William Carey

William Carey

Male 1500 - 1528  (~ 28 years)

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Generation: 1

  1. 1.  William CareyWilliam Carey was born ~ 1500, Aldenham, Hertfordshire, England (son of Thomas Carey and Margaret Spencer); died 22 Jun 1528.

    Notes:

    William Carey, of Aldenham, in Hertfordshire (c. 1500 - 22 June 1528) was a courtier and favourite of King Henry VIII of England. He served the king as a Gentleman of the Privy chamber, and Esquire of the Body to the King. His wife, Mary Boleyn, is known to history as a mistress of King Henry VIII and the sister of Henry's second wife, Anne Boleyn.

    Biography

    William Carey was the second son of Sir Thomas Carey (1455–1500), of Chilton Foliat in Wiltshire, and his wife, Margaret Spencer, daughter of Sir Robert Spencer and Eleanor Beaufort, and grandson of Sir William Cary of Cockington, Devon, an eminent Lancastrian.[2] This Cary family were anciently recorded in Devon, and originally held the manors at Cockington and Clovelly in that county.[3] Eleanor was the daughter of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, whose brother John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, was the father of Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, grandmother of King Henry VIII; thus William and Henry VIII were third cousins. William's maternal aunt was Catherine Spencer, Countess of Northumberland, and through her, he was first cousin to Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland, the former suitor of his sister-in-law Anne Boleyn.

    On 4 February 1520,[4] he was married to Mary Boleyn, the elder daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard. They resided at Aldenham in Hertfordshire.

    Shortly after their marriage, Mary became the mistress of King Henry VIII. The Boleyns received grants of land, and Carey himself profited from his wife's unfaithfulness, being granted manors and estates by the King while it was in progress.[5] Carey was also a noted art collector and he introduced the famed Dutch artist, Lucas Horenbout, to the Kingdom of England in the mid-1520s. Perhaps one of the reasons the athletic King Henry VIII favoured Carey was the fact that Carey appears to have been fond of activities such as riding, hunting and jousting. Carey distinguished himself in jousting at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.

    Anne Boleyn, Mary's sister, caught Henry's eye a year after his affair with Mary ended. Henry proposed marriage to her in 1527. William Carey did not live to enjoy his sister-in-law's prosperity, since he died of the sweating sickness the following year. Brian Tuke, Henry's secretary at the time of Carey's death wrote this to Lord Legat the day after his death: "Now is word common that M. Cary, which before I came lay in the chamber where I lie, and with whom at my first coming I met here in this place, saying that he had been with his wife at Plashey, and would not be seen within, because he would ride again and hunt, is dead of the sweat. Our Lord have mercy on his soul; and hold his hand over us." He died greatly in debt, and his wife was reduced to pawning her jewellery before Anne Boleyn arranged a pension for her.

    Children of William Carey and Mary Boleyn[edit]
    William Carey and Mary Boleyn were the parents of two children:

    Catherine Carey (c. 1524 – 15 January 1568). Maid of Honour to Anne of Cleves and Catherine Howard. She was married to the Puritan Sir Francis Knollys, Knight of the Garter. She was later lady-in-waiting to her cousin, Elizabeth I. One of her daughters, Lettice Knollys, became the second wife of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, the favourite of Elizabeth I.
    Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon (4 March 1526 – 23 July 1596). He was ennobled by Queen Elizabeth I just after her coronation and created Knight of the Garter in 1561. When Henry was dying, Elizabeth offered him the Boleyn family title, Earl of Ormonde, which he had long sought, but he refused the honour.
    Because of Mary's affair, it has been suggested that Catherine and Henry may have been instead Henry VIII's biological children (see Issue of Mary Boleyn). The veracity of this claim is the subject of historical debate.

    *

    William married Mary Boleyn 4 Feb 1520. Mary (daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire and Elizabeth Howard, Countess of Wiltshire) was born 1499-1500, Blickling Hall, Norfolk, England; died 19 Jul 1543. [Group Sheet]

    Notes:

    Married:
    William Cary, the first husband of Mary Boleyn, sister of Queen Anne Boleyn, and ancestor to the Cary Barons Hunsdon, Barons Cary of Leppington, Earls of Monmouth, Viscounts Rochford and Earls of Dover.

    Children:
    1. Catherine Carey was born ~ 1524; died 15 Jan 1569, Hampton Court Palace, London, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon was born 0Mar 1526.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  Thomas Carey was born 0___ 1465, Clovelly, Devon, England (son of William Cary, Knight and Alice Fulford); died Bef 1548, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

    Thomas married Margaret Spencer ~ 1492. Margaret (daughter of Robert Spencer and Eleanor Beaufort, Countess of Ormonde) was born ~ 1471, Spencer Combe, Devon, England; died 0___ 1536. [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Margaret Spencer was born ~ 1471, Spencer Combe, Devon, England (daughter of Robert Spencer and Eleanor Beaufort, Countess of Ormonde); died 0___ 1536.

    Other Events:

    • Baptism: Spencer Combe, Devon, England
    • Also Known As: Eleanor Spencer

    Notes:

    Margaret (or Eleanor) Spencer (1472–1536) was the daughter of Sir Robert Spencer, of Spencer Combe in the parish of Crediton, Devon,[1] by his wife Lady Eleanor Beaufort, the daughter of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset and Lady Eleanor Beauchamp.

    Marriage and issue

    In 1490 she married Sir Thomas Carey, of Chilton Foliat, in Wiltshire, second son of Sir William Cary (1437-1471) of Cockington, Devon, by his second wife Alice (or Anna) Fulford,[2] a daughter of Sir Baldwin Fulford (d.1476) of Great Fulford, Devon.[3] They had eight children:

    Sir John Carey, of Plashey (1491–1552), married Joyce Denny (1495–1559). She was the daughter of Sir Edmund Denny, of Cheshunt by his second wife, Mary Troutbeck.
    Anne Carey (1493–1550)
    William Carey (1500–1528), Gentleman of the Privy Chamber and Esquire of the Body to King Henry VIII of England, married Mary Boleyn. It is thought that shortly after the marriage, Henry VIII began an affair with Mary, and around this time she gave birth to two children whose parentage is questioned by historians, Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon and Catherine Carey. If they were Margaret's biological grandchildren, then her descendants include Charles Darwin, Winston Churchill, Elizabeth II and Diana, Princess of Wales.
    Margaret Carey (1496–1560)
    Eleanor Carey (died after 1528). She was a nun at Wilton Abbey.
    Daughter Carey. She was a nun at Wilton Abbey.
    Edward Carey (1498–1560)
    Mary Carey (1501–1560), married John Delaval, Sheriff of Northumberland (1493–1562).

    *

    Children:
    1. John Carey, Knight was born ~ 1495, Pleshey, Essex, England; died 8 Sep 1552, Hunsdon, Hertfordshire, England; was buried 9 Sep 1552, Hunsdon, Hertfordshire, England.
    2. 1. William Carey was born ~ 1500, Aldenham, Hertfordshire, England; died 22 Jun 1528.


Generation: 3

  1. 4.  William Cary, KnightWilliam Cary, Knight was born 12 Aug 1437, Clovelly, Devon, England (son of Phillip Cary, Knight and Christian Orchard); died 6 May 1471, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Member of Parliament
    • Also Known As: Thomas Carey
    • Also Known As: William Carey

    Notes:

    Sir William Cary (1437-1471) of Cockington and Clovelly in Devon was a member of the Devonshire gentry. He was beheaded after the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471.[2]

    Origins

    He was the son and heir of Philip Cary (died 1437) of Cockington, Member of Parliament for Devon in 1433, by his wife Christiana de Orchard (died 1472), daughter and heiress of William de Orchard of Orchard (later Orchard Portman), near Taunton in Somerset. Christiana de Orchard survived her first husband and remarried to Walter Portman,[3] ten times MP for Taunton,[4] by whom she had children, ancestors of the present Viscount Portman, owner of the Portman Estate in London.

    Marriages and children

    Cary married twice:

    Marquess of Winchester COA.svg Firstly to Elizabeth Poulett, a daughter of Sir William Poulett of Hinton St George, Somerset (ancestor of Earl Poulett), by whom he had a son and heir:
    Robert Cary (died 1540), of Cockington
    FulfordArms.png Secondly he married Anna (or Alice) Fulford, a daughter of Sir Baldwin Fulford (died 1476) of Fulford, Devon, by whom he had children:
    Thomas Cary of Chilton Foliat, Wiltshire, who married Margaret Spencer (1472–1536), (or Eleanor Spencer[2]), one of the two daughters and co-heiresses of Sir Robert Spencer (died c. 1510), "of Spencer Combe", in the parish of Crediton in Devon, by his wife Eleanor Beaufort (1431–1501), daughter of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset (1406–1455), KG. By Margaret Spencer, Thomas had two sons:
    Sir John Cary (1491–1552) of Plashey, eldest son, ancestor to the Cary Viscounts Falkland.[5]
    William Cary, her second son, the first husband of Mary Boleyn, sister of Queen Anne Boleyn, and ancestor to the Cary Barons Hunsdon, Barons Cary of Leppington, Earls of Monmouth, Viscounts Rochford and Earls of Dover.[5]
    Death[edit]
    Cary was beheaded on 6 May 1471[1] after the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Tewkesbury.[2] He is believed to be represented by a monumental brass of a knight, without surviving identifying inscription, set into a slate ledger stone on the floor of the chancel of All Saints Church, Clovelly, next to a smaller brass, in similar style, of his son and heir Robert Cary (died 1540).[1]

    *

    Direct Descendants of Adam De Kari
    The following outline contains the DIRECT Descendancy from Adam De Kari to Nancy Lou Sparks Morrison and her children, along with notes for selected De Kari, Cary, Carey and other family lines. A gedcom of ALL descendants now in this file is available from me by e-mailing: nmorri3924@aol.com

    Lord Adam DeKari, Baron of Castle Kari

    Sources for this family information are:

    A.) The Cary Family in England by Henry Grosvenor Cary, published 1906 by Seth Cooley Cary, Dorchester Centre, Boston.

    B.) Early History of Va. & Md. & 7 Centuries of Lines.
    Virginia Room, Roanoke Va. Library, V. Ref. 929.2 K62e

    C.) Ancestors and Descendants of John Quarles Winn and his wife Mary Liscome Jarvis
    Winn 929.2 W
    Jones Memorial Library, Lynchburg, Va.
    Lynchburg Gen. Lib., Lynchburg, Va. copied June 20, 1996

    D.) Carey Highlights: Yesterday for Tomorrow by Virginia Miller Carey, copyright 1983.
    Dogwood Printing, P.O.Bo 716, Ozark, Mo 65721

    E.) Plymouth Pilgrim by Seth C. Cary published 1911, Boston Mass.

    F.) From the records of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

    G.) Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England, James Savage 4 vols.

    H.) Peirce's Colonial Lists of Plymouth & Rhode Island,. 1621-1700 by Ebenezer W. Peirce.

    I.) The Cary Family in America. By Henry Grosvenor Cary. Appe...
    Boston, (Press of Murray and Emery Company) 1907.
    Henry Grosvenor Cary, 1829-1905
    Virginia State Archives, Richmond, Virginia - July, 1996

    J.) Edward Poole of Weymouth, Mass. and His Descendants by Murray Edward Poole - 1893

    K.) 1820 Census of Cabell County, Virginia (WVA

    L.) 1830 Census of Logan Co. VA. (WVA)

    M.) 1850 Census of Lawrence County, Kentucky.

    N.) 'The History of Logan Co.' By Ragland

    O.) The McCoy's: Their Story by Truda Wiliams McCoy.

    P.) Information for this family was given to me by Anna Lee Mayo Clay in Ballard,W.Va.
    Aug.19, 1977. She was 75 years old and her memory was clear.

    Q. Information for this family was given to me by Fanny Mayo, b.Dec. 25, 1904 in Ballard, WV,
    Aug. 19, 1977. She was 73 years old and her memory was clear.


    1 ADAM De KARI b: 1170 in Castle Kari, Somerset, England
    .... +Amy Trevitt Father: William Trevitt

    NOTES on ADAM De KARI:

    1.) For centuries the castle has existed only in history, but the town where it was located is known today as Castle Cary and may thus be found on maps. It is in Somersetshire and twelve miles southeast of Wells.
    2.) It is known that it was a fortified place in the time of the Saxons. About the year 1125, the Lord William Percival named 'Lovel the Wolf" erected strong fortifications at Kari.

    3.) Much of the time during the reign of King Steven (1135-1154) the Barons were divided into two parties, The Lord Kari being opposed to the King.

    4.) He made so much trouble that Stephen turned his whole attention to Castle Kari and took it. In 1153, it was beseiged again and nearly ruined.

    5.) The Manor House stands on the east side of the street and was a stately edifice. During the wanderings of Charles II, when his army was defeated by Cromwell at the Battle of Worchester, the disguised King slept at Castle Cary on the night of 3 Sept. 1651.

    6.) Reign of Henry II and Richard I.


    2 John De Kary b: 1200
    +Elizabeth Stapleton Father: Richard Stapleton

    1.) Reign of John and Henry III.
    3 William DeKary b: 1230 in Castle Kary, Somerset, England
    +Alice Beaumont Father: William Beaumont Mother: Alwyn
    1.) Reign of Henry III and Edward I.
    4 John DeKarry b: 1270 in Castle Karry
    +Phillippa Archdeacon Father: Warren Archdeacon
    Notes on John DeKarry:

    1.) The use of the French 'DE' was not universal. Sometimes the children used it when their parents did not.
    2.) Reign of Edward I and Edward II.


    5 William Kary b: 1300 in Castle Kary, Somerset, England
    +Margaret Bosun (Bozon or Bozume) b: in Clovelly of Devon

    Notes for William Kary:

    1.) The spelling of the name was changed during the reign of Edward II and has remained to to this day.
    2.) Reign of Edward III and Richard II.

    6 John Cary b: 1325 in St.Giles-in-the-Heath, Devon, England
    +Jane DeBryen Father: Guy de Bryen
    Notes for John Cary:

    1.) Reign of Edward III and Richard II.
    2.) The spelling of the name was changed to Cary during the reign of Edward II and has ever since been spelled as Cary (until 1906). Sometime after that some Carys added an "e" to the name and there have been both Carys and Careys since.


    7 John Cary b: 1350 in England d: 1404 in Waterford, Ireland
    +Margaret Holway

    Notes for John Cary:

    1.) He was banished to Waterford, Ireland, where he was no less than 4 years in banishment. A long time living, to be confined to the shades of misery and sorrow.
    2.) Among his estates were Cockington and Clovelly.

    3.) He lived during the reigns of Edward III and Richard II

    4.) From The Cary Family in Eng. by Cary,

    "Prince says: 'On the fifth of November, 1387, he was by the King Richard II, made Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and advanced to be a Judge of the land; who being now placed in a high and spacious Orb, he scattered the Rays of Justice about him with great splendor. In his post he continued many years, manifesting in all his actions, an inflexible Virtue and Honesty; and indeed it fell out at last that he had an extraordinary occasion laid before him, for the proof and tryal thereof, upon which we find him as true as steel, for the greatest dangers could not affright him from his duty and Loyalty to his distressed Master, King Richard II, unto whom he faithfully adhered when most others had forsaken him.' After the king was put to death by Henry IV, Sir John was banished and all his goods and lands confiscated for his loyalty to his royal master.
    Westcote says: 'I will speak of Sir John Cary, Baron of the Exchequer in the time of Richard II. This knight neither able nor willing, like a willow, to bow with every blast of the wind, so confidently and freely spoke his mind, opposing the proceedings for procurators to take the resignation of his master, King Richard, his true and undoubted Sovereign, that there-upon he was dis-officed, his goods and lands confiscated, and himself banished."

    "Prompt me, Muses, if you can,
    And show me such another man."
    8 Robert Cary b: 1375 in Holway, Devon, England
    +Jane Hanchford Father: William Hanchford
    Notes for Robert Cary:

    1.) b. in 1375, an extract from Burkes Heraldry: 'In the beginning of the reign of Henry V. (1413- 1422) a certain knight-errant of Aragon, having passed through divers countries, and performed many feats of arms, arrived here in England, where he challenged any man of his rank and quality to make a trial of his skill at arms. This challenge was accepted by Sir Robert Cary, between whom a cruel encounter and a long and doubtful combat was waged in Smithfield, London. But at length this noble champion vanquished the presumptuous Arragonois, for which King Henry V, restored unto him a good part of his fathers lands, for which his loyalty to Richard II, he had been deprived of by Henry IV.
    2.) He was authorized to bear the arms of a Knight of Aragon, which the noble posterity wear to this day. For according to the Laws of Heraldry , whosoever fairley in the field conquers his adversary may justify the wearing of his arms.'

    9 Philip Cary b: 1400 in, England d: 1437
    +Christian Orchard
    Notes for Philip Cary:

    1.) Lived during the reigns of Henry IV, V, VI.
    2.) Cary, Phillip Sir Knight

    *

    William Cary b: 1437 in , England d: May 06, 1471
    +Elizabeth Paulett
    Notes for William Cary:

    1.) He was an ardent supporter of the House of Lancaster, and took an active part in the struggle between the adherents of Henry VI and Edward IV in the WAR OF THE ROSES.
    2.) At the Battle of Tewksbury on May 4, 1471, the Lancastrians were defeated, and William with others took refuge in the Abbey Church. According to the customs of the times the church was a 'Sanctuary', so that they could not be taken out of it. They were enticed out on the promise of pardon and two days later were beheaded. His property was confiscated as usual in such cases, but Henry VII restored it to his son Robert. We cannot ascertain for what reason, but probably because King Henry was a scion of the House of Lancaster in whose cause, his father lost his life and property.

    3.) William left two sons Robert and Thomas. From Robert sprang the families of Clovelly, Torre Abbey, and Somersetshire. And from Thomas the three lines of nobles, Baron Hunsdon, Earl of Monmouth, and Viscount Falkland Line.

    4.) He lived during the reign of Henry VI and Edward IV.


    11 Robert Cary b: 1460 in, England d: 1540
    +Agnes Hody Father: William Hody

    Notes for Robert Cary:

    1.) His tomb is in the Little Clovelly Church. It has a figure if a Knight set in brass in the slab with this inscription: PRAY FOR THE SOWLE OF SIR ROBERT CARY, ESQUIRE, SONNE AND HEYER OF SIR WM. CARY, KNYGHTE. WHICH SIR ROBERT DECESSYD THE XXV DAY OF JUNE IN THE YERE OF OUR LORD GOD M.V.XL O'WHO'S SOWLE IHU MERCY.
    2.) Lived during the reigns of Edward IV and V, Richard III, and Henry VII and VIII.

    *

    Sir William Carey, Kt.
    Also Known As: "Cary", "Carye"
    Birthdate: August 12, 1437 (33)
    Birthplace: Cockington, Devon, England
    Death: Died May 6, 1471 in Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England
    Place of Burial: Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England, United Kingdom
    Immediate Family:
    Son of Philip Carey of Cockington and Christianna Carey
    Husband of Alice Carey and Elizabeth Ann Carey (Paulet)
    Father of Thomas Carey; Isabel Carey and Sir Robert Carey, II
    Occupation: Knight of Cockington
    Managed by: Private User
    Last Updated: January 13, 2017

    Immediate Family

    Alice Carey
    wife

    Thomas Carey
    son

    Isabel Carey
    daughter

    Elizabeth Ann Carey (Paulet)
    wife

    Sir Robert Carey, II
    son

    Philip Carey of Cockington
    father

    Christianna Carey
    mother

    Walter /James Portman
    stepfather
    About Sir William Carey, Kt.
    William CAREY (Sir)

    Born: 12 Aug 1437, Cockington, Devonshire, England

    Died: 6 May 1471, Tewkesbury, Gloucester, England

    Notes: beheaded for supporting Lancaster in the War of the Roses

    Father: Phillip CAREY

    Mother: Christian ORCHARD

    Married 1: Anne (Elizabeth) PAULET

    Children:

    1. Robert CAREY

    Married 2: Alice FULFORD (dau. of Sir Baldwin Fulford) ABT 1458, Fulford, Devonshire, England

    Children:

    2. Thomas CAREY of Chilton

    http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/CAREY.htm#William CAREY (Sir)1

    1.) He was an ardent supporter of the House of Lancaster, and took an active part in the struggle between the adherents of Henry VI and Edward IV in the WAR OF THE ROSES.
    2.) At the Battle of Tewksbury on May 4, 1471, the Lancastrians were defeated, and William with others took refuge in the Abbey Church. According to the customs of the times the church was a 'Sanctuary', so that they could not be taken out of it. They were enticed out on the promise of pardon and two days later were beheaded. His property was confiscated as usual in such cases, but Henry VII restored it to his son Robert. We cannot ascertain for what reason, but probably because King Henry was a scion of the House of Lancaster in whose cause, his father lost his life and property.
    3.) William left two sons Robert and Thomas. From Robert sprang the families of Clovelly, Torre Abbey, and Somersetshire. And from Thomas the three lines of nobles, Baron Hunsdon, Earl of Monmouth, and Viscount Falkland Line.
    4.) He lived during the reign of Henry VI and Edward IV.
    Beheaded at Tewkesbury or supporting the Lancastrians in the War of the .

    Sir William inherited Clovelly from his father.
    During the War of the Roses, he sided with the House of Lancaster and suffered defeat with them. He was beheaded along with the others; his properties being confiscated.

    William Cary was born in Cockington on August 12, 1439. He died May 6, 1471 in Tewksbury after a battle. He was cornered and sought sanctuary in a church. He was promised a pardon if he came out. He did and was beheaded. So much for the word and honor of his opponent.
    He married Elizabeth Paulett around1459. She was born 1445 in Hinton St. George Parish, England. Her parents were William Paulett (born 1405 and died 10/2/1488) and Elizabeth Denebaud was born 1414 and died 11/17/1497.

    I have a report that he married Alice Fulford in 1464. If this is true, Elizabeth was still alive. I am still trying to confirm or refute this.

    One of their sons, Thomas, married Mary Boleyne. She was a sister to Anne Boleyne that King Henry beheaded rather than get a divorce.

    Sept 2008 NOTE: add'l info (provided by Val Jennings-a Cary descendant) and possible ancestors can be reviewed here, but the dates are questionable so not included on this tree:

    http://www.angelfire.com/ga3/LowmanHistory/CARY.htm

    *

    Died:
    ...beheaded...

    William married Alice Fulford 0___ 1464, (Little) Fulford, Crediton, Devon, England. Alice (daughter of Baldwin Fulford, Knight and Elizabeth Bosome) was born ~ 1436; died Great Fulford, Devon, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 5.  Alice Fulford was born ~ 1436 (daughter of Baldwin Fulford, Knight and Elizabeth Bosome); died Great Fulford, Devon, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Anne Fulford

    Children:
    1. 2. Thomas Carey was born 0___ 1465, Clovelly, Devon, England; died Bef 1548, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

  3. 6.  Robert Spencer was born Abt 1430, Spencer Combe, Devon, England (son of John Spencer and Joan LNU); died ~ 11510.

    Robert married Eleanor Beaufort, Countess of Ormonde Abt 1470, Crediton, Devonshire, England. Eleanor (daughter of Edmund Beaufort, Knight, 2nd Duke of Somerset and Eleanor Beauchamp, Duchess of Somerset) was born 0___ 1431, London, Middlesex, England; died 16 Aug 1501. [Group Sheet]


  4. 7.  Eleanor Beaufort, Countess of Ormonde was born 0___ 1431, London, Middlesex, England (daughter of Edmund Beaufort, Knight, 2nd Duke of Somerset and Eleanor Beauchamp, Duchess of Somerset); died 16 Aug 1501.

    Notes:

    Origins

    She was the daughter of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, KG (1406-1455), by his wife, Lady Eleanor Beauchamp daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick by his first wife, Elizabeth de Berkeley, daughter and heiress of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley by his wife Margaret de Lisle, 3rd Baroness Lisle. Eleanor Beauchamp was an elder half-sister of Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick and Anne Neville, 16th Countess of Warwick.

    Marriages & progeny

    Eleanor Beaufort married twice:

    Firstly in about April 1458[1] she married James Butler, 5th Earl of Ormond, 1st Earl of Wiltshire (d.1461), Lieutenant of Ireland in 1453. When civil conflict broke out, the lieutenant fought on the Lancastrian side. He was present at the first battle of St. Albans in 1455, Mortimer's Cross in 1461 and at the Battle of Towton. Ormond also held the post of councillor to the Lancastrian Prince of Wales. After Towton, he was a proscribed as a traitor and was captured in the same year at Cockermouth and executed there in 1461.[citation needed]

    Secondly she married Sir Robert Spencer[2] of Spencer Combe in the parish of Crediton, Devon,[3] by whom she had two daughters and co-heiresses:
    Margaret Spencer (1472-1536), (or Eleanor Spencer[4]) wife of Thomas Cary of Chilton Foliot, Wiltshire, second son of Sir William Cary (1437-1471) of Cockington, Devon.[5] She had two sons:
    Sir John Cary (1491–1552) of Plashey, eldest son, ancestor to the Cary Viscounts Falkland.[6]
    William Cary, her 2nd son, the first husband of Anne Boleyn's sister Mary Boleyn and ancestor to the Cary Barons Hunsdon, Barons Cary of Leppington, Earls of Monmouth, Viscounts Rochford and Earls of Dover.[7]
    Catherine Spencer (1477–1542), wife of Henry Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland and mother to Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland, an early love interest of Anne Boleyn.

    Children:
    1. 3. Margaret Spencer was born ~ 1471, Spencer Combe, Devon, England; died 0___ 1536.
    2. Catherine Spencer, Countess of Northumberland was born 0___ 1477, Spencer Combe, Devon, England.


Generation: 4

  1. 8.  Phillip Cary, Knight was born 0___ 1400, Clovelly, Devonshire, England (son of Robert Cary, Knight and Jane Hankeford); died 0___ 1437, Bristol, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Philip Carey

    Notes:

    Biography

    Sir Philip Cary was born circa 1400.[1] He was the son of Sir Robert Cary and Elizabeth Courtenay.[2],[3] He married Christiana Orchard, daughter of William Orchard, in 1422.[1] He died in 1437.[1]

    Sir Philip Cary held the office of Member of Parliament (M.P.) for Devon in 1433.[1] He lived at Cockington, England.[1]

    Child of Sir Philip Cary and Christiana Orchard

    1. Sir William Cary+[2] b. 12 Aug 1437, d. 6 May 1471

    Source: The Peerage, with the following citations:
    ? 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 1, page 709. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    ? 2.0 2.1 [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    ? [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition, volume 1, page 1382.
    See also:

    Manuscript, [ Hugh D. Miller, comp. ], Genealogy: Ethel P. Miller/Hugh D. Miller, 1985, copy in possession of author

    *

    Phillip married Christian Orchard 0___ 1436, Holway, Devonshire, England. Christian (daughter of William Orchard and Alice Trevett) died 0___ 1472. [Group Sheet]


  2. 9.  Christian Orchard (daughter of William Orchard and Alice Trevett); died 0___ 1472.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Christina de Orchard

    Children:
    1. 4. William Cary, Knight was born 12 Aug 1437, Clovelly, Devon, England; died 6 May 1471, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

  3. 10.  Baldwin Fulford, Knight was born ~ 1415, Great Fulford, Devon, England (son of Henry de Fulford and Wilhelma Langdon); died 9 Sep 1461, Great Fulford, Devon, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Sheriff of Devon

    Notes:

    Baldwin Fulford
    Birthdate: circa 1415
    Birthplace: Great Fulford, Devon, England
    Death: Died September 9, 1461 in Great Fulford, Devon, England
    Immediate Family:
    Son of Henry ll de Fulford and Wilhelma de Fulford (Langdon)
    Husband of Elizabeth Fulford
    Father of Thomas Bosom Fulford, Sr., Sir Knight; John Fulford, Archdeacon of Exeter; Thomasine Wise; Alice Cary and Sir Baldwin Fulford, Knight & Sheriff of Devon
    Brother of Alice Fulford; Elizabeth Coode; William Fulfford and Misplaced Fulfords
    Occupation: Sheriff of Devon
    Managed by: Private User
    Last Updated: March 20, 2016

    About Sir Baldwin Fulford, Kt.
    Sir Baldwin Fulford, Sheriff of Devon1,2,3,4,5
    M, #15900, d. 9 September 1461
    Father Henry Fulford d. bt 1419 - 1420
    Mother Willelma (Willmot) Brian d. bt 1416 - 1417

    Sir Baldwin Fulford, Sheriff of Devon was born at of Fulford, Devon, England. He married Elizabeth Bozom, daughter of Sir John Bozom and Joan Fortescue, circa 1439 at of Bozom Zeal, Devonshire, England.2 Sir Baldwin Fulford, Sheriff of Devon died on 9 September 1461; Beheaded.2

    Family Elizabeth Bozom d. b 12 Oct 1479

    Children

    Alice Fulford+3,4,5
    Sir Thomas Fulford+ b. c 1440, d. 20 Feb 1490
    Thomasine Fulford b. c 1444

    Citations

    1.[S4426] Unknown author, Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles by Paget, Vol. II, p. 410; Plantagenet Ancestry of 17th Century Colonists, by David Faris, p. 54.
    2.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 395-396.
    3.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 62-63.
    4.[S6] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry: 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 481.
    5.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 103-104.
    From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p529.htm#i15900
    ______________
    Sir Baldwin Fulford1
    M, #285248
    Last Edited=1 Jun 2008
    Sir Baldwin Fulford lived at Fulford, Yorkshire, England.1
    Child of Sir Baldwin Fulford
    1.Alice Fulford+1
    Citations
    1.[S37] Volume 1, page 1382. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
    From: http://thepeerage.com/p28525.htm#i285248
    _______________
    The visitation of the county of Devon in the year 1620 Vol. 6
    https://archive.org/details/visitationofcoun06colbrich
    https://archive.org/stream/visitationofcoun06colbrich#page/118/mode/1up
    Pg.118
    Fulford. Chart Pg.118-119
    Edmondus Fulford de Fulford in com. Devon ; ch: Johannes (m. Alicia Fitz Urse) Fulford
    Johannes Fulford de Fulford f. et h. ; m. Alicia f. & coh. Rad. Fitz Urse f. et h. Reginaldi Fitzurse mil. ; ch: Henricus Fulford
    Henricus Fulford de Fulford f. et h. ; ch: Willms. Fulford
    Willms. Fulford de Fulford f. & h. ; ch: Willms. Fulford
    Willms. Fulford de Fulford f. & h. ; ch: Tho. (m. _ Mourton) Fulford
    Tho. Fulford de Fulford f. & h. : m. f. et h. Mourton ; ch: Johes Fulford
    Johes Fulford de Fulford f. & h. ; ch: Hen. (m. Willmot Brian) Fulford
    Hen. Fulford de Fulford f. & h. : m. Willmot f. & h. Philippi Brian ; ch: Balwinus (m. Jennet Bosome), Willms (Canonicus), dau. (m. _ de Morvell) Fulford
    Balwinus Fulford de Fulford f. & h. ; m. Jennet f. & h. Johis Bosome; ch: (Pg.119 Thomazin (m. Tho. Wise), Tho. (m. Philippa Courtney), & Anna (m. Willo Cary) Fulford
    ______________________________
    The visitation of the county of Dorset, taken in the year 1623 (1885)
    http://archive.org/details/visitationofcound00stge
    http://archive.org/stream/visitationofcound00stge#page/9/mode/1up
    Pg.9
    Fulford. Chart Pg.9-11
    Edmund Fulford of Fulford co. Devon.; ch: John (m. Alice Fitzurse) Fulford
    John Fulford m. Alice d. and coh. of Ralph Fitzurse, s. and h. of Reginald Fitzurse, Knt.; ch: Henry Fulford
    Henry Fulford; ch: William Fulford
    William Fulford; (Pg.10 ch: Thomas (m. _ Moreton) Fulford)
    http://archive.org/stream/visitationofcound00stge#page/10/mode/1up
    Pg.10
    Thomas Fulford m. _ d. and h. of Moreton; ch: John Fulford
    John Fulford; ch: Henry (m. _ Brian) Fulford
    Henry Fulford m. _ d. and h. of Phil. Brian; ch: Baldwin (m. Jeanett Bosome), William (a Canon), & dau. (m. Glennie of Morwell) Fulford
    Baldwin Fulford s. and h. ; m. Jeanett d. and h. of Jane (Fortescue) & John Bosome ; ch: Thomazine (m. Tho. Wise), Anne (m. W. Carry), Thomas (m. Philippa Courtenay) Fulford
    _____________________________
    A genealogical and heraldic history of the commoners of Great Britain and Ireland, enjoying territorial possessions or high official rank; but univested with heritable honours (1835) Vol. 1
    https://archive.org/details/genealogicalheral01burk
    https://archive.org/stream/genealogicalheral01burk#page/19/mode/1up
    Pg.19
    WISE, OF FORD HOUSE
    https://archive.org/stream/genealogicalheral01burk#page/20/mode/1up
    Pg.20
    JOHN WISE, of Sydenham, in Devonshire, who m. Thomasine, daughter of Sir Baldwin Fulford, of Great Fulford, in Devonshire, and had issue, ....
    ___________________
    Lyte, Sir H.C. Maxwell, K.C.B. Historical Notes on Some Somerset Manors Formerly Connected with the Honour of Dunster. Somerset Record Society, 1931. p. 198.

    !Beheaded in Tower of London.

    !He was less than 21 in 1420.

    source: http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=dstuart101&id=I145

    Died:
    ...he was beheaded

    Baldwin — Elizabeth Bosome. Elizabeth (daughter of John Bozom, Knight and Joan Fortescue) was born ~ 1439, Devonshire, England; died Bef 12 Oct 1479. [Group Sheet]


  4. 11.  Elizabeth Bosome was born ~ 1439, Devonshire, England (daughter of John Bozom, Knight and Joan Fortescue); died Bef 12 Oct 1479.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Elizabeth Bozom
    • Also Known As: Janet Elizabeth BOSOME
    • Also Known As: Jenet Elizabeth Bozom
    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1420

    Notes:

    Elizabeth Bozom1,2,3,4,5
    F, #15901, d. before 12 October 1479
    Father Sir John Bozom2,3,4,5
    Mother Joan Fortescue b. c 1421

    Elizabeth Bozom was born at of Bosumzeal (Bosums Hele), Devonshire, England. She married Sir Baldwin Fulford, Sheriff of Devon, son of Henry Fulford and Willelma (Willmot) Brian, circa 1439 at of Bozom Zeal, Devonshire, England.3,5 Elizabeth Bozom married Sir William Huddersfield, Recorder of Exeter, Attorney General to Kings Edward IV & Henry VII, Justice of the Peace for Devonshire, son of William Huddersfield and Alice Gold, after 9 September 1461; They had 1 daughter (Katherine, wife of Sir Edmund Carew).2,3,4,5 Elizabeth Bozom died before 12 October 1479.3

    Family 1
    Sir Baldwin Fulford, Sheriff of Devon d. 9 Sep 1461
    Children
    Alice Fulford+
    Sir Thomas Fulford+ b. c 1440, d. 20 Feb 1490
    Thomasine Fulford b. c 1444

    Family 2
    Sir William Huddersfield, Recorder of Exeter, Attorney General to Kings Edward IV & Henry VII, Justice of the Peace for Devonshire b. c 1441, d. 20 Mar 1499
    Child
    Katherine Huddersfield+2,4 b. c 1462, d. a 9 Jun 1528

    Citations

    [S4427] Unknown author, Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles by Paget, Vol. II, p. 410.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 403-404.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 395-396.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 100.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 424-425.

    Birth:
    (Bosums Hele)

    Children:
    1. 5. Alice Fulford was born ~ 1436; died Great Fulford, Devon, England.
    2. Thomas Fulford was born ~ 1440, (Great Fulford, Devon, England); died 20 Feb 1490, (Fulford, Devon, England).
    3. Thomasine Fulford was born ~ 1444, (Great Fulford, Devon, England); died ~ 1505, Great Fulford, Dunsford Parish, Devon, England.

  5. 12.  John Spencer

    John — Joan LNU. [Group Sheet]


  6. 13.  Joan LNU
    Children:
    1. 6. Robert Spencer was born Abt 1430, Spencer Combe, Devon, England; died ~ 11510.

  7. 14.  Edmund Beaufort, Knight, 2nd Duke of Somerset was born 0___ 1406, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England (son of John Beaufort, III, Knight, 1st Earl of Somerset and Margaret Holland, Duchess of Clarence); died 22 May 1455, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England.

    Notes:

    Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, KG (1406 – 22 May 1455), sometimes styled 1st Duke of Somerset, was an English nobleman and an important figure in the Wars of the Roses and in the Hundred Years' War. He also succeeded in the title of 4th Earl of Somerset and was created 1st Earl of Dorset and 1st Marquess of Dorset (previously held by his father and later forfeited), and Count of Mortain. He was known for his deadly rivalry with Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.

    Early Life

    Edmund Beaufort was the third surviving son of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and Margaret Holland. His paternal grandparents were John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and Katherine Swynford. His maternal grandparents were Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent and Alice FitzAlan. Alice was a daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor of Lancaster.

    Although he was the head of one of the greatest families in England, his inheritance was worth only 300 pounds. By contrast his rival, Richard, Duke of York, had a net worth of 5,800 pounds. His cousin King Henry VI's efforts to compensate Somerset with offices worth 3,000 pounds only served to offend many of the nobles and as his quarrel with York grew more personal, the dynastic situation got worse. Another quarrel with the Earl of Warwick over the lordships of Glamorgan and Morgannwg may have forced the leader of the younger Nevilles into York's camp.

    His brothers were taken captive at the Battle of Baugâe in 1421, but Edmund was too young at the time to fight. He acquired much military experience while his brothers were prisoners.

    Affair with Catherine of Valois[edit]
    In 1427 it is believed that Edmund embarked on an affair with Catherine of Valois—the widow of Henry V. Evidence is sketchy, however the liaison prompted a parliamentary statute regulating the remarriage of queens of England. The historian G. L. Harriss surmised that it was possible that another of its consequences was Catherine's son Edmund Tudor and that Catherine, to avoid the penalties of breaking the statute of 1427–8, secretly married Owen Tudor. He wrote By its very nature the evidence for Edmund ‘Tudor's’ parentage is less than conclusive, but such facts as can be assembled permit the agreeable possibility that Edmund ‘Tudor’ and Margaret Beaufort were first cousins and that the royal house of ‘Tudor’ sprang in fact from Beauforts on both sides.[1]

    Later Life

    He became a commander in the English army in 1431. After his re-capture of Harfleur, and lifting the Burgundian Siege of Calais (1436), he was named a Knight of the Garter in 1436. After subsequent successes he was created Earl of Dorset (1442) and the next year Marquess of Dorset. During the five-year truce from 1444 to 1449 he served as Lieutenant of France. In March 1448 he was created Duke of Somerset. As the title had previously been held by his brother, he is usually called the second duke.

    Somerset was appointed to replace York as commander in France in 1448. Fighting began in Normandy in August 1449. Somerset's subsequent military failures left him vulnerable to criticism from York's allies. Somerset was supposed to be paid ¹20,000; but little evidence exists that he was. He failed to repulse French attacks, and by the summer of 1450 nearly all the English possessions in northern France were lost. By 1453, all the English possessions in the south of France were lost as well, and the Battle of Castillon ended the Hundred Years War.

    Power had rested with Somerset from 1451 and was virtually monopolized by him until the King went insane and York was named Lord Protector. York imprisoned Somerset in the Tower of London, and his life was probably saved only by the King's seeming recovery late in 1454, which forced York to surrender his office.

    By now York was determined to depose Somerset by one means or another, and in May 1455 he raised an army. He confronted Somerset and the King in an engagement known as the First Battle of St Albans which marked the beginning of the Wars of the Roses. Somerset was killed in a last wild charge from the house where he had been sheltering. His son, Henry, never forgave Warwick and York for his father's death, and he spent the next nine years attempting to restore his family's honour.

    Family

    Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset married before 1436 [probably, abt 1435], Eleanor, daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and his first wife, Elizabeth, (daughter and heiress of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley), and the widow of Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros. Eleanor was an older half-sister of Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick and Anne Neville, 16th Countess of Warwick.

    Their unlicensed marriage was later pardoned on 7 March 1438, and they had the following children:

    Eleanor Beaufort, Countess of Ormonde, married first James Butler, 5th Earl of Ormonde and second Sir Robert Spencer.[2]
    Elizabeth Beaufort (d. before 1472), married Sir Henry FitzLewis.[2]
    Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset (1436–1464)[3]
    Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Stafford (bef. 1439–1474), married first Humphrey, Earl of Stafford and second Sir Richard Darell.[3]
    Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset (c. 1439– 4 May 1471)[3]
    Anne Beaufort (c. 1453 – c. 1496),[2] who married, before 1470, Sir William Paston (1436 – September 1496), a younger son of William Paston (1378-1444), Justice of the Common Pleas.[4]
    John Beaufort, Earl of Dorset (c. 1455– 4 May 1471)[3]
    Lady Joan Beaufort (d. 11 August 1518), married first Robert St Lawrence, 3rd Baron Howth and second Sir Richard Fry, and had issue by her first marriage.[2][5]
    Thomas Beaufort (c. 1455–c. 1463)[2]
    Mary Beaufort (b. between 1431 and 1455)[2]

    Died:
    on the battlefield...

    Edmund married Eleanor Beauchamp, Duchess of Somerset 1431-1435, (England). Eleanor (daughter of Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick) was born 0Sep 1407, Wedgenock, Warwickshire, England; died 1466-1467, Baynard's Castle, London, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 15.  Eleanor Beauchamp, Duchess of Somerset was born 0Sep 1407, Wedgenock, Warwickshire, England (daughter of Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick); died 1466-1467, Baynard's Castle, London, England.

    Notes:

    Lady Eleanor Beauchamp1
    F, #102723, b. between 1407 and 1408, d. between 4 March 1466 and 8 March 1468
    Last Edited=18 May 2005
    Consanguinity Index=0.96%

    Lady Eleanor Beauchamp was born between 1407 and 1408 at Wedgenock, Warwickshire, England.2 She was the daughter of Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth de Berkeley.1,3 She married, firstly, Thomas de Ros, 8th Lord de Ros of Helmsley, son of William de Ros, 6th Lord de Ros of Helmsley and Margaret d'Arundel, before 1430.2 She married, secondly, Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, son of John de Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset and Lady Margaret de Holand, between 1431 and 1435 in a unlicensed marriage, although this was pardoned on 7 March 1438.2 She married, thirdly, Walter Rokesley.2 She died between 4 March 1466 and 8 March 1468 at Baynard's Castle, London, England.2

    From before 1430, her married name became de Ros.2 From between 1431 and 1435, her married name became Beaufort.2 Her married name became Rokesley.

    Children of Lady Eleanor Beauchamp and Thomas de Ros, 8th Lord de Ros of Helmsley
    Margaret de Ros+4 d. 10 Dec 1488
    Thomas de Ros, 9th Lord de Ros of Helmsley+2 b. 9 Sep 1427, d. 14 May 1464

    Children of Lady Eleanor Beauchamp and Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset
    Lady Eleanor Beaufort+5 d. 16 Aug 1501
    John Beaufort, Earl of Dorset d. 4 May 1471
    Lady Joan Beaufort d. 11 Aug 1518
    Margaret Beaufort+ d. 1474
    Elizabeth Beaufort d. b 1492
    Thomas Beaufort6 d. b 1463
    Mary Beaufort+7 b. bt 1431 - 1455
    Anne Beaufort+ b. 1435, d. b 28 Nov 1496
    Henry Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset+1 b. 26 Jan 1436, d. 15 May 1464
    Edmund Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset b. c 1439, d. 6 May 1471

    Citations

    [S8] BP1999 volume 1, page 220. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S8]
    [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 104. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
    [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 131. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
    [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 242.
    [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume X, page 128.
    [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 105.
    [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 106.
    Elizabeth Bea

    Children:
    1. 7. Eleanor Beaufort, Countess of Ormonde was born 0___ 1431, London, Middlesex, England; died 16 Aug 1501.
    2. Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Stafford was born ~ 1437; died 0___ 1474.
    3. Anne Beaufort was born ~ 1453; died ~ 1496.


Generation: 5

  1. 16.  Robert Cary, Knight was born ~ 1375, Holway, Devon, England (son of John Cary, II, Knight and Margaret Holway); died Aft 1419.

    Robert married Jane Hankeford ~ 1399. Jane (daughter of Richard Hankeford, Knight and Thomasine de Stapeldon) was born ~ 1379, Clovelly, Devon, England; died Clovelly, Devon, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 17.  Jane Hankeford was born ~ 1379, Clovelly, Devon, England (daughter of Richard Hankeford, Knight and Thomasine de Stapeldon); died Clovelly, Devon, England.
    Children:
    1. 8. Phillip Cary, Knight was born 0___ 1400, Clovelly, Devonshire, England; died 0___ 1437, Bristol, England.

  3. 18.  William Orchard

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: William de Orchard

    William — Alice Trevett. [Group Sheet]


  4. 19.  Alice Trevett
    Children:
    1. 9. Christian Orchard died 0___ 1472.

  5. 20.  Henry de Fulford was born ~ 1345, (Great Fulford, Devon, England); died ~ 1400.

    Henry — Wilhelma Langdon. [Group Sheet]


  6. 21.  Wilhelma Langdon

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Wilhelma (Willmot Wilhelmina) BRIAN

    Children:
    1. 10. Baldwin Fulford, Knight was born ~ 1415, Great Fulford, Devon, England; died 9 Sep 1461, Great Fulford, Devon, England.

  7. 22.  John Bozom, Knight was born ~ 1390, Devon, England (son of Edmund Bozom and Mabel Falewell); died 8 Aug 1440.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: John Bosome
    • Also Known As: John Bossom

    Notes:

    Sir John Bozom1,2,3,4
    M, #15904
    Father Edmund Bozom5 b. c 1400

    Sir John Bozom was born at of Bosums Hele in Dittisham, Devonshire, England. He married Joan Fortescue, daughter of Sir John Fortescue and Eleanor Norreys, circa 1450.

    Family
    Joan Fortescue b. c 1421

    Children
    Elizabeth Bozom+6,2,3,4 d. b 12 Oct 1479
    Margaret Bozon+ b. c 1458

    Citations

    [S4427] Unknown author, Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles by Paget, Vol. II, p. 410.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 395-396.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 100.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 424-425.
    [S61] Unknown author, Family Group Sheets, Family History Archives, SLC.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 403-404.

    Birth:
    (Bosums Hele)

    John — Joan Fortescue. Joan (daughter of John Fortescue and Eleanor Norreys) was born ~ 1421, Wood, Devonshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 23.  Joan Fortescue was born ~ 1421, Wood, Devonshire, England (daughter of John Fortescue and Eleanor Norreys).

    Notes:

    Joan Fortescue1
    F, #35324, b. circa 1421
    Father Sir John Fortescue b. c 1380, d. c 1435
    Mother Eleanor Norreys b. c 1376, d. b 12 Nov 1408

    Joan Fortescue was born circa 1421 at of Wood, Devonshire, England. She married Sir John Bozom, son of Edmund Bozom, circa 1450.

    Family

    Sir John Bozom

    Children

    Elizabeth Bozom+ d. b 12 Oct 1479
    Margaret Bozon+ b. c 1458

    Citations

    [S74] Brent Ruesch's Research Notes.
    Sir John Fortescue1,2,3
    M, #35325, b. circa 1380, d. circa 1435
    Father William Fortescue4,3 b. c 1360, d. a 1411
    Mother Elizabeth Beauchamp4,3 b. c 1348, d. a 1411

    Sir John Fortescue was born circa 1380 at of Combe in Holbeton, Devonshire, England.3 He married Eleanor Norreys, daughter of William Norreys, Esq. and Eleanor Colaton, circa 1400 at of Devonshire, England; They had 3 sons (Sir Henry, Chief Justice of the King's Bench in Ireland; Sir John; & Sir Richard).2,3 Sir John Fortescue died circa 1435; He married (2) before 12 November 1408 to Clarice.3

    Family

    Eleanor Norreys b. c 1376, d. b 12 Nov 1408

    Children

    Sir Henry Fortescue, Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas+ d. a 1426
    Sir John Fortescue, Lord Chief Justice, Chancellor of England, Burgess for Tavistock, Totnes, & Plympton Erle+3 b. c 1402, d. b 18 Dec 1479
    Sir Richard Fortescue+5 b. c 1406, d. 1455
    Joan Fortescue+ b. c 1421
    Citations
    [S10927] Unknown author, Burke's Commoners, Vol. II, p. 541.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 112.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 7.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 111.
    [S11581] Burke's Dormant & Extinct Peerages, p. 221.

    Children:
    1. 11. Elizabeth Bosome was born ~ 1439, Devonshire, England; died Bef 12 Oct 1479.

  9. 28.  John Beaufort, III, Knight, 1st Earl of Somerset was born 1371-1373, Chateau de Beaufrot, Anjou, France (son of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster); died 14 Mar 1410, Hospital of St. Katherine's by the Tower, London, England; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Marquess of Somerset

    Notes:

    Early life

    Early arms of John Beaufort with a bend dexter
    Between May and September 1390, Beaufort saw military service in North Africa in the Barbary crusade led by Louis II, Duke of Bourbon.[6] In 1394, he was in Lithuania serving with the Teutonic Knights.[8]

    John was created Earl of Somerset on 10 February 1397,[6][9] just a few days after the legitimation of the Beaufort children was recognized by Parliament. The same month, he also appointed Admiral of the Irish fleet, as well as Constable of Dover Castle and Warden of the Cinque Ports.[10] In May, his admiralty was extended to include the northern fleet. That summer, the new earl became one of the noblemen who helped Richard II free himself from the power of the Lords Appellant. As a reward, he was created Marquess of Somerset and Marquess of Dorset on 29 September, and sometime later that year he was made a Knight of the Garter and appointed Lieutenant of Aquitaine.[6] In addition, two days before his elevation as a Marquess he married the king's niece, Margaret Holland, sister of Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey, another of the counter-appellants.[6]John remained in the king's favour even after his older half-brother Henry Bolingbroke (later Henry IV) was banished from England in 1398.

    Later career

    After Richard II was deposed by Henry Bolingbroke in 1399, the new king rescinded the titles that had been given to the counter-appellants, and thus John Beaufort became merely Earl of Somerset again. Nevertheless, he proved loyal to his half-brother's reign, serving in various military commands and on some important diplomatic missions. It was Beaufort who was given the confiscated estates of the Welsh rebel leader Owain Glyndwr in 1400, although he would not have been able to take possession of these estates unless he had lived until after 1415. In 1404, he was named Constable of England.

    Family

    John Beaufort and his wife Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Somerset (nâee Holland), the daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, and Alice FitzAlan, had six children. His granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort married Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, the son of Dowager Queen Catherine of Valois by Owen Tudor. This union created a branch of the Lancastrian family that enabled the issue of Margaret Beaufort's marriage, Henry Tudor, to claim the throne of England in 1485 as Henry VII, in spite of an agreement barring the descendants of the Beaufort siblings from the succession.

    Somerset died in the Hospital of St Katharine's by the Tower. He was buried in St Michael's Chapel in Canterbury Cathedral.

    His children included the following:

    Henry Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Somerset (1401 – 25 November 1418)
    John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset (baptized 25 March 1404 – 27 May 1444), father of Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, grandfather of King Henry VII of England
    Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland (1404 – 15 July 1445) married James I, King of Scots.
    Thomas Beaufort, Count of Perche (1405 – 3 October 1431)
    Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset (1406 – 22 May 1455)
    Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Devon (1409 – 1449) married Thomas de Courtenay, 13th Earl of Devon.

    References

    Armitage-Smith, Sydney. John of Gaunt, King of Castile and Leon, Duke of Lancaster, &c.. Constable, 1904.
    Brown, M.H. (2004). "Joan [Joan Beaufort] (d. 1445)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14646. Retrieved 21 November 2013. (subscription required)
    Jones, Michael K, and Malcolm G. Underwood, The King's Mother: Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby. Cambridge University Press, 1992. see especially pp. 17–22
    Marshall, Rosalind (2003). Scottish Queens, 1034-1714. Tuckwell Press.
    Weir, Alison (2008). Britain's Royal Families, The Complete Genealogy. London: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-09-953973-5.

    External links

    The Beaufort Family
    The Courtenay Family
    Lundy, Darryl. "John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset at thePeerage.com". The Peerage

    Buried:
    St. Michael's Chapel ...

    images, map & commentaries ... https://www.flickr.com/photos/amthomson/20717793364/in/photostream/

    John married Margaret Holland, Duchess of Clarence (England). Margaret (daughter of Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent and Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent) was born 0___ 1385, (England); died 31 Dec 1439; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England. [Group Sheet]


  10. 29.  Margaret Holland, Duchess of Clarence was born 0___ 1385, (England) (daughter of Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent and Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent); died 31 Dec 1439; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Margaret de Holand

    Children:
    1. John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset was born 0___ 1403; died 27 May 1444; was buried Wimborne Minster, Dorsetshire, England.
    2. Joan Beaufort was born ~ 1404, (England); died 15 Jul 1445, Dunbar Castle, East Lothian, Scotland; was buried Perth Charterhouse, Scotland.
    3. 14. Edmund Beaufort, Knight, 2nd Duke of Somerset was born 0___ 1406, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; died 22 May 1455, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England.

  11. 30.  Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick was born 28 Jan 1381, Salwarpe, Worcestershire, England (son of Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 12th Earl of Warwick and Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick); died 30 Apr 1439, Rouen, Normandy, France; was buried 4 Oct 1439, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Count of Aumale
    • Also Known As: Earl of Albemarle & Worcester
    • Also Known As: Lord Abergavenny
    • Also Known As: Sheriff of Worcestershire
    • Also Known As: Warwick

    Notes:

    Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, Count of Aumale, KG (25 or 28 January 1382[1] – 30 April 1439) was an English medieval nobleman and military commander.

    Early life

    Beauchamp was born at Salwarpe in Worcestershire,[2] the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, and Margaret, a daughter of William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby.[1] His godfather was King Richard II.[2]

    He was knighted at the coronation of King Henry IV and succeeded to the Earldom of Warwick in 1401.[3]

    Welsh Rebellion

    Soon after reaching his majority and taking responsibility for the Earldom, he saw military action in Wales, defending against a Welsh rebellion led by Owain Glyndwr. On 22 July 1403, the day after the Battle of Shrewsbury, he was made a Knight of the Garter.

    In the summer of 1404, he rode into what is today Monmouthshire at the head of a force. Warwick engaged Welsh forces at the Battle of Mynydd Cwmdu, near Tretower Castle a few miles northwest of Crickhowell – nearly capturing Owain Glyndwr himself, taking Owain's banner, forcing the Welsh to flee. They were chased down the valley of the River Usk where they regrouped and turned the tables on the pursuing English force, attempting an ambush. They chased the English in turn to the town walls of Monmouth after a skirmish at Craig-y-Dorth, a conical hill near Mitchel Troy.[4]

    Chivalry and Pilgrimage

    Seal of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick
    Warwick acquired quite a reputation for chivalry, and when in 1408 he went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, he was challenged many times to fight in the sporting combat which was then popular. On the return trip he went through Russia and Eastern Europe, not returning to England until 1410.

    Soldier of the King

    In 1410, he was appointed a member of the royal council and in 1413 was Lord High Steward at the Prince's coronation as Henry V of England. The next year he helped put down the Lollard uprising, and then went to Normandy as Captain of Calais and represented England at the Council of Constance.[5] He spent much of the next decade fighting the French in the Hundred Years' War. In 1419, he was created Count of Aumale, part of the King's policy of giving out Norman titles to his nobles. He was appointed Master of the Horse.

    Responsibilities

    Henry V's will gave Warwick the responsibility for the education of the infant Henry VI of England. This duty required him to travel back and forth between England and Normandy many times. In 1437, the Royal Council deemed his duty complete, and he was appointed lieutenant of France and Normandy. He remained in France for the remaining two years of his life.

    Marriages and children

    Warwick first married Elizabeth de Berkeley (born ca.1386 – 28 December 1422) before 5 October 1397,[6] the daughter of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Lord Berkeley and the Baroness Margaret de Lisle. Together they had 3 daughters:

    Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury (1404–1468), who married John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, and whose great-great-grandson John Dudley was created Earl of Warwick and subsequently Duke of Northumberland;
    Eleanor, Duchess of Somerset, (b 1407) who married Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros and then married Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset;
    Elizabeth, Baroness Latimer of Snape, (b 1417) who married George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer.
    Warwick then married Isabel le Despenser (26 July 1400–1439), the daughter of Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Constance of York. With Isabel, who was also the widow of his cousin Richard Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, his children were:

    Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, (born March 1425) who succeeded his father as Earl of Warwick, and later became Duke of Warwick;
    Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick, (b September 1426) who was theoretically Countess of Warwick in her own right (after the death of her infant niece and namesake), and who married Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.

    Death and Burial

    Effigy of Richard de Beauchamp in the Beauchamp Chapel of St Mary's Church, Warwick. The finest piece of English 15th-century bronze sculpture, modelled and cast by William Austen of London, gilded and engraved by Bartholomew Lambespring, a Dutch goldsmith.[7]

    Richard de Beauchamp's will was made at Caversham Castle in Oxfordshire (now Berkshire), one of his favoured residences, in 1437. Most of his property was entailed, but with a portion of the rest the will established a substantial trust. After his debts were paid the trust endowed the Collegiate Church of St Mary in Warwick, and called for the construction of a new chapel there. It also enlarged the endowment of the chantries at Elmley Castle and Guy's Cliffe, and gave a gift to Tewkesbury Abbey.[8] Beauchamp died in Rouen, Normandy, two years later, on 30 April 1439.[9] After the completion of the chapel, his body was transferred there (in 1475),[8] where his magnificent gilt-bronze monumental effigy may still be seen.

    Buried:
    at St. Mary's...

    Richard married Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick 0Oct 1397. Elizabeth (daughter of Thomas de Berkeley and Margaret Lisle) was born 0___ 1386, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England; died 28 Dec 1422; was buried Kingswood Abbey, Kingswood, Gloucestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 31.  Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick was born 0___ 1386, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England (daughter of Thomas de Berkeley and Margaret Lisle); died 28 Dec 1422; was buried Kingswood Abbey, Kingswood, Gloucestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Elizabeth Beauchamp (nâee de Berkeley), Countess of Warwick, Baroness de Lisle, and Baroness de Teyes (1386 - 28 December 1422) was an English noblewoman and heiress. She was the only child of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley and Margaret de Lisle, 3rd Baroness Lisle.

    With her father's death in 1417, Elizabeth and her husband Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick became involved in an inheritance dispute with her cousin James Berkeley, initiating one of the longest lawsuits in English history.

    Life and inheritance

    Elizabeth de Berkeley was the only child born to Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley by his wife Margaret de Lisle, Baroness Lisle.[1][2] As such, Elizabeth was their sole heir, and was to inherit the baronies of Lisle and Tyes from her mother. Margaret died near 1392, but Elizabeth did not succeed to them until the death of Thomas in 1417, as he held the lands by tenure of courtesy.[1] In September 1392, the Baron Berkeley negotiated Elizabeth's marriage to Richard de Beauchamp, eldest son and heir to Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick. Elizabeth married him sometime before 5 October 1397, and became the Countess of Warwick in 1403.[1] The marriage remained unconsummated for at least six years. Elizabeth gave birth to three girls:[1]

    Lady Margaret Beauchamp (1404 – 1467/1468); married John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury[1][3]
    Lady Eleanor Beauchamp (c. 1408); married (1) Thomas de Ros, 8th Baron de Ros (2) Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset[1] (3) Walter Rokesley
    Lady Elizabeth Beauchamp (c. 1417[1] – died before 2 October 1480); married (1) George Nevill, 1st Baron Latymer[1] (2) Thomas Wake

    Berkeley Castle (as seen in present day), part of the dispute between the Countess and her cousin
    Elizabeth's level of education and literacy is evident from a 1410 commission asking John Walton to translate Boethius' De consolatione philosophiae; he dedicated it in her name.[2]

    An inheritance dispute erupted with her father's death in 1417. Thomas had named her his heir, but many of his lands and estates, including Berkeley Castle, were entailed through the male line to Elizabeth's cousin James Berkeley.[1][3] Elizabeth and her husband refused to accept the entail, thus "initiat[ing] one of the longest lawsuits in England," which lasted until 1609.[1] After Lord Thomas' death, the Earl and Countess of Warwick quickly took control of the castle and gained the temporary permission of King Henry V to maintain it. James was unable to seize control of the castle, as Warwick and the king were then fighting in France.[4] To gain support in the dispute, Elizabeth sought the help of John, Duke of Bedford while James successfully bribed Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, each one of the king's brothers. By 1425, Elizabeth was dead and James had been given Berkeley Castle along with most of the entailed lands.[1][4]

    Elizabeth died on 28 December 1422. She was buried at Kingswood Abbey, and a marble tomb was later placed over her grave through a provision in her husband's will.[1] The following year, the Earl of Warwick remarried to Lady Isabel le Despenser, the widow of his cousin Richard de Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester.[5]

    Buried:
    Kingswood Abbey was a Cistercian abbey, located in the village of Kingswood near Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, England.

    Through the abbey's gatehouse arch are a few houses and the small village primary school of Kingswood.

    Photo, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingswood_Abbey

    Children:
    1. 15. Eleanor Beauchamp, Duchess of Somerset was born 0Sep 1407, Wedgenock, Warwickshire, England; died 1466-1467, Baynard's Castle, London, England.
    2. Elizabeth Beauchamp, Baroness Latimer of Snape was born 16 Sep 1417, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died Bef 2 Oct 1480, Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England; was buried Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England.


Generation: 6

  1. 32.  John Cary, II, Knight was born 0___ 1350, Holway, Devon, England (son of John Cary, I, Knight and Jane de Bryen); died 0___ 1404, Waterford, Ireland.

    John married Margaret Holway ~ 1374. Margaret was born 0___ 1354, Holway, Devon, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 33.  Margaret Holway was born 0___ 1354, Holway, Devon, England.
    Children:
    1. 16. Robert Cary, Knight was born ~ 1375, Holway, Devon, England; died Aft 1419.

  3. 34.  Richard Hankeford, Knight

    Richard — Thomasine de Stapeldon. [Group Sheet]


  4. 35.  Thomasine de Stapeldon
    Children:
    1. 17. Jane Hankeford was born ~ 1379, Clovelly, Devon, England; died Clovelly, Devon, England.

  5. 44.  Edmund Bozom was born ~ 1370, (South Tawton, Devon, England) (son of Robert Bozom and Jane St. George); died 0___ 1408, South Tawton, Devon, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edmund de Bosome

    Edmund — Mabel Falewell. Mabel was born ~ 1365, Devon, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 45.  Mabel Falewell was born ~ 1365, Devon, England.

    Notes:

    Birth:
    (Bozomzeal)

    Children:
    1. 22. John Bozom, Knight was born ~ 1390, Devon, England; died 8 Aug 1440.

  7. 46.  John Fortescue was born ~ 1380, Combe, Devonshire, England (son of William Fortescue, II and Elizabeth Beauchamp); died ~ 1435.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Meaux, France

    Notes:

    Sir John Fortescue (fl. 1422) of Shepham[2] (modern: Sheepham) in the parish of Modbury[3] in Devon, was appointed in 1422 by King Henry V as Captain of the captured Castle of Meaux, 25 miles north-east of Paris, following the Siege of Meaux during the Hundred Years' War.

    Biography

    He was a son of William Fortescue by his wife Elizabeth, who was a daughter of Sir John Beauchamp and a co-heiress of her brother Thomas Beauchamp of Ryme. She was the widow of Richard Branscombe.[4]

    He married Elinor Norries, daughter and heiress of William Norries[5] (alias Norreys) of Norreys in the parish of North Huish in Devon, by his wife, a daughter of Roger Colaton.[6] By Elinor, Fortescue had the following children:[4]

    Sir Henry Fortescue, eldest son and heir, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in Ireland, who married Jane Bozun, daughter of Edmond Bozun of Wood.[4]
    Sir John Fortescue (died 1479) of Ebrington in Gloucestershire, second son, Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales,[4] ancestor of the Fortescues of Filleigh and Weare Giffard in Devon, later Earl Fortescue of Castle Hill, Filleigh.[citation needed]
    Sir Richard Fortescue, third son, ancestor of the Fortescues of Punsborne in Hertfordshire, of Falkborne and of Seldon.[4]

    Fortescue monument

    On the south wall of the south aisle chapel ("Fortescue Chapel") of the parish church of Weare Giffard is affixed the Fortescue mural monument, erected in 1638[7] by Hugh Fortescue (1592-1661). It is dedicated to three generations of the Fortescue family, and mentions the family origins at Whympston and Sir John Fortescue, Captain of Meaux.

    end.

    Sir John Fortescue1,2,3
    M, #35325, b. circa 1380, d. circa 1435
    Father William Fortescue4,3 b. c 1360, d. a 1411
    Mother Elizabeth Beauchamp4,3 b. c 1348, d. a 1411

    Sir John Fortescue was born circa 1380 at of Combe in Holbeton, Devonshire, England.3 He married Eleanor Norreys, daughter of William Norreys, Esq. and Eleanor Colaton, circa 1400 at of Devonshire, England; They had 3 sons (Sir Henry, Chief Justice of the King's Bench in Ireland; Sir John; & Sir Richard).2,3 Sir John Fortescue died circa 1435; He married (2) before 12 November 1408 to Clarice.3

    Family

    Eleanor Norreys b. c 1376, d. b 12 Nov 1408

    Children

    Sir Henry Fortescue, Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas+ d. a 1426
    Sir John Fortescue, Lord Chief Justice, Chancellor of England, Burgess for Tavistock, Totnes, & Plympton Erle+3 b. c 1402, d. b 18 Dec 1479
    Sir Richard Fortescue+5 b. c 1406, d. 1455
    Joan Fortescue+ b. c 1421

    Citations

    [S10927] Unknown author, Burke's Commoners, Vol. II, p. 541.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 112.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 7.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 111.
    [S11581] Burke's Dormant & Extinct Peerages, p. 221.
    Eleanor Norreys1,2,3
    F, #35326, b. circa 1376, d. before 12 November 1408
    Father William Norreys, Esq.3 b. c 1352
    Mother Eleanor Colaton4,3 b. c 1354
    Eleanor Norreys was born circa 1376 at of Norreys in North Huish, Devonshire, England.3 She married Sir John Fortescue, son of William Fortescue and Elizabeth Beauchamp, circa 1400 at of Devonshire, England; They had 3 sons (Sir Henry, Chief Justice of the King's Bench in Ireland; Sir John; & Sir Richard).2,3 Eleanor Norreys died before 12 November 1408.3
    Family
    Sir John Fortescue b. c 1380, d. c 1435
    Children
    Sir Henry Fortescue, Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas+5 d. a 1426
    Sir John Fortescue, Lord Chief Justice, Chancellor of England, Burgess for Tavistock, Totnes, & Plympton Erle+3 b. c 1402, d. b 18 Dec 1479
    Sir Richard Fortescue+6 b. c 1406, d. 1455
    Joan Fortescue+ b. c 1421
    Citations
    [S10927] Unknown author, Burke's Commoners, Vol. II, p. 541.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 112.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 7.
    [S61] Unknown author, Family Group Sheets, Family History Archives, SLC.
    [S11577] Unknown author, Burke's Commoners, Vol. II, p., 541.
    [S11581] Burke's Dormant & Extinct Peerages, p. 221.

    end

    John married Eleanor Norreys ~ 1400, North Huish, Devonshire, England. Eleanor (daughter of William Norreys and FNU Colaton) was born ~ 1376, Devonshire, England; died 12 Nov 1408. [Group Sheet]


  8. 47.  Eleanor Norreys was born ~ 1376, Devonshire, England (daughter of William Norreys and FNU Colaton); died 12 Nov 1408.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Elinor Norries

    Children:
    1. 23. Joan Fortescue was born ~ 1421, Wood, Devonshire, England.

  9. 56.  John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of LancasterJohn of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster was born 6 Mar 1340, St. Bavo's Abbey, Ghent, Belgium (son of Edward III, King of England and Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England); died 3 Feb 1399, Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire, England; was buried 15 Mar 1399, St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Middlesex, England..

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Duke of Aquitaine
    • Also Known As: King of Castile

    Notes:

    John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then rendered in English as Gaunt. When he became unpopular later in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury.[2]

    As a younger brother of Edward, Prince of Wales (Edward, the Black Prince), John exercised great influence over the English throne during the minority of Edward's son, who became King Richard II, and the ensuing periods of political strife. Due to some generous land grants, John was one of the richest men in his era. He made an abortive attempt to enforce a claim to the Crown of Castile that came courtesy of his second wife Constance, who was an heir to the Castillian Kingdom, and for a time styled himself as such.

    John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, include Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. His other legitimate descendants include his daughters Queen Philippa of Portugal and Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter (by his first wife Blanche of Lancaster), and Queen Catherine of Castile (by his second wife Constance of Castile). John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The children of Katherine Swynford, surnamed "Beaufort," were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396. Descendants of this marriage include Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, a grandmother of Kings Edward IV and Richard III; John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, a great-grandfather of King Henry VII; and Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots, from whom are descended all subsequent sovereigns of Scotland beginning in 1437 and all sovereigns of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom from 1603 to the present day. The three houses of English sovereigns that succeeded the rule of Richard II in 1399 — the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor — were all descended from John's children Henry IV, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively. In addition, John's daughter Catherine of Lancaster was married to King Henry III of Castile, which made him the grandfather of King John II of Castile and the ancestor of all subsequent monarchs of the Crown of Castile and united Spain. Through John II of Castile's great-granddaughter Joanna the Mad, John of Gaunt is also an ancestor of the Habsburg rulers who would reign in Spain and much of central Europe.

    John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, the son of his first wife Blanche of Lancaster, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398 as resolution to a dispute between Henry and Thomas de Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk.[3] When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown, since King Richard II had named Henry a traitor and changed his sentence to exile for life.[3] Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England (1399–1413), the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England.

    Duke of Lancaster

    Kenilworth Castle, a massive fortress extensively modernised and given a new Great Hall by John of Gaunt after 1350
    John was the fourth son of King Edward III of England. His first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was also his third cousin, both as great-great-grandchildren of King Henry III. They married in 1359 at Reading Abbey as a part of the efforts of Edward III to arrange matches for his sons with wealthy heiresses. Upon the death of his father-in-law, the 1st Duke of Lancaster, in 1361, John received half his lands, the title "Earl of Lancaster", and distinction as the greatest landowner in the north of England as heir of the Palatinate of Lancaster. He also became the 14th Baron of Halton and 11th Lord of Bowland. John inherited the rest of the Lancaster property when Blanche's sister Maud, Countess of Leicester (married to William V, Count of Hainaut), died without issue on 10 April 1362.

    John received the title "Duke of Lancaster" from his father on 13 November 1362. By then well established, he owned at least thirty castles and estates across England and France and maintained a household comparable in scale and organisation to that of a monarch. He owned land in almost every county in England, a patrimony that produced a net income of between ¹8,000 and ¹10,000 a year.[4]

    After the death in 1376 of his older brother Edward of Woodstock (also known as the "Black Prince"), John of Gaunt contrived to protect the religious reformer John Wycliffe, possibly to counteract the growing secular power of the church.[5] However, John's ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. At a time when English forces encountered setbacks in the Hundred Years' War against France, and Edward III's rule was becoming unpopular due to high taxation and his affair with Alice Perrers, political opinion closely associated the Duke of Lancaster with the failing government of the 1370s. Furthermore, while King Edward and the Prince of Wales were popular heroes due to their successes on the battlefield, John of Gaunt had not won equivalent military renown that could have bolstered his reputation. Although he fought in the Battle of Nâajera (1367), for example, his later military projects proved unsuccessful.

    When Edward III died in 1377 and John's ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, John's influence strengthened. However, mistrust remained, and some[who?] suspected him of wanting to seize the throne himself. John took pains to ensure that he never became associated with the opposition to Richard's kingship. As de facto ruler during Richard's minority, he made unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, when the rebels destroyed his home in London, the Savoy Palace. Unlike some of Richard's unpopular advisors, John was away from London at the time of the uprising and thus avoided the direct wrath of the rebels.

    In 1386 John left England to seek the throne of Castile, claimed in Jure uxoris by right of his second wife, Constance of Castile, whom he had married in 1371. However, crisis ensued almost immediately in his absence, and in 1387 King Richard's misrule brought England to the brink of civil war. Only John, on his return to England in 1389, succeeded in persuading the Lords Appellant and King Richard to compromise to usher in a period of relative stability. During the 1390s, John's reputation of devotion to the well-being of the kingdom was largely restored.

    Sometime after the death of Blanche of Lancaster in 1368 and the birth of their first son, John Beaufort, in 1373, John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford, the daughter of an ordinary knight, entered into an extra-marital love affair that would produce four children for the couple. All of them were born out of wedlock, but legitimized upon their parents' eventual marriage. The adulterous relationship endured until 1381, when it was broken out of political necessity.[6] On 13 January 1396, two years after the death of Constance of Castile, Katherine and John of Gaunt married in Lincoln Cathedral. The children bore the surname "Beaufort" after a former French possession of the duke. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married. A later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne, the phrase excepta regali dignitate ("except royal status"), was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV.

    John died of natural causes on 3 February 1399 at Leicester Castle, with his third wife Katherine by his side.

    Military commander in France

    Because of his rank, John of Gaunt was one of England's principal military commanders in the 1370s and 1380s, though his enterprises were never rewarded with the kind of dazzling success that had made his elder brother Edward the Black Prince such a charismatic war leader.

    On the resumption of war with France in 1369, John was sent to Calais with the Earl of Hereford and a small English army with which he raided into northern France. On 23 August, he was confronted by a much larger French army under Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Exercising his first command, John dared not attack such a superior force and the two armies faced each other across a marsh for several weeks until the English were reinforced by the Earl of Warwick, at which the French withdrew without offering battle. John and Warwick then decided to strike Harfleur, the base of the French fleet on the Seine. Further reinforced by German mercenaries, they marched on Harfleur, but were delayed by French guerilla operations while the town prepared for a siege. John invested the town for four days in October, but he was losing so many men to dysentery and bubonic plague that he decided to abandon the siege and return to Calais. During this retreat, the army had to fight its way across the Somme at the ford of Blanchetaque against a French army led by Hugh de Chãatillon, who was captured and sold to Edward III. By the middle of November, the survivors of the sickly army returned to Calais, where the Earl of Warwick died of plague. Though it seemed an inglorious conclusion to the campaign, John had forced the French king, Charles V, to abandon his plans to invade England that autumn.[7]

    In the summer of 1370, John was sent with a small army to Aquitaine to reinforce his ailing elder brother, the Black Prince, and his younger brother Edmund of Langley, Earl of Cambridge. With them, he participated in the Siege of Limoges (September 1370). He took charge of the siege operations and at one point engaging in hand-to-hand fighting in the undermining tunnels.[8] After this event, the Black Prince surrendered his lordship of Aquitaine and sailed for England, leaving John in charge. Though he attempted to defend the duchy against French encroachment for nearly a year, lack of resources and money meant he could do little but husband what small territory the English still controlled, and he resigned the command in September 1371 and returned to England.[9] Just before leaving Aquitaine, he married the Infanta Constance of Castile on September 1371 at Roquefort, near Bordeaux, Guienne. The following year he took part with his father, Edward III, in an abortive attempt to invade France with a large army, which was frustrated by three months of unfavourable winds.

    Probably John's most notable feat of arms occurred in August–December 1373, when he attempted to relieve Aquitaine by the landward route, leading an army of some 9,000 mounted men from Calais on a great chevauchâee from north-eastern to south-western France on a 900 kilometre raid. This four-month ride through enemy territory, evading French armies on the way, was a bold stroke that impressed contemporaries but achieved virtually nothing. Beset on all sides by French ambushes and plagued by disease and starvation, John of Gaunt and his raiders battled their way through Champagne, east of Paris, into Burgundy, across the Massif Central, and finally down into Dordogne. Unable to attack any strongly fortified forts and cities, the raiders plundered the countryside, which weakened the French infrastructure, but the military value of the damage was only temporary. Marching in winter across the Limousin plateau, with stragglers being picked off by the French, huge numbers of the army, and even larger numbers of horses, died of cold, disease or starvation. The army reached English-occupied Bordeaux on 24 December 1373, severely weakened in numbers with the loss of least one-third of their force in action and another third to disease. Upon arrival in Bordeaux, many more succumbed to the bubonic plague that was raging in the city. Sick, demoralised and mutinous, the army was in no shape to defend Aquitaine, and soldiers began to desert. John had no funds with which to pay them, and despite his entreaties, none were sent from England, so in April 1374, he abandoned the enterprise and sailed for home.[10]

    John's final campaign in France took place in 1378. He planned a 'great expedition' of mounted men in a large armada of ships to land at Brest and take control of Brittany. Not enough ships could be found to transport the horses, and the expedition was tasked with the more limited objective of capturing St. Malo. The English destroyed the shipping in St. Malo harbour and began to assault the town by land on 14 August, but John was soon hampered by the size of his army, which was unable to forage because French armies under Olivier de Clisson and Bertrand du Guesclin occupied the surrounding countryside, harrying the edges of his force. In September, the siege was simply abandoned and the army returned ingloriously to England. John of Gaunt received most of the blame for the debãacle.[11]

    Partly as a result of these failures, and those of other English commanders at this period, John was one of the first important figures in England to conclude that the war with France was unwinnable because of France's greater resources of wealth and manpower. He began to advocate peace negotiations; indeed, as early as 1373, during his great raid through France, he made contact with Guillaume Roger, brother and political adviser of Pope Gregory XI, to let the pope know he would be interested in a diplomatic conference under papal auspices. This approach led indirectly to the Anglo-French Congress of Bruges in 1374–77, which resulted in the short-lived Truce of Bruges between the two sides.[12] John was himself a delegate to the various conferences that eventually resulted in the Truce of Leulinghem in 1389. The fact that he became identified with the attempts to make peace added to his unpopularity at a period when the majority of Englishmen believed victory would be in their grasp if only the French could be defeated decisively as they had been in the 1350s. Another motive was John's conviction that it was only by making peace with France would it be possible to release sufficient manpower to enforce his claim to the throne of Castile.

    Head of government

    On his return from France in 1374, John took a more decisive and persistent role in the direction of English foreign policy. From then until 1377, he was effectively the head of the English government due to the illness of his father and elder brother, who were unable to exercise authority. His vast estates made him the richest man in England, and his great wealth, ostentatious display of it, autocratic manner and attitudes, enormous London mansion (the Savoy Palace on the Strand) and association with the failed peace process at Bruges combined to make him the most visible target of social resentments. His time at the head of government was marked by the so-called Good Parliament of 1376 and the Bad Parliament of 1377. The first, called to grant massive war taxation to the Crown, turned into a parliamentary revolution, with the Commons (supported to some extent by the Lords) venting their grievances at decades of crippling taxation, misgovernment, and suspected endemic corruption among the ruling classes. John was left isolated (even the Black Prince supported the need for reform) and the Commons refused to grant money for the war unless most of the great officers of state were dismissed and the king's mistress Alice Perrers, another focus of popular resentment, was barred from any further association with him. But even after the government acceded to virtually all their demands, the Commons then refused to authorise any funds for the war, losing the sympathy of the Lords as a result.

    The death of the Black Prince on 8 June 1376 and the onset of Edward III's last illness at the closing of Parliament on 10 July left John with all the reins of power. He immediately had the ailing king grant pardons to all the officials impeached by the Parliament; Alice Perrers too was reinstated at the heart of the king's household. John impeached William of Wykeham and other leaders of the reform movement, and secured their conviction on old or trumped-up charges. The parliament of 1377 was John's counter-coup: crucially, the Lords no longer supported the Commons and John was able to have most of the acts of 1376 annulled. He also succeeded in forcing the Commons to agree to the imposition of the first Poll Tax in English history — a viciously regressive measure that bore hardest on the poorest members of society.[13] There was organised opposition to his measures and rioting in London; John of Gaunt's arms were reversed or defaced wherever they were displayed, and protestors pasted up lampoons on his supposedly dubious birth. At one point he was forced to take refuge across the Thames, while his Savoy Palace only just escaped looting.[14] It was rumoured (and believed by many people in England and France) that he intended to seize the throne for himself and supplant the rightful heir, his nephew Richard, the son of the Black Prince, but there seems to have been no truth in this and on the death of Edward III and the accession of the child Richard II, John sought no position of regency for himself and withdrew to his estates.[15]

    John's personal unpopularity persisted, however, and the failure of his expedition to Saint-Malo in 1378 did nothing for his reputation. By this time, too, some of his possessions were taken from him by the Crown. For example, his ship, the Dieulagarde, was seized and bundled with other royal ships to be sold (to pay off the debts of Sir Robert de Crull, who during the latter part of King Edward III's reign had been the Clerk of the King's Ships, and had advanced monies to pay for the king's ships .[16] During the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, John of Gaunt was far from the centre of events, on the March of Scotland, but he was among those named by the rebels as a traitor to be beheaded as soon as he could be found. The Savoy Palace was systematically destroyed by the mob and burned to the ground. Nominally friendly lords and even his own fortresses closed their gates to him, and John was forced to flee into Scotland with a handful of retainers and throw himself on the charity of King Robert II of Scotland until the crisis was over.[17]

    King of Castile

    Upon his marriage to the Infanta Constance of Castile in 1371, John assumed (officially from 29 January 1372) the title of King of Castile and Leâon in right of his wife, and insisted his fellow English nobles henceforth address him as 'my lord of Spain'.[18] He impaled his arms with those of the Spanish kingdom. From 1372, John gathered around himself a small court of refugee Castilian knights and ladies and set up a Castilian chancery that prepared documents in his name according to the style of Peter of Castile, dated by the Castilian era and signed by himself with the Spanish formula 'Yo El Rey' ("I, the King").[19] He hatched several schemes to make good his claim with an army, but for many years these were still-born due to lack of finance or the conflicting claims of war in France or with Scotland. It was only in 1386, after Portugal under its new King John I had entered into full alliance with England, that he was actually able to land with an army in Spain and mount a campaign for the throne of Castile (that ultimately failed). John sailed from England on 9 July 1386 with a huge Anglo-Portuguese fleet carrying an army of about 5,000 men plus an extensive 'royal' household and his wife and daughters. Pausing on the journey to use his army to drive off the French forces who were then besieging Brest, he landed at Corunna in northern Spain on 29 July.


    John of Gaunt dines with John I of Portugal, to discuss a joint Anglo-Portuguese invasion of Castile (from Jean de Wavrin's Chronique d'Angleterre).
    The Castilian king, John of Trastâamara, had expected John would land in Portugal and had concentrated his forces on the Portuguese border. He was wrong-footed by John's decision to invade Galicia, the most distant and disaffected of Castile's kingdoms. From August to October, John of Gaunt set up a rudimentary court and chancery at Ourense and received the submission of the Galician nobility and most of the towns of Galicia, though they made their homage to him conditional on his being recognised as king by the rest of Castile. While John of Gaunt had gambled on an early decisive battle, the Castilians were in no hurry to join battle, and he began to experience difficulties keeping his army together and paying it. In November, he met King John I of Portugal at Ponte do Mouro on the south side of the Minho River and concluded an agreement with him to make a joint Anglo-Portuguese invasion of central Castile early in 1387. The treaty was sealed by the marriage of John's eldest daughter Philippa to the Portuguese king. A large part of John's army had succumbed to sickness, however, and when the invasion was mounted, they were far outnumbered by their Portuguese allies. The campaign of April–June 1387 was an ignominious failure. The Castilians refused to offer battle and the Galician-Anglo-Portuguese troops, apart from time-wasting sieges of fortified towns, were reduced to foraging for food in the arid Spanish landscape. They were harried mainly by French mercenaries of the Castilian king. Many hundreds of English, including close friends and retainers of John of Gaunt, died of disease or exhaustion. Many deserted or abandoned the army to ride north under French safe-conducts. Shortly after the army returned to Portugal, John of Gaunt concluded a secret treaty with John of Trastâamara under which he and his wife renounced all claim to the Castilian throne in return for a large annual payment and the marriage of their daughter Catherine to John of Trastâamara's son Henry.

    Duke of Aquitaine

    John left Portugal for Aquitaine, and he remained in that province until he returned to England in November 1389. This effectively kept him off the scene while England endured the major political crisis of the conflict between Richard II and the Lords Appellant, who were led by John of Gaunt's younger brother Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester. Only four months after his return to England, in March 1390, Richard II formally invested Gaunt with the Duchy of Aquitaine, thus providing him with the overseas territory he had long desired. However he did not immediately return to the province, but remained in England and mainly ruled through seneschals as an absentee duke. His administration of the province was a disappointment, and his appointment as duke was much resented by the Gascons, since Aquitaine had previously always been held directly by the king of England or his heir; it was not felt to be a fief that a king could bestow on a subordinate. In 1394–95, he was forced to spend nearly a year in Gascony to shore up his position in the face of threats of secession by the Gascon nobles. He was one of England's principal negotiators in the diplomatic exchanges with France that led to the Truce of Leulingham in 1396, and he initially agreed to join the French-led Crusade that ended in the disastrous Battle of Nicopolis, but withdrew due to ill-health and the political problems in Gascony and England.[20] For the remainder of his life, John of Gaunt occupied the role of valued counsellor of the king and loyal supporter of the Crown. He did not even protest, it seems, when his younger brother Thomas was murdered at Richard's behest. It may be that he felt he had to maintain this posture of loyalty to protect his son Henry Bolingbroke (the future Henry IV), who had also been one of the Lords Appellant, from Richard's wrath; but in 1398 Richard had Bolingbroke exiled, and on John of Gaunt's death the next year he disinherited Bolingbroke completely, seizing John's vast estates for the Crown.

    Relationship to Chaucer

    John of Gaunt was a patron and close friend of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer, most famously known for his work The Canterbury Tales. Near the end of their lives, Lancaster and Chaucer became brothers-in-law. Chaucer married Philippa (Pan) de Roet in 1366, and Lancaster took his mistress of nearly 30 years, Katherine Swynford (de Roet), who was Philippa Chaucer's sister, as his third wife in 1396. Although Philippa died c. 1387, the men were bound as brothers and Lancaster's children by Katherine – John, Henry, Thomas and Joan Beaufort – were Chaucer's nephews and niece.

    Chaucer's Book of the Duchess, also known as the Deeth of Blaunche the Duchesse,[21] was written in commemoration of Blanche of Lancaster, John of Gaunt's first wife. The poem refers to John and Blanche in allegory as the narrator relates the tale of "A long castel with walles white/Be Seynt Johan, on a ryche hil" (1318–1319) who is mourning grievously after the death of his love, "And goode faire White she het/That was my lady name ryght" (948–949). The phrase "long castel" is a reference to Lancaster (also called "Loncastel" and "Longcastell"), "walles white" is thought to likely be an oblique reference to Blanche, "Seynt Johan" was John of Gaunt's name-saint, and "ryche hil" is a reference to Richmond; these thinly veiled references reveal the identity of the grieving black knight of the poem as John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Earl of Richmond. "White" is the English translation of the French word "blanche", implying that the white lady was Blanche of Lancaster.[22]

    Believed to have been written in the 1390s, Chaucer's short poem Fortune, is also inferred to directly reference Lancaster.[23][24] "Chaucer as narrator" openly defies Fortune, proclaiming he has learned who his enemies are through her tyranny and deceit, and declares "my suffisaunce" (15) and that "over himself hath the maystrye" (14). Fortune, in turn, does not understand Chaucer's harsh words to her for she believes she has been kind to him, claims that he does not know what she has in store for him in the future, but most importantly, "And eek thou hast thy beste frend alyve" (32, 40, 48). Chaucer retorts that "My frend maystow nat reven, blind goddesse" (50) and orders her to take away those who merely pretend to be his friends. Fortune turns her attention to three princes whom she implores to relieve Chaucer of his pain and "Preyeth his beste frend of his noblesse/That to som beter estat he may atteyne" (78–79). The three princes are believed to represent the dukes of Lancaster, York, and Gloucester, and a portion of line 76, "as three of you or tweyne," to refer to the ordinance of 1390 which specified that no royal gift could be authorised without the consent of at least two of the three dukes.[23] Most conspicuous in this short poem is the number of references to Chaucer's "beste frend". Fortune states three times in her response to the plaintiff, "And also, you still have your best friend alive" (32, 40, 48); she also references his "beste frend" in the envoy when appealing to his "noblesse" to help Chaucer to a higher estate. A fifth reference is made by "Chaucer as narrator" who rails at Fortune that she shall not take his friend from him. While the envoy playfully hints to Lancaster that Chaucer would certainly appreciate a boost to his status or income, the poem Fortune distinctively shows his deep appreciation and affection for John of Gaunt.

    Marriages

    Coat of arms of John of Gaunt asserting his kingship over Castile and Leâon, combining the Castilian castle and lion with lilies of France, the lions of England and his heraldic difference

    On 19 May 1359 at Reading Abbey, John married his third cousin, Blanche of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. The wealth she brought to the marriage was the foundation of John's fortune. Blanche died on 12 September 1368 at Tutbury Castle, while her husband was overseas. Their son Henry Bolingbroke became Henry IV of England, after the duchy of Lancaster was taken by Richard II upon John's death while Henry was in exile. Their daughter Philippa became Queen of Portugal by marrying King John I of Portugal in 1387. All subsequent kings of Portugal were thus descended from John of Gaunt.

    In 1371, John married Infanta Constance of Castile, daughter of King Peter of Castile, thus giving him a claim to the Crown of Castile, which he would pursue. Though John was never able to make good his claim, his daughter by Constance, Catherine of Lancaster, became Queen of Castile by marrying Henry III of Castile. Catherine of Aragon is descended from this line.

    During his marriage to Constance, John of Gaunt had fathered four children by a mistress, the widow Katherine Swynford (whose sister Philippa de Roet was married to Chaucer). Prior to her widowhood, Katherine had borne at least two, possibly three, children to Lancastrian knight Sir Hugh Swynford. The known names of these children are Blanche and Thomas. (There may have been a second Swynford daughter.) John of Gaunt was Blanche Swynford's godfather.[25]
    Constance died in 1394.

    John married Katherine in 1396, and their children, the Beauforts, were legitimised by King Richard II and the Church, but barred from inheriting the throne. From the eldest son, John, descended a granddaughter, Margaret Beaufort, whose son, later King Henry VII of England, would nevertheless claim the throne.

    Queen Elizabeth II and her predecessors since Henry IV are descended from John of Gaunt.

    Children

    1640 drawing of tombs of Katherine Swynford and daughter Joan Beaufort

    By Blanche of Lancaster:

    Philippa (1360–1415) married King John I of Portugal (1357–1433).
    John (1362–1365) was the first-born son of John and Blanche of Lancaster and lived possibly at least until after the birth of his brother Edward of Lancaster in 1365 and died before his second brother another short lived boy called John in 1366.[26] He was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester.
    Elizabeth (1364–1426), married (1) in 1380 John Hastings, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1372–1389), annulled 1383; married (2) in 1386 John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter (1350–1400); (3) Sir John Cornwall, 1st Baron Fanhope and Milbroke (d. 1443)
    Edward (1365) died within a year of his birth and was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester.
    John (1366–1367) most likely died after the birth of his younger brother Henry, the future Henry IV of England; he was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester
    Henry IV of England (1367–1413) married (1) Mary de Bohun (1369–1394); (2) Joanna of Navarre (1368–1437)
    Isabel (1368–1368)[27][28]

    By Constance of Castile:

    Catherine (1372–1418), married King Henry III of Castile (1379–1406)
    John (1374–1375)[28][29]

    By Katherine Swynford (nâee de Roet/Roelt), mistress and later wife (children legitimised 1397):

    John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373–1410)—married Margaret Holland.
    Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester and Cardinal (1375–1447)
    Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter (1377–1427), married Margaret Neville, daughter of Sir Thomas de Neville and Joan Furnivall.
    Joan Beaufort (1379–1440)—married first Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem and second Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland.

    By Marie de St. Hilaire of Hainaut, mistress:

    Blanche (1359–1388/89), illegitimate, married Sir Thomas Morieux (1355–1387) in 1381, without issue. Blanche was the daughter of John's mistress, Marie de St. Hilaire of Hainaut (1340-after 1399), who was a lady-in-waiting to his mother, Queen Philippa. The affair apparently took place before John's first marriage to Blanche of Lancaster. John's daughter, Blanche, married Sir Thomas Morieux in 1381. Morieux held several important posts, including Constable of the Tower the year he was married, and Master of Horse to King Richard II two years later. He died in 1387 after six years of marriage.

    Buried:
    St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London. Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604.[1] The present church, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren. Its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London.[2]

    The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, dominated the skyline for 300 years.[3] At 365 feet (111 m) high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1962. The dome is among the highest in the world. St Paul's is the second largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral.

    St Paul's Cathedral occupies a significant place in the national identity.[4] It is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz.[4] Services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Winston Churchill; Jubilee celebrations for Queen Victoria; peace services marking the end of the First and Second World Wars; the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer, the launch of the Festival of Britain and the thanksgiving services for the Golden Jubilee, the 80th Birthday and the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.

    St Paul's Cathedral is a working church with hourly prayer and daily services.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral

    Died:
    Leicester Castle was built over the Roman town walls.

    According to Leicester Museums, the castle was probably built around 1070 (soon after the Norman Conquest in 1066)[2] under the governorship of Hugh de Grantmesnil. The remains now consist of a mound, along with ruins. Originally the mound was 40 ft (12.2 m) high. Kings sometimes stayed at the castle (Edward I in 1300, and Edward II in 1310 and 1311), and John of Gaunt and his second wife Constance of Castile both died here in 1399 and 1394 respectively.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leicester_Castle

    John married Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster 0___ 1396, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. Katherine (daughter of Paon de Roet, Knight and unnamed spouse) was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France; died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  10. 57.  Katherine de Roet, Duchess of LancasterKatherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France (daughter of Paon de Roet, Knight and unnamed spouse); died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Katherine Swynford

    Notes:

    Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster (also spelled Katharine or Catherine[2]), was the third wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, a son of King Edward III. She had been the Duke's lover for many years before their marriage. The couple's children, born before the marriage, were later legitimated during the reign of the Duke's nephew, Richard II, although with the provision that neither they nor their descendants could ever claim the throne of England.

    Their descendants were members of the Beaufort family, which played a major role in the Wars of the Roses. Henry VII, who became King of England in 1485, derived his claim to the throne from his mother Margaret Beaufort, who was a great-granddaughter of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford. His legal claim to the throne, however, was through a matrilineal and previously illegitimate line and Henry's first action was to declare himself king "by right of conquest" retroactively from 21 August 1485, the day before his army defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth.[3]

    Family

    Katherine was the daughter of Paon de Roet, a herald, and later knight, who was "probably christened as Gilles".[4] She had two sisters, Philippa and Isabel (also called Elizabeth) de Roet, and a brother, Walter. Isabel later became Canoness of the convent of St. Waudru's, Mons, c. 1366. Katherine is generally held to have been his youngest child. However, Alison Weir argues that Philippa was the junior and that both were children of a second marriage.[4] Katherine's sister Philippa, a lady of Queen Philippa's household, married the poet Geoffrey Chaucer.

    Life

    She was probably born in Hainaut in 1349 or 1350. Katherine's birth date may have been 25 November, as that is the feast day of her patron, St. Catherine of Alexandria.[citation needed] The family returned to England in 1351, and it is likely that Katherine stayed there during her father's continued travels.

    In about 1366, at St Clement Danes Church, Westminster, Katherine, aged sixteen or seventeen, contracted an advantageous marriage with "Hugh" Ottes Swynford, a Knight from the manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire, the son of Thomas Swynford by his marriage to Nicole Druel. She had the following children by him: Blanche (born 1 May 1367), Thomas (21 September 1368 – 1432), and possibly Margaret Swynford (born about 1369), later recorded as a nun of the prestigious Barking Abbey nominated by command of King Richard II.

    Katherine became attached to the household of John of Gaunt as governess to his daughters Philippa of Lancaster and Elizabeth of Lancaster. The ailing duchess Blanche had Katherine's daughter Blanche (her namesake) placed within her own daughters' chambers and afforded the same luxuries as her daughters; additionally, John of Gaunt stood as godfather to the child.

    Some time after Blanche's death in 1368 and the birth of their first son in 1373, Katherine and John of Gaunt entered into a love affair that would produce four children for the couple, born out of wedlock but legitimized upon their parents' eventual marriage; the adulterous relationship endured until 1381 when it was truncated out of political necessity[5] and ruined Katherine's reputation. On 13 January 1396, two years after the death of the Duke's second wife, Infanta Constance of Castile, Katherine and John of Gaunt married in Lincoln Cathedral. Records of their marriage kept in the Tower and elsewhere list: 'John of Ghaunt, Duke of Lancaster, married Katharine daughter of Guyon King of Armes in the time of K. Edward the 3, and Geffrey Chaucer her sister'.

    On John of Gaunt's death, Katherine became known as dowager Duchess of Lancaster. She outlived him by four years, dying on 10 May 1403, in her early fifties, an age that most of the women in the 15th century did not reach.

    Tomb

    Katherine Swynford's tomb in 1809
    Katherine's tomb and that of her daughter, Joan Beaufort, are under a carved-stone canopy in the sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral. Joan's is the smaller of the two tombs; both were decorated with brass plates — full-length representations of them on the tops, and small shields bearing coats of arms around the sides and on the top — but those were damaged or destroyed in 1644 during the English Civil War. A hurried drawing by William Dugdale records their appearance.

    Children and descendants

    Katherine's children by Hugh Swynford were:

    Margaret Swynford (born c. 1369), became a nun at the prestigious Barking Abbey in 1377 with help from her future stepfather John of Gaunt, where she lived the religious life with her cousin Elizabeth Chaucer, daughter of the famous Geoffrey Chaucer and Katherine's sister Philippa de Roet.[4]
    Sir Thomas Swynford (1367–1432), born in Lincoln while his father Sir Hugh Swynford was away on a campaign with the Duke of Lancaster in Castile fighting for Peter of Castile.[4][6]
    Blanche Swynford, named after the Duchess of Lancaster and a godchild of John of Gaunt. (If, as suggested, she was born after 1375, this date is too late for her to have been fathered by Hugh Swynford, who died in 1371/2. However, since John of Gaunt obtained a dispensation for his marriage to Katherine for being Blanche Swynford's godchild, this theory can be discarded).[4]
    In 1846 Thomas Stapleton suggested that there was a further daughter named Dorothy Swynford, born c. 1366, who married Thomas Thimelby of Poolham near Horncastle, Lincolnshire, Sheriff of Lincolnshire in 1380, but there is no current evidence to support this claim.[4]

    Katherine's children by John of Gaunt were:

    John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373–1410)
    Henry, Cardinal Beaufort (1375–1447)
    Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter (1377–1426)
    Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland (1379–1440)
    The descendants of Katherine Swynford and John of Gaunt are significant in English and Scottish history. Their four children had been given the surname "Beaufort" and with the approval of King Richard II and the Pope were legitimated as adults by their parents' marriage in 1396. Despite this, the Beauforts were barred from inheriting the throne of England by a clause in the legitimation act inserted by their half-brother, Henry IV, although modern scholarship disputes the authority of a monarch to alter an existing parliamentary statute on his own authority, without the further approval of Parliament. This provision was later revoked by Edward IV, placing Katherine's descendants (including himself) back within the legitimate line of inheritance; the Tudor dynasty was directly descended from John and Katherine's eldest child, John Beaufort, great-grandfather of Henry VII, who based his claim to the throne on his mother's descent from John of Gaunt, a son of Edward III. John Beaufort also had a daughter named Joan Beaufort, who married James I of Scotland and thus was an ancestress of the House of Stuart.[7] John and Katherine's daughter, Joan Beaufort, was grandmother of the English kings Edward IV and Richard III, the latter of whom Henry Tudor (thus becoming by conquest Henry VII) defeated at the Battle of Bosworth Field; Henry's claim was strengthened by marrying Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV. It was also through Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland that the sixth queen of Henry VIII, Catherine Parr, descended.[8] John of Gaunt's son — Katherine's stepson Henry of Bolingbroke — became Henry IV after deposing Richard II (who was imprisoned and died in Pontefract Castle, where Katherine's son, Thomas Swynford, was constable and is said to have starved Richard to death for his step-brother). John of Gaunt's daughter by his first marriage to Blanche of Lancaster, Philippa of Lancaster, was great-great-grandmother to Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII and mother of Mary I of England. John of Gaunt's child by his second wife Constance, Catherine (or Catalina), was great-grandmother of Catherine of Aragon as well.

    In literature

    Katherine Swynford is the subject of Anya Seton's novel Katherine (published in 1954) and of Alison Weir's 2008 biography Katherine Swynford: The Story of John of Gaunt and his Scandalous Duchess (ISBN 0-224-06321-9). Swynford is also the subject of Jeannette Lucraft's historical biography Katherine Swynford: The History of a Medieval Mistress. This book seeks to establish Swynford as a powerful figure in the politics of 14th-century England and an example of a woman's ability to manipulate contemporary social mores for her own interests.

    Coat of arms of Katherine Swynford as Duchess of Lancaster, after her marriage to John of Gaunt : three gold Catherine wheels ("roet" means "little wheel" in Old French) on a red field. The wheel emblem shows Katherine's devotion to her patron saint, Catherine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel.,[4] although there was once extant a copy of her seal's impression, ca. 1377, showing her arms of three Catherine wheels of gold on a field Gules, a molet in fess point empaling the arms of Swynford (Birch's Catalogue of Seals

    Buried:
    Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. Mary's Cathedral) is a cathedral located in Lincoln in England and seat of the Bishop of Lincoln in the Church of England. Building commenced in 1088 and continued in several phases throughout the medieval period. It was reputedly the tallest building in the world for 238 years (1311–1549).[1][2][3] The central spire collapsed in 1549 and was not rebuilt. The cathedral is the third largest in Britain (in floor space) after St Paul's and York Minster, being 484 by 271 feet (148 by 83 m). It is highly regarded by architectural scholars; the eminent Victorian writer John Ruskin declared: "I have always held... that the cathedral of Lincoln is out and out the most precious piece of architecture in the British Isles and roughly speaking worth any two other cathedrals we have."

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln_Cathedral

    Notes:

    Married:
    formerly his mistress...

    Children:
    1. 28. John Beaufort, III, Knight, 1st Earl of Somerset was born 1371-1373, Chateau de Beaufrot, Anjou, France; died 14 Mar 1410, Hospital of St. Katherine's by the Tower, London, England; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    2. Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter was born 0___ 1377; died 0___ 1427.
    3. Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland was born ~ 1379, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France; died 13 Nov 1440, Howden, Yorkshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

  11. 58.  Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of KentThomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent was born 1350-1354, Upholland, Lancashire, England (son of Thomas Holland, Knight, 1st Earl of Kent and Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent); died 25 Apr 1397, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: La Rioja, Spain
    • Also Known As: Baron Holand
    • Also Known As: Thomas de Holand
    • Military:
    • Military: 3 Apr 1367; Battle of Nâajera

    Notes:

    Thomas Holland (also known as de Holland),[1] 2nd Earl of Kent, 3rd Baron Holand KG (1350/1354 - 25 April 1397) was an English nobleman and a councillor of his half-brother, King Richard II of England.

    Family and early Life

    Thomas Holland (or de Holand)[1] was born in Upholand, Lancashire, in 1350[1][3] or 1354[2][4] (sources differ on his birth year). He was the eldest surviving son of Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent".[5] His mother was a daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, and Margaret Wake. Edmund was in turn a son of Edward I of England and his second Queen consort Marguerite of France, and thus a younger half-brother of Edward II of England.
    His father died in 1360, and later that year, on 28 December, Thomas became Baron Holand.[3] His mother was still Countess of Kent in her own right, and in 1361 she married Edward, the Black Prince, the son of King Edward III.

    Military career

    At sixteen, in 1366, Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine.[6] Over the next decade he fought in various campaigns, including the Battle of Nâajera, under the command of his stepfather Edward, the Black Prince. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1375.[6]

    Richard II became king in 1377, and soon Holland acquired great influence over his younger half-brother, which he used for his own enrichment. In 1381, he succeeded as Earl of Kent.[6]

    Later years and death

    Prior to his death, Holland was appointed Governor of Carisbrooke Castle.[6] Holland died at Arundel Castle, Sussex, England on 25 April 1397.[1]

    Marriage and progeny

    On 10 April 1364 Holland married Lady Alice FitzAlan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel by his wife Eleanor of Lancaster .[1][2] By his wife he had progeny three sons and six daughters. All the sons died without legitimate progeny, whereupon the daughters and their issue became co-heiresses to the House of Holland. The progeny were as follows:

    Sons

    Thomas Holland, 3rd Earl of Kent, 1st Duke of Surrey (1374 – 7 January 1400), eldest son and heir, created Duke of Surrey. Died without progeny.

    Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent (6 January 1384 – 15 September 1408), heir to his elder brother. Died without legitimate progeny, but had an illegitimate child by his mistress Constance of York.

    John Holland, died without progeny

    Daughters

    Through the marriages of his daughters, he became the ancestor of many of the prominent figures in the Wars of the Roses, including Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (father of Kings Edward IV and Richard III), Henry Tudor (later King Henry VII), and Warwick the Kingmaker, father of queen consort Anne Neville. He was also an ancestor of queen consort Catherine Parr, the sixth wife of King Henry VIII. His daughters were as follows:

    Eleanor I Holland (1373 - October 1405), (who bore the same first name as her younger sister, alias Alianore) married twice: Firstly to Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March (1374-1398), heir presumptive to his mother's first cousin King Richard II (1377-1399). Her only child and sole heiress to the Mortimer claim was Anne Mortimer. Following the deposition of Richard II in 1399 by his own first-cousin the Lancastrian Henry Bolingbroke (who ruled as King Henry IV (1399-1413)), Anne Mortimer's claim to the throne of England was pursued by her son Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (1411-1460) which drawn-out struggle formed the basis of the Wars of the Roses. Secondly she married Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton

    Joan Holland (ca. 1380-12 April 1434), married Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York

    Margaret Holland (1385 - 31 December 1439), married first John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and second Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence

    Elizabeth Holland, who married Sir John Neville (c.1387 – before 20 May 1420), eldest son and heir of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, and by him had three sons, Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland, John Neville, Baron Neville, and Sir Thomas Neville, and a daughter, Margaret Neville.[7]

    Eleanor II Holland (1386- after 1413), (who bore the same first name as her eldest sister, alias Alianore) married Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury

    Bridget Holland, who became a nun[1]

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Tompsett, Brian. "de Holland, Thomas, Earl of Kent 2nd". Royal Genealogical Data. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c Lundy, Darryl. "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10292". thePeerage.com. Retrieved 30 October 2011.[unreliable source?]
    ^ Jump up to: a b Rayment, Leigh. "Peers - H - page 4". Leigh Rayment's Peerage Page. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
    Jump up ^ Western, Peter. "Page - pafg22". Maximilian Genealogy Master Database 2000. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
    Jump up ^ Western, Peter. "Page - pafg51". Maximilian Genealogy Master Database 2000. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Lee, Sidney, ed. (1891). "Holland, Thomas (1350-1397)". Dictionary of National Biography 27. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
    Jump up ^ Richardson III 2011, p. 249.
    Dictionary of National Biography, Vol.27, Ed. Sidney Lee, Smith, Elder & Co., 1851.

    Military:
    At sixteen, in 1366, Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine .[6] Over the next decade he fought in various campaigns, including the Battle of Nâajera , under the command of his stepfather Edward, the Black Prince . He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1375.[

    Thomas married Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent 10 Apr 1364, Arundel, West Sussex, England. Alice (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel) was born 1350-1352, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 17 Mar 1415, (Arundel, West Sussex, England). [Group Sheet]


  12. 59.  Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent was born 1350-1352, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel); died 17 Mar 1415, (Arundel, West Sussex, England).

    Notes:

    Alice Holland, Countess of Kent (c. 1350 - 17 March 1416), LG, formerly Lady Alice FitzAlan, was an English noblewoman, a daughter of the 10th Earl of Arundel, and the wife of the 2nd Earl of Kent, the half-brother of King Richard II. As the maternal grandmother of Anne Mortimer, she was an ancestor of King Edward IV and King Richard III, as well as King Henry VII and the Tudor dynasty through her daughter Margaret Holland. She was also the maternal grandmother of Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland.

    She was appointed a Lady of the Garter in 1388.

    Family

    Lady Alice FitzAlan was born circa 1350 at Arundel Castle in Sussex, England,[2] the second daughter of the 10th Earl of Arundel, and Lady Eleanor of Lancaster. She had six siblings who included Richard FitzAlan, later 11th Earl of Arundel, and Lady Joan FitzAlan, later Countess of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton. She also had three half-siblings from her parents' previous marriages.

    Her paternal grandparents were the 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, and her maternal grandparents were the 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth.

    Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland was a granddaughter of Lady Alice FitzAlan

    Marriage and issue

    In 1354, at the age of four, Lady Alice was betrothed to her father's ward Edmund Mortimer who would in 1360 become the 3rd Earl of March. The marriage however did not take place. Alice married instead on 10 April 1364, 2nd Earl of Kent, one of the half-brothers of the future King Richard II by his mother Joan of Kent's first marriage to Thomas Lord Holland. She received from her father a marriage portion of 4000 marks.[3] Upon her marriage, she was styled Lady Holland. She did not, however, become Countess of Kent until 1381, when her husband succeeded his father as Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent.

    Lord Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine in 1366, and in 1375, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Two years later in 1377, his half-brother Richard succeeded to the throne of England, as King Richard II. Alice's husband would become one of the young King's chief counsellors and exert a strong influence over his brother which led to the enrichment of Thomas and Alice. Alice was appointed a Lady of the Garter, an order of chivalry, in 1388.

    Together Thomas and Alice had ten children:[4]

    Alianore Holland (1373- October 1405), married firstly Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, by whom she had issue, including Anne Mortimer and Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March; she married secondly, Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton, by whom she had two daughters.
    Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey (1374- 7 January 1400), married Joan Stafford, but the marriage was childless.
    John Holland (died young)
    Richard Holland (died young)
    Elizabeth Holland (died 4 January 1423), married Sir John Neville, Lord Neville by whom she had issue.
    Joan Holland (1380- 12 April 1434), married firstly as his second wife, Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York; married secondly William de Willoughby, 5th Lord Willoughby de Eresby; married thirdly Henry le Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham, her fourth husband was Henry Bromflete, 1st Lord Vessy. All her marriages were childless.
    Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent (6 January 1384 – 15 September 1408), married Lucia Visconti[5] (1372-14 April 1424), but the marriage was childless. He fathered an illegitimate daughter Eleanor de Holland (born 1406), by his mistress Constance of York.
    Margaret Holland (1385- 30 December 1439), married firstly John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, by whom she had issue including John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset and Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland; she married secondly Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence.
    Eleanor Holland (1386- after 1413), married Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury, by whom she had one daughter, Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury.
    Bridget Holland (died before 1416), a nun at Barking Abbey.
    Later years[edit]
    Alice's husband died on 25 April 1397. In 1399, King Richard was deposed, and the throne was usurped by Henry IV, the son-in-law of her elder sister, Joan. In January 1400, Alice's eldest son Thomas, who had succeeded his father as the 3rd Earl of Kent, was captured at Cirencester and beheaded without a trial by a mob of angry citizens[6] as a consequence of having been one of the chief conspirators in the Epiphany Rising. The rebels had hoped to seize and murder King Henry, and immediately restore King Richard to the throne. Less than three years earlier, her brother Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel and a Lord Appellant had been executed for his opposition to King Richard.

    Alice herself died on 17 March 1416 at the age of sixty-six years.

    Descendants

    Alice had many illustrious descendants which included English kings Edward IV, Richard III (and his consort Queen Anne), Henry VII; from the latter of whom descended the Tudor monarchs. Alice was also an ancestress of Scottish king James II of Scotland and his successors which included Mary, Queen of Scots and James I of England. Her other notable descendants include the last queen consort of Henry VIII, Catherine Parr; Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick known in history as Warwick the Kingmaker; Cecily Bonville; Isabel Ingoldisthorpe, wife of John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu; John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester, and Anne Bourchier, 7th Baroness Bourchier. Living descendants of Alice Fitzalan include the current British Royal Family.

    Birth:
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Children:
    1. Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury was born 13 Oct 1370, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 18 Oct 1405, Bisham, Berkshire, England.
    2. Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent, 5th Baron Holand was born 6 Jan 1384; died 15 Sep 1408.
    3. 29. Margaret Holland, Duchess of Clarence was born 0___ 1385, (England); died 31 Dec 1439; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    4. Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury was born 0___ 1386, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died Aft 1413, Bisham Manor, Bisham, Berkshire, England.
    5. Elizabeth Holland was born 0___ 1388, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 4 Jan 1424.

  13. 60.  Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 12th Earl of Warwick was born 16 Mar 1338, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England (son of Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick); died 10 Apr 1401, (Warwickshire) England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Sheriff of Worcestershire
    • Military: Admiral of the North Fleet

    Notes:

    Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, KG (16 March 1338 - 8 April 1401[1]) was an English medieval nobleman, and one of the primary opponents of Richard II.

    Birth and Marriage

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel; Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester; Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham; Henry, Earl of Derby (later Henry IV); and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, throw down their gauntlets and demand Richard II to let them prove by arms the justice for their rebellion

    He was the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine Mortimer,[2] a daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, and succeeded his father in 1369. He married Margaret Ferrers, daughter of Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Margaret d'Ufford, daughter of Robert d'Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk.

    Royal Service

    Seal of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick
    Knighted around 1355,[2] Beauchamp accompanied John of Gaunt in campaigns in France in 1373, and around that time was made a Knight of the Garter. In the parliaments of 1376 and 1377 he was one of those appointed to supervise reform of King Richard II's government. When these were not as effective as hoped, Beauchamp was made Governor over the King. He brought a large contingent of soldiers and archers to King Richard's Scottish campaign of 1385.

    Conflict with King Richard II

    In 1387 he was one of the Lords Appellant, who endeavored to separate Richard from his favorites. After Richard regained power, Beauchamp retired to his estates, but was charged with high treason in 1397, supposedly as a part of the Earl of Arundel's alleged conspiracy. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London (in what is now known as the "Beauchamp Tower"), pleaded guilty and threw himself on the mercy of the king. He forfeited his estates and titles, and was sentenced to life imprisonment on the Isle of Man. The next year, however, he was moved back to the Tower, until he was released in August 1399 after Henry Bolingbroke's initial victories over King Richard II.

    Restored by Bolingbroke

    After Bolingbroke deposed Richard and became king as Henry IV, Beauchamp was restored to his titles and estates. He was one of those who urged the new King to execute Richard, and accompanied King Henry against the rebellion of 1400.

    Death

    Monumental effigies of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick and his wife
    Beauchamp died in 1401 (sources differ as to whether on 8 April or 8 August).[3]

    Succession

    He was succeeded by his son Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick.

    Died:
    (sources differ as to whether on 8 April or 8 August)

    Thomas — Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick. Margaret (daughter of William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Margaret de Ufford) was born ~ 1347, Groby, Leicestershire, England; died 22 Jan 1407, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried St. Mary's, Warwick, Warwickshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  14. 61.  Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick was born ~ 1347, Groby, Leicestershire, England (daughter of William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Margaret de Ufford); died 22 Jan 1407, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried St. Mary's, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Will: 28 Nov 1406

    Notes:

    About

    history

    Margaret Ferrers1,2,3,4,5,6,7

    F, #15405, b. circa 1361, d. 22 January 1407
    Father Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby2,3,4,8,6,9 b. 28 Feb 1333, d. 8 Jan 1371
    Mother Margaret de Ufford2,3,4,8,6,9 d. b 25 May 1368
    Margaret Ferrers was born circa 1361. She married Sir Thomas Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, Admiral of the North Fleet, Sheriff of Worcestershire, son of Sir Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, Sheriff of Worcestershire, Warwickshire, & Leicestershire, Marshal of England and Katherine de Mortimer, before April 1381; They had 1 son (Richard, Earl of Warwick) and 2 daughters (Katherine; & Margaret).2,4,5,6,7 Margaret Ferrers left a will on 28 November 1406.4,6 She died on 22 January 1407; Buried at south part of the collegiate church at St. Mary's, Warwick.2,4,6

    Family Sir Thomas Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, Admiral of the North Fleet, Sheriff of Worcestershire b. b 16 Mar 1339, d. 8 Apr 1401

    Child

    Sir Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl Warwick, Earl of Albemarle & Worcester, Lord Abergavenny, Sheriff of Worcestershire+2,4,6 b. 25 Jan 1382 or 28 Jan 1382, d. 30 Apr 1439

    Citations

    [S4153] Unknown author, Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles by Gerald Paget, Vol. I, p. 87; Plantagenet Ancestry of 17th Century Colonists, by David Faris, p. 13.
    [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 72.
    [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 208.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 145-146.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 298.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 296-297.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 155.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 297-298.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 154.
    From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p513.htm#i15405
    ___________________

    Margaret Ferrers
    F, #3485, d. 27 January 1407
    Last Edited=21 Aug 2005
    Margaret Ferrers was the daughter of Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Lord Ferrers (of Groby) and Margaret d'Ufford. She married Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine Mortimer.1 She died on 27 January 1407. She was also reported to have died on 22 January 1407.1
    She lived at Groby, Leicestershire, England.
    Child of Margaret Ferrers and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick
    Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick+ b. 25 Jan 1381/82, d. 30 Apr 1439
    Citations
    [S125] Richard Glanville-Brown, online , Richard Glanville-Brown (RR 2, Milton, Ontario, Canada), downloaded 17 August 2005.
    From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p349.htm#i3485
    _______________________

    Margaret FERRERS
    Died: 22 Jan 1406
    Buried: St Mary's, Warwick
    Father: William FERRERS (3º B. Ferrers of Groby)
    Mother: Margaret De UFFORD
    Married: John De BEAUCHAMP / Thomas De BEAUCHAMP (12° E. Warwick) Apr 1434
    Children:
    1. Richard BEAUCHAMP (2º B. Powis) (b. 1436 - d. ABT 19 Apr 1475 / Jan 1503) (m. Elizabeth Stafford)
    From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/FERRERS.htm#Margaret FERRERS1
    _____________________

    Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, Count of Aumale, KG (25 or 28 January 1382[1] – 30 April 1439) was an English medieval nobleman and military commander.
    Beauchamp was born at Salwarpe in Worcestershire,[2] the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, and Margaret, a daughter of William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby.[1] His godfather was King Richard II.[2]
    He was knighted at the coronation of King Henry IV and succeeded to the Earldom of Warwick in 1401.[3]
    .... etc.
    Warwick first married Elizabeth de Berkeley (born ca.1386 – 28 December 1422) before 5 October 1397,[6] the daughter of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Lord Berkeley and the Baroness Margaret de Lisle. Together they had 3 daughters:
    Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury (1404–1468), who married John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, and whose great-great-grandson John Dudley was created Earl of Warwick and subsequently Duke of Northumberland;
    Eleanor, Duchess of Somerset, (b 1407) who married Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros and then married Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset;
    Elizabeth, Baroness Latimer of Snape, (b 1417) who married George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer.
    Warwick then married Isabel le Despenser (26 July 1400–1439), the daughter of Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Constance of York. With Isabel, who was also the widow of his cousin Richard Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, his children were:
    Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, (born March 1425) who succeeded his father as Earl of Warwick, and later became Duke of Warwick;
    Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick, (b September 1426) who was theoretically Countess of Warwick in her own right (after the death of her infant niece and namesake), and who married Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.
    Richard de Beauchamp's will was made at Caversham Castle in Oxfordshire (now Berkshire), one of his favoured residences, in 1437. Most of his property was entailed, but with a portion of the rest the will established a substantial trust. After his debts were paid the trust endowed the Collegiate Church of St Mary in Warwick, and called for the construction of a new chapel there. It also enlarged the endowment of the chantries at Elmley Castle and Guy's Cliffe, and gave a gift to Tewkesbury Abbey.[8] Beauchamp died in Rouen, Normandy, two years later, on 30 April 1439.[9] After the completion of the chapel, his body was transferred there (in 1475),[8] where his magnificent gilt-bronze monumental effigy may still be seen.
    From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_de_Beauchamp,_13th_Earl_of_Warwick
    __________________

    Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 04
    Beauchamp, Richard de (1382-1439) by James Gairdner
    BEAUCHAMP, RICHARD de, Earl of Warwick (1382–1439), a brave and chivalrous warrior in an age of chivalry, of an ancient family, whose ancestry was traced to the legendary Guy of Warwick, was the son of Thomas, earl of Warwick [see Beauchamp, Thomas de], by Margaret his wife, daughter of William, Lord Ferrers of Groby. He was born at Salwarp, in Worcestershire, on 28 Jan. 1382. His godfathers at baptism were King Richard II and Richard Scrope, afterwards archbishop of York, .... etc.
    The earl was twice married. His first wife was Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Thomas, Lord Berkley, by whom he had three daughters. His second, whom he married by papal dispensation, was Isabella, widow of his cousin, Richard Beauchamp, earl of Worcester, who was slain at Meaux in 1422. It was by this second marriage that he had his son and heir, Henry [see Beauchamp, Henry de].
    [Dugdale's Baronage; Dugdale's Warwickshire, i. 408-11; Cotton MS. Julius, E iv.; Walsingham's Historia Anglicana and Ypodigma Neustriµ; Fabyan; Hall; Gregory, in Gairdner's Historical Collections of a London Citizen; Leland's Itinerary, vi. 89; Paston Letters, No. 18; Rymer, ix.-x.]
    From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Beauchamp,_Richard_de_(1382-1439)_(DNB00)
    https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati04stepuoft#page/29/mode/1up to https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati04stepuoft#page/31/mode/1up
    ___________________

    Margaret Ferrers[1,2]

    - 22 Jan 1406/1407
    Sex Female

    Lived In England

    Complete *

    Died 22 Jan 1406/1407

    Buried St.Mary's, Warwick

    Person ID I00101306 Leo

    Last Modified 15 Jun 2009

    Father William de Ferrers, 3rd Lord Ferrers of Groby, b. est 1333

    Mother Margaret de Ufford

    Family ID F00044073 Group Sheet

    Family Thomas de Beauchamp, 4th Earl of Warwick, b. Bef 16 Mar 1339

    Married Bef Apr 1381

    Children

    1. Richard de Beauchamp, 5th Earl of Warwick, b. Jan 1381, Salwarpe, co Worcester

    2. Katherine de Beauchamp
    3. Margaret de Beauchamp
    4. Katherine de Beauchamp
    5. Elizabeth de Beauchamp
    Last Modified 15 Jun 2009

    Family ID F00044072 Group Sheet

    Sources

    1. [S00010] A Genealogical History of the dormant, abeyant, forfeited and extinct peerages of the British Empire, London, 1866, Burke, Sir Bernard, Reference: 31

    2. [S00058] The Complete Peerage, 1936 , Doubleday, H.A. & Lord Howard de Walden, Reference:

    Children:
    1. 30. Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick was born 28 Jan 1381, Salwarpe, Worcestershire, England; died 30 Apr 1439, Rouen, Normandy, France; was buried 4 Oct 1439, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

  15. 62.  Thomas de Berkeley was born 5 Jan 1352, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England (son of Maurice Berkeley, Knight, 4th Baron Berkeley and Elizabeth Despencer); died 13 Jul 1417, Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England; was buried Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England.

    Thomas married Margaret Lisle 0Nov 1367, Wingrave, Buckingham, England. Margaret (daughter of Warin de Lisle, Knight, Baron de Lisle and Margaret Pipard) was born ~ 1359, Kingston Lisle, Sparsholt, Berkshire, England; died 20 Mar 1392; was buried Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England. [Group Sheet]


  16. 63.  Margaret Lisle was born ~ 1359, Kingston Lisle, Sparsholt, Berkshire, England (daughter of Warin de Lisle, Knight, Baron de Lisle and Margaret Pipard); died 20 Mar 1392; was buried Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England.
    Children:
    1. 31. Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick was born 0___ 1386, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England; died 28 Dec 1422; was buried Kingswood Abbey, Kingswood, Gloucestershire, England.


Generation: 7

  1. 64.  John Cary, I, Knight was born 0___ 1325, Castle Cary, Rode, Somerset, England (son of William Cary, Knight and Margaret Bozume).

    John married Jane de Bryen ~ 1349, (Holway, Devonshire, England). Jane (daughter of Guy de Bryan, Knight and Ann Holway) was born ~ 1325, Holway, Devonshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 65.  Jane de Bryen was born ~ 1325, Holway, Devonshire, England (daughter of Guy de Bryan, Knight and Ann Holway).
    Children:
    1. 32. John Cary, II, Knight was born 0___ 1350, Holway, Devon, England; died 0___ 1404, Waterford, Ireland.

  3. 88.  Robert Bozom was born (Devonshire, England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Robert de Boson

    Robert — Jane St. George. [Group Sheet]


  4. 89.  Jane St. George (daughter of Henry St. George and Alice de Bretville).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Joan St. George

    Children:
    1. 44. Edmund Bozom was born ~ 1370, (South Tawton, Devon, England); died 0___ 1408, South Tawton, Devon, England.

  5. 92.  William Fortescue, IIWilliam Fortescue, II was born ~ 1345, Modbury, Devonshire, England; died Aft 1411, England.

    Notes:

    William Fortescue II
    Born about 1345 in Wympstone, Modbury, Devonshire
    Son of William Fortescue I and Alice (Strechleigh) Fortescue
    [sibling(s) unknown]
    Husband of Elizabeth (Beauchamp) Fortescue — married about 1374 [location unknown]
    Father of William Fortescue III and John Fortescue
    Died after 1410 in England

    Biography

    "He [William] was succeeded by his son William who had married, during his father's lifetime, Elizabeth Beauchamp daughter of Sir John Beauchamp of Ryme in Dorsetshire, great-grandson of Robert de Bello Campo or Beachamp Baron of Hatch in Somerset. She afterwards became a co-heiress with her sister Joan, wife of Sir Robert Chalons, to her brother Thomas Beauchamp of Ryme, who died without issue.

    "She was the widow, without children, of Richard Branscomb. There was an assignment of dower dated the Tuesday after the Feast of St. Martin, 18 Richard II., A.D. 1394, by John Martyn, probably a trustee, to William Fortescue, the younger, and Elizabeth his wife, over all the lands in Over-Aller which were the property of the aforesaid Richard Branscomb. This assignment was sealed with the Fortescue arms, with a crescent for difference.

    "In the year 1406, being the eighth year of King Henry IV., William Fortescue and Elizabeth his wife left their manor of Estecot, "juxta Otery beatae Mariae," to John Asshe and his wife for their lives.

    "I find in Hutchins' History of Dorsetchire the following particulars of the inheritance of Elizabeth and Joan Beachamp:--- "Ryme Intrinseca.--- This little Vill is situated on the borders of the co. of Somerset. It was the seat of Sir Humphrey Beauchamp, second son of Robert de Bello Campo, Baron of Hatch in Somersetshire, whose son Sir John, by the duaghter and heir of Sir Roger Novant, had issue Sir John Beachamp of Ryme, father of Thomas, who died issueless, leaving for his heirs his sisters, wedded to Sir Robert Chalons and John (William) Fortescue. The Fortescues do not seem to have possessed this manor long. William Fortescue was Lord of Wimpstone, in Devon."

    "The children by this marriage were two sons, William and John.

    "The family estates appear by this time to have grown to a considerable extent, increased from time to time by several marriages with heiresses. From the foregoing account of grants and portions it may be gathered that this William of Wympston, or Wimstone, possessed, besides that estate, lands in Holberton, Stechleigh, Forsan, Cokesland, Broke, Donstan, Tamerton, Smytheston, Wimpell, Thurveton, and Estecot, all of them, I believe, in South Devon; besides the manor of Ryme in Dorset, inherited from the Beauchamps. Upon his death the first offset from the main trunk of the tree of descent occurs; the eldest son William succeeding at Wimstone, and, as we shall presently see, becoming the origin of several branches of Fortescues; while the second son, John, although he inherited but a small portion of the paternal estates was, through his three sons, the source whence at least as many considerable houses sprang."[1]

    Sources

    Clermont, Thomas Fortescue, Lord. A History of the Family of Fortescue in All Its Branches, 2nd ed. (Ellis & White, London, 1880) Page 3
    Thomas (Fortescue) Lord Clermont, A History of the Family of Fortescue in All Its Branches, Second Edition, London (Ellis and White) 1880, pp. 5-6, quoted at The Ancestors of Gordon McCrea Fisher.

    end

    William married Elizabeth Beauchamp ~ 1370. Elizabeth was born ~ 1348, Ryme, Dorsetshire, England; died Aft 1411, (England). [Group Sheet]


  6. 93.  Elizabeth Beauchamp was born ~ 1348, Ryme, Dorsetshire, England; died Aft 1411, (England).
    Children:
    1. 46. John Fortescue was born ~ 1380, Combe, Devonshire, England; died ~ 1435.

  7. 94.  William Norreys

    William — FNU Colaton. FNU (daughter of Roger Colaton and unnamed spouse) was born (Devonshire, England). [Group Sheet]


  8. 95.  FNU Colaton was born (Devonshire, England) (daughter of Roger Colaton and unnamed spouse).
    Children:
    1. 47. Eleanor Norreys was born ~ 1376, Devonshire, England; died 12 Nov 1408.

  9. 112.  Edward III, King of EnglandEdward III, King of England was born 13 Nov 1312, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was christened 20 Nov 1312 (son of Edward II, King of England and Isabella of France, Queen of England); died 21 Jun 1377, Richmond Palace, London, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward of Windsor

    Notes:

    Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England from 25 January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His long reign of fifty years also saw vital developments in legislation and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death.

    Edward was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother and her lover Roger Mortimer. At age seventeen he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1337 but his claim was denied due to the Salic law. This started what would become known as the Hundred Years' War.[1] Following some initial setbacks the war went exceptionally well for England; victories at Crâecy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brâetigny. Edward's later years, however, were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.

    Edward III was a temperamental man but capable of unusual clemency. He was in many ways a conventional king whose main interest was warfare. Admired in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by later Whig historians such as William Stubbs. This view has been challenged recently and modern historians credit him with some significant achievements.[2][3]

    Early life

    Edward was born at Windsor Castle on 13 November 1312, and was often referred to as Edward of Windsor in his early years.[4] The reign of his father, Edward II, was a particularly problematic period of English history.[5] One source of contention was the king's inactivity, and repeated failure, in the ongoing war with Scotland.[6] Another controversial issue was the king's exclusive patronage of a small group of royal favourites.[7] The birth of a male heir in 1312 temporarily improved Edward II's position in relation to the baronial opposition.[8] To bolster further the independent prestige of the young prince, the king had him created Earl of Chester at only twelve days of age.[9]

    In 1325, Edward II was faced with a demand from the French king, Charles IV, to perform homage for the English Duchy of Aquitaine.[10] Edward was reluctant to leave the country, as discontent was once again brewing domestically, particularly over his relationship with the favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger.[11] Instead, he had his son Edward created Duke of Aquitaine in his place and sent him to France to perform the homage.[12] The young Edward was accompanied by his mother Isabella, who was the sister of King Charles, and was meant to negotiate a peace treaty with the French.[13] While in France, however, Isabella conspired with the exiled Roger Mortimer to have the king Edward deposed.[14] To build up diplomatic and military support for the venture, Isabella had Prince Edward engaged to the twelve-year-old Philippa of Hainault.[15] An invasion of England was launched and Edward II's forces deserted him completely. The king was forced to relinquish the throne to his son on 25 January 1327. The new king was crowned as Edward III on 1 February 1327.[16]

    It was not long before the new reign also met with other problems caused by the central position at court of Roger Mortimer, who was now the de facto ruler of England. Mortimer used his power to acquire noble estates and titles, and his unpopularity grew with the humiliating defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Stanhope Park and the ensuing Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, signed with the Scots in 1328.[17] Also the young king came into conflict with his guardian. Mortimer knew his position in relation to the king was precarious and subjected Edward to disrespect. The tension increased after Edward and Philippa, who had married on 24 January 1328, had a son on 15 June 1330.[18] Eventually, Edward decided to take direct action against Mortimer. Aided by his close companion William Montagu and a small number of other trusted men, Edward took Mortimer by surprise at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. Mortimer was executed and Edward III's personal reign began.[19]

    Early reign

    Edward III was not content with the peace agreement made in his name, but the renewal of the war with Scotland originated in private, rather than royal initiative. A group of English magnates known as The Disinherited, who had lost land in Scotland by the peace accord, staged an invasion of Scotland and won a great victory at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332.[20] They attempted to install Edward Balliol as king of Scotland in David II's place, but Balliol was soon expelled and was forced to seek the help of Edward III. The English king responded by laying siege to the important border town of Berwick and defeated a large relieving army at the Battle of Halidon Hill.[21] Edward reinstated Balliol on the throne and received a substantial amount of land in southern Scotland.[22] These victories proved hard to sustain, however, as forces loyal to David II gradually regained control of the country. In 1338, Edward was forced to agree to a truce with the Scots.[23]

    To mark his claim to the French crown, Edward's coat of arms showed the three lions of England quartered with the fleurs-de-lys of France. English stained glass, c. 1350–1377[24]
    One reason for the change of strategy towards Scotland was a growing concern for the relationship between England and France. As long as Scotland and France were in an alliance, the English were faced with the prospect of fighting a war on two fronts.[25] The French carried out raids on English coastal towns, leading to rumours in England of a full-scale French invasion.[23] In 1337, Philip VI confiscated the English king's duchy of Aquitaine and the county of Ponthieu. Instead of seeking a peaceful resolution to the conflict by paying homage to the French king, the way his father had done, Edward responded by laying claim to the French crown as the grandson of Philip IV.[26] The French, however, invoked the Salic law of succession and rejected his claim. Instead, they upheld the rights of Philip IV's nephew, King Philip VI (an agnatic descendant of the House of France), thereby setting the stage for the Hundred Years' War (see family tree below).[27] In the early stages of the war, Edward's strategy was to build alliances with other Continental princes. In 1338, Louis IV named Edward vicar-general of the Holy Roman Empire and promised his support.[28] These measures, however, produced few results; the only major military victory in this phase of the war was the English naval victory at Sluys on 24 June 1340, which secured English control of the Channel.[29]

    Meanwhile, the fiscal pressure on the kingdom caused by Edward's expensive alliances led to discontent at home. The regency council at home was frustrated by the mounting national debt, while the king and his commanders on the Continent were angered by the failure of the government in England to provide sufficient funds.[30] To deal with the situation, Edward himself returned to England, arriving in London unannounced on 30 November 1340.[31] Finding the affairs of the realm in disorder, he purged the royal administration of a great number of ministers and judges.[32] These measures did not bring domestic stability, however, and a stand-off ensued between the king and John de Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury, during which Stratford's relatives Robert Stratford Bishop of Chichester and Henry de Stratford were temporarily stripped of title and imprisoned respectively.[33] Stratford claimed that Edward had violated the laws of the land by arresting royal officers.[34] A certain level of conciliation was reached at the parliament of April 1341. Here Edward was forced to accept severe limitations to his financial and administrative freedom, in return for a grant of taxation.[35] Yet in October the same year, the king repudiated this statute and Archbishop Stratford was politically ostracised. The extraordinary circumstances of the April parliament had forced the king into submission, but under normal circumstances the powers of the king in medieval England were virtually unlimited, a fact that Edward was able to exploit.[36]


    Historian Nicholas Rodger called Edward III's claim to be the "Sovereign of the Seas" into question, arguing there was hardly any Royal Navy before the reign of Henry V (1413–22). Although Rodger may have made this claim, the reality was that King John had already developed a royal fleet of galleys and had attempted to establish an administration for these ships and ones which were arrested (privately owned ships pulled into royal/national service). Henry III, his successor, continued this work. Notwithstanding the fact that he, along with his predecessor, had hoped to develop a strong and efficient naval administration, their endeavours produced one that was informal and mostly ad hoc. A formal naval administration emerged during Edward's reign which was composed of lay administrators and headed by William de Clewre, Matthew de Torksey, and John de Haytfield successively with them being titled, Clerk of the King's Ships. Sir Robert de Crull was the last to fill this position during Edward III's reign[37] and would have the longest tenure in this position.[38] It was during his tenure that Edward's naval administration would become a base for what evolved during the reigns of successors such as Henry VIII of England's Council of Marine and Navy Board and Charles I of England's Board of Admiralty. Rodger also argues that for much of the fourteenth century, the French had the upper hand, apart from Sluys in 1340 and, perhaps, off Winchelsea in 1350.[39] Yet, the French never invaded England and France's King John II died in captivity in England. There was a need for an English navy to play a role in this and to handle other matters, such as the insurrection of the Anglo-Irish lords and acts of piracy.[40]

    Fortunes of war

    Map showing 14th-century France in green, with the southwest and parts of the north in pink.
    Map showing the area (in pink) gained by England through the Treaty of Brâetigny.
    By the early 1340s, it was clear that Edward's policy of alliances was too costly, and yielded too few results. The following years saw more direct involvement by English armies, including in the Breton War of Succession, but these interventions also proved fruitless at first.[41] A major change came in July 1346, when Edward staged a major offensive, sailing for Normandy with a force of 15,000 men.[42] His army sacked the city of Caen, and marched across northern France, to meet up with English forces in Flanders. It was not Edward's initial intention to engage the French army, but at Crâecy, just north of the Somme, he found favourable terrain and decided to fight an army led by Philip VI.[43] On 26 August, the English army defeated a far larger French army in the Battle of Crâecy.[44] Shortly after this, on 17 October, an English army defeated and captured King David II of Scotland at the Battle of Neville's Cross.[45] With his northern borders secured, Edward felt free to continue his major offensive against France, laying siege to the town of Calais. The operation was the greatest English venture of the Hundred Years' War, involving an army of 35,000 men.[46] The siege started on 4 September 1346, and lasted until the town surrendered on 3 August 1347.[47]


    Edward III counting the dead on the battlefield of Crâecy
    After the fall of Calais, factors outside of Edward's control forced him to wind down the war effort. In 1348, the Black Death struck England with full force, killing a third or more of the country's population.[48] This loss of manpower led to a shortage of farm labour, and a corresponding rise in wages. The great landowners struggled with the shortage of manpower and the resulting inflation in labour cost.[49] To curb the rise in wages, the king and parliament responded with the Ordinance of Labourers in 1349, followed by the Statute of Labourers in 1351. These attempts to regulate wages could not succeed in the long run, but in the short term they were enforced with great vigour.[50] All in all, the plague did not lead to a full-scale breakdown of government and society, and recovery was remarkably swift.[51] This was to a large extent thanks to the competent leadership of royal administrators such as Treasurer William de Shareshull and Chief Justice William Edington.[52]

    It was not until the mid-1350s that military operations on the Continent were resumed on a large scale.[53] In 1356, Edward's eldest son, Edward, the Black Prince, won an important victory in the Battle of Poitiers. The greatly outnumbered English forces not only routed the French, but captured the French king, John II and his youngest son, Philip.[54] After a succession of victories, the English held great possessions in France, the French king was in English custody, and the French central government had almost totally collapsed.[55] There has been a historical debate as to whether Edward's claim to the French crown originally was genuine, or if it was simply a political ploy meant to put pressure on the French government.[56] Regardless of the original intent, the stated claim now seemed to be within reach. Yet a campaign in 1359, meant to complete the undertaking, was inconclusive.[57] In 1360, therefore, Edward accepted the Treaty of Brâetigny, whereby he renounced his claims to the French throne, but secured his extended French possessions in full sovereignty.[58]

    Later reign

    While Edward's early reign had been energetic and successful, his later years were marked by inertia, military failure and political strife. The day-to-day affairs of the state had less appeal to Edward than military campaigning, so during the 1360s Edward increasingly relied on the help of his subordinates, in particular William Wykeham.[59] A relative upstart, Wykeham was made Keeper of the Privy Seal in 1363 and Chancellor in 1367, though due to political difficulties connected with his inexperience, the Parliament forced him to resign the chancellorship in 1371.[60] Compounding Edward's difficulties were the deaths of his most trusted men, some from the 1361–62 recurrence of the plague. William Montague, Earl of Salisbury, Edward's companion in the 1330 coup, died as early as 1344. William de Clinton, who had also been with the king at Nottingham, died in 1354. One of the earls created in 1337, William de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, died in 1360, and the next year Henry of Grosmont, perhaps the greatest of Edward's captains, succumbed to what was probably plague.[61] Their deaths left the majority of the magnates younger and more naturally aligned to the princes than to the king himself.[62]


    King Edward III grants Aquitaine to his son Edward, the Black Prince. Initial letter "E" of miniature, 1390; British Library, shelfmark: Cotton MS Nero D VI, f.31
    Increasingly, Edward began to rely on his sons for the leadership of military operations. The king's second son, Lionel of Antwerp, attempted to subdue by force the largely autonomous Anglo-Irish lords in Ireland. The venture failed, and the only lasting mark he left were the suppressive Statutes of Kilkenny in 1366.[63] In France, meanwhile, the decade following the Treaty of Brâetigny was one of relative tranquillity, but on 8 April 1364 John II died in captivity in England, after unsuccessfully trying to raise his own ransom at home.[64] He was followed by the vigorous Charles V, who enlisted the help of the capable Constable Bertrand du Guesclin.[65] In 1369, the French war started anew, and Edward's younger son John of Gaunt was given the responsibility of a military campaign. The effort failed, and with the Treaty of Bruges in 1375, the great English possessions in France were reduced to only the coastal towns of Calais, Bordeaux, and Bayonne.[66]

    Military failure abroad, and the associated fiscal pressure of constant campaigns, led to political discontent at home. The problems came to a head in the parliament of 1376, the so-called Good Parliament. The parliament was called to grant taxation, but the House of Commons took the opportunity to address specific grievances. In particular, criticism was directed at some of the king's closest advisors. Chamberlain William Latimer and Steward of the Household John Neville were dismissed from their positions.[67] Edward's mistress, Alice Perrers, who was seen to hold far too much power over the ageing king, was banished from court.[68][69] Yet the real adversary of the Commons, supported by powerful men such as Wykeham and Edmund de Mortimer, Earl of March, was John of Gaunt. Both the king and the Black Prince were by this time incapacitated by illness, leaving Gaunt in virtual control of government.[70] Gaunt was forced to give in to the demands of parliament, but at its next convocation, in 1377, most of the achievements of the Good Parliament were reversed.[71]

    Edward himself, however, did not have much to do with any of this; after around 1375 he played a limited role in the government of the realm. Around 29 September 1376 he fell ill with a large abscess. After a brief period of recovery in February 1377, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June.[72] He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, son of the Black Prince, since the Black Prince himself had died on 8 June 1376.[73]

    Achievements of the reign

    Legislation

    The middle years of Edward's reign were a period of significant legislative activity. Perhaps the best-known piece of legislation was the Statute of Labourers of 1351, which addressed the labour shortage problem caused by the Black Death. The statute fixed wages at their pre-plague level and checked peasant mobility by asserting that lords had first claim on their men's services. In spite of concerted efforts to uphold the statute, it eventually failed due to competition among landowners for labour.[74] The law has been described as an attempt "to legislate against the law of supply and demand", which made it doomed to fail.[75] Nevertheless, the labour shortage had created a community of interest between the smaller landowners of the House of Commons and the greater landowners of the House of Lords. The resulting measures angered the peasants, leading to the Peasants' Revolt of 1381.[76]

    The reign of Edward III coincided with the so-called Babylonian Captivity of the papacy at Avignon. During the wars with France, opposition emerged in England against perceived injustices by a papacy largely controlled by the French crown.[77] Papal taxation of the English Church was suspected to be financing the nation's enemies, while the practice of provisions – the Pope providing benefices for clerics – caused resentment in the English population. The statutes of Provisors and Praemunire, of 1350 and 1353 respectively, aimed to amend this by banning papal benefices, as well as limiting the power of the papal court over English subjects.[78] The statutes did not, however, sever the ties between the king and the Pope, who were equally dependent upon each other.[79]

    Other legislation of importance includes the Treason Act of 1351. It was precisely the harmony of the reign that allowed a consensus on the definition of this controversial crime.[80] Yet the most significant legal reform was probably that concerning the Justices of the Peace. This institution began before the reign of Edward III but, by 1350, the justices had been given the power not only to investigate crimes and make arrests, but also to try cases, including those of felony.[81] With this, an enduring fixture in the administration of local English justice had been created.[82]

    Parliament and taxation

    Half groat with portrait of King Edward III, York mint.
    Parliament as a representative institution was already well established by the time of Edward III, but the reign was nevertheless central to its development.[83] During this period, membership in the English baronage, formerly a somewhat indistinct group, became restricted to those who received a personal summons to parliament.[84] This happened as parliament gradually developed into a bicameral institution, composed of a House of Lords and a House of Commons.[85] Yet it was not in the upper, but in the lower house that the greatest changes took place, with the expanding political role of the Commons. Informative is the Good Parliament, where the Commons for the first time – albeit with noble support – were responsible for precipitating a political crisis.[86] In the process, both the procedure of impeachment and the office of the Speaker were created.[87] Even though the political gains were of only temporary duration, this parliament represented a watershed in English political history.

    The political influence of the Commons originally lay in their right to grant taxes.[88] The financial demands of the Hundred Years' War were enormous, and the king and his ministers tried different methods of covering the expenses. The king had a steady income from crown lands, and could also take up substantial loans from Italian and domestic financiers.[89] To finance warfare on Edward III's scale, however, the king had to resort to taxation of his subjects. Taxation took two primary forms: levy and customs. The levy was a grant of a proportion of all moveable property, normally a tenth for towns and a fifteenth for farmland. This could produce large sums of money, but each such levy had to be approved by parliament, and the king had to prove the necessity.[90] The customs therefore provided a welcome supplement, as a steady and reliable source of income. An "ancient duty" on the export of wool had existed since 1275. Edward I had tried to introduce an additional duty on wool, but this unpopular maltolt, or "unjust exaction", was soon abandoned.[91] Then, from 1336 onwards, a series of schemes aimed at increasing royal revenues from wool export were introduced. After some initial problems and discontent, it was agreed through the Ordinance of the Staple of 1353 that the new customs should be approved by parliament, though in reality they became permanent.[92]

    Through the steady taxation of Edward III's reign, parliament – and in particular the Commons – gained political influence. A consensus emerged that in order for a tax to be just, the king had to prove its necessity, it had to be granted by the community of the realm, and it had to be to the benefit of that community.[93] In addition to imposing taxes, parliament would also present petitions for redress of grievances to the king, most often concerning misgovernment by royal officials.[94] This way the system was beneficial for both parties. Through this process the commons, and the community they represented, became increasingly politically aware, and the foundation was laid for the particular English brand of constitutional monarchy.[95]

    Chivalry and national identity

    Edward III as head of the Order of the Garter, drawing c. 1430–40 in the Bruges Garter Book
    Partly ruined black seal, showing Edward III on horseback, in armour and sword raised.
    The Great Seal of Edward III.
    Central to Edward III's policy was reliance on the higher nobility for purposes of war and administration. While his father had regularly been in conflict with a great portion of his peerage, Edward III successfully created a spirit of camaraderie between himself and his greatest subjects.[96] Both Edward I and Edward II had been limited in their policy towards the nobility, allowing the creation of few new peerages during the sixty years preceding Edward III's reign.[97] The young king reversed this trend when, in 1337, as a preparation for the imminent war, he created six new earls on the same day.[98] At the same time, Edward expanded the ranks of the peerage upwards, by introducing the new title of duke for close relatives of the king.[99] Furthermore, Edward bolstered the sense of community within this group by the creation of the Order of the Garter, probably in 1348. A plan from 1344 to revive the Round Table of King Arthur never came to fruition, but the new order carried connotations from this legend by the circular shape of the garter.[100] Polydore Vergil tells of how the young Joan of Kent, Countess of Salisbury – allegedly the king's favourite at the time – accidentally dropped her garter at a ball at Calais. King Edward responded to the ensuing ridicule of the crowd by tying the garter around his own knee with the words honi soit qui mal y pense – shame on him who thinks ill of it.[101]

    This reinforcement of the aristocracy must be seen in conjunction with the war in France, as must the emerging sense of national identity.[96] Just as the war with Scotland had done, the fear of a French invasion helped strengthen a sense of national unity, and nationalise the aristocracy that had been largely Anglo-French since the Norman conquest. Since the time of Edward I, popular myth suggested that the French planned to extinguish the English language, and as his grandfather had done, Edward III made the most of this scare.[102] As a result, the English language experienced a strong revival; in 1362, a Statute of Pleading ordered the English language to be used in law courts,[103] and the year after, Parliament was for the first time opened in English.[104] At the same time, the vernacular saw a revival as a literary language, through the works of William Langland, John Gower and especially The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer.[105] Yet the extent of this Anglicisation must not be exaggerated. The statute of 1362 was in fact written in the French language and had little immediate effect, and parliament was opened in that language as late as 1377.[106] The Order of the Garter, though a distinctly English institution, included also foreign members such as John V, Duke of Brittany and Sir Robert of Namur.[107][108] Edward III – himself bilingual – viewed himself as legitimate king of both England and France, and could not show preferential treatment for one part of his domains over another.

    Assessment and character

    See also: Cultural depictions of Edward III of England
    Early modern half-figure portrait of Edward III in his royal garb.
    Edward III as he was portrayed in the late 16th century.
    Edward III enjoyed unprecedented popularity in his own lifetime, and even the troubles of his later reign were never blamed directly on the king himself.[109] Edward's contemporary Jean Froissart wrote in his Chronicles that "His like had not been seen since the days of King Arthur".[72] This view persisted for a while but, with time, the image of the king changed. The Whig historians of a later age preferred constitutional reform to foreign conquest and discredited Edward for ignoring his responsibilities to his own nation. In the words of Bishop Stubbs:

    Edward III was not a statesman, though he possessed some qualifications which might have made him a successful one. He was a warrior; ambitious, unscrupulous, selfish, extravagant and ostentatious. His obligations as a king sat very lightly on him. He felt himself bound by no special duty, either to maintain the theory of royal supremacy or to follow a policy which would benefit his people. Like Richard I, he valued England primarily as a source of supplies.
    — William Stubbs, The Constitutional History of England[110]

    Influential as Stubbs was, it was long before this view was challenged. In a 1960 article, titled "Edward III and the Historians", May McKisack pointed out the teleological nature of Stubbs' judgement. A medieval king could not be expected to work towards the future ideal of a parliamentary monarchy; rather his role was a pragmatic one—to maintain order and solve problems as they arose. At this, Edward III excelled.[111] Edward had also been accused of endowing his younger sons too liberally and thereby promoting dynastic strife culminating in the Wars of the Roses. This claim was rejected by K.B. McFarlane, who argued that this was not only the common policy of the age, but also the best.[112] Later biographers of the king such as Mark Ormrod and Ian Mortimer have followed this historiographical trend. However, the older negative view has not completely disappeared; as recently as 2001, Norman Cantor described Edward III as an "avaricious and sadistic thug" and a "destructive and merciless force."[113]

    From what is known of Edward's character, he could be impulsive and temperamental, as was seen by his actions against Stratford and the ministers in 1340/41.[114] At the same time, he was well known for his clemency; Mortimer's grandson was not only absolved, but came to play an important part in the French wars, and was eventually made a Knight of the Garter.[115] Both in his religious views and his interests, Edward was a conventional man. His favourite pursuit was the art of war and, in this, he conformed to the medieval notion of good kingship.[116][117] As a warrior he was so successful that one modern military historian has described him as the greatest general in English history.[118] He seems to have been unusually devoted to his wife, Queen Philippa. Much has been made of Edward's sexual licentiousness, but there is no evidence of any infidelity on the king's part before Alice Perrers became his lover, and by that time the queen was already terminally ill.[119][120] This devotion extended to the rest of the family as well; in contrast to so many of his predecessors, Edward never experienced opposition from any of his five adult sons.[121]

    Birth:
    Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is notable for its long association with the English and later British royal family and for its architecture. The original castle was built in the 11th century after the Norman invasion of England by William the Conqueror. Since the time of Henry I, it has been used by all monarchs, and is the longest-occupied palace in Europe. The castle's lavish early 19th-century State Apartments were described by the art historian Hugh Roberts as "a superb and unrivalled sequence of rooms widely regarded as the finest and most complete expression of later Georgian taste".[1] Inside the castle walls is the 15th-century St George's Chapel, considered by the historian John Martin Robinson to be "one of the supreme achievements of English Perpendicular Gothic" design.

    View map & image ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windsor_Castle (Sheila & I traversed "the Long Walk" by horse & carriage...DAH)

    Buried:
    Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556 the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, however, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the original abbey church.

    According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site (then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island)) in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III.

    Photo & maps ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Abbey

    Died:
    Formerly known as "Sheen Palace" until partially destroyed by fire and rebuilt and renamed by Henry VII...

    Edward married Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England 24 Jan 1327, York Minster, York, East Riding, Yorkshire, England. Phillipa was born 1312-1314, Mons, Hainaut, Belgium, Netherlands; died 15 Aug 1369, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was buried 15 Aug 1368, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. [Group Sheet]


  10. 113.  Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England was born 1312-1314, Mons, Hainaut, Belgium, Netherlands; died 15 Aug 1369, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was buried 15 Aug 1368, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Philippa of Hainault

    Children:
    1. Edward of Woodstock, The Black Prince was born 15 Jun 1330, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England; died 8 Jun 1376, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    2. Lionel of Antwerp, Knight, 1st Duke of Clarence was born 29 Nov 1338, Antwerp, Belgium; died 17 Oct 1368, Alba, Italy; was buried Clare Priory, Suffolk, England.
    3. 56. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster was born 6 Mar 1340, St. Bavo's Abbey, Ghent, Belgium; died 3 Feb 1399, Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire, England; was buried 15 Mar 1399, St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Middlesex, England..
    4. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge was born 5 Jun 1341, King's Langley, Hertford, England; was christened King's Langley, Hertford, England; died 1 Aug 1402, Abbot's Langley, Hertford, England; was buried Dominicans Church, King's Langley, Hertford, England.
    5. Thomas of Woodstock was born 7 Jan 1355, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England; died 8 Sep 1397, Calais, France.

  11. 114.  Paon de Roet, Knight was born ~ 1310, Roeulx, France; died 0___ 1380, Ghent, Belgium; was buried Old St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Paganus de Rodio
    • Also Known As: Sir Gilles de Roet

    Notes:

    Paon de Roet sometimes Payne Roet of Guienne (c.1310-1380), and also referred to as Sir Gilles de Roet, was a herald and knight from Hainaut who was involved in the early stages of the Hundred Years War. He became attached to the court of King Edward III of England through the king's marriage to Philippa of Hainaut.

    He is most notable for the fact that he became the ancestor of the monarchs of England because his daughter Katherine married John of Gaunt. Her children, given the surname "Beaufort", became the forebears of the Tudor dynasty through Margaret Beaufort. Another of his daughters also made a notable marriage, to the poet Geoffrey Chaucer.

    Early life

    Paon de Roet was "probably christened as Gilles",[1] but seems to have been known as "Paon" or "Payne", Latinised as "Paganus". He is named in a legal document in the form Paganus de Rodio — referring to Rodium, the mediaeval Latin form corresponding to the Roeulx, or Le Rœulx, a town of 3000 inhabitants, 8 miles north-east of Mons, on the highway leading from Mons to Nivelle located in the County of Hainaut.

    Paon de Roet may have been impelled to seek his fortune in England by the recital of the exploits of Fastre de Roet, who accompanied John of Beaumont in 1326, when, with three hundred followers, he went to assist the English against the Scots. Fastre was the younger brother of the last lord of Roeulx, descended from the Counts of Hainault. He and his brother Eustace fell into pecuniary straits, and were obliged to alienate their landed possessions. Fastre died in 1331, and was buried in the abbey church of Roeulx, while his brother Eustace survived till 1336. Paon was, like Fastre, a younger brother — possibly of a collateral line.

    In England

    Paon de Roet may have come to England as part of the retinue of Philippa of Hainaut, accompanying the young queen in her departure from Valenciennes to join her youthful husband Edward III in England at the close of 1327. His name does not appear in the official list of knights who accompanied the queen from Hainaut. However, Froissart says he was one of a number of additional young knights and squires who added to the queen's retinue, referred to as 'pluissier jone esquier', i.e. "plusiers jeunes escuyers" ('other young squires'); Speght (1598)[2]

    Froissart's account of the history of English monarchs includes a genealogical tree, the relevant part of which begins with Paon's name. He is described as "Paganus de Rouet Hannoniensis, aliter dictus Guien Rex Armorum" ("Paon de Rouet of Hainaut, also called Guyenne King of Arms"). The latter part refers to the title of King of Arms granted by Edward III to Roet for the territory of Guyenne (Aquitaine) which was controlled by Edward.

    France and Hainaut

    In 1347, Roet was sent to the Siege of Calais, and was one of two knights deputed by Queen Philippa to conduct out of town the citizens whom she had saved (the so-called Burghers of Calais).[3]

    He had returned to the lands of Hainaut, probably by 1349. He went to serve the queen’s sister, Marguerite, who was the empress of Germany, and his three younger children—Walter, Philippa and Katherine—were left in the care of Queen Philippa.[4] He died in Ghent in 1380.

    Family

    Paon had three daughters, Katherine, Philippa and Isabel (also called Elizabeth) de Roet, and a son, Walter. Isabel was to become Canoness of the convent of St. Waudru at Mons in Hainaut, c. 1366. Philippa married the poet Geoffrey Chaucer in 1366. They met while still children when they were attached to the household of Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster.[5]

    Katherine became governess to the daughters of John of Gaunt. After the death of John's wife Blanche in 1369, Katherine and John began a love affair which would bring forth four children born out of wedlock and would endure as a lifelong relationship. However, John made a dynastic marriage to Constance of Castille, a claimant to the throne of Castile, after which he called himself "King of Castille". When Constance died he married Katherine and legitimised their children.

    Tomb

    Roet's name listed amongst early graves lost noted on the memorial in St Paul's Cathedral
    Paon de Roet's tomb was in Old St Paul's Cathedral, near Sir John Beauchamp's tomb (commonly called "Duke Humphrey's"). The antiquary John Weever had previously recorded that "Once a fair marble stone inlaid all over with brass, nothing but the heads of a few brazen nails are at this day visible, previously engraven with the representation and coat of arms of the party defunct, thus much of a mangled funeral inscription was of late times perspicuous to be read".[6]

    By 1658, viewed without its brass plate and effigies, this tomb was described by William Dugdale. The tomb, along with the tombs of many others, including John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster's, were completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. A modern monument in the crypt lists De Roet amongst the important graves lost.

    The former inscription was as follows:

    " Hic Jacet Paganus Roet Miles Guyenne Rex
    Armorum Pater Catherine Ducisse Lancastrie."
    (Here lies Paon de Roet, knight, Guyenne King of Arms, father of Katherine Duchess of Lancaster)

    Birth:
    Roeulx is a French commune located in the department of North , in region Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy .

    Buried:
    Old St Paul's Cathedral was the medieval cathedral of the City of London that, until 1666, stood on the site of the present St Paul's Cathedral. Built from 1087 to 1314 and dedicated to Saint Paul, the cathedral was the fourth church on the site at Ludgate Hill.

    Paon de Roet's tomb was in Old St Paul's Cathedral, near Sir John Beauchamp's tomb (commonly called "Duke Humphrey's"). The antiquary John Weever had previously recorded that "Once a fair marble stone inlaid all over with brass, nothing but the heads of a few brazen nails are at this day visible, previously engraven with the representation and coat of arms of the party defunct, thus much of a mangled funeral inscription was of late times perspicuous to be read".[6]

    By 1658, viewed without its brass plate and effigies, this tomb was described by William Dugdale. The tomb, along with the tombs of many others, including John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster's, were completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. A modern monument in the crypt lists De Roet amongst the important graves lost.

    The former inscription was as follows:

    " Hic Jacet Paganus Roet Miles Guyenne Rex
    Armorum Pater Catherine Ducisse Lancastrie."
    (Here lies Paon de Roet, knight, Guyenne King of Arms, father of Katherine Duchess of Lancaster)

    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paon_de_Roet

    Paon — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  12. 115.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 57. Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France; died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.
    2. Phillipa de Roet was born ~ 1346, (Roeulx) France; died ~ 1387, (London, Middlesex, England).

  13. 116.  Thomas Holland, Knight, 1st Earl of KentThomas Holland, Knight, 1st Earl of Kent was born ~ 1314, Upholland, Lancashire, England (son of Robert de Holland, II, Knight, 1st Baron Holand and Maud La Zouche); died 26 Dec 1360.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Member of Parliament
    • Residence: Brittany, France
    • Also Known As: Baron de Holland
    • Military:
    • Military: Knight of the Garter

    Notes:

    Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, 2nd Baron Holand, KG (c. 1314 - 26 December 1360) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War.

    He was from a gentry family in Upholland, Lancashire. He was a son of Robert de Holland, 1st Baron Holand and Maud la Zouche. One of his brothers was Otho Holand, who was also made a Knight of the Garter.

    Military career...

    In his early military career, he fought in Flanders. He was engaged, in 1340, in the English expedition into Flanders and sent, two years later, with Sir John D'Artevelle to Bayonne, to defend the Gascon frontier against the French. In 1343, he was again on service in France. In 1346, he attended King Edward III into Normandy in the immediate retinue of the Earl of Warwick; and, at the taking of Caen, the Count of Eu and Guãines, Constable of France, and the Count De Tancarville surrendered themselves to him as prisoners. At the Battle of Crâecy, he was one of the principal commanders in the vanguard under the Prince of Wales and he, afterwards, served at the Siege of Calais in 1346-7. In 1348 he was invested as one of the founders and 13th Knight of the new Order of the Garter.

    Around the same time as, or before, his first expedition, he secretly married the 12-year-old Joan of Kent, daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake, granddaughter of Edward I and Margaret of France. However, during his absence on foreign service, Joan, under pressure from her family, contracted another marriage with William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury (of whose household Holland had been seneschal). This second marriage was annulled in 1349, when Joan's previous marriage with Holland was proved to the satisfaction of the papal commissioners. Joan was ordered by the Pope to return to her husband and live with him as his lawful wife; this she did, thus producing 4 children by him.

    Between 1353 and 1356 he was summoned to Parliament as Baron de Holland.

    In 1354 Holland was the king's lieutenant in Brittany during the minority of the Duke of Brittany, and in 1359 co-captain-general for all the English continental possessions.

    His brother-in-law John, Earl of Kent, died in 1352, and Holland became Earl of Kent in right of his wife.

    He was succeeded as baron by his son Thomas, the earldom still being held by his wife (though the son later became Earl in his own right). Another son, John became Earl of Huntingdon and Duke of Exeter.

    Children

    Thomas and Joan of Kent had four children:

    Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent
    John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter
    Joan Holland, who married John IV, Duke of Brittany
    Maud Holland, married firstly Hugh Courtenay grandson of Hugh de Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon and secondly, Waleran III of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny

    External links

    His profile in Britannia Biographies
    His entry in Maximilian Genealogy

    Military:
    One of the founders and 13th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348

    Military:
    In his early military career, he fought in Flanders . He was engaged, in 1340, in the English expedition into Flanders and sent, two years later, with Sir John D'Artevelle to Bayonne, to defend the Gascon frontier against the French. In 1343, he was again on service in France . In 1346, he attended King Edward III into Normandy in the immediate retinue of the Earl of Warwick ; and, at the taking of Caen , the Count of Eu and Guãines, Constable of France , and the Count De Tancarville surrendered themselves to him as prisoners. At the Battle of Crâecy , he was one of the principal commanders in the vanguard under the Prince of Wales and he, afterwards, served at the Siege of Calais in 1346-7. In 1348 he was invested as one of the founders and 13th Knight of the new Order of the Garter .

    Thomas — Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent. Joan (daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell) was born 19 Sep 1328, (Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom); died 7 Aug 1385, Wallingford Castle, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Greyfriars, Stamford, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  14. 117.  Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of KentJoan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent was born 19 Sep 1328, (Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom) (daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell); died 7 Aug 1385, Wallingford Castle, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Greyfriars, Stamford, Lincolnshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 5th Baroness Wake of Liddell
    • Also Known As: Countess of Salisbury
    • Also Known As: Fair Maid of Kent
    • Also Known As: Princess of Aquitaine
    • Also Known As: Princess of Wales

    Notes:

    Joan, LG, suo jure 4th Countess of Kent, 5th Baroness Wake of Liddell (19 September 1328 – 7 August 1385), known to history as The Fair Maid of Kent, was the first post-conquest Princess of Wales as wife to Edward, the Black Prince, son and heir of King Edward III. Although the French chronicler Jean Froissart called her "the most beautiful woman in all the realm of England, and the most loving", the appellation "Fair Maid of Kent" does not appear to be contemporary.[1] Joan assumed the title of 4th Countess of Kent and 5th Baroness Wake of Liddell after the death of her brother, John, in 1352.

    Early life

    The Earl's widow, Margaret, was left with four children for whom to care. Joan's first cousin, the new King Edward III, took on the responsibility for the family, and looked after them well. His wife, Queen Philippa, was Joan's second cousin.

    Marriages

    In 1340, at the age of twelve, Joan secretly married Thomas Holland of Upholland, Lancashire, without first gaining the royal consent necessary for couples of their rank.[3] The following winter (1340 or 1341), while Holland was overseas, her family forced her to marry William Montacute, son and heir of the first Earl of Salisbury. Joan later averred that she did not disclose her existing marriage with Thomas Holland because she had been afraid that disclosing it would lead to Thomas's execution for treason upon his return. She may also have become convinced that the earlier marriage was invalid.[4]

    Several years later, Thomas Holland returned from the Crusades, having made his fortune and the full story of his relationship with Joan came out. He appealed to the Pope for the return of his wife and confessed the secret marriage to the king. When the Earl of Salisbury discovered that Joan supported Holland’s case, he kept her a prisoner in her own home.[5] In 1349, Pope Clement VI annulled Joan’s marriage to the Earl and sent her back to Thomas Holland, with whom she lived for the next eleven years. They had five children before Holland died in 1360.[6][7]

    Their children were:

    Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent
    John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter
    Lady Joan Holland (1356–1384), who married John V, Duke of Brittany (1339–1399).
    Lady Maud Holland (1359–1391), who married firstly to Hugh Courtenay and secondly to Waleran III of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny (1355–1415).
    Edmund Holland (c. 1354), who died young. He was buried in the church of Austin Friars, London.[6]
    When the last of Joan's siblings died in 1352, she became the 4th Countess of Kent and 5th Lady Wake of Liddell.

    Descendants of Lady Joan and Thomas Holland include Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby (mother of King Henry VII) and queens consort Anne Neville, Elizabeth of York, and Catherine Parr.[8]

    Marriage into the royal family

    Evidence of the affection of Edward, the Black Prince (who was her first cousin once removed) for Joan may be found in the record of his presenting her with a silver cup, part of the booty from one of his early military campaigns. Edward's parents did not, however, favour a marriage between their son and their former ward. Queen Philippa had made a favourite of Joan at first, but both she and the king seem to have been concerned about Joan's reputation. English law was such that Joan's living ex-husband, Salisbury, might have claimed any children of her subsequent marriages as his own. In addition, Edward and Joan were within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity. The secret marriage they allegedly contracted in 1360[9] would have been invalid because of the consanguinity prohibition. At the King's request, the Pope granted a dispensation allowing the two to be legally married. The official ceremony occurred on 10 October 1361, at Windsor Castle with the King and Queen in attendance. The Archbishop of Canterbury presided.[citation needed]

    In 1362, the Black Prince was invested as Prince of Aquitaine, a region of France which belonged to the English Crown since the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II. He and Joan moved to Bordeaux, the capital of the principality, where they spent the next nine years. Two sons were born in France to the royal couple. The elder son, named Edward (27 January 1365 - 1370) after his father and grandfather, died at the age of six. Around the time of the birth of their younger son, Richard, the Prince was lured into a war on behalf of King Peter of Castile. The ensuing battle was one of the Black Prince’s greatest victories, but King Peter (Spanish: Pedro) was later killed, and there was no money to pay the troops. In the meantime, the Princess was forced to raise another army, because the Prince’s enemies were threatening Aquitaine in his absence.[citation needed]

    Transition to Dowager Princess of Wales

    By 1371, the Black Prince was no longer able to perform his duties as Prince of Aquitaine, and returned to England, where plague was wreaking havoc. In 1372, he forced himself to attempt one final, abortive campaign in the hope of saving his father’s French possessions. His health was now completely shattered. On 7 June 1376, a week before his forty-sixth birthday, he died in his bed at Westminster.

    Joan’s son was next in line to succeed King Edward III. Edward III died on 21 June 1377 and Richard became King. He was crowned Richard II at the age of 10 in the following month. Early in his reign, the young King faced the challenge of the Peasants' Revolt. The Lollards, religious reformers led by John Wyclif, had enjoyed the protection of Joan of Kent, but the violent climax of the popular movement for reform reduced the feisty Joan to a state of terror, while leaving the King with an improved reputation.[citation needed]

    As a power behind the throne, she was well loved for her influence over the young king - for example, on her return to London (via her Wickhambreaux estate) from a pilgrimage to Becket's shrine at Canterbury Cathedral in 1381, she found her way barred by Wat Tyler and his mob of rebels on Blackheath but was not only let through unharmed, but saluted with kisses and provided with an escort for the rest of her journey.

    In 1385, Sir John Holland, an adult son of her first marriage, was campaigning with the King in the Kingdom of Scotland, when a quarrel broke out between him and Ralph Stafford, son of the 2nd Earl of Stafford, a favourite of the new Queen Anne of Bohemia. Stafford was killed, and John Holland sought sanctuary at the shrine of St John of Beverley. On the King’s return, Holland was condemned to death. Joan pleaded with her son for four days to spare his half-brother. On the fifth day (the exact date in August is not known), she died, at Wallingford Castle. Richard relented, and pardoned Holland (though he was then sent on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land).[citation needed]

    Joan was buried, as requested in her will, at the Greyfriars, the site of the present hospital, in Stamford in Lincolnshire, beside her first husband. Her third husband, the Black Prince, had built a chantry for her in the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral (where he was to have been buried), with ceiling bosses of her face. Another boss in the north nave aisle is also said to be of her.[10]

    Children:
    1. 58. Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent was born 1350-1354, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 25 Apr 1397, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England.
    2. John Holland, Knight, 1st Duke of Exeter was born ~ 1352, England; died 16 Jan 1400, England.

  15. 118.  Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of ArundelRichard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel was born 1306-1313, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (son of Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel); died 24 Jan 1376, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Governor of Caernarfon Castle
    • Occupation: High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire
    • Occupation: Justiciar of North Wales
    • Also Known As: 8th Earl of Surrey
    • Military: Commander of the English Army in the North
    • Will: 5 Dec 1375

    Notes:

    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and 8th Earl of Surrey (c. 1306/1313 – 24 January 1376) was an English nobleman and medieval military leader.

    Family and early life

    Richard's birth date was uncertain perhaps 1313 or maybe 1306 in Sussex, England. FitzAlan was the eldest son of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel (8th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots), and his wife Alice de Warenne.[1] His maternal grandparents were William de Warenne and Joan de Vere. William was the only son of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (himself son of Maud Marshal by her second marriage), and his wife Alice de Lusignan (d. 1356), half-sister of Henry III of England.

    Alliance with the Despensers

    Around 1321, FitzAlan's father allied with King Edward II's favorites, Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester and his namesake son, and Richard was married to Isabel le Despenser, daughter of Hugh the Younger. Fortune turned against the Despenser party, and on 17 November 1326, FitzAlan's father was executed, and he did not succeed to his father's estates or titles.

    Gradual restoration

    However, political conditions had changed by 1330, and over the next few years Richard was gradually able to reacquire the Earldom of Arundel as well as the great estates his father had held in Sussex and in the Welsh Marches.

    Beyond this, in 1334 he was made Justiciar of North Wales (later his term in this office was made for life), High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire for life and Governor of Caernarfon Castle. He was one of the most trusted supporters of Edward the Black Prince in Wales.

    Military service in Scotland

    Despite his high offices in Wales, in the following decades Arundel spent much of his time fighting in Scotland (during the Second Wars of Scottish Independence) and France (during the Hundred Years' War). In 1337, Arundel was made Joint Commander of the English army in the north, and the next year he was made the sole Commander.

    Notable victories

    In 1340 he fought at the Battle of Sluys, and then at the siege of Tournai. After a short term as Warden of the Scottish Marches, he returned to the continent, where he fought in a number of campaigns, and was appointed Joint Lieutenant of Aquitaine in 1340.

    Arundel was one of the three principal English commanders at the Battle of Crâecy. He spent much of the following years on various military campaigns and diplomatic missions.

    In a campaign of 1375, at the end of his life, he destroyed the harbour of Roscoff.

    Great wealth

    In 1347, he succeeded to the Earldom of Surrey (or Warenne), which even further increased his great wealth. (He did not however use the additional title until after the death of the Dowager Countess of Surrey in 1361.) He made very large loans to King Edward III but even so on his death left behind a great sum in hard cash.

    Marriages and children

    This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2012)
    He married firstly February 9, 1321 at Havering-atte-Bower, Isabel le Despenser (born 1312). At that time, the future earl was eight (or fifteen) and his bride nine. He later repudiated this bride, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI in December 1344 on the grounds that he had been underaged and unwilling. He had a son Edmund (b. 1327) when he was fourteen (or twenty-one) and his wife fifteen; this son was bastardized by the annulment.

    His second wife, whom he married on 5 April 1345, was a young widow Eleanor of Lancaster, the second youngest daughter and sixth child of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth; by Papal dispensation he was allowed to marry his first wife's first cousin by their common grandmother Isabella de Beauchamp. Eleanor was the widow of John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont. The king, Edward III, himself a kinsman of both wives, attended this second marriage. By now, the Earl of Arundel had rebuilt the family wealth and was apparently a major financier of the Crown, and financial sweeteners may have been used to reconcile both the Church and the Crown.[2] By his first marriage to Isabel le Despenser (living 1356, and may have died circa 1376-7), which marriage he had annulled December 1344 [1], he had one son:

    Sir Edmund de Arundel, knt (b ca 1327; d 1376-1382), bastardized by the annulment. Edmund was nevertheless knighted, married at the age of twenty, in the summer of 1347 [2] Sybil de Montacute, a younger daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, whose elder sister Elizabeth was married to his maternal uncle (the uncle may have arranged this marriage). Edmund protested his bastardization bitterly in 1347, but was apparently ignored. After his father's death in 1376, Edmund disputed his half-brother Richard's inheritance of the earldom and associated lands and titles in 1376 and apparently tried to claim the six manors allotted to his deceased mother. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1377, and finally freed through the intervention of two of his brothers-in-law (his wife's brother John de Montacute and the second husband of Elizabeth de Montacute, Lady Le Despencer).[3] They had three daughters who were his co-heiresses and who brought a failed suit in 1382 against their half-uncle the Earl:

    Elizabeth de Arundel, who married Sir Leonard Carew and has descendants

    Philippa de Arundel (died 18 May 1452), married (as his 2nd wife) Sir Richard Sergeaux, Knt, of Colquite, Cornwall.[4] A Victorian historical novel ascribes the following five children to her: a) Richard, born December 21, 1376, and died issueless, June 24, 1396; b) Elizabeth, born 1379, wife of Sir William Marny; c) Philippa, born 1381, wife of Robert Passele; d) Alice, born at Kilquyt, September 1, 1384, wife of Guy de Saint Albino [this ; e) Joan, born 1393, died February 21, 1400. "Philippa became a widow, September 30, 1393, and died September 13, 1399." (I.P.M., 17 Ric. II., 53; 21 Ric. II., 50; 1 H. IV., 14, 23, 24.)[5]

    Alice Sergeaux later Countess of Oxford (c. 1386 - 18 May 1452), married 1stly Guy de St Aubyn of St. Erme, Cornwall, and 2ndly about 1406-7 as his 2nd wife, the 11th Earl of Oxford and widower of Alice de Holand (dsp. 1406, niece of Henry IV, and mother of two sons by him
    John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
    Robert de Vere, whose grandson, John, became the 15th Earl of Oxford.[7]

    Mary (died 29 Aug 1396), married John le Strange, 4th Lord Blackmere (from Genealogy of Fitzalans).
    By the second marriage 5 February 1345, by Papal dispensation,[6] to Eleanor of Lancaster, he had 3 sons and 3 surviving daughters:

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who succeeded him as 11th Earl of Arundel as his "eldest legitimate" son.
    John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel, 1st Baron Maltravers, who was a Marshall of England, and drowned in 1379.
    Thomas Arundel, who became Archbishop of Canterbury
    Lady Joan FitzAlan (1348 - 7 April 1419) who married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. They were the maternal grandparents of Henry V of England through their daughter Mary de Bohun.
    Lady Alice FitzAlan (1350 - 17 March 1416), who married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, uterine brother of King Richard II. They were ancestors to Queen consorts Anne Neville (wife of King Richard III), Elizabeth of York (wife of King Henry VII), and Catherine Parr (wife of King Henry VIII).
    Lady Eleanor Fitzalan (1356 - before 1366).

    The current Dukes of Norfolk descend from Lady Mary, Duchess of Norfolk, a daughter and co-heiress of Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel; the 19th Earl descended from John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel.

    Death and legacy

    Richard died on 24 January 1376 in Sussex, England. (Another source says he wrote his will on 5 December 1375, and died on 14 January 1376 at Arundel Castle).[3]. In his will, he mentioned his three surviving sons by his second wife, his two surviving daughters Joan, Dowager Countess of Hereford and Alice, Countess of Kent, his grandchildren by his second son John, etc., but left out his bastardized eldest son Edmund.

    The memorial effigies attributed to Richard FitzAlan and his second wife Eleanor of Lancaster in Chichester Cathedral are the subject of the poem "An Arundel Tomb" by Philip Larkin.

    FitzAlan died an incredibly wealthy man, despite his various loans to Edward III

    Birth:
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery on Christmas Day 1067. Roger became the first to hold the earldom of Arundel by the graces of William the Conqueror. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War and then restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    From the 11th century, the castle has served as a home and has been in the ownership of the family of the Duke of Norfolk for over 400 years. It is the principal seat of the Norfolk family. It is a Grade I listed building.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Occupation:
    The Justiciar of North Wales was responsible for the royal administration in these counties as well as the administration of justice. English law was applied to criminal law, but in other matters Welsh law was allowed to continue.

    List of Justiciars

    Otton de Grandson, 1284–1294
    Robert Tibetot, 1295–1301
    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, 1334–1352
    Arundel sold the office to Edward the Black Prince in 1352
    John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp 1385–1388
    Henry Percy (Hotspur) 1399?–1403?

    Occupation:
    Caernarfon Castle (Welsh: Castell Caernarfon) is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, north-west Wales. Click here to view its history, map & picture ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caernarfon_Castle

    Buried:
    Lewes Priory is a ruined medieval Cluniac priory in Southover, East Sussex in the United Kingdom. The ruins have been designated a Grade I listed building.

    The Priory of St Pancras was the first Cluniac house in England and had one of the largest monastic churches in the country. It was set within an extensive walled and gated precinct laid out in a commanding location fronting the tidal shore-line at the head of the Ouse valley to the south of Lewes in the County of Sussex. The Priory had daughter houses, including Castle Acre Priory in Norfolk, and was endowed with churches and extensive holdings throughout England. In Lewes it had hospitiums dedicated to St James and to St Nicholas.

    In 1264, during the Battle of Lewes, King Henry III installed his forces in the Priory precinct which came under attack from those of Simon de Montfort after his victory over Henry in battle. Henry was forced, in the Mise of Lewes, to accept the Council that was the start of Parliamentary government in England.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewes_Priory

    Richard married Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel 5 Feb 1344, Ditton Church, Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, England. Eleanor (daughter of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester and Maud Chaworth) was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales; died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]


  16. 119.  Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales (daughter of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester and Maud Chaworth); died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Eleanor of Lancaster

    Notes:

    On 5 February 1344 at Ditton Church, Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, she married Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel.[4]

    His previous marriage, to Isabel le Despenser, had taken place when they were children. It was annulled by Papal mandate as she, since her father's attainder and execution, had ceased to be of any importance to him. Pope Clement VI obligingly annulled the marriage, bastardized the issue, and provided a dispensation for his second marriage to the woman with whom he had been living in adultery (the dispensation, dated 4 March 1344/1345, was required because his first and second wives were first cousins).

    The children of Eleanor's second marriage were:

    Richard (1346–1397), who succeeded as Earl of Arundel
    John Fitzalan (bef 1349 - 1379)
    Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury (c. 1353 - 19 February 1413)
    Lady Joan FitzAlan (1347/1348 - 7 April 1419), married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford
    Lady Alice FitzAlan (1350 - 17 March 1416), married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (Thomas Holand)
    Lady Mary FitzAlan (died 29 August 1396), married John Le Strange, 4th Lord Strange of Blackmere, by whom she had issue
    Lady Eleanor FitzAlan (1356 - before 1366)

    Notes:

    Married:
    Richard married Isabel's first cousin Eleanor of Lancaster, with whom he had apparently been having an affair.

    Children:
    1. Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 11th Earl of Arundel was born 25 Mar 1346, Arundel, Sussex, England; died 21 Sep 1397, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Augustin Friars, Bread Street, London, England.
    2. John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel was born ~ 1348, Etchingham, Sussex, England; died 16 Dec 1379; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.
    3. 59. Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent was born 1350-1352, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 17 Mar 1415, (Arundel, West Sussex, England).
    4. Joan FitzAlan was born 0___ 1347, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 7 Apr 1419, Saffron Walden, Essex, England; was buried Walden Abbey, Essex, England.

  17. 120.  Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of WarwickThomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of Warwick was born 14 Feb 1313, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England (son of Guy de Beauchamp, Knight, 10th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Toeni, Countess of Warwick); died 13 Nov 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Thomas de Beauchamp

    Notes:

    Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, KG (c. 14 February 1313 – 13 November 1369) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War. In 1348 he became one of the founders and the third Knight of the Order of the Garter.

    Early life

    Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick depicted in 1347 as one of the 8 mourners attached to the monumental brass of Sir Hugh Hastings (d. 1347) at St Mary's Church, Elsing, Norfolk. He displays the arms of Beauchamp on his tunic
    Thomas de Beauchamp was born at Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England to Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Toeni. He served in Scotland frequently during the 1330s, being captain of the army against the Scots in 1337. He was hereditary High Sheriff of Worcestershire from 1333 until his death (in 1369). In 1344 he was also made High Sheriff of Warwickshire and Leicestershire for life.[citation needed]

    Victor at Crâecy and Poitiers


    Left:Seal (obverse) of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, dated 1344: S(IGILLUM) THO(M)E COMITIS WARRWYCHIE ANNO REGNI REGIS E(DWARDII) TE(RT)II...(continued on counter-seal) ("Seal of Thomas, Count (Earl) of Warwick in the year of the reign of King Edward the Third..."). He displays on his surcoat, shield and horse's caparison the arms of Beauchamp, and carries on his helm as crest a swan's head and neck; right: Counter-seal/reverse: (legend continued from face of seal) ...POST CO(N)QUESTU(M) ANGLIE SEPTI(M)O DECIM(0) ET REGNI SUI FRANCIE QUARTO ("...after the Conquest of England the seventeenth and of his reign of the Kingdom of France the fourth"). This dates the seal to 1344. The arms are those of de Newburgh, the family of the Beaumont Earls of Warwick: Checky azure and or, a chevron ermine. This same display of double arms was used on the seal of his father Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick on his seal affixed to the Barons' Letter, 1301
    Warwick was Marshall of England from 1343/4 until 1369, and was one of the commanders at the great English victories at Crâecy and Poitiers.

    Thomas de Beauchamp fought in all the French wars of King Edward III; he commanded the center at the Battle of Crecy (where many of his relatives were killed including his younger half-brother Alan la Zouche de Mortimer). He was trusted to be guardian of the sixteen-year-old Black Prince. Beauchamp fought at Poitiers in 1356 and at the Siege of Calais (1346).

    He began the rebuilding of the Collegiate Church of Saint Mary in Warwick using money received from the ransom of a French Archbishop. He died of plague in Calais on 13 November 1369 and was entombed in the Beauchamp Chapel. The chapel contains the finest example of the use of brisures for cadency in medieval heraldry -- seven different Beauchamp coats of arms.

    Marriage and children

    He married Katherine Mortimer, daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. They had five sons and ten daughters:[1]

    Thomas b. 16 Mar 1338 d. 8 Aug 1401, who married Margaret Ferrers and had descendants. His son Richard succeeded him as Earl and inherited most of his property.
    Guy (d. 28 April 1360). He had two daughters who by entail were excluded from their grandfather's inheritance: Elizabeth (d. c.1369), and Katherine, who became a nun.
    Reinbrun, (d. 1361); he was named for a character in Guy of Warwick.
    William (c. 1343–1411), who inherited the honour of Abergavenny. Married Joan FitzAlan.
    Roger (d. 1361)
    Maud (d. 1403), who married Roger de Clifford, 5th Baron de Clifford.
    Philippa de Beauchamp who married Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford.
    Alice (d. 1383), who married first John Beauchamp, 3rd Baron Beauchamp and then Sir Matthew Gournay.
    Joan, who married Ralph Basset, 4th Baron Basset de Drayton.
    Isabell (d. 1416) who married first John le Strange, 5th Baron Strange, and then to William de Ufford, 2nd Earl of Suffolk. After the latter's death she became a nun.
    Margaret, who married Guy de Montfort and after his death became a nun.
    Elizabeth, married Thomas de Ufford, KG
    Anne, married Walter de Cokesey
    Juliana
    Katherine, became a nun at Shouldham

    Catherine Montacute, Countess of Salisbury was not his daughter, although she is presented as such in William Painter's Palace of Pleasure and in the Elizabethan play, Edward III that may be by William Shakespeare.

    Thomas married Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick 19 Apr 1319, (Warwickshire) England. Katherine (daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville) was born 0___ 1314, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 4 Aug 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  18. 121.  Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick was born 0___ 1314, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England (daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville); died 4 Aug 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Notes:

    Katherine Mortimer, Countess of Warwick (1314 - 4 August 1369) was the wife of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick KG, an English peer, and military commander during the Hundred Years War. She was a daughter and co-heiress of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, Baroness Geneville.

    Sometime before 1355, she became an important figure at the royal court of King Edward III.

    Family and lineage

    Katherine Mortimer was born at Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England, in 1314, one of the twelve children and a co-heiress of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, Baroness Geneville. Her paternal grandparents were Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer and Margaret de Fiennes, and her maternal grandparents were Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim Castle and Ludlow, and Jeanne of Lusignan.

    Her father was de facto ruler of England together with his mistress Isabella of France, Queen consort of King Edward II, until his eventual capture and execution by the orders of King Edward III, eldest son of Isabella and King Edward II. The latter had been deposed in November 1326, and afterwards cruelly murdered by assassins acting under the orders of Mortimer and Queen Isabella. Katherine was sixteen years old when her father was hanged, Tyburn, London on 29 November 1330. Roger Mortimer was NOT Hanged drawn and quartered as stated but only hanged and his body was left until monks from Greyfriars in London took it down.

    Marriage

    On 19 April 1319, when she was about five years old, Katherine married Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, eldest son of Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Toeni.[1] Their marriage required a Papal dispensation as they were related within the prohibited third and fourth degrees. Beauchamp had succeeded to the earldom at the age of two, therefore Katherine was styled Countess of Warwick from the time of her marriage until her death. The marriage had been arranged in July 1318 in order to settle a quarrel between the two families over the lordship of Elfael, which was thus given to Katherine as her marriage portion.[2] For the term of his minority, Beauchamp's custody had been granted to Katherine's father, Roger Mortimer.[3]

    Katherine later became an important personage at the court of King Edward III. As a sign of royal favour she was chosen to stand as one of the godmothers, along with Queen Philippa of Hainault, to the latter's granddaughter, Philippa, Countess of Ulster in 1355. This honour bestowed on Katherine is described by 19th century author Agnes Strickland according to the Friar's Genealogy: "Her [Philippa, Countess of Ulster] godmother also was of Warwick Countess, a lady likewise of great worthiness".[4]

    Issue

    Katherine and Beauchamp together had fifteen children:[5]

    Guy de Beauchamp (died 28 April 1360), married Philippa de Ferrers, daughter of Henry de Ferrers, 2nd Lord Ferrers of Groby and Isabel de Verdun, by whom he had two daughters.[6]
    Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick (16 March 1339- 1401), married Margaret Ferrers, daughter of William Ferrers, 3rd Lord of Groby and Margaret de Ufford, by whom he had issue, including Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick.
    Reinbrun de Beauchamp
    William de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny (c. 1343- 8 May 1411), on 23 July 1392, married Lady Joan FitzAlan, daughter of Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel and Elizabeth de Bohun, by whom he had a son Richard de Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, and a daughter, Joan de Beauchamp, 4th Countess of Ormond. Queen consort Anne Boleyn was a notable descendant of the latter.
    Roger de Beauchamp (died 1361)
    Maud de Beauchamp (died 1403), married Roger de Clifford, 5th Baron Clifford, by whom she had issue, including Thomas de Clifford, 6th Baron Clifford.
    Philippa de Beauchamp, married Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, by whom she had nine children.
    Alice Beauchamp (died 1383), married firstly John Beauchamp, 3rd Baron Beauchamp of Somerset, and secondly Sir William Gournay.[7] She died childless.
    Joan de Beauchamp, married Ralph Basset, 3rd Baron Basset of Drayton. She died childless.
    Isabella de Beauchamp (died 29 September 1416), married firstly John le Strange, 5th Baron Strange, and secondly, William de Ufford, 2nd Earl of Suffolk. Upon the latter's death, she became a nun. She died childless.
    Margaret de Beauchamp, married Guy de Montfort, and after his death, she became a nun. She died childless.
    Elizabeth de Beauchamp, married Thomas de Ufford KG,
    Anne de Beauchamp, married Walter de Cokesey.
    Juliana de Beauchamp
    Katherine de Beauchamp, became a nun at Shouldham Priory.

    Death and effigy

    Katherine Mortimer died on 4 August 1369 at the age of about fifty-five. Two years before her death, in 1367, Katherine was a legatee in the will of her sister Agnes de Hastings, Countess of Pembroke.[8] Katherine was buried in St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire. She lies alongside her husband, who died three months after her of the Black Death. Their tomb with well-preserved, alabaster effigies can be seen in the centre of the quire. Katherine is depicted wearing a frilled veil with a honeycomb pattern and she is holding hands with Beauchamp. The sides of the tomb chest are decorated with figures of mourners, both male and female.

    Children:
    1. Maud Beauchamp was born 0___ 1335, Warwickshire, England; died 0Feb 1403, Brougham Castle, Westmorland, England.
    2. 60. Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 12th Earl of Warwick was born 16 Mar 1338, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died 10 Apr 1401, (Warwickshire) England.
    3. Philippa Beauchamp was born 1334-1344, Elmley, Gloucestershire, England; died 6 Apr 1386.
    4. William de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny was born 1343-1345, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died 8 May 1411, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried Black Friars Churchyard, Hereford, Herefordshire, England.
    5. Guy de Beauchamp

  19. 122.  William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby was born 28 Feb 1333, Groby, Leicestershire, England (son of Henry de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Isabel de Verdun); died 8 Jan 1371, Newbold Verdon, Leicestershire, England.

    William married Margaret de Ufford Bef 25 Apr 1344. Margaret (daughter of Robert de Ufford, (II), Knight, 1st Earl of Suffolk and Margaret Norwich) was born ~ 1330, Ufford, Suffolk, England; died Bef 25 May 1368, Eresby, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  20. 123.  Margaret de Ufford was born ~ 1330, Ufford, Suffolk, England (daughter of Robert de Ufford, (II), Knight, 1st Earl of Suffolk and Margaret Norwich); died Bef 25 May 1368, Eresby, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England.

    Notes:

    Married:
    bef. 25 Apr 1344 Lady Margaret de Ufford, sister and cohrss. in her issue of William [de Ufford], 2nd Earl of Suffolk, and 3rd dau. of Robert [de Ufford], 1st Earl of Suffolk, by his wife Margaret de Norwich, great-aunt and hrss. in her issue of Sir John de Norwich, of Sculthorpe, co. Norfolk, and Bramfield and Mellis, co. Suffolk, and dau. of Sir Walter de Norwich, of Sculthorpe, co. Norfolk, and Bramfield and Mellis, co. Suffolk, Treasurer and Chief Baron of the Exchequer

    Children:
    1. 61. Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick was born ~ 1347, Groby, Leicestershire, England; died 22 Jan 1407, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried St. Mary's, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.
    2. Henry de Ferrers, Knight, 4th Baron Ferrers of Groby was born 16 Feb 1356, (Groby, Leicestershire, England); died 3 Feb 1388.

  21. 124.  Maurice Berkeley, Knight, 4th Baron Berkeley was born 1320-1323, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England (son of Thomas de Berkeley, Knight, 3rd Baron Berkeley and Margaret Mortimer, Baroness Berkeley); died 0Aug 1368, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England.

    Maurice married Elizabeth Despencer 0___ 1338. Elizabeth (daughter of Hugh le Despencer, IV, Knight, Baron Despenser and Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer) was born 0___ 1322, Bishop's Stoke, Westbury Upon Trym, Gloucester, England; died 13 Jul 1389; was buried St. Botolph Aldersgate, London, Middlesex, England. [Group Sheet]


  22. 125.  Elizabeth Despencer was born 0___ 1322, Bishop's Stoke, Westbury Upon Trym, Gloucester, England (daughter of Hugh le Despencer, IV, Knight, Baron Despenser and Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer); died 13 Jul 1389; was buried St. Botolph Aldersgate, London, Middlesex, England.
    Children:
    1. 62. Thomas de Berkeley was born 5 Jan 1352, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England; died 13 Jul 1417, Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England; was buried Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England.

  23. 126.  Warin de Lisle, Knight, Baron de Lisle

    Warin — Margaret Pipard. [Group Sheet]


  24. 127.  Margaret Pipard
    Children:
    1. 63. Margaret Lisle was born ~ 1359, Kingston Lisle, Sparsholt, Berkshire, England; died 20 Mar 1392; was buried Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England.


Generation: 8

  1. 128.  William Cary, Knight was born ~ 1300, Castle Cary, Rode, Somerset, England (son of John de Karry and Phillippa l'Arcedekne).

    William married Margaret Bozume ~ 1324, (Clovelly, Devon, England). Margaret was born Clovelly, Devon, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 129.  Margaret Bozume was born Clovelly, Devon, England.
    Children:
    1. 64. John Cary, I, Knight was born 0___ 1325, Castle Cary, Rode, Somerset, England.

  3. 130.  Guy de Bryan, Knight

    Guy — Ann Holway. [Group Sheet]


  4. 131.  Ann Holway
    Children:
    1. 65. Jane de Bryen was born ~ 1325, Holway, Devonshire, England.

  5. 178.  Henry St. George

    Henry — Alice de Bretville. [Group Sheet]


  6. 179.  Alice de Bretville
    Children:
    1. 89. Jane St. George

  7. 190.  Roger Colaton was born (Devonshire, England).

    Roger married unnamed spouse (Devonshire, England). [Group Sheet]


  8. 191.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 95. FNU Colaton was born (Devonshire, England).

  9. 224.  Edward II, King of EnglandEdward II, King of England was born 25 Apr 1284, Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales (son of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England); died 21 Sep 1327, Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward of Caernarfon

    Notes:

    Edward II who reigned as King of England from 1307-1327 was widely held as a weak and ineffective king, losing disastrously to the Scots at Bannockburn in 1314. His tendency to ignore his nobility, in favour of low-born favourites, led to constant political unrest and eventually to his deposition. His father, a notable military leader, made a point of training young Edward in warfare and statecraft starting in his childhood. Edward preferred less noble pursuits and although impressive physically, he was a bit of a wimp. Edward I attributed his son’s problems to Piers Gaveston, a Gascon Knight who some believe to have been the prince's lover.

    Edward II is today perhaps best remembered for a story about his alleged murder with a red-hot poker plunged anally into his entrails, which has been seen by some as evidence of his homosexuality. Although pictured in the film Braveheart as highly effeminate, this portrayal is inaccurate as Edward II's robust physical appearance was similar to his father's, right down to the drooping eyelid.

    The King was captured and condemned by Parliament in 1327 as 'incorrigible and without hope of amendment'. He was forced to abdicate in favour of his teenage son Edward III, and he died in Berkeley Castle later that year.

    Braveheart's ridiculous depiction of William Wallace being Edward III's father is impossible. Wallace was executed in 1305, seven years before Edward III was born.

    During Richard II's reign, the Peasants Revolt of 1381 was sparked off by the Poll Tax of one shilling a head on the whole population, regardless of the individual's means to pay it. A large part of society consisted of villeins, men and women tied to the land on which they were born and worked. The sum, small enough to the better-off, represented an unacceptable impost upon their slender resources, and when they refused to pay, or were unable to do so, they were pursued with the full rigour of the law. They retaliated by murdering the Royal Officials who attempted to collect the tax, and this invited further retribution from the Government.

    *

    Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir to the throne following the death of his older brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland, and in 1306 he was knighted in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Edward succeeded to the throne in 1307, following his father's death. In 1308, he married Isabella of France, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV, as part of a long-running effort to resolve the tensions between the English and French crowns.

    Edward had a close and controversial relationship with Piers Gaveston, who had joined his household in 1300. The precise nature of Edward and Gaveston's relationship is uncertain; they may have been friends, lovers or sworn brothers. Gaveston's arrogance and power as Edward's favourite provoked discontent both among the barons and the French royal family, and Edward was forced to exile him. On Gaveston's return, the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms called the Ordinances of 1311. The newly empowered barons banished Gaveston, to which Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite. Led by Edward's cousin, the Earl of Lancaster, a group of the barons seized and executed Gaveston in 1312, beginning several years of armed confrontation. English forces were pushed back in Scotland, where Edward was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Widespread famine followed, and criticism of the King's reign mounted.

    The Despenser family, in particular Hugh Despenser the Younger, became close friends and advisers to Edward, but in 1321 Lancaster and many of the barons seized the Despensers' lands and forced the King to exile them. In response, Edward led a short military campaign, capturing and executing Lancaster. Edward and the Despensers strengthened their grip on power, revoking the 1311 reforms, executing their enemies and confiscating estates. Unable to make progress in Scotland, Edward finally signed a truce with Robert. Opposition to the regime grew, and when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty in 1325, she turned against Edward and refused to return. Isabella allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and invaded England with a small army in 1326. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, where he was captured in November. Edward was forced to relinquish his crown in January 1327 in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III, and he died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September, probably murdered on the orders of the new regime.

    Edward's relationship with Gaveston inspired Christopher Marlowe's 1592 play Edward II, along with other plays, films, novels and media. Many of these have focused on the possible sexual relationship between the two men. Edward's contemporaries criticised his performance as a king, noting his failures in Scotland and the oppressive regime of his later years, although 19th-century academics later argued that the growth of parliamentary institutions during his reign was a positive development for England over the longer term. Debate has continued into the 21st century as to whether Edward was a lazy and incompetent king, or simply a reluctant and ultimately unsuccessful ruler.

    Birth:
    Iimages of Caenaron Castle ... http://bit.ly/1xgRUAj

    Died:
    One night in August 1323, a captive rebel baron, Sir Roger Mortimer, drugged his guards and escaped from the Tower of London. With the king's men-at-arms in pursuit he fled to the south coast and sailed to France. There he was joined by Isabella, the Queen of England, who threw herself into his arms. A year later, as lovers, they returned with an invading army: King Edward II's forces crumbled before them and Mortimer took power. He removed Edward II in the first deposition of a monarch in British history. Then the ex-king was apparently murdered, some said with a red-hot poker, in Berkeley Castle.

    Images of Berkeley Castle ... http://bit.ly/1yHywy3

    Edward married Isabella of France, Queen of England 0___ 1308. Isabella (daughter of Philip of France, IV, King of France and Joan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of Champagne) was born Abt 1279, Paris, France; died 22 Aug 1358, Castle Rising, Norfolk, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, London, Middlesex, England. [Group Sheet]


  10. 225.  Isabella of France, Queen of EnglandIsabella of France, Queen of England was born Abt 1279, Paris, France (daughter of Philip of France, IV, King of France and Joan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of Champagne); died 22 Aug 1358, Castle Rising, Norfolk, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, London, Middlesex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isabella Capet

    Notes:

    Click here for Queen Isabella's biography ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_of_France

    Isabella of France (1295 – 22 August 1358), sometimes described as the She-wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife of Edward II. She was the youngest surviving child and only surviving daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. Queen Isabella was notable at the time for her beauty, diplomatic skills, and intelligence.

    Isabella arrived in England at the age of 12 [2] during a period of growing conflict between the king and the powerful baronial factions. Her new husband was notorious for the patronage he lavished on his favourite, Piers Gaveston, but the queen supported Edward during these early years, forming a working relationship with Piers and using her relationship with the French monarchy to bolster her own authority and power. After the death of Gaveston at the hands of the barons in 1312, however, Edward later turned to a new favourite, Hugh Despenser the younger, and attempted to take revenge on the barons, resulting in the Despenser War and a period of internal repression across England. Isabella could not tolerate Hugh Despenser and by 1325 her marriage to Edward was at a breaking point.

    Travelling to France under the guise of a diplomatic mission, Isabella began an affair with Roger Mortimer, and the two agreed to depose Edward and oust the Despenser family. The Queen returned to England with a small mercenary army in 1326, moving rapidly across England. The King's forces deserted him. Isabella deposed Edward, becoming regent on behalf of her son, Edward III. Many have believed that Isabella then arranged the murder of Edward II. Isabella and Mortimer’s regime began to crumble, partly because of her lavish spending, but also because the Queen successfully, but unpopularly, resolved long-running problems such as the wars with Scotland.

    In 1330, Isabella’s son Edward III deposed Mortimer in turn, taking back his authority and executing Isabella’s lover. The Queen was not punished, however, and lived for many years in considerable style—although not at Edward III’s court—until her death in 1358. Isabella became a popular "femme fatale" figure in plays and literature over the years, usually portrayed as a beautiful but cruel, manipulative figure.

    Film

    In Derek Jarman's film Edward II (1991), based on Marlowe's play, Isabella is portrayed (by actress Tilda Swinton) as a "femme fatale" whose thwarted love for Edward causes her to turn against him and steal his throne. In contrast to the negative depictions, Mel Gibson's film Braveheart (1995) portrays Isabella (played by the French actress Sophie Marceau) more sympathetically. In the film, an adult Isabella is fictionally depicted as having a romantic affair with the Scottish hero William Wallace. However, in reality, she was 9-years-old at the time of Wallace's death.[153] Additionally, Wallace is incorrectly suggested to be the father of her son, Edward III, despite Wallace's death many years before Edward's birth.[154]

    *

    Buried:
    Christ Church Greyfriars, also known as Christ Church Newgate Street,[1] was a church in Newgate Street, opposite St Paul's Cathedral in the City of London. Established as a monastic church in the thirteenth century, it became a parish church after the dissolution of the monastery.

    Following its destruction in the Great Fire of London of 1666, it was rebuilt to the designs of Sir Christopher Wren. Except for the tower, the church was largely destroyed by bombing during the Second World War. The ruins are now a public garden.

    Died:
    Castle Rising is a ruined medieval fortification in the village of Castle Rising, Norfolk, England. It was built soon after 1138 by William d'Aubigny II, who had risen through the ranks of the Anglo-Norman nobility to become the Earl of Arundel.

    Map, image, history & source for Castle Rising ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castle_Rising_(castle)

    Children:
    1. 112. Edward III, King of England was born 13 Nov 1312, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was christened 20 Nov 1312; died 21 Jun 1377, Richmond Palace, London, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. Joan of the Tower, Queen of Scotland was born 5 Jul 1321, Tower Hill, London, Middlesex, England; died 7 Sep 1362, Hertford, Hertfordshire, England; was buried Grey Friars Church, London, Middlesex, England.

  11. 232.  Robert de Holland, II, Knight, 1st Baron Holand was born ~ 1280-1283, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 7 Oct 1328, Boreham Wood, Essex, England; was buried 0Oct 1328, Greyfriars Church, Preston, Lancashire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Robert de Holand
    • Military: Battle of Boroughbridge
    • Occupation: 1314-1321; Member of Parliament (House of Lords)

    Notes:

    Robert de Holland, 1st Baron Holand (c. 1283 - 1328) was an English nobleman, born in Lancashire.

    He was a son of Sir Robert de Holland of Upholland, Lancashire and Elizabeth, daughter of William de Samlesbury.

    He was a member of the noble Holland family and a favourite official of Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster and had been knighted by 1305. His favoured treatment by the powerful earl caused his rival knights in the area, led by Sir Adam Banastre, Sir Henry de Lea, and Sir William de Bradshagh (Bradshaw), to start a campaign of violence towards him and the earl's other supporters known as the Banastre Rebellion. The rebels protested against the earl's actions and authority by attacking the homes of his supporters and several castles, including Liverpool Castle. Sir Robert later assisted in the hunt for fugitives after the rebels had been routed in Preston by a force under the command of the Sheriff.

    The manors of Thornton and Bagworth were acquired by him in 1313. From 1314 to 1321 he was called to Parliament as a member of the House of Lords. In 1322 his part in the Battle of Boroughbridge, when he defected from Lancaster to the King, was deemed treacherous and cowardly and led to his disfavour. Although King Edward III of England would later pardon him, the partisans of the Earl of Lancaster considered him a traitor and had him executed.[1] The execution occurred in 1328 by beheading in Essex; his head was sent to the new earl and his body to Lancashire to be buried.

    Marriage and issue

    He married before 1309/10 (being contracted to marry in or before 1305/6) Maud la Zouche, daughter and co-heiress of Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby, by his wife, Eleanor de Segrave. Robert and Maud had nine children:

    Robert de Holand (born c.1311-12 [aged 16 in 1328, aged 30 and more in 1349] - died 16 March 1372/3). He married before 25 June 1343 (date of fine) Elizabeth _____.

    Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, KG (died 26 or 28 December 1360), of Broughton, Buckinghamshire, Hawes (in Brackley), Brackley and King’s Sutton, Northamptonshire, Horden, Durham, etc., Captain and Lieutenant of Brittany, 1354-5, Warden of the Channel Islands, 1356, Captain of the Fort of Cruyk, Normandy, 1357, Captain of St. Sauveur-le-Vicomte [Manche] in Normandy, 1359, Warden of the Town of Barfleur, 1359, Joint Captain and Lieutenant of Normandy, 1359, Captain and Lieutenant-General in France and Normandy, 1360. He married Joan Plantagenet, the 'Fair Maid of Kent'. One of the founders and 13th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.

    Sir Otho Holand, KG (died 3 September 1359), of Ashford, Chesterfield, and Dalbury, Derbyshire, Yoxall, Staffordshire, Talworth (in Long Ditton), Surrey, etc., Governor of the Channel Islands, 1359. He married Joan _____. He was one of the founders and 23rd Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.

    Alan de Holand, of Great Houghton, Yorkshire, living 13 October 1331 (date of fine). He was killed sometime before 30 October 1339 by William Bate, of Dunham-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire.

    Isabel de Holand. Mistress of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey.

    Margaret de Holand (died 20 or 22 August 1349). She married John la Warre, Knt., of Wickwar, Gloucestershire.

    Maud de Holand (living 1342). She married (1st) John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray; (2nd) Thomas de Swinnerton, Knt., 3rd Lord Swinnerton.

    Elizabeth de Holand (died 13 July 1387). She married Henry Fitz Roger, Knt., of Chewton, Somerset, descendant of Herbert of Winchester.[2]

    Eleanor de Holand (died before 21 Nov. 1341). She married John Darcy, Knt., 2nd Lord Darcy of Knaith.

    *

    more...

    Sir Robert's ahnentafel: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=AHN&db=labron00&id=I12550

    Robert married Maud La Zouche ~ 1304, Winchester, Sussex, England. Maud (daughter of Alan La Zouche, Knight, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby and Eleanor de Segrave, Baroness of Zouche) was born 0___ 1290, Ashby Magna, Leicester, England; died 31 May 1349, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Brackley, Northamptonshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 233.  Maud La Zouche was born 0___ 1290, Ashby Magna, Leicester, England (daughter of Alan La Zouche, Knight, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby and Eleanor de Segrave, Baroness of Zouche); died 31 May 1349, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Brackley, Northamptonshire, England.

    Notes:

    Birth:
    Ashby Magna is a small English village and civil parish in the Harborough district of Leicestershire. The parish has a population of 294, increasing at the 2011 census to 347.

    The village is of Danish origin and recorded in the Domesday Book as 'Essebi' or 'Asseby'. Its name derives from the 'ash' tree, from 'by', Old Danish for a farmstead or settlement, and from 'Magna', Latin for great. It was large by medieval standards but the population has remained static at around 300-400.

    Children:
    1. 116. Thomas Holland, Knight, 1st Earl of Kent was born ~ 1314, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 26 Dec 1360.
    2. Elizabeth de Holland

  13. 234.  Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent was born 5 Aug 1301, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England (son of Edward I, King of England and Margaret of France, Queen Consort of England); died 19 Mar 1330, Winchester Castle, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Notes:

    Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent (5 August 1301 – 19 March 1330) was the sixth son of Edward I of England, and a younger half-brother of Edward II. Edward I had intended to make substantial grants of land to Edmund, but when the king died in 1307, Edward II failed to follow through on his father's intentions, much due to his favouritism towards Piers Gaveston. Edmund still remained loyal to his brother, and in 1321 he was created Earl of Kent. He played an important part in Edward's administration, acting both as diplomat and military commander, and in 1321–22 helped suppress a rebellion against the king.

    Discontent against the king grew, however, and eventually affected also Edmund. The antagonism was largely caused by Edward's preference for his new favourites, Hugh Despenser the Younger and his father. In 1326, Edmund joined a rebellion led by Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer, whereby Edward II was deposed. Edmund failed to get along with the new administration, and in 1330 he was caught planning a new rebellion, and executed.

    Once the new king, Edward III, came of age and assumed personal control of government, he annulled the charges against his uncle. The title and estates of the Earl of Kent descended on Edmund's son, also called Edmund. When this Edmund died, in 1331, his brother John became earl. Though he was officially exonerated, Edmund did not enjoy a great reputation during his life and afterwards, due to his unreliable political dealings.

    Family background and early years

    Edward I of England had a great number of children with his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, but only one son who survived into adulthood – the future Edward II (b. 1284).[a] After Eleanor died, the king married Margaret of France, with whom he had two children: Thomas (b. 1300) and, when the king was sixty-two, Edmund.[1][b] Edmund was born at Woodstock in Oxfordshire on 5 August 1301, and was therefore referred to as Edmund of Woodstock.[2] Son of the English king, he was also, through his mother, grandson of Philip III of France.[2] On 7 July 1307, before Edmund had turned six, King Edward I died, leaving Edmund's half-brother Edward to succeed as King Edward II.[3]

    Though not resident in the two boys' household, Edward I had taken great interest in the princes' upbringing and well-being.[4] Before he died, the king had promised to provide Edmund with substantial grants of land. In August 1306, Edward I signed a charter promising Edmund land worth 7000 marks a year, and in May 1307, 1000 marks was added to this.[5] He probably intended to give the earldom of Norfolk to Thomas, while Edmund would receive the earldom of Cornwall, which had been left vacant after Edward I's cousin Edmund died without children in 1300.[5] When Edward II came to the throne, however, he went against his father's wishes by granting the earldom of Cornwall to his favourite Piers Gaveston.[6] According to the chronicle Vita Edwardi Secundi, this act was a grave insult to the king's younger brothers.[7] Edward II nevertheless took steps to provide his half-brother with an income; grants made in 1315 and 1319 secured Edmund 2000 marks a year.[2] In May 1321, Edmund received the strategically important Gloucester Castle, and further grants followed his creation as Earl of Kent on 28 July 1321.[8][c]

    Edward II's close relationship to Gaveston had been a source of conflict at court, and Gaveston's execution by a group of rebellious barons in 1312 had brought the country to the brink of civil war.[9] As Edmund came of age, he became an important member of the circle around his brother. In 1318, the Treaty of Leake was drafted as an effort to reconcile the opposing parties, and Edmund – as his first public act – was among the witnesses to sign this treaty.[10] Further official appointments followed. In the spring of 1320 he took part in an embassy to Pope John XXII in Avignon, where the mission was to absolve the king of his oath to uphold the Ordinances, a set of restrictions imposed on royal authority by the baronage.[10] Later that year, he joined his brother the king in Amiens, where Edward was paying homage to the French king.[11] In October 1320, Edmund attended his first parliament.[2]

    Civil war

    As the political conflict escalated into full-scale rebellion in 1321–22, Edmund played an important role in its suppression. The opposition stemmed from resentment against the king's new favourites, Hugh Despenser the Younger and Hugh Despenser the Elder.[12] When Bartholomew Badlesmere, steward of the royal household, defected to the opposition, Edward made his youngest brother Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports in place of Badlesmere on 16 June.[8] In the parliament of July 1321, Edmund briefly sided with the opposition when he agreed to exile the Despensers, but later claimed this had been done under duress, and in November sat on the council that annulled the exile.[2]

    In October, Edmund was once more employed in a move against Badlesmere, when he took part in a siege on Leeds Castle in Kent, which was held by Badlesmere.[2] After Badlesmere was forced to surrender, hostilities moved to the Welsh Marches, where Roger Mortimer and others were in open revolt.[13] Once confronted with the royal army, Mortimer surrendered without a fight, and attention turned to the leader of the baronial opposition, Thomas of Lancaster. Edmund, who had taken part in the Marcher campaign, was now ordered, with the Earl of Surrey, to take Lancaster's castle of Pontefract.[14] On 17 March 1322, Lancaster was captured after his defeat at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and brought to Pontefract.[15] Here, Edmund was on the jury that condemned him to death for treason.[d]

    Even with Lancaster defeated, the battle against the rebels was not over. Edmund was charged with overtaking Wallingford Castle from Maurice de Berkeley in January 1323, a task which he fulfilled with great success.[2] For his loyalty, Edmund was rewarded with substantial holdings in Wales, primarily land forfeited by Roger Mortimer.[e] The greater part of the spoils of war, however, went to the Despensers, who both benefited greatly from the forfeiture of the rebels. By 1326, the Despensers, father and son respectively, enjoyed incomes of ¹3,800 and ¹7,000, while Edmund's annual income was at only 2,355 marks (¹1,570).[16]

    Scotland and France

    With domestic opposition largely neutralised, the king turned his attention to Scotland. A major campaign was organised in August, but the effort ended in total failure when the English were routed by the Scots, led by Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Old Byland on 14 October 1322.[17] Edward II himself had to flee the battlefield to avoid capture, and Edmund was with him as the royal army retreated to York.[18] The king's inability to handle the Scottish situation was becoming apparent. Andrew Harclay, who had defeated Lancaster at Boroughbridge, and for this had been created Earl of Carlisle and appointed Warden of the Marches to Scotland, signed a peace treaty with the Scots without royal sanction in January 1323.[19] When the king found out, he ordered Harclay's arrest. Edmund was one of the judges who passed judgement on Harclay, who was hanged, drawn and quartered for treason.[2] With Harclay gone, Edmund was given responsibilities for the defence of the northern border, but the situation remained untenable.[8] On 30 May 1323, Edmund was on the council that agreed to a thirteen-year truce with Scotland.[2]

    Meanwhile, the English king's possessions in France were coming under threat from the French king. Charles IV of France demanded that Edward again pay homage for his Duchy of Aquitaine,[f] while at the same time threatening to confiscate the duchy under the pretext of a local dispute involving the priory at Saint-Sardos.[20] In April 1324, Edmund and Alexander de Bicknor, Archbishop of Dublin, were sent to France on a diplomatic mission.[21] While some historians have criticised Edmund for his failure to reach a diplomatic settlement,[22] others have pointed to the difficult circumstances he faced, and how others had fared little better.[16] When diplomacy failed, Edmund was appointed Edward's lieutenant in France on 20 July 1324.[2] Though there was a desperate need for reinforcements from England, these never arrived.[23] In the short war that followed, the English lands were quickly overrun by the French, and Edmund was besieged at La Râeole. Here he held out until 22 September, at which point he was forced to surrender and agree to a six-month truce.[23]

    Deposition of Edward II

    Edward II's refusal to pay homage to the French king was based on concern for his royal sovereignty, but also on fear of a potential resurgence of domestic resistance.[24] For this reason, he sent his wife Isabella to negotiate with King Charles, who was her brother.[25] The Queen departed for France on 9 March 1325, and in September she was joined by her son, the heir to the throne, Prince Edward.[26] Isabella's negotiations were successful, and it was agreed that the young Prince Edward would perform homage in the king's place, which he did on 24 September.[2] Not long after this, Edmund joined the queen and prince in Paris. A circle of opposition was emerging around the queen, including the exiled Roger Mortimer. Edmund, who had previously been steadfast in his support for his half-brother, now joined the plot against the king.[27] Though he still distrusted Mortimer, his hatred for the Despensers seems to have been even greater at this point.[28] When Edmund, along with the others, ignored the king's order to return to England, his lands were confiscated in March 1326.[2]


    Queen Isabella with the captive Hugh Despenser the Elder and the Earl of Arundel. From a 15th-century manuscript.
    In August, Isabella and Mortimer invaded England with mercenary soldiers, and Edmund took part in the invasion.[29] The invasion won the support of a great part of the English nobility, including Edmund's brother Thomas, and Henry, Earl of Lancaster, Thomas of Lancaster's brother.[30] Edmund took part in the trials of the two Despensers, and in the council transferring power to Prince Edward, who was crowned King Edward III.[2] For his participation in the coup, Edmund received a reward of land belonging to the Despensers, and the Earl of Arundel, who was also executed as a supporter of Edward II.[2] As the Northern situation was still difficult, Edmund was given joint command of the Scottish Border with Lancaster, but the two fell out, and Lancaster was soon after given sole command.[31] It did not take long for Edmund to grow disenchanted with the new regime; one source of contention was the dominant position at court of Mortimer, who has been described as Isabella's lover.[32] In the autumn of 1328, Edmund and his brother Thomas joined Henry of Lancaster in a conspiracy against Isabella and Mortimer. The conspiracy was a product of shared interest, however, rather than strong personal ties. Once it became clear that it would fail, the two brothers abandoned the venture.[33]

    Death and aftermath

    After participating in the planned rebellion, Edmund became less popular at court. He was still allowed to accompany the king's wife Philippa to her coronation in January 1330, but his appearances at court became less frequent.[2] At this point he became involved in another plot against the court, when he was convinced by rumours that his brother was still alive.[34][g] It later emerged that Roger Mortimer himself was responsible for leading Edmund into this belief, in a form of entrapment.[35] The plot was revealed, and in the parliament of March 1330 Edmund was indicted and condemned to death as a traitor.[34] Upon hearing that the verdict was death, the condemned earl pleaded with Edward III for his life, offering to walk from Winchester to London with a rope around his neck as a sign of atonement. Edward III however knew that leniency was not an option for the aforementioned entrapment utilized by Mortimer could extend to him and potentially be subversive to his own kingship if his father, Edward II truly was alive. Thus Edward III sanctioned the killing of his uncle. It was almost impossible to find anyone willing to perform the execution of a man of royal blood, until a convicted murderer eventually beheaded Edmund in exchange for a pardon.[2] Edmund's body was initially buried in a Franciscan church in Winchester, but it was removed to Westminster Abbey in 1331.[36]

    The execution of a royal prince was a great provocation to the seventeen-year-old Edward III, who had not been informed about the decision, and it probably contributed to the king's decision to rise up against his protector.[37] In 1330, Edward III carried out a coup installing himself in personal control of government, and Mortimer was executed.[38] Among the charges against Mortimer was that of procuring Edmund's death, and the charges against the late earl of Kent were annulled.[39] In late 1325, Edmund had married Margaret Wake, sister of Thomas Wake, Baron Wake of Liddell, and the couple had several children.[2] His lands and titles descended on his oldest son by the same name, but this Edmund himself died in October 1331. The earldom then passed to the younger son John.[40]

    Edmund was not particularly popular while he was alive, nor did he enjoy a good reputation after his death. His unreliability in political issues, and repeated shifts in allegiance, might have contributed to this. His household was also said to behave in a way that caused popular resentment, taking provisions as they passed through the countryside while offering little compensation.[2] At the same time, it has been pointed out that Edmund showed a great deal of loyalty to Edward II, in spite of receiving relatively little rewards and recognition from his brother.[41]

    Died:
    ...in 1330 he was caught planning a new rebellion, and executed.

    Edmund married Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell (England). Margaret (daughter of John Wake, Knight, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell and Joan de Fiennes) was born ~ 1297, (England); died 29 Sep 1349, (England). [Group Sheet]


  14. 235.  Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell was born ~ 1297, (England) (daughter of John Wake, Knight, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell and Joan de Fiennes); died 29 Sep 1349, (England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Kent

    Notes:

    Margaret Wake, suo jure 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell and Countess of Kent (c. 1297 – 29 September 1349) was the wife of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, the youngest surviving son of Edward I of England and Margaret of France.

    Family

    She was the daughter of John Wake, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell, (son of Baldwin Wake and Hawise de Quincy) and Joan de Fiennes. By her father, she was descended from Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Gwynedd and Joan, Lady of Wales, the illegitimate daughter of John I of England. Her mother, Joan de Fiennes, was a daughter of William de Fiennes and Blanche (Lady of Loupeland) de Brienne. She was a sister of Margaret de Fiennes, making Wake a cousin of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. Joan de Fiennes also descended from Emperor Jean de Brienne and Berengaria of Leâon, herself the granddaughter of Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile.

    Marriages

    Margaret married John Comyn (c. 1294-1314) around 1312, son of the John Comyn who was murdered by Robert the Bruce in 1306. Her husband John died at the Battle of Bannockburn, and their only child, Aymer Comyn (1314–1316) died as a toddler. She married for a second time, to Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent. They received a dispensation in October 1325, and the wedding probably took place at Christmas.

    Through her marriage to Edmund of Woodstock (who was executed for treason in 1330), she was the mother of two short-lived Earls of Kent, of Margaret and Joan of Kent (wife of Edward, the Black Prince). The pregnant Margaret and her children were confined to Salisbury Castle, and her brother Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell was accused of treason but later pardoned. When King Edward III of England reached his majority and overthrew the regents, he took in Margaret and her children and treated them as his own family. She succeeded briefly as Baroness Wake of Liddell in 1349, but died during an outbreak of the plague that autumn.

    Margaret and Edmund's descendants include King Henry VII and queen consorts Anne Neville, Elizabeth of York, and Catherine Parr.

    Children:
    1. 117. Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent was born 19 Sep 1328, (Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom); died 7 Aug 1385, Wallingford Castle, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Greyfriars, Stamford, Lincolnshire, England.

  15. 236.  Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel was born 1 May 1285, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England (son of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel); died 17 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Paris, France
    • Also Known As: 3rd Earl of Arundel

    Notes:

    Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel[a] (1 May 1285 – 17 November 1326) was an English nobleman prominent in the conflict between Edward II and his barons. His father, Richard FitzAlan, 2nd Earl of Arundel, died on 9 March 1301, while Edmund was still a minor. He therefore became a ward of John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, and married Warenne's granddaughter Alice. In 1306 he was styled Earl of Arundel, and served under Edward I in the Scottish Wars, for which he was richly rewarded.

    After Edward I's death, Arundel became part of the opposition to the new king Edward II, and his favourite Piers Gaveston. In 1311 he was one of the so-called Lords Ordainers who assumed control of government from the king. Together with Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, he was responsible for the death of Gaveston in 1312. From this point on, however, his relationship to the king became more friendly. This was to a large extent due to his association with the king's new favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger, whose daughter was married to Arundel's son. Arundel supported the king in suppressing rebellions by Roger Mortimer and other Marcher Lords, and eventually also Thomas of Lancaster. For this he was awarded with land and offices.

    His fortune changed, however, when the country was invaded in 1326 by Mortimer, who had made common cause with the king's wife, Queen Isabella. Immediately after the capture of Edward II, the queen, Edward III's regent, ordered Arundel executed, his title forfeit and his property confiscated. Arundel's son and heir Richard only recovered the title and lands in 1331, after Edward III had taken power from the regency of Isabella and Mortimer. In the 1390s, a cult emerged around the late earl. He was venerated as a martyr, though he was never canonised.

    Family and early life

    Edmund FitzAlan was born in the Castle of Marlborough, in Wiltshire, on 1 May 1285.[1] He was the son of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel, and his wife, Alice of Saluzzo, daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo in Italy. Richard had been in opposition to the king during the political crisis of 1295, and as a result he had incurred great debts and had parts of his land confiscated.[2] When Richard died in 09/03/1301, Edmund's wardship was given to John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. Warenne's only son, William, had died in 1286, so his daughter Alice was now heir apparent to the Warenne earldom. Alice was offered in marriage to Edmund, who for unknown reasons initially refused her. By 1305 he had changed his mind, however, and the two were married.[3]

    In April 1306, shortly before turning twenty-one, Edmund was granted possession of his father's title and land. On 22 May 1306, he was knighted by Edward I, along with the young Prince Edward – the future Edward II.[1] The knighting was done in expectation of military service the Scottish Wars, and after the campaign was over, Arundel was richly rewarded. Edward I pardoned the young earl a debt of ¹4,234. This flow of patronage continued after the death of Edward I in 1307; in 1308 Edward II returned the hundred of Purslow to Arundel, an honour that Edward I had confiscated from Edmund's father.[4] There were also official honours in the early years of Edward II's reign. At the new king's coronation on 25 February 1308, Arundel officiated as chief butler (or pincerna), a hereditary office of the earls of Arundel.[3]

    Opposition to Edward II

    Though the reign of Edward II was initially harmonious, he soon met with opposition from several of his earls and prelates.[5] At the source of the discontent was the king's relationship with the young Gascon knight Piers Gaveston, who had been exiled by Edward I, but was recalled immediately upon Edward II's accession.[6] Edward's favouritism towards the upstart Gaveston was an offence to the established nobility, and his elevation to the earldom of Cornwall was particularly offensive to the established nobility.[7] A group of magnates led by Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, forced Gaveston into exile in 1308.[8] By 1309, however, Edward had reconciled himself with the opposition, and Gaveston was allowed to return.[9]

    Arundel joined the opposition at an early point, and did not attend the Stamford parliament in July 1309, where Gaveston's return was negotiated.[10] After Gaveston returned, his behaviour became even more offensive, and opposition towards him grew.[11] In addition to this, there was great discontent with Edward II's failure to follow up his father's Scottish campaigns.[12] On 16 March 1310, the king had to agree to the appointment of a committee known as the Lords Ordainers, who were to be in charge of the reform of the royal government. Arundel was one of eight earls among the twenty-one Ordainers.[13]

    The Ordainers once more sent Gaveston into exile in 1311, but by 1312 he was back.[14] Now the king's favourite was officially an outlaw, and Arundel was among the earls who swore to hunt him down. The leader of the opposition – after Lincoln's death the year before – was now Thomas, Earl of Lancaster.[15] In June 1312 Gaveston was captured, tried before Lancaster, Arundel and the earls of Warwick and Hereford, and executed.[16] A reconciliation was achieved between the king and the offending magnates, and Arundel and the others received pardons, but animosity prevailed. In 1314 Arundel was among the magnates who refused to assist Edward in a campaign against the Scottish, resulting in the disastrous English defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn.[10]

    Return to loyalty

    Around the time of Bannockburn, however, Arundel's loyalty began to shift back towards the king. Edward's rapprochement towards the earl had in fact started earlier, when on 2 November 1313, the king pardoned Arundel's royal debts.[17] The most significant factor in this process though, was the marriage alliance between Arundel and the king's new favourites, the Despensers. Hugh Despenser the Younger and his father Hugh Despenser the elder were gradually taking over control of the government, and using their power to enrich themselves.[18] While this alienated most of the nobility, Arundel's situation was different. At some point in 1314–1315, his son Richard was betrothed to Isabel, daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger.[17] Now that he found himself back in royal favour, Arundel started receiving rewards in the form of official appointments. In 1317 he was appointed Warden of the Marches of Scotland, and in August 1318, he helped negotiate the Treaty of Leake, which temporarily reconciled the king with Thomas of Lancaster.[10]


    Clun Castle was the source of the personal animosity between Arundel and Roger Mortimer.
    With Arundel's change of allegiance came a conflict of interest. In August 1321, a demand was made to the king that Hugh Despenser and his father, Hugh Despenser the elder, be sent into exile.[19] The king, facing a rebellion in the Welsh Marches, had no choice but to assent.[20] Arundel voted for the expulsion, but later he claimed that he did so under compulsion, and also supported their recall in December.[10] Arundel had suffered personally from the rebellion, when Roger Mortimer seized his castle of Clun.[21][22] Early in 1322, Arundel joined King Edward in a campaign against the Mortimer family.[20] The opposition soon crumbled, and the king decided to move against Thomas of Lancaster, who had been supporting the marcher rebellion all along. Lancaster was defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge in March, and executed.[23]

    In the aftermath of the rebellion, the Despensers enriched themselves on the forfeited estates of the rebels, and Hugh Despenser the elder was created Earl of Winchester in May 1322.[24] Also Arundel, who was now one of the king's principal supporters, was richly rewarded. After the capture of Roger Mortimer in 1322, he received the forfeited Mortimer lordship of Chirk in Wales.[10] He was also trusted with important offices: he became Chief Justiciar of North and South Wales in 1323, and in 1325 he was made Warden of the Welsh Marches, responsible for the array in Wales.[1] He also extended his influence through marriage alliances; in 1325 he secured marriages between two of his daughters and the sons and heirs of two of Lancaster's main allies: the deceased earls of Hereford and Warwick.[b]

    Final years and death

    In 1323, Roger Mortimer, who had been held in captivity in the Tower of London, escaped and fled to France.[22] Two years later, Queen Isabella travelled to Paris on an embassy to the French king. Here, Isabella and Mortimer developed a plan to invade England and replace Edward II on the throne with his son, the young Prince Edward, who was in the company of Isabella.[25] Isabella and Mortimer landed in England on 24 September 1326, and due to the virulent resentment against the Despenser regime, few came to the king's aid.[26] Arundel initially escaped the invading force in the company of the king, but was later dispatched to his estates in Shropshire to gather troops.[27] At Shrewsbury he was captured by his old enemy John Charlton of Powys, and brought to Queen Isabella at Hereford. On 17 November – the day after Edward II had been taken captive – Arundel was executed, allegedly on the instigation of Mortimer.[10] According to a chronicle account, the use of a blunt sword was ordered, and the executioner needed 22 strokes to sever the earl's head from his body.[28]


    The ruins of Haughmond Abbey, Arundel's final resting place.
    Arundel's body was initially interred at the Franciscan church in Hereford. It had been his wish, however, to be buried at the family's traditional resting place of Haughmond Abbey in Shropshire, and this is where he was finally buried.[29] Though he was never canonised, a cult emerged around the late earl in the 1390s, associating him with the 9th-century martyr king St Edmund. This veneration may have been inspired by a similar cult around his grandson, Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who was executed by Richard II in 1397.[30]

    Arundel was attainted at his execution; his estates were forfeited to the crown, and large parts of these were appropriated by Isabella and Mortimer.[31] The castle and honour of Arundel was briefly held by Edward II's half-brother Edmund, Earl of Kent, who was executed on 3 September 1330.[1] Edmund FitzAlan's son, Richard, failed in an attempted rebellion against the crown in June 1330, and had to flee to France. In October the same year, the guardianship of Isabella and Mortimer was supplanted by the personal rule of King Edward III. This allowed Richard to return and reclaim his inheritance, and on 8 February 1331, he was fully restored to his father's lands, and created Earl of Arundel.[32]

    Issue

    Edmund and Alice had at least seven children:[33]

    Name Birth date Death date Notes
    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel c. 1313 24 January 1376 Married (1) Isabel le Despenser, (2) Eleanor of Lancaster
    Edmund — c. 1349
    Michael — —
    Mary — 29 August 1396 Married John le Strange, 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere[34]
    Aline — 20 January 1386 Married Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Knockin[35]
    Alice — 1326 Married John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford
    Katherine — d. 1375/76 Married (1) Henry Hussey, 2nd Baron Hussey, (2) Andrew Peverell
    Eleanor — — Married Gerard de Lisle, 1st Baron Lisle
    Elizabeth - - Married William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer
    Ancestry[edit]

    Residence:
    in exile...

    Died:
    executed...

    Edmund married Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel 0___ 1305. Alice (daughter of William de Warenne and Joan de Vere) was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England; died 23 May 1338. [Group Sheet]


  16. 237.  Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England (daughter of William de Warenne and Joan de Vere); died 23 May 1338.

    Notes:

    Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel (15 June 1287 -23 May 1338) was an English noblewoman and heir apparent to the Earldom of Surrey. In 1305, she married Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel.

    Family

    Alice, the only daughter of William de Warenne (1256-1286) and Joan de Vere, was born on 15 June 1287 in Warren, Sussex, six months after her father was accidentally killed in a tournament on 15 December 1286. On the death of her paternal grandfather, John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey in 1304, her only sibling John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey succeeded to the earldom. He became estranged from his childless wife and they never reconciled, leaving Alice as the heir presumptive to the Surrey estates and title.

    Marriage to the Earl of Arundel

    In 1305, Alice married Edmund Fitzalan, 9th Earl of Arundel,[1] the son of Richard Fitzalan, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo.[2] He had initially refused her, for reasons which were not recorded;[citation needed] however, by 1305, he had changed his mind and they were wed.[1] They had nine recorded children,[citation needed] and their chief residence was Arundel Castle in Sussex. Arundel inherited his title on 9 March 1302 upon his father's death.[2] He was summoned to Parliament as Lord Arundel in 1306, and was later one of the Lords Ordainers. He also took part in the Scottish wars.

    The Earl of Arundel and his brother-in-law John de Warenne were the only nobles who remained loyal to King Edward II, after Queen Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March returned to England in 1326. He had allied himself to the King's favourite Hugh le Despenser, and agreed to the marriage of his son to Despenser's granddaughter. Arundel had previously been granted many of the traitor Mortimer's forfeited estates, and was appointed Justice of Wales in 1322 and Warden of the Welsh Marches in 1325. He was also made Constable of Montgomery Castle which became his principal base.

    The Earl of Arundel was captured in Shropshire by the Queen's party.[3] On 17 November 1326 in Hereford, Arundel was beheaded by order of the Queen, leaving Alice de Warenne a widow. Her husband's estates and titles were forfeited to the Crown following Arundel's execution, but later restored to her eldest son, Richard.[citation needed]

    Alice died before 23 May 1338,[1] aged 50. Her brother died in 1347 without legitimate issue, thus the title of Surrey eventually passed to Alice's son, Richard.

    Issue

    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, known as Copped Hat, (1306 Arundel Castle, Sussex – 24 January 1376), also succeeded to the title of Earl of Surrey on 12 April 1361. He married firstly Isabel le Despenser, whom he later repudiated, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI. He had a son Edmund who was bastardised by the annulment. His second wife, whom he married on 5 February 1345, by Papal dispensation, was Eleanor of Lancaster, the daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth. She was the widow of John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont. Richard and Eleanor had three sons and four daughters, including Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel and Joan de Bohun, Countess of Hereford.
    Edward FitzAlan (1308–1398)
    Alice FitzAlan (born 1310), married John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford.
    Joan FitzAlan (born 1312), married Warin Gerard, Baron L'Isle.
    Aline FitzAlan (1314–1386), married Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Knockyn, by whom she had issue.
    John FitzAlan (born 1315)
    Catherine FitzAlan (died 1376), married firstly Andrew Peverell, and secondly Henry Hussey of Cockfield. Had issue by her second husband.
    Elizabeth FitzAlan (1320–1389), married William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, by whom she had one daughter, Elizabeth.
    Eleanor FitzAlan

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery on Christmas Day 1067. Roger became the first to hold the earldom of Arundel by the graces of William the Conqueror. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War and then restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    View image, history & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Children:
    1. 118. Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel was born 1306-1313, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 24 Jan 1376, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.
    2. Mary de Arundel was born Corfham Castle, Diddlebury, Shropshire, England; died 29 Aug 1396, Corfham, Shropshire, England.
    3. Aline FitzAlan was born 0___ 1314, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 20 Jan 1386.
    4. Elizabeth FitzAlan was born 0___ 1320, (England); died 0___ 1389.

  17. 238.  Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and LeicesterHenry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester was born 0___ 1281, Grosmont Castle, Monmouth, England (son of Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet, Prince of England and Blanche de Capet d'Artois, Queen of Navarre, Princess of France); died 22 Sep 1345, Leicester, Leicestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Military: Appointed Captain-General of all The King's Forces in The Marches of Scotland.
    • Death: 25 Mar 1345

    Notes:

    Henry, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Lancaster (c. 1281 – 22 September 1345) was an English nobleman, one of the principals behind the deposition of Edward II of England.

    Origins

    He was the younger son of Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester,[1] who was a son of King Henry III by his wife Eleanor of Provence. Henry's mother was Blanche of Artois, Queen Dowager of Navarre.

    Henry's elder brother Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, succeeded their father in 1296, but Henry was summoned to Parliament on 6 February 1298/99 by writ directed to Henrico de Lancastre nepoti Regis ("Henry of Lancaster, nephew of the king", Edward I), by which he is held to have become Baron Lancaster. He took part in the Siege of Caerlaverock in July 1300.

    Petition for succession and inheritance

    After a period of longstanding opposition to King Edward II and his advisors, including joining two open rebellions, Henry's brother Thomas was convicted of treason, executed and had his lands and titles forfeited in 1322. Henry did not participate in his brother's rebellions; he later petitioned for his brother's lands and titles, and on 29 March 1324 he was invested as Earl of Leicester. A few years later, shortly after his accession in 1327, the young Edward III of England returned the earldom of Lancaster to him, along with other lordships such as that of Bowland.

    Revenge

    On the Queen's return to England in September 1326 with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, Henry joined her party against King Edward II, which led to a general desertion of the king's cause and overturned the power of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester, and his namesake son Hugh the younger Despenser.

    He was sent in pursuit and captured the king at Neath in South Wales. He was appointed to take charge of the king and was responsible for his custody at Kenilworth Castle.

    Full restoration and reward[edit]
    Henry was appointed "chief advisor" for the new king Edward III of England,[2] and was also appointed captain-general of all the king's forces in the Scottish Marches.[3] He was appointed High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1327. He also helped the young king to put an end to Mortimer's regency and tyranny, also had him declared a traitor and executed in 1330.

    Loss of sight

    In about the year 1330, he became blind.

    Nickname

    According to Froissart, he was nicknamed Wryneck, or Tort-col in French, possibly due to a medical condition.[citation needed]

    Succession

    He was succeeded as Earl of Lancaster and Leicester by his eldest son, Henry of Grosmont, who subsequently became Duke of Lancaster.

    Issue[edit]


    He married Maud Chaworth, before 2 March 1296/1297.[4]

    Henry and Maud had seven children:

    Henry, Earl of Derby, (about 1300–1360/61)
    Blanche of Lancaster, (about 1305–1380) married Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell
    Matilda of Lancaster, (about 1310–1377); married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster and had descendants.
    Joan of Lancaster, (about 1312–1345); married John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray and had descendants
    Isabel of Lancaster, Abbess of Amesbury, (about 1317-after 1347)
    Eleanor of Lancaster, (about 1318–1371/72) married (1) John De Beaumont and (2) 5 Feb. 1344/5, Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and had descendants
    Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320–1362), who married Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy, and was the mother of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland.

    In about the year 1330, he became blind.

    Buried:
    at the Monastery of Canons...

    Henry married Maud Chaworth Bef 2 Mar 1297. Maud (daughter of Patrick Chaworth, Knight, Lord of Kidwelly and Isabella Beauchamp) was born 2 Feb 1282, Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales; died 3 Dec 1322, Montisfort, Hampshire, England; was buried Montisfort, Hampshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  18. 239.  Maud Chaworth was born 2 Feb 1282, Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales (daughter of Patrick Chaworth, Knight, Lord of Kidwelly and Isabella Beauchamp); died 3 Dec 1322, Montisfort, Hampshire, England; was buried Montisfort, Hampshire, England.

    Notes:

    Maud de Chaworth (2 February 1282-3 Dec 1322) was an English noblewoman and wealthy heiress. She was the only child of Patrick de Chaworth. Sometime before 2 March 1297, she married Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, by whom she had seven children.

    Parents

    Maud was the daughter of Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Baron of Kidwelly, in Carmarthenshire, South Wales, and Isabella de Beauchamp. Her maternal grandfather was William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. Her father, Patrick de Chaworth died on 7 July 1283. He was thought to be 30 years old. Three years later, in 1286, Isabella de Beauchamp married Hugh Despenser the Elder and had two sons and four daughters by him. This made Maud the half-sister of Hugh the younger Despenser. Her mother, Isabella de Beauchamp, died in 1306.

    Childhood

    Maud was only a year old when her father died, and his death left her a wealthy heiress. However, because she was an infant, she became a ward of Eleanor of Castile, Queen consort of King Edward I of England. Upon Queen Eleanor's death in 1290, her husband, King Edward I, granted Maud's marriage to his brother Edmund, Earl of Lancaster on 30 December 1292.
    Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester was the son of Eleanor of Provence and Henry III of England. He first married Aveline de Forz, Countess of Albemarle, in 1269. Later, in Paris on 3 February 1276, he married Blanche of Artois, who was a niece of Louis IX of France and Queen of Navarre by her first marriage. Blanche and Edmund had four children together, one of whom was Henry, who would later become 3rd Earl of Leicester and Maud Chaworth’s husband.

    Marriage and issue


    Edmund Crouchback betrothed Maud to his son Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster.[1] Henry and Maud were married sometime before 2 March 1297. Henry was probably born between the years 1280 and 1281, making him somewhat older than Maud, but not by much since they were either fourteen or fifteen-years-old.

    Since Maud inherited her father’s property, Henry also acquired this property through the rights of marriage. Some of that property was of the following: Hampshire, Glamorgan, Wiltshire, and Carmarthenshire. Henry was the nephew of the King of England, as well as being closely related to the French royal family line. Henry's half-sister Jeanne (or Juana) was Queen of Navarre in her own right and married Philip IV of France. Henry was the uncle of King Edward II's Queen Isabella and of three Kings of France. He was also the younger brother of Thomas (Earl of Lancaster) and first cousin of Edward II.

    Maud is often described as the "Countess of Leicester" or "Countess of Lancaster", but she never bore the titles as she died in 1322, before her husband received them. Henry was named "Earl of Leicester" in 1324 and "Earl of Lancaster" in 1327. Henry never remarried and died on 22 September 1345, when he would have been in his mid-sixties. All but one of his seven children with Maud outlived him.

    Maud and Henry had seven children:

    Blanche of Lancaster, (about 1302/05–1380); Maud’s eldest daughter was probably born between 1302 and 1305, and was named after her father’s mother Blanche of Artois. Around 9 October 1316, she married Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell. Blanch was about forty-five when Thomas died, and she lived as a widow for more than thirty years. She was one of the executers of her brother Henry’s will when he died in 1361. Blanche outlived all her siblings, dying shortly before 12 July 1380 in her seventies. Born in the reign of Edward I, she survived all the way into the reign of his great grandson Richard II.

    Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, (about 1310–1361); Maud’s only son Henry was usually called Henry of Grosmont to distinguish him from his father. He was one of the great magnates of the fourteenth century, well known and highly respected. He took after his father and was well-educated, literate, and pious; he was a soldier and a diplomat. Henry produced his own memoir "Le Livre de Seyntz Medicines", which was completed in 1354. At one point, Henry of Grosmont was considered to be the richest man in England aside from the Prince of Wales. He emerged as a political figure in his own right within England: he was knighted and represented his father in Parliament. He married Isabella, daughter of Henry, Lord Beaumont. His daughter Blanche was betrothed and eventually married to the son of Edward III, John of Gaunt. In 1361, Henry was killed by a new outbreak of the Black Death, leaving John of Gaunt his inheritance and eventually his title through his daughter Blanche.[2]

    Maud of Lancaster, Countess of Ulster, (c. 1310 – 5 May 1377). There is some discrepancy as to when Maud died.[3][4] She married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster in 1327. They had one child, Elizabeth de Burgh, who was born 6 July 1332. Eleven months after the birth of their child, Earl William was murdered at “Le Ford” in Belfast, apparently by some of his own men. The countess Maud fled to England with her baby and stayed with the royal family. In 1337, Maud of Lancaster managed to ensure that the Justiciar of Ireland was forbidden to pardon her husband’s killers. She fought for her dower rights and exerted some influence there. She remarried in 1344 to Ralph Ufford and returned to Ireland, where she had another daughter, Maud. After her second husband fell ill in 1346, she again returned to England. Maud of Lancaster died on 5 May 1377.
    Joan of Lancaster, (about 1312–1345); married between 28 February and 4 June 1327 to John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray. John’s father was executed for reasons unknown, and young John was imprisoned in the Tower of London along with his mother Alice de Braose until late 1326. A large part of his inheritance was granted to Hugh Despenser the Younger, who was his future wife’s uncle; however, he was set free in 1327 before the marriage. Joan of Lancaster probably died 7July 1349. Joan and John, 3rd Lord Mowbray had six children.

    Isabel of Lancaster, Prioress of Amesbury, (about 1317–after 1347); One of the youngest daughters of Maud and Henry, she lived quietly, going on pilgrimages and spending a lot of time alone. She also spent a great deal of time outside the cloister on non-spiritual matters. Her father had given her quite a bit of property, which she administered herself. She owned hunting dogs and had personal servants. She used her family connections to secure privileges and concessions.[5]

    Eleanor of Lancaster, (1318- Sept. 1372); married John Beaumont between September and November 1330. Eleanor bore John a son, Henry, who married Margaret de Vere, a sister of Elizabeth and Thomas de Vere, Earl of Oxford. John Beaumont was killed in a jousting tournament in Northampton on 14 April 1342. Eleanor then became the mistress of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, who was married to her first cousin Isabel, daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger. Richard obtained a divorce from the Pope and married Eleanor on 5 February 1345 in the presence of Edward III. They had five children together, three sons and two daughters. Eleanor died on 11 January 1372.

    Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320–1362); married Henry, Lord Percy before 4 September 1334; he fought at the battle of Crecy in 1346, and served in Gascony under the command of his brother-in-law Henry of Grosmont. Their son was Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. Mary of Lancaster died on 1 September 1362, the year after her brother Henry.

    Birth:
    Photo, map & history of Kidwelly ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidwelly

    Children:
    1. Henry of Grosmont, Knight, 1st Duke of Lancaster was born ~ 1310, Grosmont Castle, Grosmont, Monmouthshire, Wales; died 23 Mar 1361, Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire, England.
    2. Joan Plantagenet, Baroness Mowbray was born ~ 1312, Norfolk, England; died 7 Jul 1349, Yorkshire, England; was buried Byland Abbey, Coxwold, North Yorkshire, England.
    3. 119. Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales; died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.
    4. Mary Plantagenet, Baroness of Percy was born 1319-1320, Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire, England; died 1 Sep 1362, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; was buried Alnwick, Northumberland, England.

  19. 240.  Guy de Beauchamp, Knight, 10th Earl of Warwick was born 0___ 1262, Elmley Castle, Worcester, England (son of William de Beauchamp and Isabel Mauduit); died 12 Aug 1315, Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England; was buried Bordesley Abbey, Worcester, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1272, Warwickshire, England

    Notes:

    Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick

    Guy had already distinguished himself in the Scottish Wars and was one of the Ordainers, who sought to restrict the powers of the King.

    Guy was one of the chief adversaries of Piers Gaveston, King Edward's favourite, who often referred to Guy as "The Mad Hound", due to the Earl's habit of foaming at the mouth when angry. In 1312, Guy de Beauchamp captured Gaveston and took him to his principal residence, Warwick Castle, where Gaveston was held prisoner and afterwards murdered.

    Guy first married Isabel de Clare, the daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester and Alice de Lusignan of Angoulãeme, but the marriage, which had produced no children, was annulled.

    On 28 February 1310, less than three years after the death of her first husband, Guy married Alice de Toeni, daughter of Ralph VII de Toeni.

    Child of Guy de Beauchamp and unnamed partner (mistress): Maud de Beauchamp (died 1366), married Geoffrey de Say, 2nd Lord Say, by whom she had issue.

    Children of Guy de Beauchamp and Alice de Toeni:

    Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick (14 February 1313/1314 – 13 November 1369), married Katherine Mortimer, by whom he had fifteen children.
    John de Beauchamp, Lord Beauchamp KG (1315 – 2 December 1360), carried the royal standard at the Battle of Crecy
    Elizabeth de Beauchamp (c. 1316–1359), married in 1328, Thomas Astley, 3rd Lord Astley, by whom she had a son William, 4th Lord Astley.
    Isabella de Beauchamp, married John de Clinton.
    Emma de Beauchamp, married Rowland Odingsells.
    Lucia de Beauchamp, married Robert de Napton.

    Following the sudden death of Guy de Beauchamp at Warwick Castle on 28 July 1315, which was rumoured to have been caused by poisoning, Alice married thirdly on 26 October 1316, William la Zouche de Mortimer, 1st Lord Zouche de Mortimer. [1]

    Father of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick; Isabel Beauchamp; Elizabeth de Beauchamp, Baroness Astley; John de Beauchamp; Emma de Beauchamp; Lucia de Beauchamp Maud de Beauchamp

    Brother of Isabella de Beauchamp, Countess Winchester; John de Beauchamp; Roger Beauchamp; Anne de Beauchamp; Margaret de Beauchamp; Amy de Beauchamp; Maud de Beauchamp Robert de BEAUCHAMP

    Half brother of Isabel Blount; Alice Foljambe (Furnival); Thomas FURNIVAL; Eleanor FURNIVAL Christine Furnival

    Burial: Bordesley Abbey, Warwickshire, England

    Foundation for Medieval Genealogy's Medieval Lands Index entry for : Guy.

    Husband: Guy Beauchamp
    Wife: Alice de Toeni
    Child: Maud Beauchamp
    Child: Thomas Beauchamp

    Marriage:

    Date: BEF 28 FEB 1309/10
    Husband: Guy de BEAUCHAMP
    Wife: Alice de TOENI
    Child: John de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Isabel de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Elizabeth de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Emma de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Maud de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Thomas de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Lucia (Jane) de BEAUCHAMP

    Marriage:

    Date: ABT 1303
    Place: of Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England

    Sources

    Royal Ancestry 2013 Vol. I p. 287-293
    Royal Ancestry by Douglas Richardson Vol. V. p. 178
    Ancestral Roots of Certain American Collonists RJCW 296b
    Marlyn Lewis.
    Royal and Noble Genealogical Data, Author: Brian Tompsett, Copyright 1994-2001, Version March 25, 2001
    Ancestry family trees
    ? Entered by Jean Maunder.

    *

    Guy married Alice de Toeni, Countess of Warwick 28 Feb 1309, England. [Group Sheet]


  20. 241.  Alice de Toeni, Countess of Warwick
    Children:
    1. 120. Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of Warwick was born 14 Feb 1313, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died 13 Nov 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

  21. 242.  Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March was born 25 Apr 1287, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England (son of Edmund Mortimer, Knight, 2nd Baron Mortimer and Margaret de Fiennes, Baroness Mortimer); died 29 Nov 1330, Tyburn, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
    • Also Known As: Baron Mortimer
    • Military:
    • Military: Despencer War

    Notes:

    Early life

    Mortimer, grandson of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer and Maud de Braose, Baroness Mortimer, was born at Wigmore Castle, Herefordshire, England, the firstborn of Marcher Lord Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer, and Margaret de Fiennes. Edmund Mortimer had been a second son, intended for minor orders and a clerical career, but on the sudden death of his elder brother Ralph, Edmund was recalled from Oxford University and installed as heir. According to his biographer Ian Mortimer, Roger was possibly sent as a boy away from home to be fostered in the household of his formidable uncle, Roger Mortimer de Chirk.[2] It was this uncle who had carried the severed head of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd of Wales to King Edward I in 1282.[3] Like many noble children of his time, Roger was betrothed young, to Joan de Geneville (born 1286), the wealthy daughter of Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim Castle and Ludlow. They were married on 20 September 1301. Their first child was born in 1302.[4]

    Marriage

    Through his marriage with Joan de Geneville, Roger not only acquired increased possessions in the Welsh Marches, including the important Ludlow Castle, which became the chief stronghold of the Mortimers, but also extensive estates and influence in Ireland. However, Joan de Geneville was not an "heiress" at the time of her marriage. Her grandfather Geoffrey de Geneville, at the age of eighty in 1308, conveyed most, but not all, of his Irish lordships to Roger Mortimer, and then retired, notably alive: he finally died in 1314, with Joan succeeding as suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville. During his lifetime Geoffrey also conveyed much of the remainder of his legacy, such as Kenlys, to his younger son Simon de Geneville, who had meanwhile become Baron of Culmullin through marriage to Joanna FitzLeon. Roger Mortimer therefore succeeded to the eastern part of the Lordship of Meath, centred on Trim and its stronghold of Trim Castle. He did not succeed, however, to the Lordship of Fingal.[5]

    Military adventures in Ireland and Wales

    Roger Mortimer's childhood came to an abrupt end when his father was mortally wounded in a skirmish near Builth in July 1304. Since Roger was underage at the death of his father, he was placed by King Edward I under the guardianship of Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall. However, on 22 May 1306, in a lavish ceremony in Westminster Abbey with two hundred and fifty-nine others, he was knighted by Edward and granted livery of his full inheritance.[6]

    His adult life began in earnest in 1308, when he went to Ireland in person to enforce his authority. This brought him into conflict with the de Lacys, who turned for support to Edward Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce, King of Scots. Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland by Edward II on 23 November 1316. Shortly afterwards, at the head of a large army, he drove Bruce to Carrickfergus and the de Lacys into Connaught, wreaking vengeance on their adherents whenever they were to be found. He returned to England and Wales in 1318[7] and was then occupied for some years with baronial disputes on the Welsh border.

    Opposition to Edward II

    Main article: Despenser War
    Mortimer became disaffected with his king and joined the growing opposition to Edward II and the Despensers. After the younger Despenser was granted lands belonging to him, he and the Marchers began conducting devastating raids against Despenser property in Wales. He supported Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, in refusing to obey the king's summons to appear before him in 1321. Mortimer led a march against London, his men wearing the Mortimer uniform which was green with a yellow sleeve.[8] He was prevented from entering the capital, although his forces put it under siege. These acts of insurrection compelled the Lords Ordainers led by Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, to order the king to banish the Despensers in August. When the king led a successful expedition in October against Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere, after she had refused Queen Isabella admittance to Leeds Castle, he used his victory and new popularity among the moderate lords and the people to summon the Despensers back to England. Mortimer, in company with other Marcher Lords, led a rebellion against Edward, which is known as the Despenser War, at the end of the year.[citation needed]

    Forced to surrender to the king at Shrewsbury in January 1322, Mortimer was consigned to the Tower of London, but by drugging the constable, escaped to France in August 1323, pursued by warrants for his capture dead or alive.[9] In the following year Queen Isabella, anxious to escape from her husband, obtained his consent to her going to France to use her influence with her brother, King Charles IV, in favour of peace. At the French court the queen found Roger Mortimer, who became her lover soon afterwards. At his instigation, she refused to return to England so long as the Despensers retained power as the king's favourites.

    Historians have speculated as to the date at which Mortimer and Isabella actually became lovers.[10] The modern view is that it began while both were still in England, and that after a disagreement, Isabella abandoned Roger to his fate in the Tower. His subsequent escape became one of medieval England's most colourful episodes. However almost certainly Isabella risked everything by chancing Mortimer's companionship and emotional support when they first met again at Paris four years later (Christmas 1325). King Charles IV's protection of Isabella at the French court from Despenser's would-be assassins played a large part in developing the relationship.[11] In 1326, Mortimer moved as Prince Edward's guardian to Hainault, but only after a furious dispute with the queen, demanding she remain in France.[12] Isabella retired to raise troops in her County of Ponthieu; Mortimer arranged the invasion fleet supplied by the Hainaulters.

    Invasion of England and defeat of Edward II

    The scandal of Isabella's relations with Mortimer compelled them both to withdraw from the French court to Flanders, where they obtained assistance for an invasion of England from Count William of Hainaut, although Isabella did not arrive from Ponthieu until the fleet was due to sail. Landing in the River Orwell on 24 September 1326, they were accompanied by Prince Edward and Henry, Earl of Lancaster. London rose in support of the queen, and Edward took flight to the west, pursued by Mortimer and Isabella. After wandering helplessly for some weeks in Wales, the king was taken prisoner on 16 November, and was compelled to abdicate in favour of his son. Though the latter was crowned as Edward III of England on 25 January 1327, the country was ruled by Mortimer and Isabella, who were widely believed to have arranged the murder of Edward II the following September at Berkeley Castle.[citation needed]

    Historian and biographer of Roger Mortimer and Edward III, Ian Mortimer, retells the old story that the ex-king was not killed and buried in 1327, but secretly remained alive at Corfe Castle. When Mortimer besieged the castle, Edward II was said to escape to Rome, where he stayed under papal protection.[13]

    Powers won and lost

    Rich estates and offices of profit and power were now heaped on Mortimer. He was made constable of Wallingford Castle and in September 1328 he was created Earl of March. However, although in military terms he was far more competent than the Despensers, his ambition was troubling to all. His own son Geoffrey, the only one to survive into old age, mocked him as "the king of folly." During his short time as ruler of England he took over the lordships of Denbigh, Oswestry, and Clun (the first of which belonged to Despenser, the latter two had been the Earl of Arundel's). He was also granted the marcher lordship of Montgomery by the queen.[citation needed]


    The "Tyburn Tree"

    The jealousy and anger of many nobles were aroused by Mortimer's use of power. Henry, Earl of Lancaster, one of the principals behind Edward II's deposition, tried to overthrow Mortimer, but the action was ineffective as the young king passively stood by. Then, in March 1330, Mortimer ordered the execution of Edmund, Earl of Kent, the half-brother of Edward II. After this execution Henry Lancaster prevailed upon the young king, Edward III, to assert his independence. In October 1330, a Parliament was summoned to Nottingham, just days before Edward's eighteenth birthday, and Mortimer and Isabella were seized by Edward and his companions from inside Nottingham Castle. In spite of Isabella's entreaty to her son, "Fair son, have pity on the gentle Mortimer," Mortimer was conveyed to the Tower. Accused of assuming royal power and of various other high misdemeanours, he was condemned without trial and ignominiously hanged at Tyburn on 29 November 1330, his vast estates forfeited to the crown. His body hung at the gallows for two days and nights in full view of the populace. Mortimer's widow Joan received a pardon in 1336 and survived till 1356. She was buried beside Mortimer at Wigmore, but the site was later destroyed.[14]

    In 2002, the actor John Challis, the current owner of the remaining buildings of Wigmore Abbey, invited the BBC programme House Detectives at Large to investigate his property. During the investigation, a document was discovered in which Mortimer's widow Joan petitioned Edward III for the return of her husband's body so she could bury it at Wigmore Abbey. Mortimer's lover Isabella had buried his body at Greyfriars in Coventry following his hanging. Edward III replied, "Let his body rest in peace." The king later relented, and Mortimer's body was transferred to Wigmore Abbey, where Joan was later buried beside him.[citation needed]

    Children of Roger and Joan

    The marriages of Mortimer's children (three sons and eight daughters) cemented Mortimer's strengths in the West.

    Sir Edmund Mortimer knt (1302-1331), married Elizabeth de Badlesmere; they produced Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, who was restored to his grandfather's title.
    Margaret Mortimer (1304 - 5 May 1337), married Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley
    Maud Mortimer (1307 - aft. 1345), married John de Charlton, Lord of Powys[15]
    Geoffrey Mortimer (1309-1372/6)
    John Mortimer (1310-1328)
    Joan Mortimer (c. 1312-1337/51), married James Audley, 2nd Baron Audley
    Isabella Mortimer (c. 1313 - aft. 1327)
    Katherine Mortimer (c. 1314-1369), married Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick
    Agnes Mortimer (c. 1317-1368), married Laurence Hastings, 1st Earl of Pembroke
    Beatrice Mortimer (d. 16 October 1383), who married firstly, Edward of Norfolk (d. before 9 August 1334), son and heir apparent of Thomas of Brotherton, by whom she had no issue, and secondly, before 13 September 1337, Thomas de Brewes (d. 9 or 16 June 1361), by whom she had three sons and three daughters.[16]
    Blanche Mortimer (c. 1321-1347), married Peter de Grandison, 2nd Baron Grandison

    Royal descendants

    Through his son Sir Edmund Mortimer, he is an ancestor of the last Plantagenet monarchs of England from King Edward IV to Richard III. By Edward IV's daughter, Elizabeth of York, the Earl of March is an ancestor to King Henry VIII and to all subsequent monarchs of England.

    Roger Mortimer, 1st earl of March, (born 1287?—died Nov. 29, 1330, Tyburn, near London, Eng.), lover of the English king Edward II’s queen, Isabella of France, with whom he contrived Edward’s deposition and murder (1327). For three years thereafter he was virtual king of England during the minority of Edward III.

    The descendant of Norman knights who had accompanied William the Conqueror, he inherited wealthy family estates and fortunes, principally in Wales and Ireland, and in 1304 became 8th Baron of Wigmore on the death of his father, the 7th baron. He devoted the early years of his majority to obtaining effective control of his Irish lordships against his wife’s kinsmen, the Lacys, who summoned to their aid Edward Bruce, brother of King Robert I of Scotland, when he was fighting to become king of Ireland. In 1316 Mortimer was defeated at Kells and withdrew to England, but afterward, as King Edward II’s lieutenant in Ireland (November 1316), he was largely instrumental in overcoming Bruce and in driving the Lacys from Meath.

    In 1317 he was associated with the Earl of Pembroke’s “middle party” in English politics; but distrust of the Despensers (see Despenser, Hugh Le and Hugh Le) drove him, in common with other marcher lords, into opposition and violent conflict with the Despensers in South Wales in 1321. But, receiving no help from Edward II’s other enemies, Roger and his uncle Roger Mortimer of Chirk made their submission in January 1322. Imprisoned in the Tower of London, Roger escaped in 1323 and fled to France, where in 1325 he was joined by Queen Isabella, who became his mistress. The exiles invaded England in September 1326; the fall of the Despensers was followed by the deposition of Edward II and his subsequent murder (1327), in which Mortimer was deeply implicated.

    Thereafter, as the queen’s paramour, Mortimer virtually ruled England. He used his position to further his own ends. Created Earl of March in October 1328, he secured for himself the lordships of Denbigh, Oswestry, and Clun, formerly belonging to the Earl of Arundel; the marcher lordships of the Mortimers of Chirk; and Montgomery, granted to him by the queen. His insatiable avarice, his arrogance, and his unpopular policy toward Scotland aroused against Mortimer a general revulsion among his fellow barons, and in October 1330 the young king Edward III, at the instigation of Henry of Lancaster, had him seized at Nottingham and conveyed to the Tower. Condemned for crimes declared to be notorious by his peers in Parliament, he was hanged at Tyburn as a traitor, and his estates were forfeited to the crown.

    One night in August 1323, a captive rebel baron, Sir Roger Mortimer, drugged his guards and escaped from the Tower of London. With the king's men-at-arms in pursuit he fled to the south coast and sailed to France. There he was joined by Isabella, the Queen of England, who threw herself into his arms.

    A year later, as lovers, they returned with an invading army: King Edward II's forces crumbled before them and Mortimer took power. He removed Edward II in the first deposition of a monarch in British history. Then the ex-king was apparently murdered, some said with a red-hot poker, in Berkeley Castle.

    Birth:
    History, map & images of Wigmore Castle ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wigmore_Castle

    Military:
    Military adventures in Ireland and Wales

    Roger Mortimer's childhood came to an abrupt end when his father was mortally wounded in a skirmish near Builth in July 1304. Since Roger was underage at the death of his father, he was placed by King Edward I under the guardianship of Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall. However, on 22 May 1306, in a lavish ceremony in Westminster Abbey with two hundred and fifty-nine others, he was knighted by Edward and granted livery of his full inheritance.[6]

    His adult life began in earnest in 1308, when he went to Ireland in person to enforce his authority. This brought him into conflict with the de Lacys, who turned for support to Edward Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce, King of Scots. Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland by Edward II on 23 November 1316. Shortly afterwards, at the head of a large army, he drove Bruce to Carrickfergus and the de Lacys into Connaught, wreaking vengeance on their adherents whenever they were to be found. He returned to England and Wales in 1318[7] and was then occupied for some years with baronial disputes on the Welsh border.

    Died:
    hanged as a traitor...

    Roger married Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville 20 Sep 1301. Joan (daughter of Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusigman, 2nd Baroness Geneville) was born 2 Feb 1286, Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England; died 19 Oct 1396, King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  22. 243.  Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville was born 2 Feb 1286, Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England (daughter of Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusigman, 2nd Baroness Geneville); died 19 Oct 1396, King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Baroness Mortimer
    • Also Known As: Countess of March
    • Also Known As: Jeanne de Joinville

    Notes:

    Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville, Countess of March, Baroness Mortimer (2 February 1286 – 19 October 1356), also known as Jeanne de Joinville, was the daughter of Sir Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusignan. She inherited the estates of her grandparents, Geoffrey de Geneville, 1st Baron Geneville, and Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville. She was one of the wealthiest heiresses in the Welsh Marches and County Meath, Ireland. She was the wife of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, the de facto ruler of England from 1327 to 1330. She succeeded as suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville on 21 October 1314 upon the death of her grandfather, Geoffrey de Geneville.[1][2]

    As a result of her husband's insurrection against King Edward II of England, she was imprisoned in Skipton Castle for two years. Following the execution of her husband in 1330 for usurping power in England, Joan was once more taken into custody. In 1336, her lands were restored to her after she received a full pardon for her late husband's crimes from Edward II's son and successor, Edward III of England.

    Family and inheritance

    Ludlow Castle in Shropshire, the birthplace of Joan de Geneville
    Joan was born on 2 February 1286 at Ludlow Castle in Shropshire.[3] She was the eldest child of Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim Castle and Ludlow, whose father Sir Geoffrey de Geneville, 1st Baron Geneville, was Justiciar of Ireland. Her mother Jeanne of Lusignan was part of one of the most illustrious French families, daughter of Hugh XII of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and of Angoulãeme, and sister of Yolanda of Lusignan, the suo jure Countess of La Marche. Joan had two younger sisters, Matilda and Beatrice who both became nuns at Aconbury Priory.[4] She also had two half-sisters from her mother's first marriage to Bernard Ezi III, Lord of Albret: Mathe, Dame d'Albret (died 1283), and Isabelle, Dame d'Albret (died 1 December 1294), wife of Bernard VI, Count of Armagnac.

    When her father died in Ireland shortly before June 1292, Joan became one of the wealthiest and most eligible heiresses in the Welsh Marches, with estates that included the town and castle of Ludlow, the lordship of Ewyas Lacy, the manors of Wolferlow, Stanton Lacy, and Mansell Lacy in Shropshire and Herefordshire as well as a sizeable portion of County Meath in Ireland.[5][6] She was due to inherit these upon the death of her grandfather, but in 1308, Baron Geneville conveyed most of the Irish estates which had belonged to his late wife Maud de Lacy to Joan and her husband Roger Mortimer. They both went to Ireland where they took seisin of Meath on 28 October of that same year. The baron died on 21 October 1314 at the House of the Friars Preachers at Trim, and Joan subsequently succeeded him, becoming the suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville.[1][2]

    Marriage

    Joan married Roger Mortimer, eldest son of Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Wigmore, and Margaret de Fiennes on 20 September 1301 at the manor of Pembridge.[7] Marriage to Joan was highly beneficial to Mortimer as it brought him much influence and prestige in addition to the rich estates he gained through their matrimonial alliance.[8][9] Three years later in 1304 he succeeded as Baron Mortimer, making Joan Baroness Mortimer. He was knighted on Whitsunday 22 May 1306 by King Edward I. The knighting ceremony took place in Westminster Abbey and was known as the Feast of the Swan as all those present made their personal vows upon two swans.[10] Two hundred and fifty-nine other young men received knighthoods along with Mortimer including the Prince of Wales who would shortly afterwards succeed his father as Edward II. Following the ceremony was a magnificent banquet held at the Great Hall of Westminster.[11]

    Upon taking seizen of her Irish lands in 1308, Joan and Mortimer travelled back and forth between their estates in Ireland and those in the Welsh Marches. Given that Joan opted to accompany her husband to Ireland rather than remain at home, and that she produced 12 surviving children over a period of just 17 years led Roger Mortimer's biographer Ian Mortimer to suggest they enjoyed a closer and more affectionate relationship than was typical of noble couples in the 14th-century. He described their union as having been " a mutually beneficial secure medieval partnership".[12]

    Issue

    Together Joan and Mortimer had twelve surviving children:[12][13][14]


    Effigies of Joan's daughter, Katherine Mortimer and her husband Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick. St. Mary's Church, Warwick

    Margaret Mortimer (2 May 1304- 5 May 1337), married Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley, by whom she had issue.
    Sir Edmund Mortimer (died 16 December 1331), married Elizabeth de Badlesmere, daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, and Margaret de Clare, by whom he had two sons, Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, and John, who died young.
    Roger Mortimer, married Joan Le Botiller
    Geoffrey Mortimer, Lord of Towyth (died 1372/5 May 1376), married Jeanne de Lezay, by whom he had issue.
    John Mortimer. He was killed in a tournament at Shrewsbury sometime after 1328.
    Katherine Mortimer (1314- 4 August 1369), married Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, by whom she had fifteen children, including Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, and William de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny, who married Lady Joan FitzAlan.
    Joan Mortimer (died between 1337–1351), married James Audley, 2nd Baron Audley, by whom she had issue.
    Agnes Mortimer, married Laurence Hastings, 1st Earl of Pembroke, by whom she had issue
    Isabella Mortimer (died after 1327)
    Beatrice Mortimer (died 16 October 1383), married firstly Edward of Norfolk, and secondly, Thomas de Braose, 1st Baron Braose. She had issue by her second husband.
    Maud Mortimer (died after August 1345), married John de Charlton, Lord of Powys, by whom she had issue.
    Blanche Mortimer (c.1321- 1347), married Peter de Grandison, 2nd Baron Grandison, by whom she had issue.
    Mortimer's affair with Queen Isabella[edit]

    Joan's husband Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, is allegedly depicted in the foreground with Queen Isabella in this 14th-century manuscript illustration
    Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland on 23 November 1316 and left for Ireland with a large force in February 1317.[15] While there, he fought against the Scots Army led by Edward Bruce, the younger brother of Robert the Bruce (who hoped to make Edward king of Ireland), and Bruce's Norman-Irish allies, the de Lacy's. Joan accompanied her husband to Ireland. They returned to England in 1318 after Mortimer had driven the Scots north to Carrickfergus, and dispersed the de Lacys, who were Joan's relatives. For the next few years, Mortimer occupied himself with baronial disputes on the Welsh border; nevertheless, on account of the increasing influence of Hugh Despenser, the Elder, and Hugh Despenser the Younger over King Edward II, Roger Mortimer became strongly disaffected with his monarch, especially after the younger Despenser had been granted lands which rightfully belonged to Mortimer.[16]

    In October 1321 King Edward and his troops besieged Leeds Castle, after the governor's wife, Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere, refused Queen Isabella admittance and subsequently ordered her archers to fire upon Isabella and her escort after the latter attempted to gain entry to the castle. Elizabeth, the third Badlesmere daughter, was married to Joan and Mortimer's eldest son, Edmund. King Edward exploited his new popularity in the wake of his military victory at Leeds to recall to England the Despensers, whom the Lords Ordainers, led by Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, had forced him to banish in August 1321.[17] The Marcher lords, already in a state of insurrection for some time prior to the Despensers' banishment,[n 1] immediately rose up against the King in full force, with Mortimer leading the confederation alongside Ordainer Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.[18] The King quelled the rebellion, which is also known as the Despenser War; Mortimer and his uncle Roger Mortimer de Chirk both surrendered to him at Shrewsbury on 22 January 1322. Mortimer and his uncle were dispatched as prisoners to the Tower of London,[16] where they were kept in damp, unhealthy quarters. This was likely a factor in Roger Mortimer de Chirk's death in 1326. Joan's husband had fared better; by drugging the constable and the Tower guards, he managed to escape to France on 1 August 1323.[19] It was there that he later became the lover of Queen Isabella, who was estranged from the King as a result of the Despensers' absolute control over him. She had been sent to France on a peace mission by Edward but used the occasion to seek help from her brother, Charles IV to oust the Despensers.[20] The scandal of their love affair forced them to leave the French court for Flanders, where they obtained help for an invasion of England.[21]

    Joan's imprisonment

    Skipton Castle, Yorkshire, where Joan was imprisoned from 1324 to 1326

    While the couple were still in France, King Edward had retaliated against Mortimer by taking Joan and all of their children into custody, and "treating them with severity".[22] In April 1324 Joan was removed from Hampshire where she had been confined in a lodging under house arrest and sent to Skipton Castle in Yorkshire; there she was imprisoned in a cell and endured considerable suffering and hardship.[23] Most of her household had been dismissed and she was permitted a small number of attendants to serve her. She was granted just one mark per day for her necessities, and out of this sum she had to feed her servants.[24] She was additionally allowed ten marks per annum at Easter and Michaelmas for new clothes.[25] Her daughters suffered worse privations having been locked up inside various religious houses with even less money at their disposal.[24] Joan was transferred from Skipton to Pontefract Castle in July 1326.[26]

    Countess of March

    Mortimer and Isabella landed in England two months later in September 1326, and they joined forces with Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster. On 16 November, King Edward was taken prisoner and eventually murdered at Berkeley Castle, presumably by Mortimer's hired assassins.[27] From 1327 to 1330, Mortimer and Isabella jointly held the Office of Regent for her son, King Edward III who was duly crowned following his father's death. Mortimer was made constable of Wallingford Castle; in September 1328, Mortimer was created Earl of March. This made Joan henceforth, the Countess of March; although it is not known what she thought about her husband's illegal assumption of power and flagrant affair with the Queen. What has been established is that Joan was never an active participant in her husband's insurrection against King Edward.[28]

    Mortimer and Queen Isabella were the de facto rulers of England. Hostility against the power Mortimer wielded over the kingdom and the young King Edward III, increased; his former friend Henry of Lancaster encouraged the King to assert his authority to oust Mortimer. When Mortimer ordered the execution of Edmund, Earl of Kent, half-brother of the late King Edward, anger and outrage engulfed the country. The King deposed his mother and her lover; Roger Mortimer was seized, arrested, and on 29 November 1330, hanged at Tyburn, London.[29]

    Following her husband's execution, Joan – as the wife of a traitor – was imprisoned again, this time in Hampshire where years before she had been placed under house arrest; her children were also taken into custody. In 1331, she was given an allowance for household expenses; however, her lands were only restored to her in 1336 after King Edward III granted her a full pardon for her late husband's crimes. In 1347 she received back the Liberty of Trim.[30]

    Death

    Joan de Geneville, Baroness Geneville, the widowed Countess of March, died on 19 October 1356 at the age of seventy. She was buried in Wigmore Abbey beside her husband, whose body had been returned to her by Edward III as she had requested. Her tomb no longer exists as the abbey was destroyed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries and only the ruins remain to this day.

    Lady Geneville's numerous direct descendants include the current British Royal Family, Sir Winston Churchill, and the 1st American President George Washington.

    Birth:
    Click this link to view images, history & map of the massive Ludlow Castle in Shropshire ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludlow_Castle

    Children:
    1. Edmund Mortimer was born ~ 1304, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 16 Dec 1331, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.
    2. Margaret Mortimer, Baroness Berkeley was born 2 May 1304, (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England); died 5 May 1337; was buried St. Augustine's Abbey, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.
    3. Joan de Mortimer, 2nd Baroness Geneville was born 2 Feb 1286, Ludlow Castle, Ludlow, Shropshire, England; died 19 Oct 1356.
    4. 121. Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick was born 0___ 1314, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 4 Aug 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

  23. 244.  Henry de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby was born ~ 1302, Groby, Leicestershire, England (son of William de Ferrers and Ellen de Segrave); died 15 Sep 1343; was buried Ulverscroft Priory, Leicestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Buried:
    Image, map & history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulverscroft_Priory

    Henry married Isabel de Verdun Bef Feb 1330. [Group Sheet]


  24. 245.  Isabel de Verdun (daughter of Theobald de Verdun, II, Lord Weoberley and Elizabeth de Clare).
    Children:
    1. 122. William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby was born 28 Feb 1333, Groby, Leicestershire, England; died 8 Jan 1371, Newbold Verdon, Leicestershire, England.
    2. Phillippe de Ferrers

  25. 246.  Robert de Ufford, (II), Knight, 1st Earl of Suffolk was born 9 Aug 1298, Ufford, Suffolk, England (son of Robert de Ufford, I, 1st Lord Ufford and Cecily Valoines); died 4 Nov 1369, (Suffolk, Suffolkshire, England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Robert Ufford
    • Also Known As: Suffolk

    Notes:

    Robert de Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk, KG (9 August 1298 - 4 November 1369) was an English peer. He was created Earl of Suffolk in 1337.

    Early life

    Born 9 August 1298, Robert de Ufford was the second but eldest surviving son of Robert de Ufford (1279–1316), Lord Ufford of Ufford, Suffolk, and Cecily de Valoignes (d.1325), daughter and coheir of Sir Robert de Valoignes (d.1289) and Eve de La Pecche. He had a younger brother, Sir Ralph Ufford (d.1346).[1][2]

    On 19 May 1318 he had livery of his father's Suffolk lands. He was knighted and received some official employments, being occupied, for example, in 1326 in levying ships for the royal use in Suffolk, and serving in November 1327 on a commission of the peace in the eastern counties under the statute of Winchester. In May and June 1329 he attended the young Edward III on his journey to Amiens.[3]

    He was employed on state affairs down to the end of the rule of Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, and on 1 May 1330 received a grant for life of Orford Castle in Suffolk, which had been previously held by his father; he also obtained grants of other lands. On 28 July he was appointed to array and command the levies of Norfolk and Suffolk summoned to fight "against the king's rebels". Nevertheless, in October he associated himself with William de Montacute in the attack on Mortimer at Nottingham. He took part in the capture of Mortimer in Nottingham Castle, and was implicated in the deaths of Sir Hugh de Turplington and Richard de Monmouth that occurred during the scuffle; that on 12 February 1331 he received a special pardon for the homicide. He was rewarded by the grant of the manors of Cawston and Fakenham in Norfolk, and also of some houses in Cripplegate that had belonged to Mortimer's associate, John Maltravers, succeeding Maltravers in some posts. He was summoned as a baron to parliament on 27 January 1332. From that time he was one of the most trusted warriors, counsellors, and diplomats in Edward III's service.[3]

    Earl of Suffolk

    On 1 November 1335 Ufford was appointed a member of an embassy empowered to treat with the Scots. He then served in a campaign against them, and was made warden of Bothwell Castle. On 14 January 1337 he was made admiral of the king's northern fleet jointly with Sir John Ros; Ufford ceased to hold this office later in the year. In March he was created Earl of Suffolk, and was granted lands. During his absence in parliament the Scots retook Bothwell Castle.[3]

    Hundred Years' War

    In opening moves of the Edwardian War, Suffolk was sent on 3 October 1337, with Henry Burghersh, the Earl of Northampton, and Sir John Darcy, to treat for peace or a truce with the French. Further powers were given them to deal with Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and other allies, and on 7 October they were also commissioned to treat with David Bruce, then staying in France, and were accredited to the two cardinals sent by the pope to make an Anglo-French reconciliation. Next year, on 1 July, Suffolk was associated with John de Stratford and others on an embassy to France, and left England along with the two cardinals sent to treat for peace. He attended the king in Brabant, serving in September 1339 in the expedition that besieged Cambrai, and in the army that prepared to fight a major battle at Buironfosse that came to nothing, where he and the Earl of Derby held a joint command. On 15 November of the same year he was appointed joint ambassador to Louis I, Count of Flanders and the Flemish estates, to treat for an alliance.[3]

    After Edward's return to England, Suffolk stayed behind with Salisbury, in garrison at Ypres. During Lent 1340 they attacked the French near Lille, pursued the enemy into the town, were made prisoners and were sent to Paris. Philip VI of France, it was said, wished to kill them, and they were spared only through the intervention of John of Bohemia. The truce of 25 September 1340 provided for the release of all prisoners, but it was only after a heavy ransom, to which Edward III contributed, that Suffolk was freed. He took part in a tournament at Dunstable in the spring of 1342 and at great jousts in London. He was one of the members of Edward's Round Table at Windsor, which assembled in February 1344, and fought in a tournament at Hertford in September 1344. he was one of the early members of Order of the Garter.[3]

    Suffolk served through the English intervention in the Breton War of Succession during July 1342, and at the siege of Rennes. In July 1343 he was joint ambassador to Pope Clement VI at Avignon. On 8 May 1344 he was appointed captain and admiral of the northern fleet, and on 3 July accompanied Edward on a short expedition to Flanders. He continued admiral in person or deputy until March 1347, when he was succeeded by Sir John Howard. On 11 July 1346 Suffolk sailed with the king from Portsmouth on the invasion of France which resulted in the battle of Crâecy. On the retreat northwards, a day after the passage of the River Seine, Suffolk and Sir Hugh le Despenser defeated a French force. Suffolk was one of those who advised Edward to select the field of Crâecy as his battle-ground; in the English victory he fought in on the left wing. Next morning, 27 August, he took part in the Earl of Northampton's reconnaissance that resulted in a sharp fight with the unbroken remnant of the French army.[3]

    Suffolk's diplomatic activity went on. He was one of the commissioners appointed to treat with France on 25 September 1348, and with Flanders on 11 October. The negotiations were conducted at Calais. On 10 March 1349, and again on 15 May 1350, he had similar commissions. On 29 August 1350 he fought in the naval victory, the Battle of Winchelsea. In May 1351 and in June 1352 he was chief commissioner of array in Norfolk and Suffolk.[3]

    In south-west France

    In September 1355 Suffolk sailed with The Black Prince, to Aquitaine. Between October and December he was on the prince's raid through Languedoc to Narbonne, where he commanded the rear-guard, William de Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, serving with him. After his return he was quartered at Saint-Emilion, his followers being stationed round Libourne. In January 1356 he led another foray, towards Rocamadour. Suffolk also shared in the Black Prince's northern foray of 1356, and in the battle of Poitiers which resulted from it, where he commanded, with Salisbury, the third "battle" or the rearward. The Prince's attempted retreat over the Miausson, threw the brunt of the first fighting on Suffolk and Salisbury. On the march back to Bordeaux he led the vanguard. Now 58 years old, he took part in the expedition into the County of Champagne in 1359. After that he was employed only in embassies, the last of those on which he served being that commissioned on 8 February 1362 to negotiate the proposed marriage of Edmund of Langley to the daughter of the Count of Flanders.[3]

    Last years

    In his declining years Suffolk devoted himself to the removal of Leiston Abbey, near Saxmundham, to a new site somewhat further inland. In 1363 it was transferred to its new home, where some ruins remain.[3]

    Suffolk died on 4 November 1369.[3]

    Marriage and issue

    In 1334 he married Margaret Norwich (d. 2 April 1368), daughter of Sir Walter Norwich (d.1329), Treasurer of the Exchequer, and Catherine de Hedersete, by whom he had a large family, including:[2]

    Robert Ufford, who predeceased his father without issue.[2]
    William de Ufford, 2nd Earl of Suffolk (d. 15 February 1382), second son, who married Joan Montagu (2 February 1349 - before 27 June 1376), daughter of Edward Montagu, 1st Baron Montagu (d. 3 July 1461) and Alice of Norfolk, by whom he had four sons and a daughter.[4]
    Walter Ufford (born 3 October 1343), third son, who married, before February 1359, Elizabeth de Montagu (c.1344 - before July 1361), daughter of Edward Montagu, 1st Baron Montagu (d. 3 July 1461) and Alice of Norfolk, by whom he had no issue.[4]
    Joan Ufford, eldest daughter, who was contracted to marry her father's ward, John de St Philibert; however the marriage did not take place.[2]
    Catharine Ufford (born c.1317, date of death unknown)[citation needed] married Robert de Scales, 3rd Baron Scales.[2][5]
    Cecily Ufford (born c. 1327 – died before 29 March 1372),[citation needed] who married William, Lord Willoughby of Eresby.[2]
    Margaret Ufford (born c. 1330 – died before 25 May 1368),[citation needed] who married Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby.[2]
    Maud Ufford, who became a nun at the Augustinian priory in Campsea Ashe, Suffolk.[2]

    Robert married Margaret Norwich 0___ 1334. Margaret (daughter of Walter de Norwich, Knight and Catherine de Hadersete) was born 0___ 1286, Mettingham, Suffolk, England; died 2 Apr 1368. [Group Sheet]


  26. 247.  Margaret Norwich was born 0___ 1286, Mettingham, Suffolk, England (daughter of Walter de Norwich, Knight and Catherine de Hadersete); died 2 Apr 1368.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Margaret de Norwich
    • Alt Death: 3 Sep 1375, Thurston, Suffolk, England

    Notes:

    Birth:
    daughter of Sir Walter de Norwich, Knight, Lord High Treasurer

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Orford Castle is a castle in the village of Orford, Suffolk, England, located 12 miles (20 km) northeast of Ipswich, with views over the Orford Ness. It was built between 1165 and 1173 by Henry II of England to consolidate royal power in the region. The well-preserved keep, described by historian R. Allen Brown as "one of the most remarkable keeps in England", is of a unique design and probably based on Byzantine architecture. The keep still stands among the earth-covered remains of the outer fortifications.

    Photos, map, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orford_Castle

    Children:
    1. 123. Margaret de Ufford was born ~ 1330, Ufford, Suffolk, England; died Bef 25 May 1368, Eresby, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England.
    2. Cecily Ufford was born 29 Mar 1372, Eresby, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England.

  27. 248.  Thomas de Berkeley, Knight, 3rd Baron BerkeleyThomas de Berkeley, Knight, 3rd Baron Berkeley was born 1293-1296, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England (son of Maurice de Berkeley, III, Knight, 2nd Baron Berkeley and Eva la Zouche); died 27 Oct 1361, Gloucestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Thomas de Berkeley (c. 1293 or 1296 – 27 October 1361), The Rich, feudal baron of Berkeley, of Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire, England, was a peer. His epithet, and that of each previous and subsequent head of his family, was coined by John Smyth of Nibley (d.1641), steward of the Berkeley estates, the biographer of the family and author of "Lives of the Berkeleys".

    Origins

    He was the eldest son and heir of Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley by his wife Eve la Zouche.

    Career

    In 1327 he was made joint custodian of the deposed King Edward II, whom he received at Berkeley Castle. He was later commanded to deliver custody of the king to his fellow custodians, namely John Maltravers, 1st Baron Maltravers and Sir Thomas Gournay. He left the king at Barkeley Castle and with heavy cheere perceiving what violence was intended he journeyed to Bradley. The king was murdered at Berkeley Castle during his absence. As an accessory to the murder of the deposed king, he was tried by a jury of 12 knights in 1330 and was honourably acquitted.

    Marriages & progeny

    He married twice:

    Firstly to Margaret Mortimer, daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, by whom he had five children:
    Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley (born 1320, date of death unknown), The Valiant, eldest son and heir.
    Thomas de Berkeley (born c. 1325, date of death unknown)
    Roger de Berkeley (born 1326, date of death unknown)
    Alphonsus de Berkeley (born 1327, date of death unknown)
    Joan de Berkeley (born 1330, date of death unknown), wife of Reginald de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham.

    Secondly on 30 May 1347 he married Catherine [1] Clivedon (21 January 1351[sic][clarification needed] – 1428) by whom he had a further four children as follows:
    Thomas Berkeley (born 7 June 1348, date of death unknown)
    Maurice de Berkeley (27 May 1349 – 3 June 1368)
    Edmund de Berkeley (born 10 July 1350, date of death unknown)
    John Berkeley (21 January 1351 – 1428) of Beverstone Castle, Gloucestershire, a secondary residence of his father

    Death & succession

    He died on 27 October 1361 in Gloucestershire and was succeeded by Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley (born 1320, date of death unknown), eldest son and heir from his first marriage.

    References

    Jump up ^ Plea rolls of the Court of Common Pleas; National Archives; http://aalt.law.uh.edu/AALT6/R2/CP40no483/483_0892.htm; first entry: mentions Katherine, formerly wife of Thomas de Berkele of Barkele, knight, as complainant; Year: 1381
    Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who came to America before 1700, Frederick Lewis Weis, 1992, seventh edition.
    Ancestral roots of sixty colonists who came to New England 1623–1650. Frederick Lewis Weis (earlier edition).
    Magna Charta Sureties, 1215., Frederick Lewis Weis, Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., William R. Beall, 1999, 5th Ed.
    Magna Charta Sureties, 1215", Frederick Lewis Weis, 4th Ed.
    The Complete Peerage, Cokayne.
    Burke's Peerage, 1938.
    Plantagenet Ancestry of Seventeenth-Century Colonists, David Faris, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1996.
    Royal Genealogy information held at University of Hull.

    Birth:
    Berkeley Castle (historically sometimes spelt Berkley Castle) is a castle in the town of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, UK (grid reference ST685989). The castle's origins date back to the 11th century and it has been designated by English Heritage as a grade I listed building.

    The castle has remained within the Berkeley family since they reconstructed it in the 12th century, except for a period of royal ownership by the Tudors. It is traditionally believed to be the scene of the murder of King Edward II in 1327.

    View images, history & map ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berkeley_Castle

    Thomas — Margaret Mortimer, Baroness Berkeley. Margaret (daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville) was born 2 May 1304, (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England); died 5 May 1337; was buried St. Augustine's Abbey, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  28. 249.  Margaret Mortimer, Baroness Berkeley was born 2 May 1304, (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England) (daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville); died 5 May 1337; was buried St. Augustine's Abbey, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Margaret Mortimer, Baroness Berkeley (2 May 1304 – 5 May 1337) was the wife of Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley. She was the eldest daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, the de facto ruler of England from 1327 to 1330, and his wife Joan de Geneville, Baroness Geneville.[1]

    Birth:
    History, map & images of Wigmore Castle ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wigmore_Castle

    Children:
    1. 124. Maurice Berkeley, Knight, 4th Baron Berkeley was born 1320-1323, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England; died 0Aug 1368, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England.

  29. 250.  Hugh le Despencer, IV, Knight, Baron Despenser was born ~ 1286, England (son of Hugh le Despenser, Knight, 1st Earl of Winchester and Isabella Beauchamp); died 24 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried (Hulton Abbey, Staffordshire, England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 1st Lord Despenser

    Notes:

    Hugh le Despenser, 1st Lord Despenser (c. 1286[1] – 24 November 1326), also referred to as "the younger Despenser",[2] was the son and heir of Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester (the elder Despenser) by his wife Isabella de Beauchamp daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick.[3] He rose to national prominence as royal chamberlain and a favourite of Edward II of England. A series of subsequent controversies eventually led to him being hanged, drawn and quartered.

    Titles and possessions

    Hugh le Despenser the younger was knight of Hanley Castle, Worcestershire, King's Chamberlain, Constable of Odiham Castle, Keeper of Porchester Castle and town, Keeper of the royal Bristol Castle, the town and barton of Bristol and, in Wales, Keeper of Dryslwyn Castle and town and of Dryslwyn, and the region of Cantref Mawr, Carmarthenshire.

    Also in Wales, by marriage he became Lord of Glamorgan, seated at Cardiff Castle.

    He was also Keeper of the castles, manor, and lands of Brecknock, Hay, Cantref Selyf, etc., in County Brecon, and, in England of Huntington, Herefordshire.

    He was given Wallingford Castle although this had previously been given to Queen Isabella for life.

    Marriage

    In May 1306 Hugh le Despenser the younger was knighted, and that summer he married Eleanor de Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 9th Lord of Clare and 7th Earl of Hertford and Joan of Acre.

    Eleanor's grandfather, Edward I, owed the elder Despenser 2,000 marks (¹1,000,000 at today's prices) and the marriage settled this debt, and was a reward for the elder Hugh's loyal service.

    When Eleanor's brother, Gilbert, was killed in 1314 at the Battle of Bannockburn, she unexpectedly became one of the three co-heiresses to the rich Gloucester earldom, and in her right, Hugh inherited Glamorgan and other properties.[4] In just a few years Hugh went from a landless knight to one of the wealthiest magnates in the kingdom.

    Eleanor was also the niece of the new king, Edward II of England, and this connection brought Despenser closer to the English royal court. He joined the baronial opposition to Piers Gaveston, the king's favourite (and Hugh's brother-in-law, as Gaveston was married to Eleanor's sister Margaret).

    Eager for power and wealth, Despenser seized Tonbridge Castle in 1315, after his brother-in-law's death under the misapprehension that it belonged to his mother-in-law (he relinquished it on discovering that the rightful owner was the Archbishop of Canterbury).[5] In 1318 he murdered Llywelyn Bren, a Welsh hostage in his custody.

    Eleanor and Hugh had nine children to survive infancy:

    Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer (1308–1349), 2nd Baron Le Despencer, who was restored to his grandfather's title of Baron le Despencer in 1338. At his death without issue, his nephew Edward, son of Edward (below), was created Baron Le Despencer in a new creation of 1357.
    Gilbert le Despenser, (1309–1381).

    Edward le Despenser, (1310–1342), soldier, killed at the siege of Vannes;[6] father of Edward II le Despenser, Knight of the Garter, who became Baron Le Despencer in a new creation of 1357. His son was Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester and 2nd Baron Le Despencer of the 1357 creation, who was married to a daughter of Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, youngest son of Edward III, and was attainted and beheaded in 1400 for his attempts to restore Richard II, his wife's cousin, to the throne. His attainder was reversed in 1461, with the victory of Edward IV, and the barony of the first creation (1264/1295) was eventually awarded in 1604 to Dame Mary Fane, heiress of Thomas's daughter Isabel Le Despencer, who married two cousins. The barony is now held by the Viscounts Falmouth.

    Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Arundel (1312–1356), married, as his 1st wife, Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel. The marriage was annulled and their child, Edmund, was disinherited.
    John le Despenser, (1311 – June 1366).
    Eleanor le Despenser, (c. 1315–1351), nun at Sempringham Priory
    Joan le Despenser, (c. 1317–1384), nun at Shaftesbury Abbey
    Margaret le Despenser, (c. 1319–1337), nun at Whatton Priory
    Elizabeth le Despenser, Baroness Berkeley|Elizabeth le Despenser]], born 1325, died 13 July 1389, married Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley.

    Political manoeuverings

    Hugh le Despenser the younger became royal chamberlain in 1318. As a royal courtier, Despenser manoeuvred into the affections of King Edward, displacing the previous favourite, Roger d'Amory. This was much to the dismay of the baronage as they saw him both taking their rightful places at court and being a worse version of Gaveston. By 1320 his greed was running free. He also supposedly vowed to be revenged on Roger Mortimer because Mortimer's grandfather had killed Hugh's grandfather, and once stated (though probably in jest) that he regretted he could not control the wind. By 1321 he had earned many enemies in every stratum of society, from Queen Isabella to the barons to the common people. There was even a plot to kill Despenser by sticking his wax likeness with pins.

    Finally the barons prevailed upon King Edward and forced Despenser and his father into exile in August 1321. Following the exile of the Despensers, the barons who opposed them fell out among themselves, and the King summoned the two men back to England. Early in the following year, King Edward took advantage of these divisions to secure the surrender of Marcher Lord Roger Mortimer, and the defeat and execution of the Earl of Lancaster, the Despensers' chief opponents. The pair returned and King Edward quickly reinstated Despenser as royal favourite. The time from the Despensers' return from exile until the end of Edward II's reign was a time of uncertainty in England. With the main baronial opposition leaderless and weak, having been defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and Edward willing to let them do as they pleased, the Despensers were left unchecked. This maladministration caused hostile feeling for them and, by proxy, Edward II. Despenser repeatedly pressed King Edward to execute Mortimer,[citation needed] who had been held prisoner in the Tower of London, following his surrender. However, Mortimer escaped from the Tower and fled to France.

    Criminality

    Like his father, Hugh Despenser the Elder, the younger Despenser was accused by a significant number of people of widespread criminality. Examples include;

    Theft from Relatives - Despenser seized the Welsh lands of his wife's inheritance, ignoring the claims of his two brothers-in-law and cheated his sister-in-law Elizabeth de Clare out of Gower and Usk.
    Theft - forced Alice de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, to give up her lands,
    Torture - he had Lady Baret's arms and legs broken until she went insane.
    Murder - unlawfully killing a prisoner (Llweyn Bren) who was awaiting trial[7]
    Piracy - during his exile he became a pirate in the English Channel, "a sea monster, lying in wait for merchants as they crossed the sea".[8]
    False Imprisonment & Death Threats - he imprisoned Sir William Cokerell in the Tower of London, where Cokerell was forced to pay to save his life[9]
    Accusations of sodomy[edit]
    14th century court historian Froissart wrote that "he was a sodomite." According to Froissart, Despenser's penis was severed and burned in his execution as a punishment for his sodomy and heresy.[10]

    Relationship with Isabella and downfall

    Queen Isabella had a special dislike for Hugh le Despenser the younger. Alison Weir, in her 2005 book Queen Isabella: Treachery, Adultery, and Murder in Medieval England, speculates that he had raped Isabella and that was the source of her hatred. While Isabella was in France to negotiate between her husband and the French king, she formed a liaison with Roger Mortimer and began planning an invasion. Despenser supposedly tried to bribe French courtiers to assassinate Isabella, sending barrels of silver as payment.[citation needed] Roger Mortimer and the Queen invaded England in October 1326. Their forces numbered only about 1,500 mercenaries to begin with, but the majority of the nobility rallied to them throughout October and November. By contrast, very few people were prepared to fight for Edward II, mainly because of the hatred that the Despensers had aroused.

    The Despensers fled West with the King, with a sizeable sum from the treasury. The escape was unsuccessful. Separated from the elder Despenser, the King and the younger Despenser were deserted by most of their followers, and were captured near Neath in mid-November. King Edward was placed in captivity and later forced to abdicate in favour of his son. The elder Despenser (the father) was hanged at Bristol on 27 October 1326, and younger Despenser (the son) was brought to trial.

    Trial and execution

    The execution of Hugh le Despenser the younger, from a manuscript of Jean Froissart.
    Hugh le Despenser the Younger tried to starve himself before his trial,[11] but he did face trial on 24 November 1326, in Hereford, before Mortimer and the Queen. In Froissart's account of the execution, Despenser was then tied firmly to a ladder, and—in full view of the crowd—had his genitals sliced off and burned in his still-conscious sight, then his entrails slowly pulled out, and, finally, his heart cut out and thrown into the fire. Froissart (or rather Jean le Bel's chronicle, on which he relied) is the only source to describe castration, where all other contemporary accounts have Despenser hanged, drawn and quartered (which usually involved castration).[12]

    Finally, his corpse was beheaded, his body cut into four pieces, and his head mounted on the gates of London.[2]

    Remains

    Four years later, in December 1330, his widow was given permission to gather and bury his remains at the family's Gloucestershire estate,[2] but only the head, a thigh bone and a few vertebrae were returned to her.[13]

    What may be the body of Despenser was identified in February 2008 in the village of Abbey Hulton in Staffordshire, the former site of Hulton Abbey. The skeleton, which was first uncovered during archaeological work in the 1970s, appeared to be that of a victim of a drawing and quartering as it had been beheaded and chopped into several pieces with a sharp blade, suggesting a ritual killing. Furthermore, it lacked several body parts, including the ones given to Despenser's wife. Radiocarbon analysis dated the body to between 1050 and 1385, and later tests suggested it to be that of a man over 34 years old. Despenser was 40 at the time of his death. In addition, the Abbey is located on lands that belonged to Hugh Audley, Despenser's brother-in-law, at the time.[13]

    Legacy

    No book-length biographical study of Hugh le Despenser exists, although The Tyranny and Fall of Edward II: 1321–1326 by historian Natalie Fryde is a study of Edward's reign during the years that the Despensers' power was at its peak. Fryde pays particular attention to the subject of the Despensers' ill-gotten landholdings.[14] The numerous accusations against the younger Despenser at the time of his execution have never been the subject of close critical scrutiny, although Roy Martin Haines called them "ingenuous" and noted their propagandistic nature.[15]

    Despite the crucial and disastrous role he played in the reign of Edward II, Despenser is almost a minor character in Christopher Marlowe's play Edward II (1592), where, as "Spencer", he is little more than a substitute for the dead Gaveston. In 2006, he was selected by BBC History Magazine as the 14th century's worst Briton.[16]

    His image on the stained glass window of the Banqueting Hall of Cardiff Castle, shows his coat of arms inverted—a symbol of disgrace.

    Ancestry

    Edward II of England and Hugh Despenser the elder extorted the lands of Alice de Lacy, 4th Countess of Lincoln, and to make the transfers of title appear legitimate, declared Hugh the younger her "kinsman".

    [show]Ancestors of Hugh Despenser the Younger

    Notable descendants

    Anne Neville, the queen consort of King Richard III of England, is a direct descendant of Hugh le Despenser the younger. Anne's grandmother, Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Worcester and Warwick, was the granddaughter of Edward le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer, who in turn was the grandson of the younger Despenser.

    The sixth and last queen consort to Henry VIII, Catherine Parr, also descended from the 1st Baron le Despencer, through his daughter Margaret, who married Robert de Ferrers, 4th Baron Ferrers of Chartley.[17]

    The New England Protestant reformer Anne (Marbury) Hutchinson was a descendant of Hugh through his grandson Edward.[18] Through her, many Americans including Franklin D. Roosevelt and George W. Bush, can claim Hugh the younger as an ancestor.[19]

    *

    Died:
    Hanged, drawn and quartered for High treason...

    Hugh married Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer 1 May 1306, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. Eleanor (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre) was born 0Oct 1292, Caerphilly Castle, Caerphilly, Urban, Glamorgan, Wales; died 30 Jun 1337, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England; was buried (Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ). [Group Sheet]


  30. 251.  Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer was born 0Oct 1292, Caerphilly Castle, Caerphilly, Urban, Glamorgan, Wales (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre); died 30 Jun 1337, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England; was buried (Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ).
    Children:
    1. Isabe le Despenser, Countess of Arundel was born 0___ 1312; died ~ 1376.
    2. 125. Elizabeth Despencer was born 0___ 1322, Bishop's Stoke, Westbury Upon Trym, Gloucester, England; died 13 Jul 1389; was buried St. Botolph Aldersgate, London, Middlesex, England.
    3. Edward le Despencer