Joan Pole

Female 1372 - 1433  (~ 60 years)


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Generation: 1

  1. 1.  Joan Pole was born ~1372 (daughter of John Pole and Joan Cobham); died ~13 Jan 1433.

    Joan married Reginald Braybrooke 1391. Reginald was born 1344; died 20 Sep 1405. [Group Sheet]

    Children:
    1. Nichola Braybrooke was born ~1378; died ~1411.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  John Pole was born ~1341, Newborough, Staffordshire, England (son of Margaret Peverel, Countess of Derby, son of William de la Pole and Margaret Peverel); died >9 Mar 1380, Chrishall, Essex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: John de la Pole

    John married Joan Cobham 1362. Joan (daughter of John Cobham and Margaret Courtenay) was born ~1350; died 1388. [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Joan Cobham was born ~1350 (daughter of John Cobham and Margaret Courtenay); died 1388.
    Children:
    1. 1. Joan Pole was born ~1372; died ~13 Jan 1433.


Generation: 3

  1. 5.  Margaret Peverel, Countess of Derby was born ~ 1114, (Peveril Castle, Derbyshire) England (daughter of William Peverel, The Younger and Avicia de Lancaster); died 0___ 1154, (Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire, England); was buried Merevale Abbey.

    Notes:

    Margaret Peverell, Countess of Derby (b. circa 1114, Nottinghamshire, England), was an English noblewoman who lived at Tutbury Castle in Staffordshire, England.

    Family and marriage

    Margaret was the daughter of William Peverel the Younger of Peveril Castle in Derbyshire and his wife, Oddona (Sources:Hal Bradley:

    1. Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant (London: St. Catherine Press, 1910.), 4:311, Los Angeles Public Library, 929.721 C682.
    2. Keats-Rohan, K.S.B., Domesday People: A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents, 1066-1166 (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 1999.), pp. 361, 494, Los Angeles Public Library, Gen 942.02 K25.
    3. Sheppard, Walter Lee, F.A.S.G., "Royal Bye-Blows: The Illegitimate Children of the English Kings," NEHGR 119:2 (Apr 1965) (New England Historic, Genealogical Society.), p. 95, Los Angeles Public Library.. Her grandfather was William Peverel.
    She married Robert Ferrers and thus became Countess of Derby. She was the mother of William de Ferrers, 3rd Earl of Derby, Walkelin de Ferrers and a daughter, Petronella.[citation needed]

    She died in 1154 and was buried in Merevale Abbey.

    *

    Children:
    1. 2. John Pole was born ~1341, Newborough, Staffordshire, England; died >9 Mar 1380, Chrishall, Essex, England.

  2. 6.  John Cobham was born ~1321 (son of John Cobham, Knight, 2nd Lord Cobham and Joan Beauchamp); died 10 Jan 1408.

    John married Margaret Courtenay >1342. Margaret (daughter of Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon and Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon) was born 1326; died 2 Aug 1385. [Group Sheet]


  3. 7.  Margaret Courtenay was born 1326 (daughter of Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon and Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon); died 2 Aug 1385.
    Children:
    1. 3. Joan Cobham was born ~1350; died 1388.


Generation: 4

  1. 10.  William Peverel, The Younger was born 0___ 1080, Normandy, France (son of William Peverel, Knight and Adeline LNU); died 1155.

    Notes:

    William "the Younger" Peverel (c. 1080–1155) was the son of William Peverel. He lived in Nottingham, England.[1]

    He married Avicia de Lancaster (1088 – c. 1150) in La Marche, Normandy, France. She was the daughter of William de Lancaster I and Countess Gundred de Warenne, daughter of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey. In 1114, she bore a daughter, Margaret Peverel.[1] Another member of his family, Maude Peverel (a sister or daughter) was - by 1120 - the first wife of Robert fitz Martin.

    William inherited the Honour of Peverel.

    He was a principal supporter of King Stephen, and a commander in the Battle of the Standard. He was captured at The Battle of Lincoln.[2]

    King Henry II dispossessed William of the Honour in 1153, for conspiring to poison the Earl of Chester - though historians speculate that the King wished to punish him for his 'wickedness and treason' in supporting King Stephen. The Earl died before he took possession of the Honour, and it stayed in the Crown for about a half century.[2][3]

    References[edit]
    ^ Jump up to: a b "Peverel Family Genealogy". Our Folk. Retrieved 2008-05-13.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Cokayne, George E.; other authors (1887–98). The Complete Peerage (extant, extinct or dormant). Volume 4 (4th ed.). pp. 762–768. Retrieved 2008-05-13.
    Jump up ^ "Langar Hall ~ A Microcosm of English History". Baronage. Retrieved 2008-05-13.

    William married Avicia de Lancaster 1114, La Marche, Normandy, France. Avicia (daughter of William de Lancaster, I, Baron of Kendal and Gundred de Warenne) was born 0___ 1088, La Marche, Normandy, France; died ~ 1150. [Group Sheet]


  2. 11.  Avicia de Lancaster was born 0___ 1088, La Marche, Normandy, France (daughter of William de Lancaster, I, Baron of Kendal and Gundred de Warenne); died ~ 1150.
    Children:
    1. 5. Margaret Peverel, Countess of Derby was born ~ 1114, (Peveril Castle, Derbyshire) England; died 0___ 1154, (Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire, England); was buried Merevale Abbey.

  3. 12.  John Cobham, Knight, 2nd Lord Cobham was born (England) (son of Henry de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham (of Kent) and Maud Morville).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: John de Cobham

    John married Joan Beauchamp 1314, England. Joan (daughter of John de Beauchamp, II, 1st Baron Beauchamp and Joan Chenduit) was born 1304, West Hatch, Somerset, England; died <1343, Stoke, Kent, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 13.  Joan Beauchamp was born 1304, West Hatch, Somerset, England (daughter of John de Beauchamp, II, 1st Baron Beauchamp and Joan Chenduit); died <1343, Stoke, Kent, England.

    Notes:

    Joan de Cobham formerly Beauchamp aka de Beauchamp
    Born 1304 in West Hatch, Somerset, England
    ANCESTORS ancestors
    Daughter of John (Beauchamp) de Beauchamp and Joan (Chenduit) de Beauchamp
    Sister of William Beauchamp, Aleonore Beauchamp, Beatrice Beauchamp, John Beauchamp and Thomas Beauchamp
    Wife of John (Cobham) de Cobham Knt — married 1314 in England
    DESCENDANTS descendants
    Mother of Joan (Cobham) le Despenser and John (Cobham) de Cobham
    Died after 1343 in Stoke, Kent, Englandmap
    Profile managers: Katherine Patterson private message [send private message] and Chet Spencer private message [send private message]
    Beauchamp-151 created 21 Feb 2011 | Last modified 16 Nov 2017
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    Categories: West Hatch, Somerset | Stoke-in-Kent, England | Magna Carta | Malet-18 Descendants.

    Magna Carta Project logo
    Joan (Beauchamp) de Cobham is a descendant of a Magna Carta surety baron.
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    NOTE: Joan de Beauchamp is a descendant of Magna Carta surety baron William Malet.

    Contents
    [hide]
    1 Biography
    1.1 Marriage
    1.2 Issue
    2 Death
    3 Sources
    4 Acknowledgements
    Biography
    Joan de Beauchamp was the daughter of Sir John de Beauchamp by his wife Joan, said to be the daughter of (Unknown) Chenduit.[1]
    Marriage
    In 1314, Joan married Sir John de Cobham, 2nd Lord Cobham, son of Henry de Cobham, 1st Lord Cobham, by his wife Maud de Morville.[2]
    Issue
    Joan and John had one known son, John,[3] and one known daughter, Joan.[4]
    Death
    Joan was living in 1343.[5]
    Sources
    Source: Royal Ancestry by Douglas Richardson Vol. IV p. 614.
    Source: Richardson, Douglas, and Kimball G. Everingham. Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Vol. V. Salt Lake City, UT.: Douglas Richardson., 2013. Pages 404.
    Source: Richardson, Douglas; Everingham, Kimball G., editor. Magna Carta Ancestry: A study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 2nd edition, 2011, Vol. 3 p. 106, 233, 344.
    Source: Richardson, Douglas; Everingham, Kimball G., editor. Magna Carta Ancestry: A study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 2nd edition, 2011, 2nd ed. Vol. IV p. 375-376
    Source: The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant, Cokayne, George Edward, (Gloucester [England] : Alan Sutton Pub. Ltd., 1987), 942 D22cok., vol. 2 p. 49.
    Source: Marlyn Lewis. * Pedigree Resource File CD 49 Publication: Salt Lake City, UT: Intellectual Reserve, Inc., 2002.
    ? Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families vol. 5 p. 404
    ? Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families vol. 5 p. 404
    ? Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families vol. 5 p. 404
    ? Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families vol. 5 p. 404
    ? Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families vol. 5 p. 404

    Children:
    1. Joan Cobham was born 1316; died >15 May 137.
    2. 6. John Cobham was born ~1321; died 10 Jan 1408.

  5. 14.  Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon was born 12 Jul 1303, Okehampton, Devon, England (son of Hugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon and Agnes St. John); died 3 May 1377, Exeter, Devonshire, England; was buried Exter Cathedral, Devonshire, England.

    Notes:

    Hugh COURTENAY (2° E. Devon)

    Born: 12 Jul 1303, Okehampton, Devon, England

    Died: 2 May 1377, Exeter, Devon, England

    Buried: Exeter Cathedral, Devonshire, England

    Father: Hugh COURTENAY (1° E. Devon)

    Mother: Agnes St. JOHN

    Married: Margaret De BOHUN (C. Devon) 11 Aug 1325

    Children:

    1. Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)

    2. Edward COURTENAY of Godlington

    3. Margaret COURTENAY

    4. Thomas COURTENAY (Sir Knight)

    5. Phillip COURTENAY of Powderham (Sir)

    6. Elizabeth COURTENAY

    7. Catherine COURTENAY

    8. Joan COURTENAY

    10. Matilda COURTENAY

    11. Eleanor COURTENAY

    12. Guinora COURTENAY (b. ABT 1348)

    13. Isabel COURTENAY

    14. Phillipa COURTENAY

    15. William COURTENAY (Archbishop of Canterbury)

    16. John COURTENAY

    17. Peter COURTENAY (Sir)

    18. Humphrey COURTENAY (Sir) (b. ABT 1355)

    19. Anne COURTENAY

    *

    Hugh married Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon 11 Aug 1325. Margaret (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England) was born 3 Apr 1311; died 16 Dec 1391. [Group Sheet]


  6. 15.  Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon was born 3 Apr 1311 (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England); died 16 Dec 1391.
    Children:
    1. 7. Margaret Courtenay was born 1326; died 2 Aug 1385.
    2. Edward Courtenay was born 1329-1334, Devonshire, England; died 1368-1372.


Generation: 5

  1. 20.  William Peverel, Knight was born ~1040, Normandy, France; died ~1115.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Gulielmus Piperellus
    • Also Known As: William The Elder

    Notes:

    William Peverell (c. 1040 – c. 1115, Latinised to Gulielmus Piperellus), was a Norman knight granted lands in England following the Norman Conquest.

    Origins

    Little is known of the origin of the William Peverell the Elder. Of his immediate family, only the name of a brother, Robert, is known.[1] J. R. Planchâe derives the surname from the Latin puerulus, the diminutive form of puer (a boy), thus "a small boy", or from the Latin noun piper, meaning "pepper".[2]

    Lands held in England

    William Peverel was a favourite of William the Conqueror. He was greatly honoured after the Norman Conquest, and received as his reward over a hundred manors in central England from the king. In 1086, the Domesday Book records William as holding the substantial number of 162 manors, forming collectively the Honour of Peverel, in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, including Nottingham Castle.[3] He also built Peveril Castle, Castleton, Derbyshire. William Peverel is amongst the people explicitly recorded in the Domesday Book as having built castles.[4]

    Marriage & progeny

    William married Adeline, who bore him four children: two sons both named William, one dying without issue, the other often called William Peverel the Younger, born circa 1080, and two daughters, Maud and Adeliza, who married Richard de Redvers.[1]

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b The Complete Peerage, Vol IV, App. I, pp 761–770, "Peverel Family". This also dismisses the Tudor-era genealogical invention that made him illegitimate son of William the Conqueror
    Jump up ^ http://patp.us/genealogy/conq/peverel.aspx
    Jump up ^ A description of holdings in Derbyshire, from the Domesday Book (http://www.infokey.com/Domesday/Derbyshire.htm). A local history of Duston, Northampton (http://www.duston.org.uk/peverel.htm).
    Jump up ^ Harfield 1991, p. 391
    Bibliography
    Harfield, C. G. (1991), "A Hand-list of Castles Recorded in the Domesday Book", English Historical Review, 106: 371–392, doi:10.1093/ehr/CVI.CCCCXIX.371, JSTOR 573107

    William — Adeline LNU. [Group Sheet]


  2. 21.  Adeline LNU
    Children:
    1. 10. William Peverel, The Younger was born 0___ 1080, Normandy, France; died 1155.

  3. 22.  William de Lancaster, I, Baron of KendalWilliam de Lancaster, I, Baron of Kendal was born (France); died ~ 1170.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: William de Tailboys
    • Also Known As: William de Taillebois
    • Also Known As: William Fitz Gilbert

    Notes:

    William de Lancaster I, or William Fitz Gilbert, was a nobleman of the 12th century in Northwest England. According to a document some generations later, he was also referred to as William de Tailboys (de Taillebois) when younger, and then became "William de Lancaster, baron of Kendal", although there is some uncertainty amongst most commentators concerning the exact meaning of the term "baron" in this case. He is the first person of whom there is any record to bear the name of Lancaster and pass it on to his descendants as a family name. He died in about 1170.

    Titles and positions

    Earliest holdings

    Despite his surname, William and his relatives appear in contemporary documents relating mainly to what is now the modern county of Cumbria, not Lancashire, especially Copeland in western Cumberland, Furness in the Lake District, The Barony of Kendal, which became part of Westmorland, and various areas such as Barton between Kendal and Ullswater, also in Westmorland. Much of this area was not yet permanently part of England.

    Although only part of this area was within the later English county of Lancaster or Lancashire, this entity had not yet come to be clearly defined. So the title of "de Lancaster", by which William is remembered, could have referred not only to the church city of Lancaster, to the south of this area, but to an area under its control. In 1900, William Farrer claimed that "all of the southern half of Westmorland, not only the Kirkby Lonsdale Ward of Westmorland, but also the Kendal Ward, were linked with Northern Lancashire from a very early time" and formed a single district for fiscal administrative purposes.[1]

    The two apparently lost records which are said to have mentioned William's father Gilbert also apparently connected him to Cumbria, specifically to the area of Furness.[2]

    The following are areas associated with him, for example ...

    Muncaster in Cumberland. According to William Farrer, in his 1902 edition of Lancashire Pipe Rolls and early charters,wrote:

    It appears that he was possessed of the lordship of Mulcaster (now Muncaster), over the Penningtons of Pennington in Furness, and under Robert de Romille, lord of Egremont and Skipton, who held it in right of his wife, Cecilia, daughter and heiress of William de Meschines.[3]

    According to Farrer, this title would have been one of those granted by Roger de Mowbray, son of Nigel de Albini, having come into his hands after the decease without male heirs of Ivo de Taillebois. He also believed that this grant to William de Lancaster came to be annulled.

    Workington, Lamplugh and Middleton. The manors of Workington and Lamplugh in Cumberland were given by William de Lancaster, in exchange for Middleton in Westmorland, to an apparently close relative, Gospatric, son of Orme, brother-in-law of Waldeve, Lord of Allerdale.[4]

    Hensingham. The Register of St Bees shows that both William son of Gilbert de Lancastre, and William's son William had land in this area. William's was at a place called Swartof or Suarthow, "probably the rising ground between Whitehaven and Hensingham, known locally as Swartha Brow". The appears to have come from his father Gilbert. His brother Roger apparently held land at Walton, just outside modern Hensingham, and had a son named Robert. Roger and William also named a brother called Robert.[5]

    Ulverston. Farrer argued that this may have been held by William and perhaps his father Gilbert, before it was granted by Stephen, Count of Boulogne and Mortain, to Furness Abbey in 1127.[6] The possible connection of William's father Gilbert to Furness will be discussed further below.

    Enfeoffment from King Stephen

    King Stephen's reign in England lasted from 1135 to 1154, but only during a small part of this did he control this region. For the majority of his reign all or most of this area was under the rule of David I of Scotland.

    During the period when Stephen was in control "we possess distinct and clear evidence that Stephen, as king, enfeoffed a knight of the lands of Warton in Kentdale and the wide territory of Garstang, in Lancashire, to hold for the service of one knight. This was William de Lancaster, son of Gilbert by Godith his wife, described in the Inquest of service made in 1212 as "Willelmus filius Gilberti primus," that is, the first to be enfeoffed of that fee."[7]

    Enfeoffment from Roger de Mowbray

    At a similar time, during the period 1145-1154, a major enfeoffment by Roger de Mowbray put William in control, or perhaps just confirmed his control, of what would become the Barony of Kendal, plus Warton, Garstang, and Wyresdale in Lancashire, as well as Horton in Ribblesdale and "Londsdale". The latter two are sometimes apparently being interpreted as indicating possession for some time of at least part of what would become the Wapentake of Ewcross in the West Riding of Yorkshire.

    The Scottish period

    During the Scottish occupation, Hugh de Morville became the overlord of much of this area, a position he kept when the area later returned to English control. Farrer and Curwen remark:

    William de Lancaster no longer held anything in Kentdale of Roger de Mowbray; but he appears to have held his lands in Westmarieland and Kentdale of Morevill by rendering Noutgeld of ą14 6s. 3d. per annum, and some 16 carucates of land in nine vills in Kentdale as farmer under Morevill. In 1166 William de Lancaster I held only two knight's fees, of the new feoffment of Roger de Mowbray in Sedbergh, Thornton, Burton in Lonsdale, and the other places in Yorkshire previously named, which his descendants held long after of the fee of Mowbray by the same service. The Mowbray connexion with Kentdale had come to an end upon the accession of Henry II, who placed Hugh de Morevill in possession of Westmarieland in return, possibly, for past services and in pursuance of the policy of planting his favourites in regions of great strategic importance. Probably the change of paramount lord had little, if any, effect on the position of William de Lancaster in Kentdale.[7]

    In Cumberland further west, according to several websites, William was castellan in the castle of Egremont under William fitz Duncan.[citation needed]

    The Barony of Kendal?

    William de Lancaster is often described as having been a Baron of Kendal. In fact this is not so clear what kind of lordship existed over Kendal, given the lack of clarity of records in this period. The word barony developed specific meanings during the Middle Ages, namely feudal baron and baron by writ. William Farrer wrote, in the Introduction to his Records of Kendal:

    After a careful review of the evidence which has been sketched above, the author is of opinion that no barony or reputed barony of Kentdale existed prior to the grants of 1189–90; and that neither William de Lancaster, son of Gilbert, nor William de Lancaster II, his son and successor, can be rightly described as "baron" of Kentdale.[7]

    Whether or not "Barony" is the clearest word, what became the Barony of Kendal is generally accepted as having come together under Ivo de Taillebois (d. 1094) in the time of William Rufus, some generations before William. And, as will be discussed below, at least in later generations William was depicted by his family as having been a Taillebois. A continuity is therefore often asserted between what Ivo held, and what William later held, despite the fact that William had no known hereditary claim on Kendal, and Ivo had no male heirs. (This is also the reason for the frequent assertion that William held the entire wapentake of Ewcross, even though it seems that the family of Roger de Mowbray kept hold of at least Burton in Kendal. William held two parts of it, mentioned above, while Ivo had held another, Clapham. The rest is speculation.)

    According to Farrer, the Barony of Kendal became a real barony only in the time of William's grand daughter Hawise, who married Gilbert son of Roger fitz Reinfrid. Both he and his son William de Lancaster III, both successors of William de Lancaster I (and possibly of Ivo de Taillebois) were certainly Barons of Kendal.

    Concerning other specific holdings and ranks

    Furness and the Royal forests. According to a later grant to Gilbert Fitz Reinfrid, William must have held some position over the whole forest of Westmarieland (the Northern or Appleby Barony of Westmorland), Kendal and Furness. His claims in Furness may have gone beyond just the forest, but this appears to have put him in conflict with the claims of the Furness Abbey, and this conflict continued over many generations. His family may have had links there before him. Some websites report that his father Gilbert was known as "Gilbert of Furness". (This apparently comes from a 17th-century note by Benjamin Ayloffe, mentioned below.)

    Lancaster Castle. According to Dugdale, the eminent English antiquarian, he was governor of Lancaster Castle in the reign of Henry II, about 1180. Little is known about how William came to hold the honour of Lancaster and use the surname, but it is sometimes suggested that it implies connections to royalty, perhaps coming from his apparent marriage to Gundred de Warrenne (or was this just yet another reward for some forgotten service, perhaps against the Scots?).

    Seneschal. According to a note written by the 17th century antiquarian Benjamin Ayloffe, which is reproduced in the introduction of Walford Dakin Selby's collection of Lancashire and Cheshire Records, p.xxix, William was Seneschallus Hospitii Regis, or steward of the king's household. The same note also states that William's father was the kings "Receiver for the County of Lancaster".[8]

    Ancestry

    William's father was named Gilbert, and his mother was Godith. They are both mentioned clearly in a benefaction of William to St Mary de Prâe and William was often referred to as William the son of Gilbert (fitz Gilbert).

    William was also said to have descended from both Ivo de Taillebois and Eldred of Workington, who were contemporaries of William Rufus. But the exact nature of the relationship is unclear and indeed controversial. There may be a connection through daughters or illegitimate sons of these two men. A discussion of the main proposals follows:-

    Ivo de Taillebois and Eldred both in the male line. A once widespread understand was that Ivo was father of Eldred, who was father of Ketel who was father of Gilbert. This now seems to be wrong, or at least has gone out of favour and has been adapted in various ways (for example removing Ketel from this chain). The two authorities for a direct line of father-son descent from Ivo to Eldred to Ketel to Gilbert to William de Lancaster were records made much later in Cockersand Abbey and St Mary's Abbey in Yorkshire.[9] But monastic genealogies concerning their benefactors are generally considered difficult to rely upon.[10]

    One of the concerns with this account is chronological, because it requires too many generations in a short period, both in order to make Ivo father of his contemporary Eldred, and also to make Ketel the father of his contemporary, Gilbert. Other concerns arise from because of complexities that this gives for explaining inheritances. For example, it implies that William de Lancaster was heir to Ketel fitz Eldred, but Ketel is commonly thought to have had another heir. And there is also no record of Eldred being an heir to Ivo. Also, it is highly unusual that in this account, the descendants of a Norman noble (Ivo) all use Anglo Saxon names (Eldred, Ketel, etc.).

    Eldred in the male line, if not Taillebois. Nevertheless, concerning the connection to Eldred, in a Curia Regis Roll item dated 1212 (R., 55, m. 6), Helewise and her husband Gilbert Fitz Reinfrid make claims based upon the fact that "Ketel filius Eutret" was an "antecessor" of Helewise. This could mean he was an ancestor, but it could also perhaps merely mean he was a predecessor more generally.

    But evidence was found in the twentieth century which gave clear problems for this theory. One charter to St Leonard's York William refers to Ketel, the son of "Elred", as his avunculus, which would literally mean "maternal uncle" (but the word was not always used precisely, the more general meaning of "uncle" might have been intended). And a 1357 charter printed by Reverend F. W. Ragg in 1910 repeats the claim that Ketel son of "Aldred" was the avunculus of William son of Gilbert.[11] These records appear to make it impossible for Ketel to be the father of Gilbert.

    The possibility remains, and is for example proposed by Frederick Ragg who first noted this avunculus relationship, that Gilbert is the son of Eldred, and therefore a brother of Ketel, so still in the same male line. (Under this proposal, avunculus is being used to mean simply "uncle", and not in an exact way.)[12] So a male line ancestry from Eldred is not considered impossible, even if it retains difficulties, for example concerning how to explain the connection to the Taillebois family, and also the heirship of Eldred's family.

    Taillebois through his father, if not Eldred. According to the annalist Peter of Blois, Ivo's "only daughter, who had been nobly espoused, died before her father; for that evil shoots should not fix deep roots in the world, the accursed lineage of that wicked man perished by the axe of the Almighty, which cut off all his issue." The only known heiress of Ivo was a daughter named Beatrix. Her sons by her one definitely known husband, Ribald of Middleham, did however on occasions apparently use the surname Taillebois also.

    Apart from the above-mentioned monastic genealogies however, a connection to Ivo de Taillebois is partly proposed based upon a similarity of land holdings between William and Ivo de Taillebois, and a record in the Coucher Book of Furness Abbey, concord number CCVI, wherein Helewise, granddaughter and heir of William is party. In the genealogical notice it is claimed that William had been known as William de Tailboys, before receiving the right to be called "Willelmum de Lancastre, Baronem de Kendale".[13] This is the only relatively contemporary evidence for this assertion however, and other facts in this document are questioned by Farrer and Curwen, as discussed above, because they say that William was probably not Baron of Kendal, but rather an under-lord there.[7]

    Whether or not Ivo himself was in the male line of William's ancestry, there was a Tailboys family present in Westmorland during the 12th century, for example in Cliburn, and these were presumably relatives of William de Lancaster. This family used the personal name Ivo at least once, and may have been related to Ivo and Beatrix.[14]

    Eldred in the female line. Compatible with the above, though in contrast to the earlier proposal of Ragg (that Ketel is paternal uncle to William, and brother to Gilbert), it has been proposed by G. Washington and G. A. Moriarty that Ketel is maternal uncle to William, and brother to Gilbert's wife Godith. This proposal had the added attractions of making the use of Anglo-Saxon names more explicable, and of matching the most precise meaning of "avunculus". Washington wrote:

    William de Lancaster's father, Gilbert, was a Norman knight, as evidenced by the French Christian names given to all his recorded children; whilst William's mother, Godith, was clearly the sister of Ketel son of Eldred and thus of native English stock (it will be recalled that Ketel was called William de Lancaster's avunculus, a term which strictly speaking means 'maternal uncle'). It is even possible, as Mr. Moriarty surmises, that Ketel's wife, Christian or Christina, may have been a Taillebois by birth; for, according to Peter of Blois, Ivo himself 'had an only daughter, nobly espoused' (see the Duchess of Cleveland's Battle Abbey Roll, III, 345), and certainly William de Lancaster's granddaughter, Helewise, along with her husband Gilbert fitz Renfrid, later confirmed some of Ivo's grants to the abbey of St. Mary at York.[15]
    Taillebois in the female line. Keats-Rohan accepts this proposal of Moriarty and Washington that Godith and Ketel were siblings, but also maintains support for an older idea that their mother is of Ivo's one known daughter, Beatrix, through a marriage (of which no contemporary record exists) to Eldred. This would, as in the explanation of Moriarty and Washington, make Ketel maternal uncle to William, and Gilbert a French Taillebois, however Keats-Rohan offers no ancestry for him.[16]

    Descendants and relatives

    William married Gundreda, perhaps his second wife, who is sometimes said to be the daughter of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey and Elizabeth of Vermandois. In this case she was the widow of Roger, the Earl of Warwick. But William Farrer believes that it is much more likely that this Gundreda was a daughter to the Roger and the elder Gundreda.[17] Note that King Stephen's son, William, married Gundred's niece, Isabel de Warenne, Countess of Surrey. This implies a very close relationship with the King's party.

    William had issue:

    Avicia, who married Richard de Morville, constable of Scotland (and had possibly married earlier to William de Peveral)
    William, who became William de Lancaster II, and whose legitimate heir Helewise de Lancaster married Gilbert son of Roger Fitz Reinfrid. Many modern Lancasters, especially in Cumbria, appear to descend from his two illegitimate sons, Gilbert and Jordan.
    Jordan, who died young, and is mentioned in a benefaction to St Mary de Prâe in Leicester. In the same benefaction, William II is also mentioned, apparently an adult.
    Agnes who married Alexander de Windsore[18]
    Sigrid, married to William the clerk of Garstang.[18]
    Perhaps Warine de Lancaster, royal falconer, and ancestor of a family known as "de Lea". The charters concerning Forton in the Cockersand Chartulary say, firstly that William de Lancaster II confirmed a grant made by his father to Warine, father of Henry de Lea, and secondly, in Hugh de Morville's confirmation that this William de Lancaster I was "his uncle" (awnculi sui). The record appears to allow that William might have been either Henry's uncle or Warine's. If he was Warine's uncle then the theory is that Warine was the son of an otherwise unknown brother of William de Lancaster I named Gilbert.
    Gilbert fitz Reinfrid and Helewise's son William also took up the name de Lancaster, becoming William de Lancaster III. He died without male heirs, heavily indebted, apparently due to payments demanded after he was captured at Rochester during the First Barons' War, and ransomed off by his father.

    William de Lancaster III's half brother Roger de Lancaster of Rydal inherited some of the Lancaster importance. It is thought that Roger was a son of Gilbert Fitz Reinfrid, but not of Helewise de Lancaster. Roger is widely thought to be the ancestor of the Lancasters of Howgill and Rydal in Westmorland. (In fact the line starts with one John de Lancaster of Howgill, whose connection to Roger de Lancaster and his son, John de Lancaster of Grisedale and Stanstead, is unclear except for the fact that he took over Rydal and Grasmere from the latter John.[19])

    The Lancasters of Sockbridge, Crake Trees, Brampton, Dacre, and several other manors in Westmorland and Cumberland, were apparently descended from William de Lancaster II's illegitimate son Gilbert de Lancaster.[11] Many or perhaps all of the old Lancaster families found throughout Cumbria seem to descend from Gilbert and his brother Jordan.[19]

    The de Lea family eventually lost power in the time of Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, a member of the Plantagenet royal family, with whom they had become allied during his rebellion.

    Another Lancaster family, in Rainhill in Lancashire, also seems to have claimed descent, given that they used the same coat of arms as Gilbert Fitz Reinfrid and his sons (argent, two bars gules, with a canton of the second, and a "lion of England", either white or gold, in the canton). However the exact nature of the link, if any, is unknown.[20]

    *

    William — Gundred de Warenne. [Group Sheet]


  4. 23.  Gundred de Warenne (daughter of William de Warenne, Knight, 2nd Earl of Surrey and Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester).

    Notes:

    Gundred de Warenne,[22] who married first Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick[23] and second William, lord of Kendal, and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen's garrison from Warwick Castle.

    *

    Children:
    1. 11. Avicia de Lancaster was born 0___ 1088, La Marche, Normandy, France; died ~ 1150.

  5. 24.  Henry de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham (of Kent) was born ~1260, Cobham, Kent, England; died 25 Aug 1339, Hache, Somerset, England; was buried Beauchamp Chapel, Stoke-under-Hamden, Somerset, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Chief Baron of the Excheuquer
    • Occupation: Constable of Rochester, Dover, Canterbury & Tonbridge
    • Occupation: Sheriff of Kent

    Notes:

    Family

    He was the son of John de Cobham of Cobham, Kent, and of Cowling or Cooling, Kent (died bef. 30 March 1300),[2] Sheriff of Kent, Constable of Rochester and Chief Baron of the Exchequer, by wife Joan de Septvans, daughter of Sir Robert de Septvans.[3]

    His father was a brother of Sir Henry de Cobham, of Rundale, Kent (died c. 1316), Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, who married Joan Pencester (bef. 1269 - 1314/1315), daughter of Stephen de Pencester, and had Stephen de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham (of Rundale) and John de Cobham (died c. 1314), without issue.[4]

    Biography

    He was made Constable of Rochester Castle for life in 1303/1304, of Dover Castle, of Tonbridge Castle in 1324 and of Canterbury, all in Kent.[3] He was Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports in 1307 and between 1315 and 1320 and he also held the title of Sheriff of Kent (1300–1301, 1307 and 1315).[3]

    He was created 1st Baron Cobham (of (Cobham, in) Kent) in the Peerage of England by writ on 8 January 1312/1313[1] and presided at the arraignment of Lord Badlesmere for treason at Canterbury in 1322.[3]

    The family's coat of arms is as follows: Gules semy of fleurs-de-lis or, a cross argent.

    He died at Hache, Somerset, and was buried at Beauchamp Chapel, Stoke-under-Hamden, Somerset.[5]

    Marriage and issue[edit]
    Sometime prior to July 1285, Henry married Maud de Moreville, widow of Matthew de Columbers (died bef. 1284), whom she married before 1284, and daughter of Eudes de Moreville. Their son and successor was John de Cobham, 2nd Baron Cobham (of Kent).

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b L. G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms (London, U.K.: Heraldry Today, 1972), page 77.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 344.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume III, page 343.
    Jump up ^ Hasted, Edward (1798). "Parishes". The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent. Institute of Historical Research. 6: 80–98. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne, et al., The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 344.

    Henry — Maud Morville. Maud (daughter of Eudes de Moreville and unnamed spouse) was born 1247. [Group Sheet]


  6. 25.  Maud Morville was born 1247 (daughter of Eudes de Moreville and unnamed spouse).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Maud de Moreville

    Children:
    1. 12. John Cobham, Knight, 2nd Lord Cobham was born (England).

  7. 26.  John de Beauchamp, II, 1st Baron Beauchamp was born 25 Jul 1274; died 0Dec 1336.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 1st Baron Hatch
    • Also Known As: Baron Beauchamp de Somerset

    Notes:

    John II de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp "de Somerset" (25 July 1274 - October/December 1336),[2] was feudal baron of Hatch[1] in Somerset.

    Origins

    He was born 25 July 1274 the son and heir of John I de Beauchamp (d.1283),[3] feudal baron of Hatch, seated at Hatch Beauchamp in Somerset, by his wife Cicely de Vivonne/de Forz (d.1320), one of the four daughters and co-heiresses of William de Vivonne/de Forz (d.1259), who held a one-half moiety of the feudal barony of Curry Mallet in Somerset.[4] Cicely thus inherited a one-eighth share of the barony of Curry Malet.

    Career

    In 1299 he was created by writ Baron Beauchamp "de Somerset".

    Marriage & progeny

    At some time before 1301 he married Joan Chenduit, by whom he had progeny including:[2]

    John de Beauchamp, 2nd Baron Beauchamp (1304-1343), eldest son and heir.
    William Beauchamp
    Joan Beauchamp
    Alienor Beauchamp
    Beatrice Beauchamp

    Death

    He died between October and December 1336.

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b Sanders, I.J. English Baronies: A Study of their Origin and Descent 1086-1327, Oxford, 1960, p.51, note 2
    ^ Jump up to: a b "- Person Page 1982". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
    Jump up ^ Sanders, p.51
    Jump up ^ Sanders, pp.38-9

    John married Joan Chenduit Bef 1301. Joan died 9 Feb 1327. [Group Sheet]


  8. 27.  Joan Chenduit died 9 Feb 1327.
    Children:
    1. John Beauchamp, Lord Hacche was born 4 Oct 1304, Stoke-sub-Hamdon, Somersetshire, England; died 19 May 1343, Hatch, Somerset, England.
    2. William Beauchamp
    3. 13. Joan Beauchamp was born 1304, West Hatch, Somerset, England; died <1343, Stoke, Kent, England.
    4. Alienor Beauchamp
    5. Beatrice Beauchamp

  9. 28.  Hugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of DevonHugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon was born 14 Sep 1276, (Okehampton, Devon, England) (son of Hugh Courtenay and Eleanor Despencer); died 23 Dec 1340, Tiverton, Devon, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 9th Earl of Devon

    Notes:

    Hugh de Courtenay, 1st/9th Earl of Devon (14 September 1276 – 23 December 1340)[1] was the son of Sir Hugh de Courtenay (died 1292), feudal baron of Okehampton in Devon, by his wife Eleanor le Despenser (died 1328), sister of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester. Forty-one years after the death of his cousin, Isabel de Forz, suo jure 8th Countess of Devon (1237–1293) (nâee de Redvers, eldest daughter of Baldwin de Redvers, 6th Earl of Devon (1217-1245)), letters patent were granted by King Edward III, dated 22 February 1335, declaring him Earl of Devon, and stating that he 'should assume such title and style as his ancestors, Earls of Devon, had wont to do'.[2] This thus made him 1st Earl of Devon, if the letters patent are deemed to have created a new peerage, otherwise 9th Earl of Devon if it is deemed a restitution of the old dignity of the de Redvers family and he is deemed to have succeeded the suo jure 8th Countess. Authorities differ in their opinions[3] and thus alternative ordinal numbers exist for this Courtenay earldom.

    Early life

    Hugh de Courtenay was born 14 September 1276, the son of Sir Hugh de Courtenay (died 28 February 1292) feudal baron of Okehampton in Devon, by his wife Eleanor le Despenser (died 30 September 1328), sister of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester, an important adviser to King Edward II. He was the grandson of John de Courtenay (died c. 3 May 1274)[4] of Okehampton by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford. John's father, Robert de Courtenay (died 1242), the son of Reginald de Courtenay (died 1190) by Hawise de Curci (died 1219), the heiress of the feudal barony of Okehampton),[5] had married Mary de Redvers (sometimes called "de Vernon"), the daughter of William de Redvers, 5th Earl of Devon (died 1217).

    On 28 February 1292, about the time of his marriage, Hugh succeeded to the Okehampton estate and to those de Redvers estates that had not yet been alienated to the Crown. He may then have been styled Earl of Devon, the first of the Courtenay family, although was not recognised in the de facto Earldom until 1333.

    Campaign against Scotland, 1297–1300

    He did homage to Edward I on 20 June 1297 and was granted his own livery. At the time the King was with his army crossing the Tweed into Scotland. It is probable that the honour was in acknowledgement of Hugh's military achievements. That July the English defeated and humiliated the Scots at Irvine. However the following year the tables were turned on the advent of the remarkable campaign of William Wallace.

    The following February 6, 1298 he was summoned as a Lord in Parliament, and sat throughout the reign of Edward II and into the Mortimer Regency for Edward's son. He remained an important noble at Parliaments into the reign of Edward III. He was summoned as Hugoni de Curtenay with the confusing suffix of senior being known as Lord Courtenay.

    Courtenay joined King Edward at the long siege of Caerlaverock Castle, just over the Solway Firth for a fortnight in July 1300. He proved himself a fine soldier and loyal adherent to the English crown. He had not been present at the disastrous encounter outside Stirling Castle in 1298, during which half the English contingent were killed, including commander Hugh Cressingham. But Edward was determined to march into Ayrshire to devastate Robert Bruce's estates. Unfortunately the English army melted away into the forests as the army moved further northwards. Courtenay may have been with the English King when he sat down in Sweetheart Abbey to receive Robert Winchelsey, Archbishop of Canterbury who had travelled north with a demanding missive from Pope Boniface to cease hostilities. The King could not ignore this order. In September he disbanded troops and withdrew over the Solway Firth to Carlisle. The campaign had failed due to a shortage of money, so Parliament was recalled for January 1301. Before returning to London the English drew up a six months truce.

    Parliament of 1301

    Parliament met at Lincoln. The agenda included redrafting the Royal Forest Charter, which had no precedent since it was first introduced in the reign of Henry II, 150 years earlier. Local juries were expected to "perambulate the forests" to gather evidence. But the King needed money and was required by Parliament to surrender his absolute authority and ownership of what became community forests.

    Campaigns against Scotland, 1301–1308

    In 1306 the Prince of Wales was despatched into Scotland; the vanguard led by Aymer de Valence, the King's half uncle. On 22 May, Courtenay was knighted by the Prince, presumably for his efforts against the Scots. In June the English occupied Perth. On 19 June, Valence, who had cut a swathe through the Lowlands fell on the Scots army at Methven in the early dawn. The Bruce fled into the hills. Edward I was merciless as many prisoners were punished. That autumn the army returned to Hexham. The war was all but over: there were however sieges at Mull of Kintyre and Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire. Edward I committed many atrocities rounding up the Scots aristocracy and their women.

    Then as Robert Bruce returned from exile in Ireland the English army started losing battles. The ailing King had one last campaign in which Courtenay played a major part. Struggling into the saddle to the Solway Firth, Edward I died at Burgh-on-Sands awaiting a crossing. In 1308 a new campaign was sent to quell Robert Bruce, and Courtenay was made a knight banneret, one of the King's elite household.[6]

    During the reign of Edward II he was made a Lord Ordainer, one of the ruling council in the Lords. He was appointed to the King's Council on 9 Augustus 1318. He was appointed the Warden of the coast of Devon and Cornwall in 1324 and then again in 1336, because his estates stretched across what is now Exmoor and Dartmoor. But he took the honours reluctantly and played a guarded game with King and Parliament. A veteran campaigner he aimed to ingratiate himself with the young Edward III, and so refused the Third Penny from the Exchequer. He was investigated; and on 22 February 1335 elevated to the Earldom of Devon, restored to his ancestral line.

    Forty-one years after the death of his cousin, Isabel de Fortibus, Countess of Devon, letters patent were issued dated 22 February 1335 declaring him Earl of Devon, and stating that he 'should assume such title and style as his ancestors, Earls of Devon, had wont to do'.[7] He was the 9th Earl of Devon, but the first in the Courtenay line.

    Family

    He married Agnes de Saint John, daughter of John de Saint John, Baron St John, of Basing, Hampshire, by Alice, daughter of Sir Reynold Fitz Peter.[8] They had four sons and two daughters:

    John Courtenay (1300–1349), Prior of Lewes and Abbot of Tavistock.
    Hugh de Courtenay, 2nd/10th Earl of Devon (1303-1377), second son, who married Margaret de Bohun, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford by Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King Edward I and Eleanor of Castile.
    Robert Courtenay (1309–1334), 3rd son, of Moreton Hampstead in Devon.
    Sir Thomas Courtenay (1315-1356), 4th son, of Wootton Courtenay in Somerset, and of Woodhuish, Brixham[9] in Devon, a military commander against the French, who died in 1356,[10] the date of the Battle of Poitiers. He married a great Somerset heiress, Muriel de Moels, the eldest of the two daughters and co-heiresses of John Moels, 4th Baron Moels, feudal baron of North Cadbury in Somerset. His wife's share of her paternal inheritance included the manors of Kings Carswell and Dunterton[11] in Devon, and Blackford, Holton and Lattiford in Somerset.[12]
    Eleanor Courtenay (c.1309 – c.1330), who married John de Grey, 3rd Baron Grey of Codnor.
    Elizabeth Courtenay (born c.1313), who married Bartholomew de Lisle.
    Courtenay died at Tiverton, Devon, 23 December 1340, and was buried at Cowick Priory near Exeter on 5 Feb 1341.[8]

    *

    Hugh COURTENAY (1° E. Devon)

    Born: 14 Sep 1273

    Died: 23 Dec 1340

    Father: Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)

    Mother: Eleanor DESPENCER

    Married 1: Elizabeth PLANTAGENET

    Married 2: Agnes St. JOHN 1292

    Children:

    1. Hugh COURTENAY (2° E. Devon)

    2. John COURTENAY

    3. Eleanor COURTENAY

    4. Robert COURTENAY

    5. Thomas COURTENAY

    6. Elizabeth COURTENAY (b. ABT 1313)

    *

    Hugh married Agnes St. John 0___ 1292. [Group Sheet]


  10. 29.  Agnes St. John
    Children:
    1. 14. Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon was born 12 Jul 1303, Okehampton, Devon, England; died 3 May 1377, Exeter, Devonshire, England; was buried Exter Cathedral, Devonshire, England.
    2. John Courtenay was born (Okehampton, Devon, England).
    3. Eleanor Courtenay was born (Okehampton, Devon, England).
    4. Robert Courtenay was born (Okehampton, Devon, England).
    5. Thomas Courtenay was born 0___ 1312, (Okehampton, Devon, England); died 0___ 1362.
    6. Elizabeth Courtenay was born ~ 1313, (Okehampton, Devon, England).

  11. 30.  Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of HerefordHumphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1276, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England (son of Humphrey de Bohun, V, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Fiennes); died 16 Mar 1322, Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, England; was buried Friars Minor, York, Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Lord High Constable of England
    • Also Known As: Count of Holland
    • Also Known As: Earl of Essex
    • Military: Battle of Bannockburn, June 1314
    • Military: Battle of Boroughbridge

    Notes:

    Sir Humphrey (VII) de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford (1276 - 16 March 1322) was a member of a powerful Anglo-Norman family of the Welsh Marches and was one of the Ordainers who opposed Edward II's excesses.

    Family background

    Arms of Bohun: Azure, a bend argent cotised or between six lions rampant or

    Counter seal of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, showing the so-called "Bohun swan" above the escutcheon
    Humphrey de Bohun's birth year is uncertain although several contemporary sources indicate that it was 1276. His father was Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and his mother was Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand II de Fiennes, chevalier, seigneur of Fiennes. He was born at Pleshey Castle, Essex.

    Humphrey (VII) de Bohun succeeded his father as Earl of Hereford and Earl of Essex, and Constable of England (later called Lord High Constable). Humphrey held the title of Bearer of the Swan Badge, a heraldic device passed down in the Bohun family. This device did not appear on their coat of arms, (az, a bend ar cotised or, between 6 lioncels or) nor their crest (gu, doubled erm, a lion gardant crowned), but it does appear on Humphrey's personal seal (illustration).

    Scotland

    Humphrey was one of several earls and barons under Edward I who laid siege to Caerlaverock Castle in Scotland in 1300 and later took part in many campaigns in Scotland. He also loved tourneying and gained a reputation as an "elegant" fop. In one of the campaigns in Scotland Humphrey evidently grew bored and departed for England to take part in a tournament along with Piers Gaveston and other young barons and knights. On return all of them fell under Edward I's wrath for desertion, but were forgiven. It is probable that Gaveston's friend, Edward (the future Edward II) had given them permission to depart. Later Humphrey became one of Gaveston's and Edward II's bitterest opponents.

    He would also have been associating with young Robert Bruce during the early campaigns in Scotland, since Bruce, like many other Scots and Border men, moved back and forth from English allegiance to Scottish. Robert Bruce, King Robert I of Scotland, is closely connected to the Bohuns. Between the time that he swore his last fealty to Edward I in 1302 and his defection four years later, Bruce stayed for the most part in Annandale, rebuilding his castle of Lochmaben in stone, making use of its natural moat. Rebelling and taking the crown of Scotland in February 1306, Bruce was forced to fight a war against England which went poorly for him at first, while Edward I still lived. After nearly all his family were killed or captured he had to flee to the isle of Rathlin, Ireland. His properties in England and Scotland were confiscated.

    Humphrey de Bohun received many of Robert Bruce's forfeited properties. It is unknown whether Humphrey was a long-time friend or enemy of Robert Bruce, but they were nearly the same age and the lands of the two families in Essex and Middlesex lay very close to each other. After Bruce's self-exile, Humphrey took Lochmaben, and Edward I awarded him Annandale and the castle. During this period of chaos, when Bruce's queen, Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter of the Earl of Ulster, was captured by Edward I and taken prisoner, Hereford and his wife Elizabeth became her custodians. She was exchanged for Humphrey after Bannockburn in 1314. Lochmaben was from time to time retaken by the Scots but remained in the Bohun family for many years, in the hands of Humphrey's son William, Earl of Northampton, who held and defended it until his death in 1360.

    Battle of Bannockburn

    At the Battle of Bannockburn (23-24 June 1314), Humphrey de Bohun should have been given command of the army because that was his responsibility as Constable of England. However, since the execution of Piers Gaveston in 1312 Humphrey had been out of favour with Edward II, who gave the Constableship for the 1314 campaign to the youthful and inexperienced Earl of Gloucester, Gilbert de Clare. Nevertheless, on the first day, de Bohun insisted on being one of the first to lead the cavalry charge. In the melee and cavalry rout between the Bannock Burn and the Scots' camp he was not injured although his rash young cousin Henry de Bohun, who could have been no older than about 22, charged alone at Robert Bruce and was killed by Bruce's axe.

    On the second day Gloucester was killed at the start of battle. Hereford fought throughout the day, leading a large company of Welsh and English knights and archers. The archers might have had success at breaking up the Scots schiltrons until they were overrun by the Scots cavalry. When the battle was lost Bohun retreated with the Earl of Angus and several other barons, knights and men to Bothwell Castle, seeking a safe haven. However, all the refugees who entered the castle were taken prisoner by its formerly pro-English governor Walter fitz Gilbert who, like many Lowland knights, declared for Bruce as soon as word came of the Scottish King's victory. Humphrey de Bohun was ransomed by Edward II, his brother-in-law, on the pleading of his wife Isabella. This was one of the most interesting ransoms in English history. The Earl was traded for Bruce's queen, Elizabeth de Burgh and daughter, Marjorie Bruce, two bishops amongst other important Scots captives in England. Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan, who had crowned Robert Bruce in 1306 and for years had been locked in a cage outside Berwick, was not included; presumably she had died in captivity.[1]

    Ordainer

    Like his father, grandfather, and great-great-grandfather, this Humphrey de Bohun was careful to insist that the king obey Magna Carta and other baronially-established safeguards against monarchic tyranny. He was a leader of the reform movements that promulgated the Ordinances of 1311 and fought to insure their execution.

    The subsequent revival of royal authority and the growing ascendancy of the Despensers (Hugh the elder and younger) led de Bohun and other barons to rebel against the king again in 1322. De Bohun had special reason for opposing the Despensers, for he had lost some of his estates in the Welsh Marches to their rapacity and he felt they had besmirched his honour. In 1316 De Bohun had been ordered to lead the suppression of the revolt of Llywelyn Bren in Glamorgan which he did successfully. When Llewelyn surrendered to him the Earl promised to intercede for him and fought to have him pardoned. Instead Hugh the younger Despenser had Llewelyn executed without a proper trial. Hereford and the other marcher lords used Llywelyn Bren's death as a symbol of Despenser tyranny.

    Death at Boroughbridge

    Main article: Battle of Boroughbridge
    The rebel forces were halted by loyalist troops at the wooden bridge at Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, where Humphrey de Bohun, leading an attempt to storm the bridge, met his death on 16 March 1322.

    Although the details have been called into question by a few historians, his death may have been particularly gory. As recounted by Ian Mortimer:[2]

    "[The 4th Earl of] Hereford led the fight on the bridge, but he and his men were caught in the arrow fire. Then one of de Harclay's pikemen, concealed beneath the bridge, thrust upwards between the planks and skewered the Earl of Hereford through the anus, twisting the head of the iron pike into his intestines. His dying screams turned the advance into a panic."'
    Humphrey de Bohun may have contributed to the failure of the reformers' aims. There is evidence that he suffered for some years, especially after his countess's death in 1316, from clinical depression.[3]

    Marriage and children

    His marriage to Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (Elizabeth Plantagenet), daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, on 14 November 1302, at Westminster gained him the lands of Berkshire.

    Elizabeth had an unknown number of children, probably ten, by Humphrey de Bohun.

    Until the earl's death the boys of the family, and possibly the girls, were given a classical education under the tutelage of a Sicilian Greek, Master "Digines" (Diogenes), who may have been Humphrey de Bohun's boyhood tutor.[citation needed] He was evidently well-educated, a book collector and scholar, interests his son Humphrey and daughter Margaret (Courtenay) inherited.

    Mary or Margaret (the first-born Margaret) and the first-born Humphrey were lost in infancy and are buried in the same sarcophagus in Westminster Abbey. Since fraternal twins were known in the Castilian royal family of Elizabeth Bohun, who gave birth to a pair who lived to manhood, Mary (Margaret?) and Humphrey, see next names, may have been twins, but that is uncertain. The name of a possible lost third child, if any, is unknown—and unlikely.

    Hugh de Bohun? This name appears only in one medieval source, which gives Bohun names (see Flores Historiarum) and was a probably a copyist's error for "Humphrey". Hugh was never used by the main branch of the Bohuns in England.[4] Date unknown, but after 1302, since she and Humphrey did not marry until late in 1302.

    Eleanor de Bohun (17 October 1304 – 1363),[5] married James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde and Thomas Dagworth, 1st Baron Dagworth.

    Humphrey de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Mary or Margaret) Infant.

    Mary or Margaret de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Humphrey) Infant.

    John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (About 1307 – 1336)

    Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (About 1309 to 1311 – 1361).

    Margaret de Bohun (3 April 1311 – 16 December 1391), married Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon. Gave birth to about 16 to 18 children (including an Archbishop, a sea commander and pirate, and more than one Knight of the Garter) and died at the age of eighty.

    William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (About 1310-1312 –1360). Twin of Edward. Married Elizabeth de Badlesmere, daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare, by whom he had issue.

    Edward de Bohun (About 1310-1312 –1334). Twin of William. Married Margaret, daughter of William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros, but they had no children. He served in his ailing elder brother's stead as Constable of England. He was a close friend of young Edward III, and died a heroic death attempting to rescue a drowning man-at-arms from a Scottish river while on campaign.

    Eneas de Bohun, (Birth date unknown, died after 1322, when he's mentioned in his father's will). Nothing known of him.

    Isabel de Bohun (b. ? May 1316). Elizabeth died in childbirth, and this child died on that day or very soon after. Buried with her mother in Waltham Abbey, Essex.

    Notes

    This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2012)
    Jump up ^ Ronald McNair Scott, Robert the Bruce - King of Scots, Canongate, 1988; pp. 75-76 and 164.
    Jump up ^ Mortimer, The Greatest Traitor, page 124.
    Jump up ^ See Conway-Davies, 115, footnote 2, from a contemporary chronicler's account of Humphrey de Bohun, Cotton MS. Nero C. iii, f. 181, "De ce qe vous auez entendu qe le counte de Hereford est moreis pensifs qil ne soleit." "There were some. . . [fine] qualities about the earl of Hereford, and he was certainly a bold and able warrior, though gloomy and thoughtful."
    Jump up ^ Le Melletier, 16-17, 38-45, 138, in his comprehensive research into this family, cites no one named Hugh Bohun.
    Jump up ^ See Cokayne, Complete Peerage, s.v. "Dagworth" p. 28, footnote j.: "She was younger than her sister, Margaret, Countess of Devon (Parl. Rolls. vol. iv., p. 268), not older, as stated by genealogists."
    References[edit]
    Cokayne, G. (ed. by V. Gibbs). Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom (Vols II, IV, V, VI, IX: Bohun, Dagworth, Essex, Hereford, Earls of, Montague), London: 1887–1896.
    Conway-Davies, J. C. The Baronial Opposition to Edward II: Its Character and Policy. (Many references, esp. 42 footnote 1, 114, 115 & footnote 2, 355-367, 426–9, 435–9, 473–525) Cambridge(UK): 1918.
    Le Melletier, Jean, Les Seigneurs de Bohun, 1978, p. 16, 39–40.
    Mortimer, Ian. The Greatest Traitor: The Life of Sir Roger Mortimer, Ruler of England 1327–1330 (100–9, 114, 122–6), London: 2003
    Scott, Ronald McNair. Robert the Bruce: King of Scots (144–164) NY: 1989
    Further reading[edit]
    Wikisource has the text of the 1885–1900 Dictionary of National Biography's article about Bohun, Humphrey VIII de.

    Secondary sources

    Altschul, Michael. A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares 1217–1314. (132–3, ) Baltimore:1965.
    Barron, Evan MacLeod. The Scottish War of Independence. (443, 455) Edinburgh, London:1914, NY:1997 (reprint).
    Barrow, G. W. S. Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland. (222, 290, 295–6, 343–4) Berkeley, Los Angeles:1965.
    Beltz, George Frederick. Memorials of the Order of the Garter. (148–150) London:1841.
    Bigelow, M[elville] M. "The Bohun Wills" I. American Historical Review (v.I, 1896). 415–41.
    Dictionary of National Biography. [Vol II: Bohun; Vol. VI: Edward I, Edward II; Vol. XI: Lancaster]. London and Westminster. Various dates.
    Eales, Richard and Shaun Tyas, eds., Family and Dynasty in Late Medieval England, Shaun Tyas, Donington:2003, p. 152.
    Fryde, E. B. and Edward Miller. Historical Studies of the English Parliament vol. 1, Origins to 1399, (10–13, 186, 285–90, 296) Cambridge (Eng.): 1970.
    Hamilton, J. S. Piers Gaveston Earl of Cornwall 1307-1312: Politics and Patronage in the Reign of Edward II (69, 72, 95–98, 104–5) Detroit: 1988
    Hutchison, Harold F. Edward II. (64–86, 104–5, 112–3) London: 1971.
    Jenkins, Dafydd. "Law and Government in Wales Before the Act of Union". Celtic Law Papers (37–38) Aberystwyth:1971.
    McNamee, Colin. The Wars of the Bruces. (51, 62–66) East Linton (Scotland):1997.
    Tout, T. F. and Hilda Johnstone. The Place of the Reign of Edward II in English History. (86, 105–6, 125 & footnote 3, 128–34) Manchester: 1936.
    Primary sources[edit]
    Flores historiarum. H. R. Luard, ed. (vol. iii, 121) London: 1890.
    Vita Edwardi Secundi. (117–119) N. Denholm-Young, Ed. and Tr.
    External links[edit]

    Birth:
    Pleshey Castle was originally a motte and bailey castle, which consisted of a wooden palisade and tower on a high man-made hill (motte) surrounded by two baileys (castle yard or ward), which at some time in the castle's early history was surrounded by a moat. Later, probably in the 12th century, the motte was fortified with a stone castle. The motte at Pleshey is now about 15 metres high, and is one of the largest mottes in England.[citation needed] The castle was dismantled in 1158 but was subsequently rebuilt at the end of the 12th century.[citation needed] The castle was passed to the Dukes of Gloucester through marriage and after Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester had been executed by Richard II in 1397, it decayed and became ruined. Most of the masonry was dismantled for building material in 1629, leaving just the motte and other earthworks.[citation needed]

    Map and more history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleshey

    Occupation:
    The Lord High Constable of England is the seventh of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Great Chamberlain and above the Earl Marshal. His office is now called out of abeyance only for coronations. The Lord High Constable was originally the commander of the royal armies and the Master of the Horse. He was also, in conjunction with the Earl Marshal, president of the Court of Chivalry or Court of Honour. In feudal times, martial law was administered in the court of the Lord High Constable.

    The constableship was granted as a grand serjeanty with the Earldom of Hereford by the Empress Matilda to Miles of Gloucester, and was carried by his heiress to the Bohuns, Earls of Hereford and Essex. They had a surviving male heir, and still have heirs male, but due to the power of the monarchy the constableship was irregularly given to the Staffords, Dukes of Buckingham; and on the attainder of Edward Stafford, the third Duke, in the reign of King Henry VIII, it became merged into the Crown. Since that point it has not existed as a separate office, except as a temporary appointment for the Coronation of a monarch; in other circumstances the Earl Marshal exercises the traditional duties of the office.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_High_Constable_of_England

    Military:
    The Battle of Bannockburn (Bláar Allt nam Báanag, often mistakenly called Bláar Allt a' Bhonnaich in Scottish Gaelic) (24 June 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the First War of Scottish Independence, and a landmark in Scottish history.

    Stirling Castle, a Scots royal fortress, occupied by the English, was under siege by the Scottish army. The English king, Edward II, assembled a formidable force to relieve it. This attempt failed, and his army was defeated in a pitched battle by a smaller army commanded by the King of Scots, Robert the Bruce.

    More ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn

    Military:
    The Battle of Boroughbridge was a battle fought on 16 March 1322 between a group of rebellious barons and King Edward II of England, near Boroughbridge, north-west of York. The culmination of a long period of antagonism between the King and Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, his most powerful subject, it resulted in Lancaster's defeat and execution. This allowed Edward to re-establish royal authority, and hold on to power for another five years.

    Not in itself a part of the Wars of Scottish Independence, the battle is significant for its employment of tactics learned in the Scottish wars in a domestic, English conflict. Both the extensive use of foot soldiers rather than cavalry, and the heavy impact caused by the longbow, represented significant steps in military developments.

    More ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Boroughbridge

    Humphrey married Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England 14 Nov 1302, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. Elizabeth (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England) was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales; died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 31.  Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England); died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Elizabeth of Rhuddlan

    Notes:

    Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (7 August 1282 - 5 May 1316) was the eighth and youngest daughter of King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castile. Of all of her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother King Edward II, as they were only two years apart in age.

    First marriage

    In April 1285 there were negotiations with Floris V for Elizabeth's betrothal to his son John I, Count of Holland. The offer was accepted and John was sent to England to be educated. On 8 January 1297 Elizabeth was married to John at Ipswich. In attendance at the marriage were Elizabeth's sister Margaret, her father, Edward I of England, her brother Edward, and Humphrey de Bohun. After the wedding Elizabeth was expected to go to Holland with her husband, but did not wish to go, leaving her husband to go alone.

    After some time travelling England, it was decided Elizabeth should follow her husband. Her father accompanied her, travelling through the Southern Netherlands between Antwerp, Mechelen, Leuven and Brussels, before ending up in Ghent. There they remained for a few months, spending Christmas with her two sisters Eleanor and Margaret. On 10 November 1299, John died of dysentery, though there were rumours of his murder. No children had been born from the marriage.

    Second marriage

    On her return trip to England, Elizabeth went through Brabant to see her sister Margaret. When she arrived in England, she met her stepmother Margaret, whom Edward had married while she was in Holland. On 14 November 1302 Elizabeth was married to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, 3rd of Essex, also Constable of England, at Westminster Abbey.[citation needed]

    Offspring

    The children of Elizabeth and Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford were:

    Hugh de Bohun (September 1303 – 1305)
    Lady Eleanor de Bohun (17 October 1304 – 1363)
    Humphrey de Bohun (b&d 1305) (buried with Mary or Margaret)
    Mary or Margaret de Bohun (b&d 1305) (buried with Humphrey)
    John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (23 November 1306 – 1335)
    Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (6 December c. 1309 – 1361)
    Margaret de Bohun, 2nd Countess of Devon (3 April 1311 – 1391)
    William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (1312–1360).
    Edward de Bohun (1312–1334), twin of William
    Eneas de Bohun, (1314 - after 1322); he is mentioned in his father's will
    Isabel de Bohun (b&d 5 May 1316)

    Later life

    During Christmas 1315, Elizabeth, who was pregnant with her eleventh child, was visited by her sister-in-law, Queen Isabella of France. This was a great honour, but the stress of it may have caused unknown health problems that later contributed to Elizabeth's death in childbirth.[citation needed] On 5 May 1316 she went into labour, giving birth to her daughter Isabella. Both Elizabeth and her daughter Isabella died shortly after the birth, and were buried together in Waltham Abbey.

    Birth:
    Rhuddlan Castle (Welsh: Castell Rhuddlan) is a castle located in Rhuddlan, Denbighshire, Wales. It was erected by Edward I in 1277 following the First Welsh War.

    View images, map & history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhuddlan_Castle

    Buried:
    Waltham Abbey is a market town of about 20,400 people in Epping Forest District in the southwest of the county of Essex, 24 km (15 mi) NNE of central London on the Greenwich Meridian, between the River Lea in the west and Epping Forest in the east.

    Waltham Abbey takes its name from the Abbey Church of Waltham Holy Cross, a scheduled ancient monument that was prominent in the town's early history.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waltham_Abbey_(town)

    Died:
    shortly after childbirth...

    Notes:

    Married:
    Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the most notable religious buildings in the United Kingdom and has been the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556 the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, however, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the original abbey church.

    According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site (then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island)) in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III.

    Since 1066, when Harold Godwinson and William the Conqueror were crowned, the coronations of English and British monarchs have been held there. There have been at least 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100. Two were of reigning monarchs (Henry I and Richard II), although, before 1919, there had been none for some 500 years.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Abbey

    Children:
    1. Eleanor de Bohun, Countess of Ormonde was born 17 Oct 1304, Knaresborough Castle, North Yorkshire, England; died 7 Oct 1363.
    2. 15. Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon was born 3 Apr 1311; died 16 Dec 1391.
    3. William de Bohun, Knight, 1st Earl of Northampton was born 0___ 1312, Caldecot, Rutland, Northampton, England; died 16 Sep 1360, (England).
    4. Agnes (Margaret) de Bohun, Baroness Ferrers of Chartley was born 0___ 1313, Caldecot, Rutland, Northampton, England.


Generation: 6

  1. 46.  William de Warenne, Knight, 2nd Earl of Surrey was born 0___ 1065, East Sussex, England (son of William de Warenne, Knight, 1st Earl of Surrey and Gundred of Flanders, Countess of Surrey); died 11 May 1138; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Earl of Warenne
    • Also Known As: Earl Warenne

    Notes:

    William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey (died 11 May 1138) was the son of William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey and his first wife Gundred. He was more often referred to as Earl Warenne or Earl of Warenne than as Earl of Surrey.[1]

    Life

    His father, the 1st Earl, was one of the Conqueror's most trusted and most rewarded barons who, at his death in 1088, was the 3rd or 4th richest magnate in England.[2] In 1088 William II inherited his father's lands in England and his Norman estates including the castles of Mortemer and Bellencombre in Haute-Normandy. But William II was not as disposed to serve the king as his father was.[2] In January 1091, William assisted Hugh of Grantmesnil (d.1094) in his defense of Courcy against the forces of Robert de Belleme and Duke Robert of Normandy.[3] In 1093 he attempted to marry Matilda (or Edith), daughter of king Malcolm III of Scotland.[4] She instead married Henry I of England, and this may have been the cause of William's great dislike of Henry I, which motivated him in the following years.[5]

    When Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy invaded England 1101 William joined him.[6] But when Curthose promptly surrendered to Henry I, William lost his English lands and titles and was exiled to Normandy.[6] There he complained to Curthose that he had expended great effort on the duke's behalf and in return lost all of his English possessions. Curthose's return to England in 1103 was apparently made to convince his brother, the king, to restore William's earldom. This was successful, though Curthose had to give up his 3000 mark annual pension he had received after the 1101 invasion, after which William's lands and titles were restored to him.[5]

    To further insure William's loyalty Henry considered marrying him to one of his many illegitimate daughters. Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury forbade the marriage based on the couple being related in the 4th generation on one side, and in the 6th generation on the other.[7] William was one of the commanders on Henry's side (against Robert Curthose) at the Battle of Tinchebray in 1106. Afterwards, with his loyalty thus proven, he became more prominent in Henry's court.[1]

    In 1110, Curthose's son William Clito escaped along with Helias of Saint-Saens, and afterwards Warenne received the forfeited Saint-Saens lands, which were very near his own in upper Normandy. In this way king Henry further assured his loyalty, for the successful return of Clito would mean at the very least Warenne's loss of this new territory.[1][8] He fought for Henry I at the Battle of Bremule in 1119.[1][9] William, the second Earl of Surrey was present at Henry's deathbed in 1135.[1][10] After the king's death disturbances broke out in Normandy and William was sent to guard Rouen and the Pays de Caux.[1][11]

    William's death is recorded as 11-May-1138 in the register of Lewes Priory and he was buried at his father's feet at the Chapter house there.[12] His wife, the countess Elizabeth, survived him, dying before July 1147.[12]

    Family

    In 1118 William finally acquired the royal-blooded bride he desired when he married Elizabeth de Vermandois.[13] She was a daughter of count Hugh of Vermandois, a granddaughter of Henry I, King of France, and was the widow of Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester.[14]

    By Elizabeth his wife he had three sons and two daughters:

    William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey[15][16]
    Reginald de Warenne, who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy, including the castles of Bellencombre and Mortemer.[16] He married Adeline or Alice, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William (founder of the priory of Wormegay),[16] whose daughter and sole heir, Beatrice married first Doun, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh.[17][18] Reginald was one of the persecutors of Archbishop Thomas in 1170.
    Ralph de Warenne[19]
    Gundred de Warenne,[19] who married first Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick[20] and second William, lord of Kendal, and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen's garrison from Warwick Castle.
    Ada de Warenne, who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon, the mother of two Scottish kings,[21] she made many grants to the priory of Lewes.[22]
    Ancestry[edit]
    [show]Ancestors of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey
    References[edit]
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f G. E. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, Vol. XII/1 (The St. Catherine Press, London, 1953) p. 495
    ^ Jump up to: a b C. Warren Hollister, 'The Taming of a Turbulent Earl: Henry I and William of Warenne', Historical Reflections, Vol. 3 (1976), p. 87
    Jump up ^ The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, ed. Marjorie Chibnall, Vol. 2 (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990)p. 692
    Jump up ^ C. Warren Hollister, Henry I (Yale University Press, New Haven & London, 2003)p. 340
    ^ Jump up to: a b C. Warren Hollister, 'The Taming of a Turbulent Earl: Henry I and William of Warenne', Historical Reflections. Vol. 3 (1976) p. 87
    ^ Jump up to: a b The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, ed. Marjorie Chibnall, Vol. 2 (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990), p.785
    Jump up ^ Edmund Chester Waters, 'Gundrada de Warenne', Archaeological Journal, Vol. XLI (1884), p. 303
    Jump up ^ C. Warren Hollister, 'The Taming of a Turbulent Earl: Henry I and William of Warenne', Historical Reflections, Vol. 3 (1976) p. 89
    Jump up ^ Orderic Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, trans. Thomas Forester, Vol. III (Henry G. Bohn, London, 1854) pp. 481-2
    Jump up ^ Orderic Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, trans. Thomas Forester, Vol. IV (Henry G. Bohn, London, 1856) p. 150
    Jump up ^ C. Warren Hollister, Henry I (Yale University Press, New Haven & London, 2003)p. 375
    ^ Jump up to: a b G. E. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, Vol. XII/1 (The St. Catherine Press, London, 1953) p. 496
    Jump up ^ C. Warren Hollister, 'The Taming of a Turbulent Earl: Henry I and William of Warenne', Historical Reflections, Vol. 3 (1976) p. 90 n. 36
    Jump up ^ Detlev Schwennicke, Europčaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europčaischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band III Teilband 1, Herzogs und Grafenhčauser des Heiligen Rčomischen Reiches Andere Europčaiche Fčurstenhčauser (Marburg, Germany: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1984), Tafel 55
    Jump up ^ G. E. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, Vol. XII/1 (The St. Catherine Press, London, 1953) p. 500
    ^ Jump up to: a b c Early Yorkshire Charters, Vol. VIII - The Honour of Warenne (The Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1949) pp. 27-8
    Jump up ^ G.E.Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, Vol. VII (The St. Catherine Press, 1929), p. 142, footnote (a)
    Jump up ^ Early Yorkshire Charters, Vol. VIII - The Honour of Warenne (The Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1949) pp. 33-4
    ^ Jump up to: a b Early Yorkshire Charters, Vol. VIII - The Honour of Warenne (The Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1949) pp. 10-11
    Jump up ^ Elisabeth van Houts, 'The Warenne View of the Past 1066-1203', Anglo-Norman Studies XXVI, Proceedings of the Battle Conference 2003, ed. John Gillingham (Boydell Press, Woodbridge. 2004), p. 109 n. 49
    Jump up ^ The Scots Peerage, Founded on Wood's Edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, ed. Sir James Balfour Paul, Lord Lyon King of Arms, Vol. I (Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1904, p. 4
    Jump up ^ Early Yorkshire Charters, ed: William Farrer, Charles Travis Clay, Volume VIII - The Honour of Warenne (The Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1949), p. 11

    External links

    "Warenne, William de (d.1138)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
    The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, ed. M. Chibnall, vol. 2, p. 264 (Oxford, 1990)

    William — Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester. Isabel (daughter of Hugues de France and Adelaide of Vermandois) was born 0___ 1081, Basse-Normandie, France; died 17 Feb 1131, France; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 47.  Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester was born 0___ 1081, Basse-Normandie, France (daughter of Hugues de France and Adelaide of Vermandois); died 17 Feb 1131, France; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Elizabeth de Vermandois

    Notes:

    Birth: 1081
    Basse-Normandie, France
    Death: Feb. 17, 1131, France

    Countess of Leicester, Countess of Surrey

    Third daughter of Hugh Magnus and Adelaide of Vermandois, granddaughter of King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev, Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois, and Adele of Valois. She was the heiress of the county of Vermandois and descendant of Charlemagne.

    Wife of Sir Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan, the son of Roger de Beaumont and Adeline of Meulan; Isabel became the Countess of Leicester. They married about 1096 and had three sons and at least five daughters:
    * Emma b 1101, probably died young
    * Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan, twin
    * Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester, twin
    * Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford
    * Adeline, wife of Hugh Montfort & Richard de Granville
    * Aubree, wife of Hugh II of Chăateauneuf-en-Thimerais
    * Maud, wife of William Lovel
    * Isabel, mistress of King Henry I, wife of Gilbert de Clare and mother of Richard Strongbow & wife of Hervâe de Montmorency

    Secondly, the wife of William de Warenne, son of William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey and his first wife Gundred; Isabel became the Countess of Surrey. They married in 1118 and had three sons and two daughters:
    * William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey
    Ralph de Warenne
    * Reginald de Warenne
    * Gundrada de Warenne, wife of Roger de Beaumont& William de Lancaster
    * Ada de Warenne, wife of Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon, mother King Malcolm IV and King William I 'the Lion'

    Sir Robert de Beaumont, described as being "the wisest man in his time between London and Jerusalem", and aged over fifty was determined to marry Isabel, aged about eleven. Bishop Ivo dismissed their request based on their being within a few degrees of kindred. Isabel's father was able to sway Bishop Ivo, and saw his daughter married by April of 1096 when he left on a crusade.

    In 1115, Isabel was either carried away or willingly abducted by William de Warrene, revealing they had been lovers for some time. They were unable to marry until the death of Sir Robert, which occurred in 1118.

    The Beaumont sons were on opposite sides of support for King Stephen and Queen Matilda, but were not enemies.

    Sources vary on her death, reported as 1131 to outliving William who died in 1138.

    Family links:
    Parents:
    Hugues de France (1057 - 1102)

    Spouses:
    Robert de Beaumont (1049 - 1118)
    William II de Warenne (1065 - 1138)

    Children:
    Waleran de Beaumont (1104 - 1166)*
    Robert de Beaumont (1104 - 1168)*
    Reginald de Warenne (1113 - 1179)*
    William de Warenne (1118 - 1148)*
    Ada De Warenne De Huntingdon (1120 - 1178)*

    Sibling:
    Isabel Of Vermandois Beaumont de Warenne (1081 - 1131)
    Raoul I de Vermandois (1094 - 1152)*

    *Calculated relationship

    Burial:
    Lewes Priory
    Lewes
    Lewes District
    East Sussex, England

    end

    Children:
    1. William de Warenne, Knight, 3rd Earl of Surrey was born 0Jun 1118, East Sussex, England; died 6 Jan 1148, Turkey.
    2. Ada de Warenne was born ~ 1120, Surry, England; died 0___ 1178, England.
    3. 23. Gundred de Warenne

  3. 50.  Eudes de Moreville

    Eudes — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  4. 51.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 25. Maud Morville was born 1247.

  5. 56.  Hugh Courtenay was born 25 Mar 1249, Oakhampton, Devonshire, England (son of John Courtenay, 2nd Baron Okehampton and Isabel de Vere); died 28 Feb 1292, Colcombe, Devonshire, England; was buried Cowick Priory, Exeter, Devonshire, England.

    Notes:

    Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)

    Born: 25 Mar 1249, Oakhampton, Devon, England

    Died: 28 Feb 1290/91, Cullicomb, Devon, England

    Buried: Cowick, Devonshire, England

    Father: John COURTENAY (2° B. Okehampton)

    Mother: Isabel De VERE

    Married: Eleanor DESPENCER (BET 1245/1260-30 Sep 1328) BEF 1273

    Children:

    1. Eleanor COURTENAY

    2. Phillip COURTENAY

    3. Thomas COURTENAY

    4. Avelina (Ada)COURTENAY

    5. John COURTENAY

    6. Robert COURTENAY

    7. Alice COURTENAY

    8. Hugh COURTENAY (1° E. Devon)

    9. Margaret COURTENAY

    10. Isabel COURTENAY

    11. Egeline COURTENAY

    *

    Sir Hugh de Courtenay (1251–1292) was the son and heir of John de Courtenay, feudal baron of Okehampton, Devon, by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford. His son inherited the earldom of Devon.

    Early years

    Sir Hugh de Courtenay, born 25 March 1251,[1] was the son and heir of John de Courtenay of Okehampton, Devon, by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford, and Hawise de Quincy.[2] John's father, Robert de Courtenay (d. 26 July 1242),[3] son of Reginald de Courtenay (d.1190) by Hawise de Curci (d.1219), heiress of the feudal barony of Okehampton,[4] married Mary de Redvers (sometimes called 'de Vernon'), daughter of William de Redvers, 5th Earl of Devon (d.1217).

    In order to avoid military service Courtenay paid a fine on 12 December 1276. He was called to arms on the emergency against the Welsh princes, fighting in the 1282 campaign. He attended upon the King at Shrewsbury on 28 June 1283. He again absented himself from the wars on 14 June 1287 by paying the King's justice a fine.[5]

    Marriage and issue

    Courtenay married Eleanor le Despenser (d.1328),[6] daughter of Hugh le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer, Justiciar of England, of Loughborough, Leicestershire and Ryhall, Rutland by his wife Aline Basset, daughter of Sir Philip Basset, Justiciar of England, of Wycombe, Buckinghamshire and Compton Bassett and Wootton Bassett, Wiltshire. By his wife he had four[6] sons and five[6] daughters:[7]

    Hugh de Courtenay, 1st/9th Earl of Devon (1276–1340) of Tiverton Castle, eldest son and heir.
    Sir Philip Courtenay (d.1314) of Moreton Hampstead in Devon, slain at Stirling on 24 June 1314, according to Vivian.[6] Died childless, when Moreton Hampstead was inherited by his elder brother the Earl of Devon.[8]
    John Courtenay, died young.[6]
    Robert Courtenay, died young.[6]
    Isabel de Courtenay, wife of John de Saint John, 1st Baron St John (died 1329) of Basing.[6]
    Aveline de Courtenay, wife of Sir John Giffard[6]
    Egeline (or Eleanor) de Courtenay, wife of John le Scales[6]
    Margaret (or Margery) de Courtenay, wife of John de Moels.[9] Other sources give her husband as Nicholas de Moels, 2nd Baron Moels (d.1316), feudal baron of North Cadbury, Somerset. Without progeny.
    Alice Courtenay, died young[6]

    Death

    Courtenay died at Colcombe, Devon, on 28 February 1292.[10] He was buried at Cowick Priory, near Exeter.

    *

    Hugh married Eleanor Despencer Bef 1273. Eleanor died 30 Sep 1328. [Group Sheet]


  6. 57.  Eleanor Despencer died 30 Sep 1328.
    Children:
    1. 28. Hugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon was born 14 Sep 1276, (Okehampton, Devon, England); died 23 Dec 1340, Tiverton, Devon, England.
    2. Isabel Courtenay was born ~ 1283.

  7. 60.  Humphrey de Bohun, V, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1249 (son of Humphrey de Bohun, VI, 2nd Earl of Hereford and Eleanor de Braose); died 31 Dec 1298, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England; was buried Walden Priory, Essex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Birth: ~ 1256, Herefordshire, England

    Notes:

    Humphrey (V) de Bohun (c. 1249[nb 1] – 31 December 1298), 3rd Earl of Hereford and 2nd Earl of Essex, was an English nobleman known primarily for his opposition to King Edward I over the Confirmatio Cartarum.[1] He was also an active participant in the Welsh Wars and maintained for several years a private feud with the earl of Gloucester.[2] His father, Humphrey (V) de Bohun, fought on the side of the rebellious barons in the Barons' War. When Humphrey (V) predeceased his father, Humphrey (VI) became heir to his grandfather, Humphrey (IV). At Humphrey (IV)'s death in 1275, Humphrey (VI) inherited the earldoms of Hereford and Essex. He also inherited major possessions in the Welsh Marches from his mother, Eleanor de Braose.

    Bohun's spent most of his early career reconquering Marcher lands captured by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd during the Welsh war in England. This was finally accomplished through Edward I's war in Wales in 1277. Hereford also fought in Wales in 1282–83 and 1294–95. At the same time he also had private feuds with other Marcher lords, and his conflict with Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, eventually ended with the personal intervention of King Edward himself. Hereford's final years were marked by the opposition he and Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, mounted against the military and fiscal policy of Edward I. The conflict escalated to a point where civil war threatened, but was resolved when the war effort turned towards Scotland. The king signed the Confirmatio Cartarum – a confirmation of Magna Carta – and Bohun and Bigod agreed to serve on the Falkirk Campaign. Bohun died in 1298, and was succeeded by his son, Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.

    Family background and inheritance

    Humphrey (VI) de Bohun was part of a line of Anglo-Norman aristocrats going back to the Norman Conquest, most of whom carried the same name.[3] His grandfather was Humphrey (IV) de Bohun, who had been part of the baronial opposition of Simon de Montfort, but later gone over to the royal side. He was taken prisoner at the Battle of Lewes in May 1264, but was restored to favour after the royalist victory at the Battle of Evesham the next year.[4] Humphrey (IV)'s son, Humphrey (V) de Bohun, remained loyal to the baronial side throughout the Barons' War, and was captured at Evesham on 4 August 1265. In October that year Humphrey (V) died in captivity at Beeston Castle in Cheshire from injuries he had sustained in the battle.[5]

    Humphrey (V) had been excluded from succession as a result of his rebellion, but when Humphrey (IV) died in 1275, Humphrey (VI) inherited the earldoms of Hereford and Essex.[6] Humphrey (VI) had already served as deputy Constable of England under Humphrey (IV).[7] Humphrey (IV) had reserved the honour of Pleshey for his younger son Henry, but the remainder of his lands went to Humphrey (VI).[4] The inheritance Humphrey (VI) received – in addition to land in Essex and Wiltshire from Humphrey (IV) – also consisted of significant holdings in the Welsh Marches from his mother.[8] His mother Eleanor was a daughter and coheir of William de Braose and his wife Eva Marshal, who in turn was the daughter and coheir of William Marshal, regent to Henry III.[6]

    Since Humphrey (VI) was only sixteen years old at the time of his father's death, the Braose lands were taken into the king's custody until 1270.[1] Part of this inheritance, the Marcher lordship of Brecon, was in the meanwhile given to the custody of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Hertford. Humphrey technically regained his lordship from Clare in 1270, but by this time these lands had effectively been taken over by the Welsh prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, who had taken advantage of the previous decade's political chaos in England to extend his territory into the Marches.[9]

    He granted his brother Gilbert de Bohun all of their mother's lands in Ireland and some land in England and Wales.

    Welsh Wars

    See also: Conquest of Wales by Edward I
    Over the next years, much of Hereford's focus was on reconquering his lost lands in the Marches, primarily through private warfare against Llywelyn.[10] Henry III died in 1272, while his son – now Edward I – was crusading; Edward did not return until 1274.[11] Llywelyn refused to pay homage to the new king, partly because of the military actions of Bohun and other Marcher lords, which Llywelyn saw as violations of the Treaty of Montgomery.[12] On 12 November 1276, Hereford was present at a royal assembly where judgment was passed on Llewelyn,[7] and in 1277, Edward I declared war on the Welsh prince.[13] Rebellion in his own Brecon lands delayed Hereford's participation in the early days of the Welsh war. He managed, however, to both suppress the rebellion, and conquer lands further west.[14] He then joined up with the royal army and served for a while in Anglesey, before returning to Brecon, where he received the surrender of certain Welsh lords.[15] After the campaign was over, on 2 January 1278, he received protection from King Edward to go on pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.[7]

    In 1282, war with Wales broke out again; this time it would not be simply a punitive campaign, but a full-scale war of conquest.[16] Initially, the king wanted to fight the war with paid forces, but the nobility insisted on the use of the feudal summons. To men like Hereford, this was preferable, because as part of a feudal army the participants would have both a stake in the war and a justifiable claim on conquered land. In the end, although the earls won, none of them were paid for the war effort.[17] Hereford jealously guarded his authority as hereditary Constable of England, and protested vigorously when the Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester was appointed commander of the forces in South Wales.[18] In the post war settlement, however, neither Hereford nor Gloucester received any significant rewards of land, the way several other magnates did.[19] Hereford fought again in Wales, in the suppression of the rebellion of 1294–95, when he again had to pacify the territory of Brecon before joining the king in the north.[20]

    Private war in the Marches

    The historic county of Brecknockshire, which corresponds roughly to Hereford's lordship of Brecon.
    Parallel with the Welsh Wars, Hereford was also struggling to assert his claims to lands in the Marches against other Marcher lords. In 1284 Edward I granted the hundred of Iscennen in Carmarthenshire to John Giffard. Hereford believed the land belonged to him by right of conquest, and started a campaign to win the lands back, but the king took Giffard's side.[21] Problems also arose with the earl of Gloucester. As Gloucester's former ward, Hereford had to buy back his own right of marriage, but Gloucester claimed he had not received the full sum.[6] There was also remaining resentment on Hereford's part for his subordination to Gloucester in the 1282–83 campaign. The conflict came to a head when Gloucester's started construction of a castle at Morlais, which Hereford claimed was his land.[22] In 1286, the Crown ordered Gloucester to cease, but to no avail.[23]

    It had long been established Marcher custom to solve conflicts through private warfare.[1] Hereford's problem, however, was his relative weakness in the Marches, and now he was facing open conflict with two different enemies. He therefore decided to take the issue to the king instead, in a break with tradition.[6] King Edward again ordered Gloucester to stop, but the earl ignored the order and initiated raids on Hereford's lands.[24] Hostilities continued and Hereford responded, until both earls were arrested and brought before the king.[25] The real offense was not the private warfare in itself, but the fact that the earls had not respected the king's injunction to cease.[2] In the parliament of January 1292, Gloucester was fined 10,000 marks and Hereford 1,000. Gloucester's liberty of Glamorgan was declared forfeit, and confiscated by the crown, as was Hereford's of Brecon.[26]

    In the end the fines were never paid, and the lands were soon restored.[22] Edward had nevertheless demonstrated an important point. After the conquest of Wales, the strategic position of the Marcher lordships was less vital to the English crown, and the liberty awarded to the Marcher lords could be curtailed.[2] For Edward this was therefore a good opportunity to assert the royal prerogative, and to demonstrate that it extended also into the Marches of Wales.[27]

    Opposition to Edward I

    In 1294 the French king declared the English duchy of Aquitaine forfeit, and war broke out between the two countries.[28] Edward I embarked on a wide-scale and costly project of building alliances with other princes on the Continent, and preparing an invasion.[29] When the king, at the parliament of March 1297 in Salisbury, demanded military service from his earls, Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, refused in his capacity of marshal of England. The argument was that the king's subjects were not obliged to serve abroad if not in the company of the king, but Edward insisted on taking his army to Flanders while sending his earls to Gascony.[30]


    Bohun and Bigod confront King Edward. Early 20th-century imaginary illustration
    At the time of the Salisbury parliament, Hereford was accompanying two of the king's daughters to Brabant, and could not be present.[31] On his return, however, as Constable of England, he joined Bigod in July in refusing to perform feudal service.[6] The two earls were joined in their opposition by the earls of Arundel and Warwick.[32] The main reasons for the magnates' defiance was the heavy burden of taxation caused by Edward's continuous warfare in Wales, France and Scotland. In this they were also joined by Robert Winchelsey, the Archbishop of Canterbury, who was in the midst of an ongoing dispute with the king over clerical taxation.[33] At one point Bohun and Bigod turned up in person at the Exchequer to protest a tax they claimed did not have the consent of the community of the realm.[34] For Hereford there was also a personal element in the opposition to the king, after the humiliation and the affront to his liberties he had suffered over the dispute in the Marches.[35][36] At a meeting just outside London, Bohun gave an impassioned speech objecting to the king's abuse of power and demanding the restoration of ancient liberties. The grievances were summarised in a document known as the Remonstrances.[37]

    Neither party showed any inclination to back down, and the nation seemed on the brink of another civil war.[38] Just as the conflict was coming to a head, however, external events intervened to settle it. In September 1297, the English suffered a heavy defeat to the Scots at the Battle of Stirling Bridge.[39] The Scottish victory exposed the north of England to Scottish raids led by William Wallace. The war with Scotland received wider support from the English magnates, now that their own homeland was threatened, than did the war in France to protect the king's continental possessions.[40] Edward abandoned his campaign in France and negotiated a truce with the French king. He agreed to confirm Magna Carta in the so-called Confirmatio Cartarum (Confirmation of the Charters).[41] The earls consequently consented to serve with the king in Scotland, and Hereford was in the army that won a decisive victory over the Scots in the Battle of Falkirk in 1298.[7] Hereford, not satisfied that the king had upheld the charter, withdrew after the battle, forcing Edward to abandon the campaign.[2]

    Death and family

    The earthwork remains of Pleshey Castle where Humphrey de Bohun died.
    In 1275 Bohun married Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand de Fiennes, chevalier, seigneur of Fiennes, by his 2nd wife, Isabel (kinswoman of Queen Eleanor of Provence). She predeceased him, and was buried at Walden Priory in Essex. Hereford himself died at Pleshey Castle on 31 December 1298, and was buried at Walden alongside his wife.[6] They had one son Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, born around 1276.[42] The son was given possession of his father's lands and titles on 16 February 1299.[43] The young Humphrey also inherited his father's title of Constable of England.[44]

    A common theme in Humphrey de Bohun's actions was his fierce protection of what he regarded as his feudal privileges.[1] His career was marked by turbulence and political strife, particularly in the Marches of Wales, but eventually he left a legacy of consolidated possessions there. In 1297, at the height of the conflict between Edward I and rebellious barons, the king had actively tried to undermine Hereford's authority in the Marches, but failed due to the good relations the earl enjoyed with the local men.[45]

    Notes

    Jump up ^ He was reported to be 18 ˝ years old in the 51st year of the reign of Henry III, and 24 or 26 after the death of his grandfather in 1275. Cokayne (1910–59), pp. 463–6.

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Fritze and Robison, (2002).
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Hicks (1991).
    Jump up ^ White, Graeme (2004). "Bohun, Humphrey (III) de (b. before 1144, d. 1181)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2774.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Vincent (2004).
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1953), p. 202.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Waugh (2004).
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Cokayne (1910–59), pp. 463–6.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 21.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 112.
    Jump up ^ Davies (2000), pp. 322–3.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), pp. 225–6.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 174–5.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), p. 408.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 171.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), pp. 178–9, 194.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 188.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1972), pp. 71–3.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1972), p. 72.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 204.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 256.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), pp. 201–2.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Prestwich (2007), p. 136.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 348.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 226.
    Jump up ^ Carpenter (2003), p. 478.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), p. 350
    Jump up ^ Davies (1978), pp. 259–60, 255–7.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 378–9.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 387–8.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), pp. 666, 678.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), p. 680 n.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 419.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 420.
    Jump up ^ Carpenter (2003), p. 485.
    Jump up ^ Morris (2008), p. 297.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), pp. 274–5.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 420–1.
    Jump up ^ Davies (1978), p. 269.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 283.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (2007), p. 170.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 427–8.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne (1910–59), p. 467.
    Jump up ^ Fryde, E. B. (1961). Handbook of British Chronology (Second ed.). London: Royal Historical Society. p. 431.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 300.
    Jump up ^ Davies (1978), p. 290.

    Sources

    Carpenter, David (2003). The Struggle for Mastery: Britain, 1066-1284. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-522000-5.
    Cokayne, George (1910–59). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. VI (New ed.). London: The St. Catherine Press.
    Davies, R. R. (1978). Lordship and Society in the March of Wales, 1282-1400. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822454-0.
    Davies, R. R. (2000). The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063-1415. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820878-2.
    Fritze, Ronald H.; William Baxter Robison (2002). "Bohoun, Humphrey de, 3rd Earl of Hereford and 2nd Earl of Essex (c. 1249-98)". Historical dictionary of late medieval England, 1272-1485. Westport, London: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 61–3. ISBN 0-313-29124-1. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
    Hicks, Michael (1991). Who's Who in Late Medieval England (1272-1485). Who's Who in British History Series. 3. London: Shepheard-Walwyn. pp. 29–30. ISBN 0-85683-092-5.
    Morris, J. E. (1901). The Welsh Wars of Edward I. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Morris, Marc (2008). A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and the Forging of Britain (updated ed.). London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-179684-6.
    Prestwich, Michael (1972). War, Politics and Finance under Edward I. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-09042-7.
    Prestwich, Michael (1997). Edward I (updated ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07209-0.
    Prestwich, Michael (2007). Plantagenet England: 1225-1360 (new ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822844-9.
    Powicke, F. M. (1953). The Thirteenth Century: 1216-1307. Oxford: Clarendon. ISBN 0-19-285249-3.
    Vincent, Nicholas (2004). "Bohun, Humphrey (IV) de, second earl of Hereford and seventh earl of Essex (d. 1275)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2775.
    Waugh, Scott L. (2004). "Bohun, Humphrey (VI) de, third earl of Hereford and eighth earl of Essex (c.1249–1298)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2776.

    Humphrey married Maud de Fiennes 20 Jul 1275. Maud (daughter of Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde) was born ~ 1251, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England; died 6 Nov 1298; was buried Saffron Walden, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 61.  Maud de Fiennes was born ~ 1251, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England (daughter of Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde); died 6 Nov 1298; was buried Saffron Walden, Essex, England.
    Children:
    1. 30. Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1276, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England; died 16 Mar 1322, Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, England; was buried Friars Minor, York, Yorkshire, England.

  9. 62.  Edward I, King of EnglandEdward I, King of England was born 17 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was christened 22 Jun 1239, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom (son of Henry III, King of England and Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile); died 7 Jul 1307, Burgh by Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria, England; was buried 28 Oct 1307, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward Longshanks

    Notes:

    More on King Edward I ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England

    Remember Mel Gibson's role as William Wallace in his 1995 movie, "Braveheart", about the 13th c. Scottish Rebellion? Here is the fellow he battled, brilliantly portrayed by Patrick McGoohan... Here's a clip of that movie... http://www.cinemagia.ro/trailer/braveheart-braveheart-inima-neinfricata-1054/

    Edward I, called Longshanks (1239-1307), king of England (1272-1307), Lord of Gascony, of the house of Plantagenet. He was born in Westminster on June 17, 1239, the eldest son of King Henry III, and at 15 married Eleanor of Castile. In the struggles of the barons against the crown for constitutional and ecclesiastical reforms, Edward took a vacillating course. When warfare broke out between the crown and the nobility, Edward fought on the side of the king, winning the decisive battle of Evesham in 1265. Five years later he left England to join the Seventh Crusade.

    Following his father's death in 1272, and while he was still abroad, Edward was recognized as king by the English barons; in 1273, on his return to England, he was crowned.

    The first years of Edward's reign were a period of the consolidation of his power. He suppressed corruption in the administration of justice, restricted the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to church affairs, and eliminated the papacy's overlordship over England. On the refusal of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd (died 1282), ruler of Wales, to submit to the English crown, Edward began the military conflict that resulted, in 1284, in the annexation of Llewelyn's principality to the English crown. In 1290 Edward expelled all Jews from England. War between England and France broke out in 1293 as a result of the efforts of France to curb Edward's power in Gascony. Edward lost Gascony in 1293 and did not again come into possession of the duchy until 1303. About the same year in which he lost Gascony, the Welsh rose in rebellion.
    Greater than either of these problems was the disaffection of the people of Scotland. In agreeing to arbitrate among the claimants to the Scottish throne, Edward, in 1291, had exacted as a prior condition the recognition by all concerned of his overlordship of Scotland. The Scots later repudiated him and made an alliance with France against England. To meet the critical situations in Wales and Scotland, Edward summoned a parliament, called the Model Parliament by historians because it was a representative body and in that respect was the forerunner of all future parliaments. Assured by Parliament of support at home, Edward took the field and suppressed the Welsh insurrection. In 1296, after invading and conquering Scotland, he declared himself king of that realm. In 1298 he again invaded Scotland to suppress the revolt led by Sir William Wallace. In winning the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, Edward achieved the greatest military triumph of his career, but he failed to crush Scottish opposition.

    The conquest of Scotland became the ruling passion of his life. He was, however, compelled by the nobles, clergy, and commons to desist in his attempts to raise by arbitrary taxes the funds he needed for campaigns. In 1299 Edward made peace with France and married Margaret, sister of King Philip III of France. Thus freed of war, he again undertook the conquest of Scotland in 1303. Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. No sooner had Edward established his government in Scotland, however, than a new revolt broke out and culminated in the coronation of Robert Bruce as king of Scotland. In 1307 Edward set out for the third time to subdue the Scots, but he died en route near Carlisle on July 7, 1307. He also had a daughter with Eleanor of Castile that died young.

    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Edward I [37370] Burgh by Sands, Cumbria, England

    is the 22nd great-grandfather of David Hennessee:

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    and also of Sheila Ann Mynatt Hennessee (1945-2016):

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=I27517&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    Died:
    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church, St. Michael's, until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Photos, maps & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgh_by_Sands

    Edward married Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England 18 Oct 1254, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain. Eleanor (daughter of Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu) was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain; died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. [Group Sheet]


  10. 63.  Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain (daughter of Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu); died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Ponthieu

    Notes:

    Eleanor of Castile (1241 - 28 November 1290) was the first queen consort of Edward I of England. She was also Countess of Ponthieu in her own right from 1279 until her death in 1290, succeeding her mother and ruling together with her husband.

    Eleanor was better-educated than most medieval queens, and exerted a strong cultural influence on the nation. She was a keen patron of literature, and encouraged the use of tapestries, carpets and tableware in the Spanish style, as well as innovative garden designs. She was also a successful businesswoman, endowed with her own fortune as Countess of Ponthieu.

    Issue

    Daughter, stillborn in May 1255 in Bordeaux, France. Buried in Dominican Priory Church, Bordeaux, France.
    Katherine (c 1261 – 5 September 1264) and buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Joanna (January 1265 - before 7 September 1265), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    John (13 July 1266 – 3 August 1271), died at Wallingford, in the custody of his granduncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall. Buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Henry (before 6 May 1268 – 16 October 1274), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Eleanor (18 June 1269 – 29 August 1298). She was long betrothed to Alfonso III of Aragon, who died in 1291 before the marriage could take place, and in 1293 she married Count Henry III of Bar, by whom she had one son and one daughter.
    Daughter (1271 Palestine ). Some sources call her Juliana, but there is no contemporary evidence for her name.
    Joan (April 1272 – 7 April 1307). She married (1) in 1290 Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, who died in 1295, and (2) in 1297 Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer. She had four children by each marriage.
    Alphonso (24 November 1273 - 19 August 1284), Earl of Chester.
    Margaret (15 March 1275 – after 1333). In 1290 she married John II of Brabant, who died in 1318. They had one son.
    Berengaria (1 May 1276 – before 27 June 1278), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Daughter (December 1277/January 1278 - January 1278), buried in Westminster Abbey. There is no contemporary evidence for her name.
    Mary (11 March 1279 – 29 May 1332), a Benedictine nun in Amesbury.
    Son, born in 1280 or 1281 who died very shortly after birth. There is no contemporary evidence for his name.
    Elizabeth (7 August 1282 – 5 May 1316). She married (1) in 1297 John I, Count of Holland, (2) in 1302 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex. The first marriage was childless; by Bohun, Elizabeth had ten children.
    Edward II of England, also known as Edward of Caernarvon (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327). In 1308 he married Isabella of France. They had two sons and two daughters.
    It is often said, on the basis of antiquarian genealogies from the 15th-17th centuries, that Eleanor delivered 2 daughters in the years after Edward II's birth. The names most often associated with these ephemeral daughters are "Beatrice" and "Blanche"; later writers also mention "Juliana" and "Euphemia," and even a "Berenice," probably by confusion with the historical daughter Berengaria. At least one eighteenth-century writer made "Beatrice" and Berengaria into twins, presumably because of the alliteration of names; but Berengaria's birth in 1276 (not the 1280s) was noted by more than one chronicler of the day, and none of them reports that Berengaria had a twin sister. Queen Eleanor's wardrobe and treasury accounts survive almost intact for the years 1288-1290 and record no births in those years, nor do they ever refer to daughters with any of those names. Even more records survive from King Edward's wardrobe between 1286 and 1290 than for his wife's, and they too are silent on any such daughters. It is most unlikely that they ever existed in historical fact. It is more likely that there were other pregnancies and short-lived children in the years prior to 1266, when records for Eleanor's movements are very slight.

    Eleanor as a mother

    It has been suggested that Eleanor and Edward were more devoted to each other than to their children. As king and queen, however, it was impossible for them to spend much time in one place, and when they were very young, the children could not travel constantly with their parents. The children had a household staffed with attendants carefully chosen for competence and loyalty, with whom the parents corresponded regularly. The children lived in this comfortable establishment until they were about seven years old; then they began to accompany their parents, if at first only on important occasions. By their teens they were with the king and queen much of the time. In 1290, Eleanor sent one of her scribes to join her children's household, presumably to help with their education. She also sent gifts to the children regularly, and arranged for the entire establishment to be moved near to her when she was in Wales. In 1306 Edward sharply scolded Margerie de Haustede, Eleanor's former lady in waiting who was then in charge of his children by his second wife, because Margerie had not kept him well informed of their health. Edward also issued regular instructions for the care and guidance of these children.

    Two incidents cited to imply Eleanor's lack of interest in her children are easily explained in the contexts of royal childrearing in general, and of particular events surrounding Edward and Eleanor's family. When their six-year-old son Henry lay dying at Guildford in 1274, neither parent made the short journey from London to see him; but Henry was tended by Edward's mother Eleanor of Provence. The boy had lived with his grandmother while his parents were absent on crusade, and since he was barely two years old when they left England in 1270, he could not have had many worthwhile memories of them at the time they returned to England in August 1274, only weeks before his last illness and death. In other words, the dowager queen was a more familiar and comforting presence to her grandson than his parents would have been at that time, and it was in all respects better that she tended him then. Furthermore, Eleanor was pregnant at the time of his final illness and death; exposure to a sickroom would probably have been discouraged. Similarly, Edward and Eleanor allowed her mother, Joan of Dammartin, to raise their daughter Joan in Ponthieu (1274–78). This implies no parental lack of interest in the girl; the practice of fostering noble children in other households of sufficient dignity was not unknown and Eleanor's mother was, of course, dowager queen of Castile. Her household was thus safe and dignified, but it does appear that Edward and Eleanor had cause to regret their generosity in letting Joan of Dammartin foster young Joan. When the girl reached England in 1278, aged six, it turned out that she was badly spoiled. She was spirited and at times defiant in childhood, and in adulthood remained a handful for Edward, defying his plans for a prestigious second marriage for her by secretly marrying one of her late first husband's squires. When the marriage was revealed in 1297 because Joan was pregnant, Edward was enraged that his dignity had been insulted by her marriage to a commoner of no importance. Joan, at twenty-five, reportedly defended her conduct to her father by saying that nobody saw anything wrong if a great earl married a poor woman, so there could be nothing wrong with a countess marrying a promising young man. Whether or not her retort ultimately changed his mind, Edward restored to Joan all the lands he had confiscated when he learned of her marriage, and accepted her new husband as a son-in-law in good standing. Joan marked her restoration to favour by having masses celebrated for the soul of her mother Eleanor.

    Birth:
    Maps & History of Burgos ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Burgos

    Children:
    1. Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre was born 0Apr 1272, Acre, Israel; died 23 Apr 1307, Clare Castle, Clare, Suffolk, England; was buried Clare Priory, Clare, Suffolk, England.
    2. 31. Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales; died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.
    3. Edward II, King of England was born 25 Apr 1284, Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales; died 21 Sep 1327, Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England.


Generation: 7

  1. 92.  William de Warenne, Knight, 1st Earl of SurreyWilliam de Warenne, Knight, 1st Earl of Surrey died 20 Jun 1088.

    Other Events:

    • Possessions: Lewes Castle, East Sussex, England
    • Also Known As: Seigneur de Varennes
    • Military: 0___ 1066; fought at the Battle of Hastings

    Notes:

    William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey, Seigneur de Varennes (died 1088), was a Norman nobleman created Earl of Surrey under William II Rufus. He was one of the few who was documented to have been with William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. At the time of the Domesday Survey, he held extensive lands in 13 counties including the Rape of Lewes in Sussex, now East Sussex.

    Early career[

    William was a younger son of Ranulf I de Warenne and his 1st wife Beatrice (whose mother was probably a sister of duchess Gunnor, wife of duke Richard I).[a] Likewise, Orderic Vitalis describes William as Roger's consanguineus, literally 'cousin', more generically a term of close kinship, but not typically used to describe brothers, and Roger de Mortimer appears to have been a generation older than William de Warenne, his purported brother.[2] Charters report several earlier men associated with Warenne. A Ranulf de Warenne appears in a charter dated between 1027 and 1035, and in one from about 1050 with a wife Beatrice, while in 1059, Ranulf and wife Emma appear along with their sons Ranulf and William. These occurrences have typically been taken to represent successive wives of a single Ranulf, with Beatrice being the mother of William and hence identical to the Gunnorid niece (Thomas Stapleton,[3] in spite of the 1059 charter explicitly naming Emma as his mother.[4] A reevaluation of the surviving charters led Katherine Keats-Rohan to suggest that, as he appears to have done elsewhere, Robert of Torigny has compressed two generations into one, with a Ranulf (I) and Beatrice being parents of Ranulf (II) de Warenne and of Roger de Mortimer (a Roger son of Ranulf de Warenne appears in a charter dated 1040/1053), and Ranulf (II) and Emma were then parents of Ranulf (III), the heir in Normandy, and William, as attested by the 1059 charter. Associations with Vascśuil led to identification of the Warenne progenitrix with a widow Beatrice, daughter of Tesselin, vicomte of Rouen, appearing there in 1054/60. As Robert of Torigny shows a vicomte of Rouen to have married a niece of Gunnor, this perhaps explains the tradition of a Gunnorid relationship.[5] On Robert's genealogies, see also Eleanor Searle,[6][7][8] William was from the hamlet of Varenne, near to Arques-la-Bataille, Duchy of Normandy, now in the canton of Bellencombre, Seine Maritime.[9][10][11] At the beginning of Duke William’s reign, Ranulf II was not a major landholder and, as a second son, William de Warenne did not stand to inherit the family’s small estates. During the rebellions of 1052-1054, the young William de Warenne proved himself a loyal adherent to the Duke and played a significant part in the Battle of Mortemer for which he was rewarded with lands confiscated from his uncle, Roger of Mortemer, including the Castle of Mortimer and most of the surrounding lands.[12] At about the same time he acquired lands at Bellencombre including the castle which became the center of William de Warenne’s holdings in Normandy[7]

    Conquest of England


    Coat of Arms of the de Warenne Earls of Surrey
    William was among the Norman barons summoned to a council by Duke William when the decision was made to oppose King Harold II's accession to the throne of England.[7][13] He fought at the Battle of Hastings and was well rewarded with numerous holdings. The Domesday book records his lands stretched over thirteen counties and included the important Rape of Sussex, several manors in Norfolk, Suffolk and Essex, the significant manor of Conisbrough in Yorkshire and Castle Acre in Norfolk, which became his caput (see below).[7][8] He is one of the very few proven companions of William the Conqueror known to have fought at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.[14][15][16] He fought against rebels at the Isle of Ely in 1071, where he showed a special desire to hunt down Hereward the Wake who had killed his brother-in-law Frederick the year before.[17][18] Hereward is supposed to have unhorsed him with an arrow shot.[19]

    Later career

    Sometime between 1078 and 1082,[20] William and his wife Gundred traveled to Rome visiting monasteries along the way. In Burgundy they were unable to go any further due to a war between Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII. They visited Cluny Abbey and were impressed with the monks and their dedication. William and Gundred decided to found a Cluniac priory on their own lands in England. William restored buildings for an abbey. They sent to Hugh, the abbot of Cluny, for monks to come to England at their monastery. At first Hugh was reluctant but he finally sent several monks, including Lazlo who was to be the first abbot. The house they founded was Lewes Priory, dedicated to St. Pancras,[21][22] the first Cluniac priory in England[23]

    William was loyal to William II,[17] and it was probably in early 1088 that he was created Earl of Surrey.[24] He was mortally wounded at the First Siege of Pevensey Castle and died 24 June 1088 at Lewes, Sussex, and was buried next to his wife Gundred at the Chapterhouse of Lewes Priory.[25][26]

    Family

    He married first, before 1070, Gundred, daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda his wife. This is shown in a charter of William referring to Gundrada (Gundred in Latin) as "Filae Meae" (my daughter),[27][28] sister of Gerbod the Fleming, 1st Earl of Chester. Ordericus Vitalis made many errors in his Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, which he wrote a hundred years after the Conquest. Ordericus Vitalis was a seventy-year-old man with an intense dislike for Normans, and continually made errors in his history (see Reverend Thomas Warren: History of the Warren Family); since then numerous English historians have tried to authenticate its account of Conqueror and his family, but have not succeeded. Gundred De Warren was buried at Lewes Castle. Her grave cover still exists as a marble slab of exactly the same design as that of her mother's grave cover, which is also in the same black decorated marble. DNA is likely to prove that Gundred and Matilda were mother and daughter. Such was the English dislike for the Normans, that they stole both William De Warren's and his wife's grave covers to place over graves of their own.[29][30][31]

    William married secondly a sister of Richard Gouet, who survived him.[32]

    Issue

    By Gundred Surrey had:

    William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey (d. 1138), who married Elisabeth (Isabelle) de Vermandois, widow of Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester.[33]
    Edith de Warenne, who married firstly Gerard de Gournay, lord of Gournay-en-Bray, and secondly Drew de Monchy.[34]
    Reynold de Warenne, who inherited lands from his mother in Flanders[34] and died c. 1106–08.[35]
    An unnamed daughter, who married Ernise de Coulonces.[36]
    Surrey, by his second wife, had no issue.

    Possessions:
    Lewes Castle stands at the highest point of Lewes, East Sussex, England on an artificial mound constructed with chalk blocks. It was originally called Bray Castle.

    Images, history & source citation ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewes_Castle

    William married Gundred of Flanders, Countess of Surrey Bef 1070. Gundred was born Flanders, Belgium; died 27 May 1085, Castle Acre, Norfolk, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 93.  Gundred of Flanders, Countess of Surrey was born Flanders, Belgium; died 27 May 1085, Castle Acre, Norfolk, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Gundrada
    • Also Known As: Gundreda

    Notes:

    Gundred or Gundreda (Latin: Gundrada) (died 27 May 1085)[1] was the Flemish-born wife of an early Norman baron, William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey. She and her husband established Lewes Priory in Sussex.

    Life

    Gundred was almost certainly born in Flanders, and was a sister of Gerbod the Fleming, 1st Earl of Chester.[2][3][4][5] She is explicitly so called by Orderic Vitalis,[6] as well as the chronicle of Hyde Abbey[7] She was also sister of Frederick of Oosterzele-Scheldewindeke, who was killed c.1070 by Hereward the Wake.[8] Legends based in part on late Lewes priory cartulary[a] suggested Gundred was a daughter of William the Conqueror by his spouse Matilda of Flanders,[9] but this is not accepted by most modern historians.[10][11] The early-19th-century writer Thomas Stapleton had argued she was a daughter of Matilda, born prior to her marriage to Duke William.[12] This sparked a debate consisting of a series of published papers culminating with those of Edmond Chester Waters and Edward Augustus Freeman who argued the theories could not be supported.[13][14][15] Regardless, some genealogical and historical sources continue to make the assertion that she was the Conqueror's daughter.[16][17][18][19]

    Gundred married before 1070[20] William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey (d. 20 June 1088),[1] who rebuilt Lewes Castle, making it his chief residence. Sometime between 1078 and 1082,[21] Gundrada and her husband set out for Rome visiting monasteries along the way. In Burgundy they were unable to go any further due to a war between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII. They visited Cluny Abbey and were impressed with the monks and their dedication. William and Gundred decided to found a Cluniac priory on their own lands in England. They sent to Hugh the abbot of Cluny for monks to come to England at their monastery. Hugh was reluctant yet eventually sent several monks including Lazlo who became the first abbot. The house they founded was Lewes Priory dedicated to St. Pancras.[22][23] Gundred died in childbirth 27 May 1085 at Castle Acre, Norfolk, one of her husband's estates, and was buried at the Chapter house of Lewes Priory.[1][23] He was later buried beside her.[24]

    Tombstone

    In the course of the centuries which followed, both tombstones disappeared from the priory but in 1774 William Burrell, Esq., an antiquary, discovered Gundred's in Isfield Church (seven miles from Lewes), over the remains of Edward Shirley, Esq., (d. 1550), and had it removed on October 2, 1775, to St. John's Church, Southover, where it was placed on display.[25]

    In 1845, during excavations through the Priory grounds for the Brighton Lewes and Hastings Railway, the lead chests containing the remains of the Earl and his Countess were discovered and were deposited temporarily beneath Gundred's tombstone.[25] In 1847 a Norman Revival chapel was erected by public subscription, adjoining the present vestry and chancel. Prior to re-interring the remains in this chapel, both chests were opened to ascertain if there were any contents, which was found to be the case. New chests were made and used, and the ancient ones preserved and placed in two recessed arches in the southern wall. The Earl's chest has lost some lead. Gundred's chest remains in a good state of preservation. Across the upper part of the right arch is the name Gvndrada. Her tombstone is of black Tournai marble.[26]

    Family

    The children of William de Warenne and Gundred were:

    William II de Warenne (d. 11 May 1138), buried in Lewes Priory.[2][27]
    Reginald de Warenne, an adherent of Robert of Normandy.[2][24]
    Edith de Warenne, married, 1stly, Gerard de Gournay, Lord of Gournay-en-Bray, 2ndly, Drew de Monchy.[2][24]

    Controversy on parentage

    Legends based in part on late Lewes Priory cartulary[a] suggested Gundred was a daughter of William the Conqueror by his spouse Matilda of Flanders,[19] but this is not accepted by most modern historians.[20][21] The early-19th-century writer Thomas Stapleton had argued she was a daughter of Matilda born prior to her marriage to Duke William.[22] This theory sparked a debate consisting of a series of published papers. It culminated with those of Edmond Chester Waters and Edward Augustus Freeman, who argued the theories could not be supported.[23][24][b] Nonetheless, some genealogical and historical sources continue to make the assertion that she was the Conqueror's daughter.[25][26][27][28]

    Notes

    Jump up ^ The reference here to late Lewes priory cartulary is to copies of charters that date centuries after the originals and specifically those which had been altered or forged to add the desired evidence she was the daughter of royalty. For more information on these forged charters see: English Historical Documents 1042-1189, ed. David C. Douglas, George W. Greenaway, Vol. II (Oxford University Press, New York, 1953), p. 605; L.C. Loyd, 'The Origin of the Family of Warenne' ‘’Yorks Archaeol. Journal’’, vol. xxxi, pp. 97-113; and C. T. Clay, ‘'Early Yorkshire Charters’’, vol. VIII (1949), pp. 59.-62.

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b c G. E. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, vol. xii/1 (The St. Catherine Press, London, 1953), p. 494
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Early Yorkshire Charters, ed: William Farrer, Charles Travis Clay, Volume VIII - The Honour of Warenne (The Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1949), pp. 40-46
    Jump up ^ F. Anderson, Uxor Mea: The First Wife of the First William of Warenne, Sussex archaeological collections, Vol. 130 (Sussex Archaeological Society, 1992) pp. 107-8
    Jump up ^ Elisabeth van Houts, 'Epitaph of Gundrada of Warenne', Nova de Veteribus, Mitel-und neulateinische Studien fur Paul Gerhard Schmidt (K.G. Saur, Munchen Leipzig, 2004), p. 372
    Jump up ^ P. Anselme de Sainte-Marie, Histoire de la maison royale de France et des grands officiers de la Couronne, V.6 (Estienne Loyson, 1674), p. 26
    Jump up ^ Ordericus Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, Translated by Thomas Forester, Vol. ii, (Henry G. Bohn, London, MDCCCLIV (1854), p. 49
    Jump up ^ Hyde Abbey, Liber Monasterii de Hyda: Comprising a Chronicle of the affairs of England, (Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer, London, 1866), p. xcvii. Note: the anonymous Hyde chronicler identified two of Gundred's brothers, Gerbod, Earl of Cheter and Frederick.
    Jump up ^ Elisabeth van Houts, 'Frederick, Brother-in-Law of William of Warenne', Anglo-Saxon England, Vol. 28 (1999), pp. 218-220
    Jump up ^ George Duckett, 'Observations on the Parentage of Gundreda, Countess of Warenne', The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Journal, Vol. ix, Part xxxiii, 1885, pp. 421-437 Note: Sir George Duckett, Bart., was the leading proponent of the theory that Gundred was the daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda
    Jump up ^ G. E. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, vol. xii/1 (The St. Catherine Press, London, 1953), p. 494 note (j)
    Jump up ^ David C. Doulgas, William the Conqueror (University of California Press, 1964), p. 392
    Jump up ^ Stapleton, Thomas, 'Observations in disproof of the pretended marriage of William de Warren, Earl of Surrey, with a daughter begotten of Matildis, daughter of Baldwin, Comte of Flanders, by William the Conqueror, and illustrative of the origin and early history of the family in Normandy', The Archaeological Journal 3 (1846):1-26 Note: despite the confusing title Stapleton's theory was that Gundred was a daughter of Matilda of Flanders by an earlier marriage.
    Jump up ^ Edmond Chester Waters, 'Gundrada de Warenne', The Archaeological Journal, Vol. xli (London, 1884), pp. 300-312
    Jump up ^ Edward A. Freeman, 'The Parentage of Gundrada, Wife of William of Warren', The English Historical Review, Vol. 3, No. 12 (Oct., 1888), pp. 680-701
    Jump up ^ For an extensive discussion regarding the participants of this nineteenth-century debate see : Victoria Chandler, 'Gundrada de Warenne and the Victorian Gentlemen-Scholars', Southern History, Vol. 12 (1990), pp. 68-81
    Jump up ^ American Biography; a New Cyclopedia, Vol. ix (The American Historial Society, New York, 1921)p. 276
    Jump up ^ Colonial Families of the United States of America, ed. Nelson Osgood Rhoades, Vol. VII (Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1966). pp. 319, 347
    Jump up ^ Rene Beckley, Ancient Walls of East Anglia (Terence Dalton, Ltd., Lavenham, Suffolk, 1979), p. 66
    Jump up ^ Charles Cooper, A village in Sussex: the history of Kingston-near-Lewes (I.B. Taurus, London, 2006), p. 44
    Jump up ^ Elisabeth van Houts, 'The Warenne View of the Past 1066-1203)', Anglo-Norman Studies XXIV, Proceedings of the Battle Conference 2003, Vol. 26 (The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, 2004), p. 104 & n. 8
    Jump up ^ Early Yorkshire Charters, ed: William Farrer, Charles Travis Clay, Volume VIII - The Honour of Warenne (The Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1949), p. 4
    Jump up ^ B. Golding, 'The Coming of the Cluniacs', Anglo-Norman Studies III; Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1980, Vol. iii (Boydell Press, Woodbridge, 1981), pp. 65, 67
    ^ Jump up to: a b Early Yorkshire Charters, ed: William Farrer, Charles Travis Clay, Volume VIII - The Honour of Warenne (The Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1949), pp. 50-55
    ^ Jump up to: a b c G. E. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, vol. xii/1 (The St. Catherine Press, London, 1953), p. 495 note (b)
    ^ Jump up to: a b Elisabeth van Houts, 'Epitaph of Gundrada of Warenne', Nova de Veteribus, Mitel-und neulateinische Studien fur Paul Gerhard Schmidt (K.G. Saur, Munchen Leipzig, 2004), p. 367
    Jump up ^ Elisabeth van Houts, 'Epitaph of Gundrada of Warenne', Nova de Veteribus, Mitel-und neulateinische Studien fur Paul Gerhard Schmidt (K.G. Saur, Munchen Leipzig, 2004), pp. 366,368-9
    Jump up ^ G. E. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, vol. xii/1 (The St. Catherine Press, London, 1953), pp. 495-6

    Additional references

    Barlow, Frank, The Feudal Kingdom of England 1012 - 1216, London, 1955
    Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage, Vol. iv, p. 670 Chart:Surrey or Warenne before 1135…
    Keats-Rohan, K.S.B., Domesday People, a Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents 1066-1166 (The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, 1999), p. 480
    Moriarty, George Andrews, The Plantagenet Ancestry (Mormon Pioneer Genealogy Society, Salt Lake City, UT, 1985), p. 184
    Norgate, Kate (1890). "Gundrada de Warenne". In Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 23. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 338.
    Schwennicke, Detlev, Europčaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europaischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band III Teilband 4, Das Feudale Frankreich und Sien Einfluss auf des Mittelalters (Marburg, Germany: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1989), Tafel 699
    Weis, Frederick Lewis, The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, ed: Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., William R. Beall, 5th Edition (Genealogical Publishing Co., 1999), Line 158-1

    External links

    The Lewes Priory Trust Photo Gallery (copyrighted images)
    The Gundrada Chapel, Southover Church, Lewes, East Sussex
    Tomb of Gundred in 1787 The Gentleman's Magazine

    *

    Buried:
    In the course of the centuries which followed, both tombstones disappeared from the priory but in 1774 William Burrell, Esq., an antiquary, discovered Gundred's in Isfield Church (seven miles from Lewes), over the remains of Edward Shirley, Esq., (d. 1550), and had it removed on October 2, 1775, to St. John's Church, Southover, where it was placed on display.[25]

    In 1845, during excavations through the Priory grounds for the Brighton Lewes and Hastings Railway, the lead chests containing the remains of the Earl and his Countess were discovered and were deposited temporarily beneath Gundred's tombstone.[25] In 1847 a Norman Revival chapel was erected by public subscription, adjoining the present vestry and chancel. Prior to re-interring the remains in this chapel, both chests were opened to ascertain if there were any contents, which was found to be the case. New chests were made and used, and the ancient ones preserved and placed in two recessed arches in the southern wall. The Earl's chest has lost some lead. Gundred's chest remains in a good state of preservation. Across the upper part of the right arch is the name Gvndrada. Her tombstone is of black Tournai marble.[26]

    Children:
    1. 46. William de Warenne, Knight, 2nd Earl of Surrey was born 0___ 1065, East Sussex, England; died 11 May 1138; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.

  3. 94.  Hugues de France was born 0___ 1057, France (son of Henri, I, King of France and Anna Agnesa Yaraslavno, Queen of France); died 18 Oct 1102; was buried Church of St Paul, Mersin, Mersin, Turkey.

    Notes:

    Birth: 1057
    Death: Oct. 18, 1102

    Nobility. Son of Henri I of France and his second wife Anna Iaroslavna of Kiev. He married Adelais de Vermandois who bore him nine children.

    Family links:
    Parents:
    King Henri (1008 - 1060)
    Anna Agnesa Yaroslavna (1036 - 1075)

    Spouse:
    Adelaide, Countess of Vermandois*

    Children:
    Isabel Of Vermandois Beaumont de Warenne (1081 - 1131)*
    Raoul I de Vermandois (1094 - 1152)*

    Siblings:
    Philip I of France (1052 - 1108)*
    Hugh I Count of Vermandois (1057 - 1102)*
    Hugues de France (1057 - 1102)

    *Calculated relationship

    Burial:
    Church of St Paul
    Mersin
    Mersin, Turkey

    Created by: Lutetia
    Record added: Jan 13, 2013
    Find A Grave Memorial# 103487897

    end

    Hugues — Adelaide of Vermandois. [Group Sheet]


  4. 95.  Adelaide of Vermandois
    Children:
    1. 47. Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester was born 0___ 1081, Basse-Normandie, France; died 17 Feb 1131, France; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.

  5. 112.  John Courtenay, 2nd Baron Okehampton was born ~ 1218, Okehampton, Devon, England (son of Robert de Courtenay and Mary de Redvers); died 3 May 1274, Okehampton, Devon, England.

    John — Isabel de Vere. Isabel (daughter of Hugh de Vere, Knight, 4th Earl of Oxford and Hawise de Quincy) was born ~ 1222, (Essex, England); died Aft 11 Aug 1299. [Group Sheet]


  6. 113.  Isabel de Vere was born ~ 1222, (Essex, England) (daughter of Hugh de Vere, Knight, 4th Earl of Oxford and Hawise de Quincy); died Aft 11 Aug 1299.

    Notes:

    Isabel De VERE

    Born: ABT 1222

    Died: AFT 11 Aug 1299

    Father: Hugh De VERE (4° E. Oxford)

    Mother: Hawise QUINCY (C. Oxford)

    Married: John COURTENAY (2° B. Okehampton)

    Children:

    1. Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)

    *

    Children:
    1. 56. Hugh Courtenay was born 25 Mar 1249, Oakhampton, Devonshire, England; died 28 Feb 1292, Colcombe, Devonshire, England; was buried Cowick Priory, Exeter, Devonshire, England.

  7. 120.  Humphrey de Bohun, VI, 2nd Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1219, Hungerford, Berkshire, England (son of Humphrey de Bohun, IV, Knight, 2nd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Lusignan); died 27 Oct 1265.

    Humphrey married Eleanor de Braose Aft 1241, Breconshire, Wales. Eleanor (daughter of William de Braose, Lord of Brycheiniog and Eva Marshal, Countess of Abergavenny) was born ~ 1228, Breconshire, Wales; died 0___ 1251; was buried Llanthony Priory, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 121.  Eleanor de Braose was born ~ 1228, Breconshire, Wales (daughter of William de Braose, Lord of Brycheiniog and Eva Marshal, Countess of Abergavenny); died 0___ 1251; was buried Llanthony Priory, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Eleanor de Braose (c. 1228–1251) was a Cambro-Norman noblewoman and a wealthy co-heiress of her father, who was the powerful Marcher lord William de Braose, and of her mother, Eva Marshal, a co-heiress of the Earls of Pembroke. Her husband was Humphrey de Bohun, heir of the 2nd Earl of Hereford, by whom she had children, including Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford.

    Family

    Eleanor was born in about 1228.[citation needed] She was the youngest of four daughters[1] and a co-heiress of the powerful Marcher lord William de Braose, and Eva Marshal,[2] both of whom held considerable lordships and domains in the Welsh Marches and Ireland.[citation needed] Eva was one of the daughters of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke by Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke, daughter of Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, "Strongbow".[3][4] Eleanor's three sisters were Isabella de Braose, Maud de Braose, Baroness Mortimer, and Eva de Braose, wife of William de Cantelou.[5]

    While Eleanor was a young girl, her father - known to the Welsh as Gwilym Ddu (Black William) - was hanged on the orders of Llewelyn the Great, Prince of Wales for alleged adultery with Llewelyn's wife, Joan, Lady of Wales.[6] Following the execution, her mother held de Braose lands and castles in her own right.[citation needed]

    Marriage and issue

    On an unknown date after August 1241, Eleanor became the first wife of Humphrey de Bohun,[5] the son of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Lusignan. The marriage took place after the death of Humphrey's mother, Maud.[3]

    Humphrey and Eleanor had the following children:

    Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford (c.1249- 31 December 1298), married Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand II de Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde, by whom he had issue, including Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.[7]
    Gilbert de Bohun. His brother granted him Eleanor's lands in Ireland. [8]
    Eleanor de Bohun (died 20 February 1314, buried Walden Abbey). She married Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby on 26 June 1269. They had at least two sons and one daughter.[9]
    Margery de Bohun (fl.1265 – 1280) married Theobald de Verdun and had a son also Theobald de Verdun, both of whom were hereditary Constables of Ireland.[10]
    Eleanor died in 1251,[citation needed] and was buried at Llanthony Secunda Priory.[11] She passed on her considerable possessions in the Welsh Marches to her eldest son Humphrey.[12] Her husband survived her, married Joan de Quincy,[13] and died in 1265.[14]

    Notes

    Jump up ^ Dugdale 1894, p. 134.
    Jump up ^ Lundy 2010, p. 19081 § 190805 cites Cokayne 2000a, p. 462.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Lundy 2012, p. 63 § 623 cites Cokayne 2000, p. 22
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Dugdale 1894, pp. 134,135
    ^ Jump up to: a b Cawley 2012a, "William de Briouse" cites Dugdale 1894, p. 134.
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012a, "William de Briouse" cites several sources including Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 319.
    Jump up ^ Lundy 2010, p. 19081 § 190805 cites Cokayne 2000a, p. 463.
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Cokayne 2000a, p. 463 footnote g, citing Lambeth Library, Carew MS, no. 613, fol. 66.
    Jump up ^ Richardson 2004, p. 307
    Jump up ^ Richardson 2004, p. 734
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, Vol. I (1834), XX, p. 168.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 2000a, p. 464
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. I, Henry III, 587, p. 187.
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Dugdale 1894, p. 135

    References

    Cawley, Charles (10 April 2012), England, earls created 1067-1122: Humphrey [VI] de Bohun, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    Cawley, Charles (23 September 2012a), Untitled English Nobility A - C: William de Briouse (-hanged 2 May 1230), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    Cokayne, George E (2000), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, I (new, 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes ed.), Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, p. 22
    Cokayne, George E (2000a), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, VI (new, 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes ed.), Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, p. 462
    Dugdale, William, Sir (1894), "Lanthony Abbey, Gloucestershire: Num. II: Fundatorum Progenies", Monasticon Anglicanum, 6, T.G. March, pp. 134, 135
    Lundy, Darryl (20 February 2010), Eleanor de Briouze, The Peerage, p. 19081 § 190805, retrieved November 2012 Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
    Lundy, Darryl (10 Apr 2012), Eve Marshal, The Peerage, p. 63 § 623, retrieved November 2012 Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
    Richardson, Douglas (2004), Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.: Genealogical Publishing Company, p. 734

    Children:
    1. 60. Humphrey de Bohun, V, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1249; died 31 Dec 1298, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England; was buried Walden Priory, Essex, England.
    2. Eleanor de Bohun died 20 Feb 1314; was buried Walden Abbey, Essex, England.
    3. Margaret de Bohun was born ~ 1252, Bisley, Stroud, Gloucestershire, England.

  9. 122.  Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes was born 0___ 1192, Tolleshunt, Essex, England (son of Guillaume de Fiennes, Seigneur de Tingry and Agnes Dammartin); died 0___ 1265, Wendover Manor, Buckinghamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Enguerrand Ingelram II de Fiennes, Baron de Tingry
    • Also Known As: Lord of Wendover

    Notes:

    Enguerrand Ingelram de Fiennes, Seigneur de Fiennes
    Also Known As: "Ingelram /De Fiennes/"
    Birthdate: 1192
    Birthplace: Tolleshunt, Essex, England
    Death: Died 1265 in Wendover Manor, Buckinghamshire, England
    Place of Burial: Was Civil War in time of Henry III
    Immediate Family:
    Son of Guillaume, seigneur de Fiennes et de Tingry and Agnes Dammartin
    Husband of Agnáes de Condâe and Isabelle Fiennes (de Condâe)
    Father of Elisabeth de Fiennes; Robert I de Fiennes, seigneur de Heuchin; Enguerrand de Fiennes; Guillaume II de Fiennes, baron de Tingry, Lord of Wendover; Maude de Fiennes and 2 others
    Brother of Michel de Fiennes; Baudouin de Fiennes; William de la Plaunche Bastard Fiennes and Mahaut de Fiennes
    Half brother of William de Fiennes
    Occupation: Baron de Tingry & de Ruminghen, Seigneur de Fiennes, Lord of Wendover; Seigneur de Fiennes; Baron de Tingry
    Managed by: James Fred Patin, Jr.
    Last Updated: June 29, 2016
    View Complete Profile
    view all 17
    Immediate Family

    Agnáes de Condâe
    wife

    Elisabeth de Fiennes
    daughter

    Isabelle Fiennes (de Condâe)
    wife

    Robert I de Fiennes, seigneur de...
    son

    Enguerrand de Fiennes
    son

    Guillaume II de Fiennes, baron d...
    son

    Maude de Fiennes
    daughter

    Reginald de Fiennes
    son

    Jean de Fiennes
    son

    Guillaume, seigneur de Fiennes e...
    father

    Agnes Dammartin
    mother

    Michel de Fiennes
    sister
    About Enguerrand Ingelram II de Fiennes, baron de Tingry
    The line goes further back. When I get time, I'll continue to check it out & add what I can confirm. It is listed at http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=chan83&id=I003489

    ID: P26622 Birth: 1192 in Conde, France _APID: 1,7249::109510975 1 Death: Age: 75 1267 _APID: 1,7249::109510975 1 Name: *INGELRAM ENGUERRAND II DE FIENNES _APID: 1,7249::109510975 1 Sex: M 2

    HintsAncestry Hints for *INGELRAM ENGUERRAND II DE FIENNES

    1 possible matches found on Ancestry.com Ancestry.com
    Father: *GUILLAUME WILLIAM DE FIENNES SHERIFF OF WENDOVER SIR LORD BARON b: 1160 in Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England Mother: *AGNES DE MELLO DEDAMMARTIN b: 1185 in Dampmartin, I-de-F, France

    Marriage 1 *ISABEL DE CONDE b: 1210 in of Bucks, England

    Children

    Has Children *WILLIAM II DE FIENNES BARON TINGRY b: 1245 in Wendover, Bucks, England Has No Children Maud De Fiennes b: 1246 Has No Children Giles De Fiennes Sir b: 1250 in Wendover Manor, Bucks, England
    Sources:

    Repository: Name: Ancestry.co.uk Note:
    Title: Millennium File Author: Heritage Consulting Publication: Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Note: Repository: Name: Ancestry.com Note:
    Title: Ancestry Family Trees Publication: Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. Note: This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. Page: Ancestry Family Tree Text: http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=11811357&pid=26622

    Enguerrand — Isabelle de Conde. [Group Sheet]


  10. 123.  Isabelle de Conde

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Buckinghamshire, England
    • Also Known As: Agnes de Conde

    Children:
    1. William de Fiennes, II, Knight, Baron Tingy was born 0___ 1245, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England.
    2. 61. Maud de Fiennes was born ~ 1251, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England; died 6 Nov 1298; was buried Saffron Walden, Essex, England.

  11. 124.  Henry III, King of EnglandHenry III, King of England was born 1 Oct 1207, Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom; was christened 0___ 1207, Bermondsey, London, Middlesex, England (son of John I, King of England and Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England); died 16 Nov 1272, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was buried 20 Nov 1272, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Duke of Aquitaine
    • Also Known As: Henry III, King of England
    • Also Known As: Henry of Winchester
    • Also Known As: Lord of Ireland

    Notes:

    King Henry III biography... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III_of_England

    Henry married Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile 14 Jan 1236, Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England. Eleanor was born 0___ 1222, Aix-En-Provence, Bouches-Du-Rhone, France; died 24 Jun 1291, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England; was buried 11 Sep 1291, Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 125.  Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile was born 0___ 1222, Aix-En-Provence, Bouches-Du-Rhone, France; died 24 Jun 1291, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England; was buried 11 Sep 1291, Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Eleonore Berenger

    Notes:

    Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223 - 24/25 June 1291[1]) was Queen consort of England, as the spouse of King Henry III of England, from 1236 until his death in 1272.

    Although she was completely devoted to her husband, and staunchly defended him against the rebel Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, she was very much hated by the Londoners. This was because she had brought a large number of relatives with her to England in her retinue; these were known as "the Savoyards", and they were given influential positions in the government and realm. On one occasion, Eleanor's barge was attacked by angry citizens who pelted her with stones, mud, pieces of paving, rotten eggs and vegetables.

    Eleanor was the mother of five children including the future King Edward I of England. She also was renowned for her cleverness, skill at writing poetry, and as a leader of fashion.

    Family[edit]
    Born in Aix-en-Provence, she was the second daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (1198–1245) and Beatrice of Savoy (1205–1267), the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and his second wife Margaret of Geneva. She was well educated as a child, and developed a strong love of reading. Her three sisters also married kings.[2] After her elder sister Margaret married Louis IX of France, their uncle William corresponded with Henry III of England to persuade him to marry Eleanor. Henry sought a dowry of up to twenty thousand silver marks to help offset the dowry he had just paid for his sister Isabella, but Eleanor's father was able to negotiate this down to no dowry, just a promise to leave her ten thousand when he died.

    Like her mother, grandmother, and sisters, Eleanor was renowned for her beauty. She was a dark-haired brunette with fine eyes.[3] Piers Langtoft speaks of her as "The erle's daughter, the fairest may of life".[4] On 22 June 1235, Eleanor was betrothed to King Henry III (1207–1272).[1] Eleanor was probably born in 1223; Matthew Paris describes her as being "jamque duodennem" (already twelve) when she arrived in the Kingdom of England for her marriage.

    Marriage and issue

    13th century costume depicting Eleanor of Provence, Queen of Henry III of England - illustration by Percy Anderson for Costume Fanciful, Historical and Theatrical, 1906
    Eleanor was married to King Henry III of England on 14 January 1236.[5] She had never seen him prior to the wedding at Canterbury Cathedral and had never set foot in his kingdom.[6] Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury, officiated. She was dressed in a shimmering golden gown which was tightly-fitted to the waist, and then flared out in wide pleats to her feet. The sleeves were long and lined with ermine.[7] After riding to London the same day where a procession of citizens greeted the bridal pair, Eleanor was crowned queen consort of England in a ceremony at Westminster Abbey which was followed by a magnificent banquet with the entire nobility in full attendance.[8]

    Eleanor and Henry together had five children:

    Edward I (1239–1307), married Eleanor of Castile (1241–1290) in 1254, by whom he had issue, including his heir Edward II. His second wife was Margaret of France, by whom he had issue.
    Margaret (1240–1275), married King Alexander III of Scotland, by whom she had issue.
    Beatrice (1242–1275), married John II, Duke of Brittany, by whom she had issue.
    Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245–1296), married Aveline de Forz in 1269, who died four years later without issue; married Blanche of Artois in 1276, by whom he had issue.
    Katherine (25 November 1253 – 3 May 1257)
    Four others are listed, but their existence is in doubt as there is no contemporary record of them. These are:

    Richard (1247–1256)
    John (1250–1256)
    William (1251–1256)
    Henry (1256–1257)
    Eleanor seems to have been especially devoted to her eldest son, Edward; when he was deathly ill in 1246, she stayed with him at the abbey at Beaulieu in Hampshire for three weeks, long past the time allowed by monastic rules.[9] It was because of her influence that King Henry granted the duchy of Gascony to Edward in 1249.[citation needed] Her youngest child, Katherine, seems to have had a degenerative disease that rendered her deaf. When the little girl died at the age of three, both her royal parents suffered overwhelming grief.[10]

    Unpopularity

    Eleanor was a loyal and faithful consort to Henry, but she brought in her retinue a large number of uncles and cousins, "the Savoyards," and her influence with the King and her unpopularity with the English barons created friction during Henry's reign.[11] Her uncle William of Savoy became a close advisor of her husband, displacing and displeasing English barons.[12] Though Eleanor and Henry supported different factions at times, she was made regent of England when her husband left for Normandy in 1253. Eleanor was devoted to her husband's cause, stoutly contested Simon de Montfort, raising troops in France for Henry's cause. On 13 July 1263, she was sailing down the Thames when her barge was attacked by citizens of London.[13] Eleanor stoutly hated the Londoners who returned her hatred; in revenge for their dislike Eleanor had demanded from the city all the back payments due on the monetary tribute known as queen-gold, by which she received a tenth of all fines which came to the Crown. In addition to the queen-gold other such fines were levied on the citizens by the Queen on the thinnest of pretexts.[14] In fear for her life as she was pelted with stones, loose pieces of paving, dried mud, rotten eggs and vegetables, Eleanor was rescued by Thomas Fitzthomas, the Mayor of London, and took refuge at the bishop of London's home.

    Later life

    In 1272 Henry died, and her son Edward, who was 33 years old, became Edward I, King of England. She remained in England as queen dowager, and raised several of her grandchildren—Edward's son Henry and daughter Eleanor, and Beatrice's son John. When her grandson Henry died in her care in 1274, Eleanor went into mourning and gave orders for his heart to be buried at the priory at Guildford which she founded in his memory. In 1275 Eleanor's two remaining daughters died Margaret 26 February and Beatrice 24 March.

    She retired to a convent; however, she remained in contact with her son, King Edward, and her sister, Queen Margaret of France.

    Eleanor died on 24/25 June 1291 in Amesbury, eight miles north of Salisbury, England. She was buried on 11 September 1291 in the Abbey of St Mary and St Melor, Amesbury on 9 December. The exact site of her grave at the abbey is unknown making her the only English queen without a marked grave. Her heart was taken to London where it was buried at the Franciscan priory.[15]

    Cultural legacy

    Eleanor was renowned for her learning, cleverness, and skill at writing poetry,[6] as well as her beauty; she was also known as a leader of fashion, continually importing clothes from France.[4] She often wore parti-coloured cottes (a type of tunic), gold or silver girdles into which a dagger was casually thrust, she favoured red silk damask, and decorations of gilt quatrefoil, and to cover her dark hair she wore jaunty pillbox caps. Eleanor introduced a new type of wimple to England, which was high, "into which the head receded until the face seemed like a flower in an enveloping spathe".[4]

    She had developed a love for the songs of the troubadors as a child, and continued this interest. She bought many romantic and historical books, covering stories from ancient times to modern romances.

    Eleanor is the protagonist of The Queen From Provence, a historical romance by British novelist Jean Plaidy which was published in 1979. Eleanor is a main character in the novel Four Sisters, All Queens by author Sherry Jones, as well as in the novel The Sister Queens by Sophie Perinot. She is also the subject of Norwegian Symphonic metal band Leave's Eyes in their song "Eleonore De Provence" from their album Symphonies of the Night.

    Children:
    1. 62. Edward I, King of England was born 17 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was christened 22 Jun 1239, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom; died 7 Jul 1307, Burgh by Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria, England; was buried 28 Oct 1307, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet, Prince of England was born 16 Jan 1245, London, Middlesex, England; died 5 Jun 1296, Bayonne, Pyrennes-Atlantiques, France; was buried 15 Jul 1296, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    3. Margaret of England, Queen of Scots was born 29 Sep 1251, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; died 26 Feb 1275, Cupar Castle, Cupar, Fife, Scotland; was buried Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.
    4. Mary Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England was born 1255, Elsenham Manor, Essex, England; died 16 Sep 1295, West Greenwich, London, England.

  13. 126.  Fernando III, King of Castile and LeonFernando III, King of Castile and Leon was born 5 Aug 1201, Castile, Spain (son of Alfonso IX, King of Leon and Galacia and Berengaria of Castile, Queen of Castile); died 30 May 1252, Seville, Spain; was buried Seville Cathedral, Seville, Spain.

    Other Events:

    • Religion: Roman Catholic
    • Also Known As: Ferdinand III of Castile
    • Also Known As: King of Castile and Toledo
    • Also Known As: King of Leon
    • Also Known As: Saint Ferdinand, T.O.S.F.
    • Also Known As: San Fernando
    • Baptism: 19 Aug 1201

    Notes:

    Ferdinand III, also called Saint Ferdinand, Spanish San Fernando (born 1201?- died May 30, 1252, Sevilla; canonized February 4, 1671; feast day May 30), king of Castile from 1217 to 1252 and of Leon from 1230 to 1252 and conqueror of the Muslim cities of Câordoba (1236), Jaâen (1246), and Sevilla (1248). During his campaigns, Murcia submitted to his son Alfonso (later Alfonso X), and the Muslim kingdom of Granada became his vassal.

    Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of Leon and Berenguela, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile. At birth, he was the heir to Leon, but his uncle, Henry I of Castile, died young, and his mother inherited the crown of Castile, which she conferred on him. His father, like many Leonese, opposed the union, and Ferdinand found himself at war with him. By his will Alfonso IX tried to disinherit his son, but the will was set aside, and Castile and Leon were permanently united in 1230.

    Ferdinand married Beatrice of Swabia, daughter of the Holy Roman emperor, a title that Ferdinand’s son Alfonso X was to claim. His conquest of Lower Andalusia was the result of the disintegration of the Almohad state. The Castilians and other conquerors occupied the cities, driving out the Muslims and taking over vast estates.

    Ferdinand’s second wife was Joan of Ponthieu, whom he married in 1237; their daughter Eleanor married the future Edward I of England in 1254. Ferdinand settled in Sevilla, where he is buried.

    Buried:
    Images & History ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seville_Cathedral

    Fernando married Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu 0___ 1237. Jeanne was born 0___ 1220, Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne, France; died 16 Mar 1279, Abbeville, Somme, France. [Group Sheet]


  14. 127.  Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu was born 0___ 1220, Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne, France; died 16 Mar 1279, Abbeville, Somme, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Joan, Countess of Ponthieu
    • Also Known As: Queen Consort of Castile and Leon

    Notes:

    Joan of Dammartin (French: Jeanne de Dammartin; c. 1220[1] – 16 March 1279) was Queen consort of Castile and Leâon (1252), suo jure Countess of Ponthieu (1251–1279) and Aumale (1237–1279). Her daughter, the English queen Eleanor of Castile, was her successor in Ponthieu. Her son and co-ruler in Aumale, Ferdinand II, Count of Aumale, predeceased her, so she was succeeded by her grandson John I, Count of Aumale, deceased at the Battle of Courtrai, 11 July 1302.

    Family

    Joan was the eldest daughter of Simon of Dammartin, Count of Ponthieu (1180- 21 September 1239) and his wife Marie of Ponthieu, Countess of Montreuil (17 April 1199- 1251). Her paternal grandparents were Alberic II, Count de Dammartin and Mahaut de Clermont, daughter of Renaud de Clermont, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, and Clâemence de Bar.[2] Her maternal grandparents were William IV of Ponthieu and Alys, Countess of the Vexin, daughter of Louis VII of France and Constance of Castile.

    Henry III of England

    After secret negotiations were undertaken in 1234, it was agreed that Joan would marry King Henry III of England. This marriage would have been politically unacceptable to the French, however, since Joan stood to inherit not only her mother's county of Ponthieu but also the county of Aumale that was vested in her father's family. Ponthieu bordered on the duchy of Normandy, and Aumale lay within Normandy itself. The French king Philip Augustus had seized Normandy from King John of England as recently as 1205, and Philip's heirs could not risk the English monarchy recovering any land in that area, since it might allow the Plantagenets to re-establish control in Normandy.

    As it happened, Joan's father Simon had become involved in a conspiracy of northern French noblemen against Philip Augustus and to win pardon from Philip's son Louis VIII, Simon—who had only daughters—was compelled to promise that he would marry off neither of his two eldest daughters without the permission of the king of France. In 1235, the queen-regent of France, Blanche of Castile, invoked that promise on behalf of her son, King Louis IX of France, and threatened to deprive Simon of all his lands if Joan married Henry III.[citation needed] Blanch also petitioned the Pope to deny the marriage based on consanguinity. He agreed, denying the dispensation which Henry had sought and paid for. Henry therefore abandoned the project for his marriage to Joan and in January 1236 married instead Eleanor of Provence, the sister of Louis IX's wife.

    Queen of Castile

    In November 1235, Blanche of Castile's nephew, King Ferdinand III of Castile, lost his wife, Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen, and Blanche's sister Berengaria of Castile, Ferdinand's mother, was concerned that her widowed son might involve himself in liaisons that were unsuited to his dignity as king. Berengaria determined to find Ferdinand another wife, and her sister Blanche suggested Joan of Dammartin, whose marriage to the king of Castile would keep her inheritance from falling into hostile hands.[3] In October 1237, at the age of about seventeen, Joan and Ferdinand were married in Burgos. Since Ferdinand already had seven sons from his first marriage to Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen, there was little chance of Ponthieu being absorbed by Castile.

    They had four sons and one daughter:

    Ferdinand II, Count of Aumale (1239–ca 1265) m. (after 1256) Laure de Montfort, Lady of Espernon (d before 08.1270), and had issue:
    Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu, who married king Edward I of England and had issue
    Louis (1243–ca 1275), who married Juana de Manzanedo, Lady of Gaton, and had issue
    Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo
    John (1246), died young and buried at the cathedral in Câordoba
    She accompanied Ferdinand to Andalucia and lived with him in the army camp as he besieged Seville in 1248.[4]

    Upon her mother's death in 1251, Joan succeeded as Countess of Ponthieu and Montreuil, which she held in her own right.

    After Ferdinand III died in 1252, Joan did not enjoy a cordial relationship with his heir, her stepson Alfonso X of Castile, with whom she quarreled over the lands and income she should have received as dowager queen of Castile. Sometime in 1253, she became the ally and supporter of another of her stepsons, Henry of Castile, who also felt Alfonso had not allowed him all the wealth their father had meant him to have. Joan unwisely attended secret meetings with Henry and his supporters, and it was rumored that she and Henry were lovers. This further strained her relations with Alfonso and in 1254, shortly before her daughter Eleanor was to marry Edward of England, Joan and her eldest son Ferdinand left Castile and returned to her native Ponthieu.

    Children:
    1. 63. Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain; died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.


Generation: 8

  1. 188.  Henri, I, King of France was born 4 May 1008, Reims, France; died 4 Aug 1060, Vitry-aux-Loges, Centre, France; was buried Saint Denis Basilique, Ile-de-France, France.

    Henri — Anna Agnesa Yaraslavno, Queen of France. Anna was born 0___ 1036, Kiev, Ukraine; died 5 Sep 1075. [Group Sheet]


  2. 189.  Anna Agnesa Yaraslavno, Queen of France was born 0___ 1036, Kiev, Ukraine; died 5 Sep 1075.
    Children:
    1. 94. Hugues de France was born 0___ 1057, France; died 18 Oct 1102; was buried Church of St Paul, Mersin, Mersin, Turkey.

  3. 224.  Robert de Courtenay (son of Reginald de Courtenay and Hawise de Curci); died 0___ 1219.

    Robert — Mary de Redvers. [Group Sheet]


  4. 225.  Mary de Redvers

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Mary de Vernon

    Children:
    1. 112. John Courtenay, 2nd Baron Okehampton was born ~ 1218, Okehampton, Devon, England; died 3 May 1274, Okehampton, Devon, England.

  5. 226.  Hugh de Vere, Knight, 4th Earl of Oxford was born ~ 1208, (Essex, England) (son of Robert de Vere, Knight, 3rd Earl of Oxford and Isabel de Bolebec, Countess of Oxford); died 0Dec 1263, (Essex, England).

    Notes:

    Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford (c. 1208 – December 1263) was the only son and heir of Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford and Isabel de Bolebec, daughter and eventual sole heiress of Hugh de Bolebec.

    Early life

    Hugh de Vere was born about 1208, soon after the marriage of his parents. He was a minor when his father died in autumn 1221. Hugh's mother, Isabel de Bolebec, Countess of Oxford, purchased her son's wardship from the crown for 6000 marks.[1] Hugh did homage to King Henry III in October 1231, and was knighted by the King at Gloucester on 22 May 1233.[2] Two days later the King 'girt him with the sword of the Earldom of Oxford and directed the sheriff to let him have what he ought to have in the name of the Earldom of Oxford as his predecessors had had'.[3]

    Career

    He inherited the office of Master Chamberlain of England which had been granted to his great-grandfather Aubrey de Vere II. By right of that office, he participated in the coronation of Queen Eleanor in 1236. Earl Hugh was a critic of King Henry from 1246, and in 1258 and 1259 was elected to serve on various baronial committees attempting to reform royal government.[4] The earl purchased the right to hold a market at the town on his primary estate, Castle Hedingham in Essex, and founded a chantry there.[5]

    Marriage and issue

    Hugh de Vere married Hawise de Quincy,[6] daughter of Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester, and his wife, Margaret de Beaumont. They had a son and three daughters:[7]

    Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford.
    Isabel de Vere, who married firstly, Sir John de Courtenay of Okehampton, Devon, and secondly, Oliver de Dinham, Lord Dinham.
    Lora de Vere, who married Reynold d'Argentine of Melbourn, Cambridgeshire.
    Margaret de Vere, who married Hugh de Cressy (d. shortly before 24 April 1263).[8]
    Hugh de Vere died before 23 December 1263 and was buried at Earls Colne. His widow was living in 1273 and died on 3 February thereafter. She was buried at Earls Colne Priory.[9]

    Footnotes

    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1945, p. 213.
    Jump up ^ Richardson IV 2011, p. 262.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1945, p. 214.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1945, p. 214.
    Jump up ^ Victoria County History of Essex, vol. II, p. 184.
    Jump up ^ Richardson IV 2011, p. 262.
    Jump up ^ Complete Peerage, X, 215 note 'h'.
    Jump up ^ Richardson IV 2011, pp. 262-e.
    Jump up ^ Richardson IV 2011, p. 262.

    References

    Cokayne, George Edward (1945). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday. X. London: St. Catherine Press.
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. IV (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1460992709

    Hugh married Hawise de Quincy (Essex, England). [Group Sheet]


  6. 227.  Hawise de Quincy (daughter of Saer de Quincy, Knight, 1st Earl of Winchester and Margaret de Beaumont).

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Hedingham Castle, in the village of Castle Hedingham, Essex, is the best preserved Norman keep in England.

    Picture, history & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedingham_Castle

    Children:
    1. Robert de Vere, Knight, 5th Earl of Oxford was born ~ 1240, Hedingham Castle, Essex, England; died Bef 7 SEPT 1296; was buried Earls Coine, Essex, England.
    2. 113. Isabel de Vere was born ~ 1222, (Essex, England); died Aft 11 Aug 1299.
    3. Lora De Vere was born (Essex, England).
    4. Margaret de Vere was born (Essex, England).

  7. 240.  Humphrey de Bohun, IV, Knight, 2nd Earl of Hereford was born 0___ 1204 (son of Henry de Bohun, 1st Earl of Hereford and Maud FitzGeoffrey); died 24 Sep 1275, Warwickshire, England; was buried Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 1st Earl of Essex
    • Also Known As: Constable of England

    Notes:

    Humphrey (IV) de Bohun (1204 – 24 September 1275) was 2nd Earl of Hereford and 1st Earl of Essex, as well as Constable of England. He was the son of Henry de Bohun, 1st Earl of Hereford, and Maud FitzGeoffrey).

    Career

    He was one of the nine godfathers of Prince Edward, later to be Edward I of England. He served as High Sheriff of Kent for 1239–1240.

    In 1258, after returning from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Humphrey fell away, like his father, from the royal to the baronial cause. He served as a nominee of the opposition on the committee of twenty-four which was appointed, in the Oxford parliament of that year, to create the Provisions of Oxford to reform the administration. It was only the alliance of Montfort with Llewelyn of North Wales that brought the earl of Hereford back to his allegiance. Humphrey V headed the first secession of the Welsh Marchers from the party of the opposition (1263), and was amongst the captives whom the Montfortians took at the Battle of Lewes.[1]

    The earl's son and namesake was on the victorious side, and shared in the defeat of Evesham, which he did not long survive. Humphrey V was, therefore, naturally selected as one of the twelve arbitrators to draw up the Dictum of Kenilworth (1266), by which the disinherited rebels were allowed to make their peace. Dying in 1275, he was succeeded by his grandson Humphrey VII.[1]

    Marriage and children

    He married c. 1236 Maud de Lusignan (c. 1210 – 14 August 1241, buried at Llanthony, Gloucester), daughter of Raoul I of Lusignan, Comte d'Eu by marriage, and second wife Alix d'Eu, 8th Comtesse d'Eu and 4th Lady of Hastings, and had issue. Their children were:

    Humphrey (V) de Bohun, who predeceased his father in 1265. The earldom therefore passed through him to his son Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford)
    Henry de Bohun
    Geoffrey de Bohun
    Ralph de Bohun, Clerk
    Maud de Bohun, married (1) Anselm Marshal, 6th Earl of Pembroke; (2) Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester
    Alice de Bohun, married Roger V de Toeni
    Eleanor de Bohun, married Sir John de Verdun, Baron of Westmeath
    He married secondly, Maud de Avenbury (d. 8 October 1273), with whom he had two sons:

    John de Bohun
    Sir Miles de Bohun
    Death & burial[edit]
    He died in Warwickshire and was buried at Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester.

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bohun". Encyclopµdia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 137.
    Complete Peerage

    Humphrey married Maud de Lusignan ~ 1246. Maud was born ~ 1210; died 14 Aug 1241; was buried Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 241.  Maud de Lusignan was born ~ 1210; died 14 Aug 1241; was buried Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester, England.
    Children:
    1. 120. Humphrey de Bohun, VI, 2nd Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1219, Hungerford, Berkshire, England; died 27 Oct 1265.
    2. Henry de Bohun
    3. Geoffrey de Bohun
    4. Ralph de Bohun
    5. Maud de Bohun
    6. Alice de Bohun
    7. Eleanor de Bohun was born Bef 1241; died Aft 10 Jun 1278, Debden, Essex, England.

  9. 242.  William de Braose, Lord of Brycheiniog was born 0___ 1197, Brecon, Wales (son of Reginald de Braose, Knight and Grace Brewer); died 2 May 1230, Wales; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 7th Baron Bramber
    • Also Known As: Lord of Abergavenny
    • Also Known As: William Bruce

    Notes:

    William de Braose (c. 1197 – 2 May 1230) was the son of Reginald de Braose by his first wife, Grecia Briwere. He was an ill-fated member of a powerful and long-lived dynasty of Marcher Lords.

    Early years

    William de Braose was born in Brecon, probably between 1197 and 1204. The Welsh, who detested him and his family name, called him Gwilym Ddu, Black William. He succeeded his father in his various lordships in 1227, including Abergavenny and Buellt.[citation needed]

    Career

    He was captured by the Welsh forces of Prince Llywelyn the Great, in fighting in the commote of Ceri near Montgomery, in 1228. William was ransomed for the sum of ą2,000 and then furthermore made an alliance with Llywelyn, arranging to marry his daughter Isabella de Braose to Llywelyn's only legitimate son Dafydd ap Llywelyn. However, it became known that William had committed adultery with Llywelyn's wife, Joan, Lady of Wales, and Braose was taken at his own home and transported to Wales.[2] The marriage planned between their two children did, however, take place.[3]

    Execution

    The Chronicle of Ystrad Fflur's entry for 1230 reads:[citation needed]

    "In this year William de Breos the Younger, lord of Brycheiniog, was hanged by the Lord Llywelyn in Gwynedd, after he had been caught in Llywelyn's chamber with the king of England's daughter, Llywelyn's wife".[citation needed]
    Llywelyn had William publicly hanged on 2 May 1230,[4] possibly at Crogen, near Bala, though others believe the hanging took place near Llywelyn's palace at Abergwyngregyn.

    Legacy

    With William's death by hanging and his having four daughters, who divided the de Braose inheritance between them and no male heir, the titles now passed to the junior branch of the de Braose dynasty, the only male heir was now John de Braose who had already inherited the titles of Gower and Bramber from his far-sighted uncle Reginald de Braose.[citation needed]

    Family

    William married Eva Marshal, daughter of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. They had four daughters:[citation needed]

    Isabella de Braose (born c. 1222), wife of Prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn
    Maud de Braose (born c. 1224 – 1301), wife of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer another very powerful Marcher dynasty.
    Eleanor de Braose (c. 1226 – 1251), wife of Humphrey de Bohun and mother of Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford.
    Eva de Braose (c. 1227- July 1255), wife of William III de Cantilupe.
    William's wife Eva continued to hold de Braose lands and castles in her own right, after the death of her husband. She was listed as the holder of Totnes in 1230, and was granted 12 marks to strengthen Hay Castle by King Henry III on the Close Rolls (1234–1237).[citation needed]

    *

    Born: about 1197
    His father handed over the Sussex lands of Bramber and Knepp to him in August 1218, so it is probable that he came of age in that year.

    Died: 2nd May 1230

    William succeeded his father as lord of Abergavenny (right), Builth and other Marcher lordships in 1227. Styled by the Welsh as "Black William", he was imprisoned by Llewelyn ap Iorwerth in 1229 during Hubert de Burgh's disastrous Kerry (Ceri) campaign. He was ransomed and released after a short captivity during which he agreed to cede Builth as a marriage portion for his daughter Isabel on her betrothal to Dafydd, son and heir of Llewelyn. The following Easter, Llewelyn discovered an intrigue between his wife, Joan, and William. Supported by a general clamour for his death, Llewelyn had William publicly hanged on 2nd May 1230.

    Father: Reginald de Braose

    Mother: Grace Brewer

    William was married to Eva Marshal (1206 -1246)

    Child 1: Isabel, the eldest
    Child 2: Maud
    Child 3: Eva
    Child 4: Eleanor

    Note: The arms shown above are attributed to this William by Matthew Paris. (see Aspilogia II, MP I No 44 & MP IV No 27). In the two existing versions of the manuscript the arms are given differently.

    Died:
    Eva's husband was publicly hanged by Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales on 2 May 1230 after being discovered in the Prince's bedchamber together with his wife Joan, Lady of Wales.

    William married Eva Marshal, Countess of Abergavenny 2 May 1230, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales. Eva (daughter of William Marshal, Templar Knight, 1st Earl Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke) was born 0___ 1203, Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 0___ 1246. [Group Sheet]


  10. 243.  Eva Marshal, Countess of Abergavenny was born 0___ 1203, Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales (daughter of William Marshal, Templar Knight, 1st Earl Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke); died 0___ 1246.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Birth: 1194

    Notes:

    Eva Marshal (1203 – 1246) was a Cambro-Norman noblewoman and the wife of the powerful Marcher lord William de Braose. She was the daughter of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, and the granddaughter of Strongbow and Aoife of Leinster.

    She held de Braose lands and castles in her own right following the public hanging of her husband by the orders of Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales.

    Family and marriage

    Lady Eva was born in 1203, in Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales, the fifth daughter[1] and tenth child of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke. Her paternal grandparents were John Marshal and Sibyl of Salisbury, and her maternal grandparents were Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, known to history as Strongbow and Aoife of Leinster, for whom she was probably named.

    Lady Eva was the youngest of ten children, having had five older brothers and four older sisters. Eva and her sisters were described as being handsome, high-spirited girls.[2] From 1207 to 1212, Eva and her family lived in Ireland.

    Sometime before 1221, she married Marcher lord William de Braose, who in June 1228 succeeded to the lordship of Abergavenny,[n 1] and by whom she had four daughters. William was the son of Reginald de Braose and his first wife Grecia Briwere. He was much hated by the Welsh who called him Gwilym Ddu or Black William.

    Issue

    Isabella de Braose (b.1222), married Prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn. She died childless.
    Maud de Braose (1224 – 1301), in 1247, she married Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Wigmore, by whom she had issue, including Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer and Isabella Mortimer, Countess of Arundel.
    Eva de Braose (1227 – 28 July 1255), married William de Cantelou, by whom she had issue.
    Eleanor de Braose (c.1228 – 1251). On an unknown date after August 1241, she married Humphrey de Bohun. They had two sons, Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and Gilbert de Bohun, and one daughter, Alianore de Bohun. All three children married and had issue. Eleanor was buried in Llanthony Secunda Priory.

    Widowhood

    Eva's husband was publicly hanged by Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales on 2 May 1230 after being discovered in the Prince's bedchamber together with his wife Joan, Lady of Wales. Several months later, Eva's eldest daughter Isabella married the Prince's son, Dafydd ap Llywelyn, as their marriage contract had been signed prior to William de Braose's death. Prince Llywelyn wrote to Eva shortly after the execution, offering his apologies, explaining that he had been forced to order the hanging due to the insistence by the Welsh lords. He concluded his letter by adding that he hoped the execution would not affect their business dealings.[3]

    Following her husband's execution, Eva held de Braose lands and castles in her own right. She is listed as holder of Totnes in 1230, which she held until her death. It is recorded on the Close Rolls (1234–1237) that Eva was granted 12 marks by King Henry III of England to strengthen Hay Castle. She had gained custody of Hay as part of her dower.[4]

    In early 1234, Eva was caught up in her brother Richard's rebellion against King Henry and possibly acted as one of the arbitrators between the King and her mutinous brothers following Richard's murder in Ireland.[5] This is evidenced by the safe conduct she received in May 1234, thus enabling her to speak with the King. By the end of that month, she had a writ from King Henry granting her seisen of castles and lands he had confiscated from her following her brother's revolt. Eva also received a formal statement from the King declaring that she was back in "his good graces again".[6]

    She died in 1246 at the age of forty-three.

    Royal descendants

    Most notably through her daughter Maud, who married Roger Mortimer, she was the ancestress of the English kings: Edward IV, Edward V, Richard III, and all monarchs from Henry VIII onwards. She was also the ancestress of Queen consorts Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr by three of her four daughters; Eleanor, Maud, and Eva de Braose.

    Ancestry

    [show]Ancestors of Eva Marshal

    Notes

    Jump up ^ Although he held the lordship in tenancy, he never held the title Lord Abergavenny.
    References[edit]
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Cawley, Charles (2010). Medieval Lands, Earls of Pembroke 1189-1245( Marshal)
    Jump up ^ Costain, Thomas B.(1959). The Magnificent Century. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company Inc. p.103
    Jump up ^ Gen-Medieval-L Archives, retrieved on 7 November 2009
    Jump up ^ Close Rolls (1234-1237)
    Jump up ^ Linda Elizabeth Mitchell (2003). Portraits of Medieval Women: Family, Marriage and Politics in England 1225-1350. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. p.47
    Jump up ^ Mitchell, p.47

    Sources

    Cawley, Charles, ENGLISH NOBILITY MEDIEVAL: Earls of Pembroke 1189-1245, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    de Braose family genealogy
    Cokayne, G. E. The Complete Peerage
    Costain, Thomas B. (1959). The Magnificent Century. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc.

    Birth:
    Images, History, Map & Source for Pembroke Castle, Wales ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pembroke_Castle

    Children:
    1. Isabella de Braose was born ~ 1222, (Wales).
    2. Maud de Braose, Lady Mortimer was born ~ 1224, (Wales); died 0___ 1301.
    3. Eva de Braose was born 0___ 1227; died 28 Jul 1255.
    4. 121. Eleanor de Braose was born ~ 1228, Breconshire, Wales; died 0___ 1251; was buried Llanthony Priory, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.

  11. 244.  Guillaume de Fiennes, Seigneur de Tingry was born 0___ 1160, Wendover Manor, Buckinghamshire, England.

    Guillaume — Agnes Dammartin. [Group Sheet]


  12. 245.  Agnes Dammartin
    Children:
    1. 122. Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes was born 0___ 1192, Tolleshunt, Essex, England; died 0___ 1265, Wendover Manor, Buckinghamshire, England.

  13. 248.  John I, King of EnglandJohn I, King of England was born 24 Dec 1166, Beaumont Palace, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England (son of Henry II, King of England and Eleanore de Aquitaine, Queen of England); died 19 Oct 1216, Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 19 Oct 1216, Worcester Cathedral, Worcester, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Johan sanz Terre
    • Also Known As: John de Normandie, King of England
    • Also Known As: John I, King of England
    • Also Known As: John Lackland
    • Also Known As: John Plantagenet, King of England

    Notes:

    John (24 December 1166 - 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre),[1] was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216.

    Following the battle of Bouvines, John lost the duchy of Normandy to King Philip II of France, which resulted in the collapse of most of the Angevin Empire and contributed to the subsequent growth in power of the Capetian dynasty during the 13th century.

    The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered to be an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.

    more on King John ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John,_King_of_England

    More images of King John ...

    https://www.google.com/search?q=john+lackland+coat+of+arms&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=810&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiNnKWp6aPPAhULXB4KHb1qCnQQsAQIKw&dpr=1#imgrc=F8SAOkDV1jsAEM%3A

    *

    Baronial Order of Magna Charta:

    The Baronial Order of Magna Charta ("BOMC") is a scholarly, charitable, and lineage society founded in 1898. The BOMC was originally named the Baronial Order of Runnemede, but the name was subsequently changed to better reflect the organization's purposes relating to the Magna Charta and the promulgation of "freedom of man under the rule of law." view its membership list: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baronial_Order_of_Magna_Charta

    These 25 barons were Sureties for the concessions made by John, King of England, d. 18 Oct 1216.

    1. William d'Albini, Lord of Belvoir Castle, d. 1236.
    ((26th, 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    24th, 25th & 26th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=12&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46884

    2. Roger Bigod, (43132) Earl of Norfolk and Suffolk, d. 1220.
    (26th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I43132

    3. Hugh Bigod, (43271) heir to the earldoms of Norfolk and Suffolk, d. 1225.
    (25th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I43271

    4. Henry de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, (46127) d. 1220.
    (26th, 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    25th & 26th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46127


    5. Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford, (46129) d. 1217.
    (25th, 26th & 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46129

    6. Gilbert de Clare, heir to the earldom of Hertford, (45550) d. 1230.
    (24th, 26th & 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    25th & 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars;
    24th & 25th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=16&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I45550

    John FitzRobert, Lord of Warkworth Castle, Northumberland, d. 1240.

    7. Robert FitzWalter, Lord of Dunmow Castle, Essex, d. 1234.
    (28th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars)

    William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, d. 1241, no great-grandchildren.
    William Hardell, Mayor of the City of London, d. after 1216, no known issue.
    William de Huntingfield, Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, d. 1220.
    John de Lacie, Lord of Pontefract Castle, d. 1240.
    William de Lanvallei, Lord of Standway Castle, Essex, d. 1217.
    William Malet, Sheriff of Somerset and Dorset, d. about 1217.
    Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex and Gloucester, d. 1216, d.s.p..

    William Marshall jr, heir to the earldom of Pembroke, d. 1231, (43947) d.s.p..
    A cousin to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars & Perry Green "Pop" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I43947

    Roger de Montbegon, Lord of Hornby Castle, Lancashire, d. 1226, d.s.p..
    Richard de Montfichet, Baron, d. after 1258, d.s.p..

    8.. William de Mowbray, Lord of Axholme Castle, Lincolnshire, (46138) d. 1223
    (24th & 26th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46138

    Richard de Percy, Baron, Yorkshire, d. 1244, d.s.p..

    9.Saire de Quincey, Earl of Winchester, (46162) d. 1219.
    (25th & 27th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    25th & 26th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee;
    27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46162

    10. Robert de Roos, Lord of Hamlake Castle, Yorkshire, (46148)d. 1226.
    (25th, 26th & 27th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=12&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46148

    Geoffrey de Saye, Baron, d. 1230.

    11. Robert de Vere, heir to the earldom of Oxford, d. 1221.
    (25th, 27th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    25th, 26th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee;
    27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars; http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=12&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46155

    Eustace de Vesci, Lord of Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, d. 1216 d.s.p..

    Birth:
    Beaumont Palace, built outside the north gate of Oxford, was intended by Henry I about 1130 to serve as a royal palace conveniently close to the royal hunting-lodge at Woodstock (now part of the park of Blenheim Palace). Its former presence is recorded in Beaumont Street, Oxford. Set into a pillar on the north side of the street, near Walton Street, is a stone with the inscription: "Near to this site stood the King's Houses later known as Beaumont Palace. King Richard I was born here in 1157 and King John in 1167". The "King's House" was the range of the palace that contained the king's lodgings.

    Henry passed Easter 1133 in the nova aula, his "new hall" at Beaumont in great pomp, celebrating the birth of his grandson, the future Henry II.[1] Edward I was the last king to sojourn in Beaumont officially as a palace, and in 1275 he granted it to an Italian lawyer, Francesco Accorsi, who had undertaken diplomatic missions for him.[2] When Edward II was put to flight at the battle of Bannockburn in 1314, he is said to have invoked the Virgin Mary and vowed to found a monastery for the Carmelites (the White Friars) if he might escape safely. In fulfilment of his vow he remanded Beaumont Palace to the Carmelites in 1318.

    In 1318, the Palace was the scene for the beginnings of the John Deydras affair, in which a royal pretender, arguing that he was the rightful king of England, claimed the Palace for his own. John Deydras was ultimately executed for sedition.[3]


    When the White Friars were disbanded at the Reformation, most of the structure was dismantled and the building stone reused in Christ Church and St John's College.[4] An engraving of 1785[5] shows the remains of Beaumont Palace, the last of which were destroyed in the laying out of Beaumont Street in 1829.[6]

    Drawings, Sketches & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beaumont_Palace

    Buried:
    Worcester Cathedral, before the English Reformation known as Worcester Priory, is an Anglican cathedral in Worcester, England; situated on a bank overlooking the River Severn. It is the seat of the Bishop of Worcester. Its official name is The Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Mary the Virgin of Worcester. Built between 1084 and 1504, Worcester Cathedral represents every style of English architecture from Norman to Perpendicular Gothic.

    It is famous for its Norman crypt and unique chapter house, its unusual Transitional Gothic bays, its fine woodwork and its "exquisite" central tower,[1] which is of particularly fine proportions.

    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Worcester_Cathedral

    Died:
    Newark Castle, in Newark, in the English county of Nottinghamshire was founded in the mid 12th century by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln. Originally a timber castle, it was rebuilt in stone towards the end of the century. Dismantled in the 17th century after the English Civil War, the castle was restored in the 19th century, first by Anthony Salvin in the 1840s and then by the corporation of Newark who bought the site in 1889. The Gilstrap Heritage Centre is a free-admission museum in the castle grounds about the history of the town of Newark.

    Images & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newark_Castle,_Nottinghamshire

    John married Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England 26 Aug 1200, Cathedral of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. Isabelle was born 0___ 1188, Angouleme, France; died 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France; was buried 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France. [Group Sheet]


  14. 249.  Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of EnglandIsabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England was born 0___ 1188, Angouleme, France; died 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France; was buried 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Angouleme
    • Also Known As: Isabella de Taillefer, Queen of England
    • Alt Birth: Abt 1173
    • Alt Death: 14 Oct 1217
    • Alt Death: 4 Jun 1246

    Notes:

    Isabel of Gloucester (c. 1173 - 14 October 1217) was the first wife of John of England . She is known by an exceptionally large number of alternative names: Hadwisa, Hawisia, Hawise, Joan, Eleanor, Avise and Avisa.

    *

    Isabella of Angoulăeme (French: Isabelle d'Angoulăeme, IPA: [izab?l d?~gul?m]; c.1188 – 4 June 1246) was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216. She was also reigning Countess of Angoulăeme from 1202 until 1246.

    She had five children by the king including his heir, later Henry III. In 1220, Isabella married Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche, by whom she had another nine children.

    Some of her contemporaries, as well as later writers, claim that Isabella formed a conspiracy against King Louis IX of France in 1241, after being publicly snubbed by his mother, Blanche of Castile for whom she had a deep-seated hatred.[1] In 1244, after the plot had failed, Isabella was accused of attempting to poison the king. To avoid arrest, she sought refuge in Fontevraud Abbey where she died two years later, but none of this can be confirmed.

    Queen of England

    She was the only daughter and heir of Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angoulăeme, by Alice of Courtenay, who was sister of Peter II of Courtenay, Latin Emperor of Constantinople and granddaughter of King Louis VI of France.

    Isabella became Countess of Angoulăeme in her own right on 16 June 1202, by which time she was already queen of England. Her marriage to King John took place on 24 August 1200, in Angoulăeme,[2] a year after he annulled his first marriage to Isabel of Gloucester. She was crowned queen in an elaborate ceremony on 8 October at Westminster Abbey in London. Isabella was originally betrothed to Hugh IX le Brun, Count of Lusignan,[3] son of the then Count of La Marche. As a result of John's temerity in taking her as his second wife, King Philip II of France confiscated all of their French lands, and armed conflict ensued.

    At the time of her marriage to John, the blonde and blue-eyed 12-year-old Isabella was already renowned by some for her beauty[4] and has sometimes been called the Helen of the Middle Ages by historians.[5] Isabella was much younger than her husband and possessed a volatile temper similar to his own. King John was infatuated with his young, beautiful wife; however, his acquisition of her had as much, if not more to do with spiting his enemies, than romantic love. She was already engaged to Hugh IX le Brun, when she was taken by John. It had been said that he neglected his state affairs to spend time with Isabella, often remaining in bed with her until noon. However, these were rumors, ignited by John's enemies to discredit him as being a weak and grossly irresponsible ruler. Given that at the time they were made John was engaging in a desperate war with King Phillip of France to hold on to the remaining Plantagenet dukedoms. The common people began to term her a "siren" or "Messalina", which spoke volumes as to common opinion .[6] Her mother-in-law, Eleanor of Aquitaine readily accepted her as John's wife.[7]

    On 1 October 1207 at Winchester Castle, Isabella gave birth to a son and heir who was named Henry after the King's father, Henry II. He was quickly followed by another son, Richard, and three daughters, Joan, Isabel, and Eleanor. All five children survived into adulthood, and would make illustrious marriages; all but Joan would produce offspring of their own.

    Second marriage

    When King John died in October 1216, Isabella's first act was to arrange the speedy coronation of her nine-year-old son at the city of Gloucester on 28 October. As the royal crown had recently been lost in The Wash, along with the rest of King John's treasure, she supplied her own golden circlet to be used in lieu of a crown.[8] The following July, less than a year after his crowning as King Henry III of England, she left him in the care of his regent, William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and returned to France to assume control of her inheritance of Angoulăeme.

    In the spring of 1220, she married Hugh X of Lusignan, "le Brun", Seigneur de Luisignan, Count of La Marche, the son of her former fiancâe, Hugh IX, to whom she had been betrothed before her marriage to King John. It had been previously arranged that her eldest daughter Joan should marry Hugh, and the little girl was being brought up at the Lusignan court in preparation for her marriage. Hugh, however, upon seeing Isabella, whose beauty had not diminished,[9] preferred the girl's mother. Princess Joan was provided with another husband, King Alexander II of Scotland, whom she wed in 1221.

    Isabella had married Hugh without waiting to receive the consent of the King's council in England, which was the required procedure for a former Queen of England, as the Council had the power to not only choose the Queen Dowager's second husband, but to decide whether or not she should be allowed to marry at all. Isabella's flouting of this law caused the Council to confiscate her dower lands and stop the payment of her pension.[10] Isabella and her husband retaliated by threatening to keep Princess Joan, who had been promised in marriage to the King of Scotland, in France. The council first responded by sending furious letters, signed in the name of young King Henry, to the Pope, urging him to excommunicate Isabella and her husband, but then decided to come to terms with Isabella, as to avoid conflict with the Scottish king, who was eager to receive his bride. Isabella was granted, in compensation for her dower lands in Normandy, the stannaries in Devon and the revenue of Aylesbury for a period of four years. She also received ą3000 as payment for arrears in her pension.[11]

    By Hugh X, Isabella had nine more children. Their eldest son Hugh XI of Lusignan succeeded his father as Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulăeme in 1249.

    Isabella's children from her past marriage continued their lives in England.

    Rebellion and death[edit]
    Described by some contemporaries as "vain, capricious, and troublesome,"[12] Isabella could not reconcile herself with her less prominent position in France. Though Queen dowager of England, Isabella was now mostly regarded as a mere Countess of La Marche and had to give precedence to other women.[13] In 1241, when Isabella and Hugh were summoned to the French court to swear fealty to King Louis IX of France's brother, Alphonse, who had been invested as Count of Poitou, their mother, the Queen Dowager Blanche openly snubbed her. This so infuriated Isabella, who had a deep-seated hatred of Blanche due to the latter having fervently supported the French invasion of England during the First Barons' War in May 1216, that she began to actively conspire against King Louis. Isabella and her husband, along with other disgruntled nobles, including her son-in-law Raymond VII of Toulouse, sought to create an English-backed confederacy which united the provinces of the south and west against the French king.[14] She encouraged her son Henry in his invasion of Normandy in 1230, but then did not provide him the support she had promised.[15]

    In 1244, after the confederacy had failed and Hugh had made peace with King Louis, two royal cooks were arrested for attempting to poison the King; upon questioning they confessed to having been in Isabella's pay.[16] Before Isabella could be taken into custody, she fled to Fontevraud Abbey, where she died on 4 June 1246.[17]

    By her own prior arrangement, she was first buried in the Abbey's churchyard, as an act of repentance for her many misdeeds. On a visit to Fontevraud, her son King Henry III of England was shocked to find her buried outside the Abbey and ordered her immediately moved inside. She was finally placed beside Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Afterwards, most of her many Lusignan children, having few prospects in France, set sail for England and the court of Henry, their half-brother.

    Issue

    With King John of England: 5 children, all of whom survived into adulthood, including:
    King Henry III of England (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272). Married Eleanor of Provence, by whom he had issue, including his heir, King Edward I of England.
    Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272). Married firstly Isabel Marshal, secondly Sanchia of Provence, and thirdly Beatrice of Falkenburg. Had issue.
    Joan (22 July 1210 – 1238), the wife of King Alexander II of Scotland. Her marriage was childless.
    Isabella (1214–1241), the wife of Emperor Frederick II, by whom she had issue.
    Eleanor (1215–1275), who would marry firstly William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke; and secondly Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, by whom she had issue.

    With Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche: nine children, all of whom survived into adulthood, including:

    Hugh XI of Lusignan (1221–1250), Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulăeme. Married Yolande de Dreux, Countess of Penthiáevre and of Porhoet, by whom he had issue.
    Aymer of Lusignan (1222–1260), Bishop of Winchester
    Agnáes de Lusignan (1223–1269). Married William II de Chauvigny (d. 1270), and had issue.
    Alice of Lusignan (1224 – 9 February 1256). Married John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, by whom she had issue.
    Guy of Lusignan (c. 1225 – 1264), killed at the Battle of Lewes. (Tufton Beamish maintains that he escaped to France after the Battle of Lewes and died there in 1269).
    Geoffrey of Lusignan (c. 1226 – 1274). Married in 1259 Jeanne, Viscountess of Chăatellerault, by whom he had issue.
    Isabella of Lusignan (c.1226/1227 14 January 1299). Married firstly before 1244 Maurice IV, seigneur de Craon (1224–1250),[18] by whom she had issue; she married secondly, Geoffrey de Rancon.[19]
    William of Lusignan (c. 1228 – 1296). 1st Earl of Pembroke. Married Joan de Munchensi, by whom he had issue.
    Marguerite de Lusignan (c. 1229 – 1288). Married firstly in 1243 Raymond VII of Toulouse; secondly c. 1246 Aimery IX de Thouars, Viscount of Thouars and had issue

    Birth:
    Aquitaine, Charente department...

    Notes:

    Married:
    Bordeaux Cathedral (Cathâedrale Saint-Andrâe de Bordeaux) is a Roman Catholic cathedral, seat of the Archbishop of Bordeaux-Bazas, located in Bordeaux.

    The cathedral was consecrated by Pope Urban II in 1096. Of the original Romanesque edifice, only a wall in the nave remains. The Royal Gate is from the early 13th century, while the rest of the construction is mostly from the 14th-15th centuries. The building is a national monument of France.

    In this church in 1137 the 13-year-old Eleanor of Aquitaine married the future Louis VII, a few months before she became Queen.


    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bordeaux_Cathedral

    Children:
    1. 124. Henry III, King of England was born 1 Oct 1207, Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom; was christened 0___ 1207, Bermondsey, London, Middlesex, England; died 16 Nov 1272, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was buried 20 Nov 1272, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. Richard Plantagenet, Knight, 1st Earl of Cornwall was born 5 Jan 1209, Winchester Castle, Castle Ave, Winchester, Hampshire SO23 8PJ, United Kingdom; was christened 0___ 1214, Winchester Castle, Castle Ave, Winchester, Hampshire SO23 8PJ, United Kingdom; died 2 Apr 1272, Berkhamsted Castle, Hertfordshire, England; was buried 13 Apr 1272, Hailes Abbey, Winchcombe, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire - GL54 5PB, England.
    3. Isabella Plantagenet was born 0___ 1214; died 0___ 1241.
    4. Eleanor of Leicester was born 0___ 1215, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England; died 13 Apr 1275, Montargis Abbey, France; was buried Montargis Abbey, France.

  15. 252.  Alfonso IX, King of Leon and Galacia was born 15 Aug 1171, Zamora, Spain; died 24 Sep 1230, Villanueva de Sarria, Spain; was buried Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.

    Notes:

    Alfonso IX (15 August 1171 – 23 or 24 September 1230) was king of Leâon and Galicia from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death. According to Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406), he is said to have been called the Baboso or Slobberer because he was subject to fits of rage during which he foamed at the mouth.[citation needed]

    He took steps towards modernizing and democratizing his dominion and founded the University of Salamanca in 1212. In 1188 he summoned the first parliament reflecting full representation of the citizenry ever seen in Western Europe, the Cortes of Leâon.[1]

    He took a part in the work of the Reconquest, conquering the area of Extremadura (including the cities of Câaceres and Badajoz).

    Family

    Alfonso was born in Zamora. He was the only son of King Ferdinand II of Leâon and Urraca of Portugal.[1] His father was the younger son of Alfonso VII of Leâon and Castile, who divided his kingdoms between his sons, which set the stage for conflict in the family until the kingdoms were re-united by Alfonso IX's son, Ferdinand III of Castile.[2]

    Reign

    Alfonso IX had great difficulty in obtaining the throne through his given birthright. In July 1188 his cousin Alfonso VIII of Castile required the younger Alfonso to recognize the elder as overlord in exchange for recognizing the younger's authority in Leâon.[3]

    The convening of the Cortes de Leâon in the cloisters of the Basilica of San Isidoro would be one of the most important events of Alfonso's reign. The difficult economic situation at the beginning of his reign compelled Alfonso to raise taxes on the underprivileged classes, leading to protests and a few towns revolts. In response the king summoned the Cortes, an assembly of nobles, clergy and representatives of cities, and subsequently faced demands for compensatory spending and greater external control and oversight of royal expenditures. Alfonso's convening of the Cortes is considered by many historians, including Australia's John Keane,[4] to be instrumental to the formation of democratic parliaments across Europe. Note that Iceland had already held what may have been what is Europe's first parliament, the ´ingvellir, in 930 CE. However, the Cortes' 1188 session predates the first session of the Parliament of England, which occurred in the thirteenth century.

    In spite of the democratic precedent represented by the Cortes and the founding of the University of Salamanca, Alfonso is often chiefly remembered for the difficulties his successive marriages caused between him with Pope Celestine III. He was first married in 1191 to his first cousin, Theresa of Portugal,[1] who bore him two daughters, and a son who died young. The marriage was declared null by the papal legate Cardinal Gregory for consanguinity.

    After Alfonso VIII of Castile was defeated at the Battle of Alarcos, Alfonso IX invaded Castile with the aid of Muslim troops.[1] He was summarily excommunicated by Pope Celestine III. In 1197, Alfonso IX married his first cousin once removed, Berengaria of Castile, to cement peace between Leâon and Castile.[5] For this second act of consanguinity, the king and the kingdom were placed under interdict by representatives of the Pope.[6] In 1198, Pope Innocent III declared Alfonso and Berengaria's marriage invalid, but they stayed together until 1204.[7] The annulment of this marriage by the pope drove the younger Alfonso to again attack his cousin in 1204, but treaties made in 1205, 1207, and 1209 each forced him to concede further territories and rights.[8][9] The treaty in 1207 is the first existing public document in the Castilian dialect.[10]

    The Pope was, however, compelled to modify his measures by the threat that, if the people could not obtain the services of religion, they would not support the clergy, and that heresy would spread. The king was left under interdict personally, but to that he showed himself indifferent, and he had the support of his clergy.

    Children

    In 1191, he married Theresa of Portugal,[11] daughter of King Sancho I of Portugal and Queen Dulce of Aragon.[12] Between 1191 and 1196, the year in which their marriage was annulled, three children were born:

    Sancha (1191–before 1243)[13] unmarried and without issue. She and her sister Dulce became nuns or retired at the Monastery of San Guillermo Villabuena (Leâon) where she died before 1243.
    Ferdinand(1192/1193–1214),[14] unmarried and without issue.
    Dulce (1193/1194–1248).[15]
    On 17 November 1197 he married infanta Berengaria of Castile, daughter of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonor of England. Five children were born of this marriage:

    Eleanor[16] (1198/1199 - 11 November 1202).
    Constance (1 May 1200 - 7 September 1242), became a nun at the Abbey of Santa Marâia la Real de Las Huelgas, Burgos, where she died.[16]
    Ferdinand III of Castile (1201–1252). King of Castile in 1217 after the death of Henry I of Castile and of Leâon in 1230 after the death of his father.[16]
    Alfonso (1202–1272), Lord of Molina due to his first marriage to Mafalda Gonzâalez de Lara.[16]
    Berengaria of Leâon (1204–1237), in 1224 married John of Brienne,[16]
    Alfonso also fathered many illegitimate children. After the annulment of his first marriage and before wedding Berengaria, he had a relationship which lasted about two years with Inâes Íäniguez de Mendoza, daughter of Iänigo Lâopez de Mendoza and Marâia Garcâia,[17] with whom he had a daughter born around 1197:

    Urraca Alfonso, the wife of Lope Dâiaz II de Haro, Lord of Biscay.[18]
    He had another relationship afterwards with a noblewoman from Galicia, Estefanâia Pâerez de Faiam. In 1211, King Alfonso gave her lands in Orense where her family, as can be inferred from her last will dated 1250, owned many estates, as well as in the north of Portugal. She was the daughter of Pedro Menâendez Faiam, who confirmed several royal charters of King Alfonso IX, and granddaughter of Menendo Faiam, who also confirmed several diplomas issued in Galicia as of 1155 by King Ferdinand II of Leâon. After the relationship ended, Estefanâia married Rodrigo Suâarez with whom she had issue. In her will, she asked to be buried in the Monastery of Fiäaes in northern Portugal.[19]

    Alfonso IX and Estefanâia were the parents of:[a]

    Ferdinand Alfonso of Leâon (born in 1211),[19] died young.
    According to Spanish historian, Julio Gonzâalez, after his relationship with Estefanâia, the king had a lover from Salamanca, of unknown origin, whose name was Maura and with whom he had: [21]

    Fernando Alfonso de Leâon (ca. 1214/1218 – Salamanca, 10 January 1278), archdeacon of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela,[21] who had issue with Aldara de Ulloa.
    Of his relationship with the noblewoman from Portugal, Aldonza Martâinez de Silva, daughter of Martim Gomes da Silva and his wife Urraca Rodrigues,[22] which lasted from 1214 to 1218, three children were born:

    Rodrigo (ca. 1214 – ca. 1268), lord of Aliger and Castro del Râio, and Adelantado of the March of Andalusia, he married Inâes Rodrâiguez, daughter of Rodrigo Fernâandez de Valduerna,[23] Lord of Cabrera and alfâerez of King Alfonso IX.
    Aldonza (died after 1267). Married count Pedro Ponce de Cabrera,[24] and had issue. They are the ancestors of the Ponce de Leâon family.
    Teresa Alfonso of Leâon.[b]
    King Alfonso's most long-lasting relationship, which began in 1218 and lasted until his death in 1230,[27] was with Teresa Gil de Soverosa.[28] A member of the Portuguese nobility, Teresa was the daughter of Gil Vasques de Soverosa and his first wife Marâia Aires de Fornelos. They had four children, all of them born between 1218 and 1239:[29]

    Sancha (d. 1270). Married Simon Ruiz, Lord of Los Cameros.[30] She later became a nun at the convent of Santa Eufemia de Cozuelos which she had founded.[30]
    Marâia (died after July 1275).[c] Her first marriage was with Álvaro Fernâandez de Lara. She was then the concubine of her nephew King Alfonso X of Castile and, according to the Count of Barcelos, her second husband was Suero Arias de Valladares.[30]
    Martâin (died 1268/1272), married to Maria Mendes de Sousa, founders of the Monastery of Sancti-Spâiritus, Salamanca. There was no issue from this marriage.[31]
    Urraca (d. after 1252). First married Garcâia Romeu,[30] and then Pedro Nâuänez de Guzmâan.[30]
    Although Alfonso IX is supposed to have had another son, Pedro Alfonso de Leâon, there is no documentary proof that he was the king's son or that he was the Grand Master of the Order of Santiago.[d]

    Death

    Alfonso IX of Leâon died on 24 September 1230. His death was particularly significant in that his son, Ferdinand III of Castile, who was already the King of Castile also inherited the throne of Leâon from his father. This was thanks to the negotiations of his mother, Berengaria, who convinced her stepdaughters to renounce their claim on the throne.[33] In an effort to quickly consolidate his power over Leâon, Ferdinand III abandoned a military campaign to capture the city of Jaâen immediately upon hearing news of his father's death and traveled to Leâon to be crowned king. This coronation united the Kingdoms of Leâon and Castile which would go on to dominate the Iberian Peninsula.

    Alfonso — Berengaria of Castile, Queen of Castile. Berengaria (daughter of Alfonso VIII, King of Castile and Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile) was born 1179-1180, Burgos, Spain; died 8 Nov 1246, Las Huelgas, Spain. [Group Sheet]


  16. 253.  Berengaria of Castile, Queen of Castile was born 1179-1180, Burgos, Spain (daughter of Alfonso VIII, King of Castile and Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile); died 8 Nov 1246, Las Huelgas, Spain.

    Notes:

    Berengaria (Castilian: Berenguela; 1179 or 1180 – 8 November 1246) was queen regnant of Castile[1] in 1217 and queen consort of Leâon from 1197 to 1204. As the eldest child and heir presumptive of Alfonso VIII of Castile, she was a sought after bride, and was engaged to Conrad, the son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. After his death, she married her cousin, Alfonso IX of Leâon, to secure the peace between him and her father. She had five children with him before their marriage was voided by Pope Innocent III.

    When her father died, she served as regent for her younger brother Henry I in Castile until she succeeded him on his untimely death. Within months, she turned Castile over to her son, Ferdinand III, concerned that as a woman she would not be able to lead Castile's forces. However, she remained one of his closest advisors, guiding policy, negotiating, and ruling on his behalf for the rest of her life. She was responsible for the re-unification of Castile and Leâon under her son's authority, and supported his efforts in the Reconquista. She was a patron of religious institutions and supported the writing of a history of the two countries.

    Early family life

    Berengaria was born either in 1179[2][3] or 1180,[3][4] in Burgos.[3] She was the eldest daughter of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England. Those who cared for the young infanta were generously rewarded.[5] Her nurse, Estefanâia, received land from Alfonso and Eleanor on her retirement in May 1181.[5] Another nurse, Elvira, received a similar retirement gift in 1189 at Berengaria's request.[5]

    As the eldest child of king Alfonso and Eleanor, she was the heiress presumptive of the throne of Castile for several years,[6] because many of her siblings who were born after her died shortly after birth or in early infancy, so Berengaria became a greatly desired partner throughout Europe.[6]

    Berengaria's first engagement was agreed in 1187 when her hand was sought by Conrad, Duke of Rothenburg and fifth child of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.[7] The next year, the marriage contract was signed in Seligenstadt, including a dowry of 42000 Maravedâi.[7] Conrad then marched to Castile, where in Carriâon the engagement was celebrated and Conrad was knighted.[8] Berengaria's status as heir of Castile when she inherited the throne was based in part on documentation in the treaty and marriage contract,[9][10] which specified that she would inherit the kingdom after her father or any childless brothers who may come along.[9] Conrad would only be allowed to co-rule as her spouse, and Castile would not become part of the Empire.[7] The treaty also documented traditional rights and obligations between the future sovereign and the nobility.[11]

    The marriage was not consummated, due to Berengaria's young age, as she was less than 10 years old.[12] Conrad and Berengaria never saw each other again.[13] By 1191, Berengaria requested an annulment of the engagement from the Pope, influenced, no doubt, by third parties such as her grandmother Eleanor of Aquitaine, who was not interested in having a Hohenstaufen as a neighbor to her French fiefdoms.[13] Those fears were neutralized when the duke was assassinated in 1196.[13]

    Marriage to Alfonso IX

    In order to help secure peace between Castile and Leâon, Berengaria married Alfonso IX of Leâon, her first cousin once removed, in Valladolid in 1197.[14] As part of the marriage, and in accordance with Spanish customs of the time, she received direct control over a number of castles and lands within Leâon.[14] Most of these were along the border with Castile, and the nobles who ran them in her name were allowed to seek justice from either king in the event of being wronged by the other.[14] In turn, these knights were charged with maintaining the peace along the border in the queen's name.[15]

    Berengaria and Alfonso IX had five children:

    Eleanor (1198/1199 – 1202).
    Constance (1200 – 1242), a nun in the Abbey of las Huelgas.
    Ferdinand III (1201 – 1252), King of Castile and Leâon.
    Alfonso (1203 – 1272), Lord of Molina and Mesa by his first marriage. He married, first, Mafalda de Lara, heiress of Molina and Mesa, second, Teresa Nâuänez, and third, Mayor Tâellez de Meneses, Lady of Montealegre and Tiedra, by whom he was the father of Marâia of Molina, wife of King Sancho IV of Leâon and Castile.
    Berengaria (1204 – 1237), married John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem.
    Starting in 1198, Pope Innocent III objected to the marriage on the grounds of consanguinity, though the couple stayed together until 1204.[16] They vehemently sought a dispensation in order to stay together, including offering large sums of money.[17] However, the pope denied their request, although they succeeded in having their children considered legitimate.[18] Her marriage dissolved, Berengaria returned to Castile and to her parents in May 1204, where she dedicated herself to the care of her children.[18]

    Between queenships

    Stained glass window in the Alcâazar of Segovia depicting Berengaria and her father
    Though she had left her role as queen of Leâon, she retained authority over and taxing rights in many of the lands she had received there, including Salamanca and Castroverde,[19] which she gave to her son Ferdinand in 1206.[20] Some of the nobles who had served her as queen followed her back to the court in Castille.[21] The peace which had prevailed since her marriage was lost, and there was war again between Leâon and Castille, in part over her control of these lands.[22] In 1205, 1207, and 1209, treaties were made again between the two countries, each expanding her control.[23] In the treaties of 1207 and 1209, Berengaria and her son were given again significant properties along the border, including many key castles, including Villalpando.[24] The treaty in 1207 is the first existing public document in the Castilian dialect.[25]

    In 1214, on the death of her father, Alfonso VIII of Castile, the crown passed to his only surviving son, Berengaria's 10-year-old brother, Henry I.[26] Their mother Eleanor assumed the regency, but died 24 days after her husband.[26] Berengaria, now heir presumptive again, replaced her as regent.[26] At this point internal strife began, instigated by the nobility, primarily the House of Lara.[27] They forced Berengaria to cede regency and guardianship of her brother to Count Álvaro Nâuänez de Lara.[27]

    In 1216, an extraordinary parliamentary session was held in Valladolid, attended by such Castilian magnates as Lope Dâiaz II de Haro, Gonzalo Rodrâiguez Girâon, Álvaro Dâiaz de Cameros, Alfonso Tâellez de Meneses and others, who agreed, with the support of Berengaria, to make common cause against Álvaro Nâuänez de Lara.[28] At the end of May the situation in Castile had grown perilous for Berengaria, so she decided to take refuge in the castle of Autillo de Campos, which was held by Gonzalo Rodrâiguez Girâon (one of her allies) and sent her son Ferdinand to the court of his father.[28] On 15 August 1216, an assembly of all the magnates of Castile was held to attempt to reach an accord that would prevent civil war, but disagreements led the families of Girâon, Tâellez de Meneses, and Haro to break definitively with Álvaro de Lara.[28]

    Queen of Castile

    Circumstances changed suddenly when Henry died on 6 June 1217 after receiving a head wound from a tile which came loose while he was playing with other children at the palace of the Bishop of Palencia.[29] His guardian, Count Álvaro Nâuänez de Lara, tried to hide the fact, taking the king's body to the castle of Tariego, although it was inevitable that the news would reach Berengaria.[30]

    The new sovereign was well aware of the danger her former husband posed to her reign; being her brother's closest agnate, it was feared that he would claim the crown for himself.[29] Therefore, she kept her brother's death and her own accession secret from Alfonso.[29] She wrote to Alfonso asking that Ferdinand be sent to visit her, and then abdicated in their son's favor on 31 August.[29] In part, she abdicated as she would be unable to be the military leader Castile needed its king to be in that time.[31]

    Royal advisor

    Although she did not reign for long, Berengaria continued to be her son's closest advisor, intervening in state policy, albeit in an indirect manner.[32] Well into her son's reign, contemporary authors wrote that she still wielded authority over him.[32] One example was how she arranged the marriage of her son with princess Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (known as Beatriz in Castile), daughter of Duke Philip of Swabia and granddaughter of two emperors: Frederick Barbarossa and Isaac II Angelos of Byzantium.[33] The wedding took place on 30 November 1219 at Burgos.[33] Another instance in which Berengaria's mediation stood out developed in 1218 when the scheming Lara family, still headed by former regent Álvaro Nâuänez de Lara, conspired to have Alfonso IX, King of Leâon and King Ferdinand's father, invade Castile to seize his son's throne.[33] However, the capture of Count Lara facilitated the intervention of Berengaria, who got father and son to sign the Pact of Toro on 26 August 1218, putting an end to confrontations between Castile and Leâon.[33]

    In 1222, Berengaria intervened anew in favor of her son, achieving the ratification of the Convention of Zafra, thereby making peace with the Laras by arranging the marriage of Mafalda, daughter and heiress of the Lord of Molina, Gonzalo Pâerez de Lara, to her own son and King Ferdinand's brother, Alfonso.[34] In 1224 she arranged the marriage of her daughter Berengaria to John of Brienne, a maneuver which brought Ferdinand III closer to the throne of Leâon, since John was the candidate Alfonso IX had in mind to marry his eldest daughter Sancha.[35] By proceeding more quickly, Berengaria prevented the daughters of her former husband from marrying a man who could claim the throne of Leâon.[35]

    Perhaps her most decisive intervention on Ferdinand's behalf took place in 1230, when Alfonso IX died and designated as heirs to the throne his daughters Sancha and Dulce from his first marriage to Theresa of Portugal, superseding the rights of Ferdinand III.[36] Berengaria met with the princesses’ mother and succeeded in the ratification of the Treaty of las Tercerâias, by which they renounced the throne in favor of their half-brother in exchange for a substantial sum of money and other benefits.[36][37] Thus were the thrones of Leâon and Castile re-united in the person of Ferdinand III,[36] which had been divided by Alfonso VII in 1157.[9] She intervened again by arranging the second marriage of Ferdinand after the death of Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen.[38] Although he already had plenty of children, Berengaria was concerned that the king's virtue not be diminished with illicit relations.[38] This time, she chose a French noblewoman, Joan of Dammartin, a candidate put forth by the king's aunt and Berengaria's sister Blanche, widow of King Louis VIII of France.[38] Berengaria served again as regent, ruling while her son Ferdinand was in the south on his long campaigns of the Reconquista.[39] She governed Castile and Leâon with her characteristic skill, relieving him of the need to divide his attention during this time.[39]

    Patronage and legacy

    Berengaria's tomb in Las Huelgas
    She met with her son a final time in Pozuelo de Calatrava in 1245, afterwards returning to Toledo.[40] She died 8 November 1246,[41] and was buried at Las Huelgas near Burgos.[42]

    Much like her mother, she was a strong patron of religious institutions.[43] She worked with her mother to support the Abbey of Santa Marâia la Real de Las Huelgas.[43] As queen of Leâon, she supported the Order of Santiago and supported the Basilica of San Isidoro, not only donating to it, but also exempting it from any taxes.[43] She re-established the tradition of Leâonese royal women supporting the Monastery of San Pedro de Eslonza, last performed by her great-grand aunt, Sancha Raimâundez.[43]

    She is portrayed as a wise and virtuous woman by the chroniclers of the time.[44][45][46] She was also concerned with literature and history, charging Lucas de Tuy to compose a chronicle on the Kings of Castile and Leâon to aid and instruct future rulers of the joint kingdom.[44] She herself was discussed in the works of Rodrigo Jimâenez de Rada, whose work was sponsored by her son Ferdinand, and Juan of Osma,[45] who was chancellor of Castile under Ferdinand.[46]

    Children:
    1. 126. Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon was born 5 Aug 1201, Castile, Spain; died 30 May 1252, Seville, Spain; was buried Seville Cathedral, Seville, Spain.
    2. Berenguela of Leon was born 0___ 1204; died 12 Apr 1237.