are few indications of the line which he actually recommended when it came to a decision. How far he was personally responsible for the Anglican Settlement, the Poor Laws, and the foreign policy of the reign, remains to a large extent a matter of conjecture. However, it is most likely that Cecil's views carried the day in the politics of Elizabethan England. The historian Hilaire Belloc contends that Cecil was the de facto ruler of England during his tenure as Secretary; pointing out that in instances where his and Elizabeth's wills diverged, it was Cecil's will that was imposed.

    Leimon and Parker argue that Burghley was the principal protector of Edward Stafford, the English ambassador to Paris and a paid spy who helped the Spanish at the time of the Spanish Armada. However, they do not claim Burghley knew of Stafford's treason.[16]

    Domestic politics

    Cecil's share in the Religious Settlement of 1559 was considerable, and it coincided fairly with his own Anglican religious views. Like the mass of the nation, he grew more Protestant as time wore on; he was happier to persecute Catholics than Puritans; and he had no love for ecclesiastical jurisdiction. His prosecution of the English Catholics made him a recurring character in the "evil counsellor polemics", written by Catholic exiles across the channel. In these pamphlets, polemicists painted a black picture of Burghley as a corrupting influence over the queen.[17] "The Queen will listen to none but unto him", exiled Catholic intelligencer Richard Verstegan wrote, "and somtymes, she is faine to come to his bedsyde to entreat him in some-things."[18] He warmly remonstrated with John Whitgift, the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury, over his persecuting Articles of 1583. The finest encomium was passed on him by the queen herself, when she said, "This judgment I have of you, that you will not be corrupted with any manner of gifts, and that you will be faithful to the state."

    In Parliament

    Cecil presiding over the Court of Wards
    He represented Lincolnshire in the Parliament of 1555 and 1559, and Northamptonshire in that of 1563, and he took an active part in the proceedings of the House of Commons until his elevation to the peerage; but there seems no good evidence for the story that he was proposed as Speaker in 1563. In January 1561, he was given the lucrative office of Master of the Court of Wards and Liveries in succession to Sir Thomas Parry. As Master of the Court of Wards, Burghley supervised the raising and education of wealthy, aristocratic boys whose fathers had died before they reached maturity. These included Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, and Roger Manners, 5th Earl of Rutland. He is widely credited with reforming an institution notorious for its corruption, but the extent of his reforms has been disputed by some scholars.[19]

    In February 1559, he was elected Chancellor of Cambridge University in succession to Cardinal Pole; he was created M.A. of that university on the occasion of Elizabeth's visit in 1564, and M.A. of Oxford on a similar occasion in 1566. He was the first Chancellor of University of Dublin, between 1592 and 1598.

    On 25 February 1571, Queen Elizabeth elevated him as Baron Burghley. The fact that Burghley continued to act as Secretary of State after his elevation illustrates the growing importance of that office, which under his son became a secretary of the ship of state. In 1572 Burghley privately admonished the queen for her "doubtful dealing with the Queen of Scots." He made a strong attack on everything he thought Elizabeth had done wrong as queen. In his view, Mary had to be executed because she had become a rallying cause for Catholics and played into the hands of the Spanish and of the pope, who excommunicated Elizabeth in 1570 and sent in Jesuits to organise a Catholic underground. By 1585–6 these missionaries had set up a secret, but highly effective, underground system for the transport and support of priests arriving from the Continent.[20][21][22] Elizabeth's indecision was maddening; finally in 1587 Elizabeth had Mary executed.[23]

    Treasurer

    In 1572, Lord Winchester, who had been Lord High Treasurer under Edward, Mary and Elizabeth, died. His vacant post was offered to Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, who declined it and proposed Burghley, stating that the latter was the more suitable candidate because of his greater "learning and knowledge".[24] The new Lord Treasurer's hold over the queen strengthened with the years.

    Burghley and Theobalds

    Burghley House
    Burghley House, near the town of Stamford, was built for Cecil, between 1555 and 1587, and modelled on the privy lodgings of Richmond Palace.[25][26] It was subsequently the residence of his descendants, the Earls and Marquesses of Exeter. The house is one of the principal examples of 16th-century Elizabethan architecture, reflecting the prominence of its founder, and the lucrative wool trade of the Cecil estates. Cecil House was also built by Cecil in the 16th Century, as his London residence, an expansion of an already existing building.[a] Queen Elizabeth I supped with him there, in July 1561, "before my house was fully finished", Cecil recorded in his diary, calling the place "my rude new cottage."[27] It was later inherited by his elder son, Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, and was known as "Exeter House".

    A new Theobalds House, just off the main road north from London to Ware, was built between 1564 and 1585 by the order of Cecil, intending to build a mansion partly to demonstrate his increasingly dominant status at the Royal Court, and also to provide a palace fine enough to accommodate the Queen on her visits.[28]. The Queen visited there eight times, between 1572 and 1596.

    Death

    Tomb of Lord Burghley in St Martin's, Stamford
    Lord Burghley collapsed (possibly from a stroke or heart attack) in 1598. Before he died, Robert, his only surviving son by his second wife, was ready to step into his shoes as the Queen's principal adviser. Having survived all his children except Robert and Thomas, Burghley died at his London residence, Cecil House on 4 August 1598, and was buried in St Martin's Church, Stamford.

    Descendants

    Lord Burghley firstly married, Mary Cheke (Cheek), daughter of Sir Peter Cheke of Pirgo and Agnes Duffield, and had issue:

    Sir Thomas Cecil (b. 5 May 1542), who inherited the Barony of Burghley upon the death of his father, and was later created Earl of Exeter.
    He secondly married, Mildred Cooke, eldest daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke of Gidea, Essex and Anne Fitzwilliam, and had the following issue:

    Frances Cecil (b. c.1556)
    Anne Cecil (b. 5 December 1556), who was the first wife of Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, and served as a Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I before her marriage.
    Sir Robert Cecil (b. 1 June 1563), who inherited his father's political mantle, taking on the role of Chief Minister, and arranging a smooth transfer of power to the Stuart administration under King James I of England. He was later created Baron Cecil, Viscount Cranborne, and finally Earl of Salisbury.
    Elizabeth Cecil (b. 1 July 1564), who married William Wentworth of Nettlestead (c.1555-1582), eldest son of Thomas Wentworth, 2nd Baron Wentworth.
    Burghley's descendants include the Marquesses of Exeter, descended from his elder son Thomas; and the Marquesses of Salisbury, descended from his younger son Robert. One of the latter branch, Robert Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830–1903), served three times as Prime Minister under Queen Victoria and her son, King Edward VII of England.

    Private life

    In contrast to his public unscrupulousness, Burghley's private life was upright; he was a faithful husband, a careful father and a dutiful master. A book-lover and antiquarian, he made a special hobby of heraldry and genealogy. It was the conscious and unconscious aim of the age to reconstruct a new landed aristocracy on the ruins of the old, Catholic order. As such, Burghley was a great builder, planter and patron. All the arts of architecture and horticulture were lavished on Burghley House and Theobalds, which his son exchanged for Hatfield.

    Public conduct

    His public conduct does not present itself in quite so amiable a light. As his predecessor, Lord Winchester, said of himself, he was sprung "from the willow rather than the oak." Neither Burghley nor Winchester was the man to suffer for the sake of obstinate convictions. The interest of the state was the supreme consideration for Burghley, and to it he had no hesitation in sacrificing individual consciences. He frankly disbelieved in toleration; "that state," he said, "could never be in safety where there was a toleration of two religions. For there is no enmity so great as that for religion; and therefore they that differ in the service of their God can never agree in the service of their country."[29] With a maxim such as this, it was easy for him to maintain that Elizabeth's coercive measures were political and not religious. To say that he was Machiavellian is meaningless, for every statesman is so, more or less; especially in the 16th century men preferred efficiency to principle. On the other hand, principles are valueless without law and order; and Burghley's craft and subtlety prepared a security in which principles might find some scope.[30]


    Cecil by George S. Stuart
    Nicholas White

    The most prolonged of Cecil's surviving personal correspondences is with an Irish judge, Nicholas White, lasting from 1566 until 1590; it is contained in the State Papers Ireland 63 and Lansdowne MS. 102, but receives hardly a mention in the literature on Cecil.[31]

    White had been a tutor to Cecil's children during his student days in London, and the correspondence suggests that he was held in lasting affection by the family. In the end, White fell into a Dublin controversy over the confessions of an intriguing priest, which threatened the authority of the Queen's deputised government in Ireland; out of caution Cecil withdrew his longstanding protection and the judge was imprisoned in London and died soon after.

    White's most remarked-upon service for Cecil is his report on his visit with Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1569, during the early years of her imprisonment. He may have published an English translation of the Argonautica in the 1560s but no copy has survived.

    In popular culture

    Cecil has been a character in many works of fiction and documentary essay concerned with Elizabeth I's reign. Richard Attenborough depicted him in the film Elizabeth. He was played by Ben Webster in the 1935 film Drake of England. He was a prominent supporting character in the 1937 film Fire Over England, starring Laurence Olivier, Vivien Leigh, and Flora Robson; Burghley (spelled Burleigh in the film) was played by Morton Selten. He also appears in the television mini-series Elizabeth I with Helen Mirren, played by Ian McDiarmid; was portrayed by Ronald Hines in the 1971 TV series Elizabeth R;[32] by Trevor Howard in the 1971 film Mary, Queen of Scots (1971); and by Ian Hart in the 2005 miniseries The Virgin Queen. He is portrayed by David Thewlis in Roland Emmerich's Anonymous.

    Cecil appears as a character in the novels I, Elizabeth by Rosalind Miles, The Virgin's Lover and The Other Queen by Philippa Gregory, and is a prominent secondary character in several books by Bertrice Small. He also appears prominently in the alternative history Ruled Britannia, by Harry Turtledove, in which he and his son Sir Robert Cecil are conspirators and patrons of William Shakespeare in an attempt to restore Elizabeth to power after a successful Spanish invasion and conquest of England. In addition, he is portrayed as a young man in Lamentation by C. J. Sansom.

    Cecil is also portrayed by Ben Willbond in the BAFTA award-winning children's comedy television series Horrible Histories.

    In the BBC TV miniseries Elizabeth I's Secret Agents (2017, broadcast on PBS in 2018 as Queen Elizabeth's Secret Agents), he is played by Philip Rosch; http://www.pbs.org/program/queen-elizabeths-secret-agents/

    Burghley also appears in the espionage novels of Fiona Buckley, featuring Elizabeth I's half-sister, Ursula Blanchard.

    end of biography

    Died:
    in Cecil House...

    William married Mary Cheke 8 Aug 1541, Westminster, London, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Mary Cheke
    Children:
    1. 1. Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter was born 5 Mar 1542, St. Mary The Great, Cambridgeshire, England; died 8 Feb 1623, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.


Generation: 3

  1. 4.  Richard Cecil was born 1501, England (son of David Cecil and Jane Dicons); died 19 Mar 1553.

    Richard — Jane Heckington. Jane was born 1501, Tickencote, Rutlandshire, England; died 1587. [Group Sheet]


  2. 5.  Jane Heckington was born 1501, Tickencote, Rutlandshire, England; died 1587.
    Children:
    1. 2. William Cecil, KG, 1st Baron of Burghley was born 21 Sep 1521, Bourne, Lincolnshire, England; died 4 Aug 1598, Westminster, London, England.


Generation: 4

  1. 8.  David Cecil was born 1473, Burleigh, Gloucestershire, , England (son of Philip Cecil and Maud Vaughan); died 1541.

    David — Jane Dicons. Jane was born 1477, Stamford, Kesteven, Lincolnshire, England; died 1532. [Group Sheet]


  2. 9.  Jane Dicons was born 1477, Stamford, Kesteven, Lincolnshire, England; died 1532.
    Children:
    1. 4. Richard Cecil was born 1501, England; died 19 Mar 1553.


Generation: 5

  1. 16.  Philip Cecil was born 1447, Burleigh, Gloucestershire, England; died 1500.

    Philip — Maud Vaughan. Maud (daughter of Roger Vaughan and Denys Thomas) was born 1449, Burleigh, Gloucestershire, England; died 1500. [Group Sheet]


  2. 17.  Maud Vaughan was born 1449, Burleigh, Gloucestershire, England (daughter of Roger Vaughan and Denys Thomas); died 1500.
    Children:
    1. 8. David Cecil was born 1473, Burleigh, Gloucestershire, , England; died 1541.


Generation: 6

  1. 34.  Roger Vaughan was born 1410, Tretwr, Llnfhngl Cwm Du, Breconshire, Wales (son of Roger Vaughan and Gwladus ferch Dafydd); died 1471, Monmouthshire, Wales.

    Notes:

    Sir Roger "of Tretower" Vaughan aka Vychan
    Born 1410 in Tretwr, Llnfhngl Cwm Du, Breconshire, Wales
    ANCESTORS ancestors
    Son of Roger Vaughan and Gwladus (ferch Dafydd) Herbert
    Brother of Watkin (Vaughn) Vaughan, Thomas of Hergest ap (Roger) Vaughan, Elizabeth (Vaughan) gwraig Morgan ap Jenkin, William Herbert KG [half], Richard Herbert [half], Elizabeth (Herbert) Stradling [half], Dau Herbert [half], Margred verch William (Herbert) Wogan [half] and Elena (Herbert) Grivelle [half]
    Husband of Eva Coch — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
    Husband of Denys (Thomas) Vaughan — married 1431 (to about 1438) in Llnfhngl Cwm Du, Breconshire, , Walesmap
    Husband of Margaret (Tuchet) Vaughn — married after 17 Dec 1466 [location unknown]
    DESCENDANTS descendants
    Father of Thomas of Tretower Vaughan, Thomas of Breconshire Vaughan, Roger Vaughan, Elizabeth Vaughan, Maud (Vaughan) Vaughn and Elinor Vaughan
    Died 1471 in Monmouthshire, Wales
    Profile manager: Michelle Brooks private message [send private message]
    Vaughan-189 created 12 Mar 2011 | Last modified 12 Dec 2017
    This page has been accessed 2,251 times.

    Biography
    Sir Roger Vaughan of Tretower, married Denys, daughter of Thomas ap Philip Vychan Vaughan, 2ndly Margaret daughter of lord Audley and widow to lord Powys.[1]

    Sir Roger Vaughan of Tretower, mentioned in page 3 of this pedigree, besides the children there named had several illegitimate sons and daughters; some of them are noticed as ancestors of several branches of this family;

    his youngest illegitimate son by an illegitimate daughter of a prior of the monastery of Abergavenny, called Prior coch or, the red haired prior, was named Thomas Vaughan, he was knighted and a great favourite of Richard the third by whose command however he was afterwards beheaded at Pomfret; he married and had issue
    a daughter, married to Sir John Wogan of Wiston,
    and a son, Harry Vaughan,
    whose son Sir Tho Parry, was comptroller of the household and master of the wards to queen Elizabeth, he married Anne, daughter of Sir William Reed of Borestall in Bucks, by whom he had issue
    Sir Thomas Parry, chancellor of the exchequer and privy counsellor in 1607; whose wife was Dorothy Brooks one the maids of honour to queen Elizabeth.[2]

    Research Notes

    Sir Roger and Eva Coch never married.

    Sources

    ? History of Brecknockshire p.507
    ? History of Brecknockshire p.506
    Vaughan Family of Wales
    A History of the County of Brecknockshire; By Theophilus Jones
    Created by Dave Newman March 2011.

    end of biography

    Roger married Denys Thomas 1431, Llnfhngl Cwm Du, Breconshire, Wales. Denys was born 1414; died 1438. [Group Sheet]


  2. 35.  Denys Thomas was born 1414; died 1438.
    Children:
    1. 17. Maud Vaughan was born 1449, Burleigh, Gloucestershire, England; died 1500.


Generation: 7

  1. 68.  Roger Vaughan was born 1377, Bredwardine, Herefordshire, England; died 1415.

    Roger — Gwladus ferch Dafydd. Gwladus (daughter of Dafydd Llewelyn and Gwenlllian Gwilym) was born ~ 1380, Peutun, Llan-Ddew, Breconshire, Wales; died 1454. [Group Sheet]


  2. 69.  Gwladus ferch Dafydd was born ~ 1380, Peutun, Llan-Ddew, Breconshire, Wales (daughter of Dafydd Llewelyn and Gwenlllian Gwilym); died 1454.
    Children:
    1. 34. Roger Vaughan was born 1410, Tretwr, Llnfhngl Cwm Du, Breconshire, Wales; died 1471, Monmouthshire, Wales.


Generation: 8

  1. 138.  Dafydd Llewelyn was born ~1351, Peutun, Llan-Ddew, Breconshire, Wales (son of Llewelyn Hywel Fychan and Mallt. verch Jevan); died 25 Oct 1415.

    Dafydd — Gwenlllian Gwilym. Gwenlllian was born 1385, Brecknockshire, Wales; died 1455. [Group Sheet]


  2. 139.  Gwenlllian Gwilym was born 1385, Brecknockshire, Wales; died 1455.

    Notes:

    Birth:
    Abercrai, Traean Glas...

    Children:
    1. 69. Gwladus ferch Dafydd was born ~ 1380, Peutun, Llan-Ddew, Breconshire, Wales; died 1454.