Winnifred Tilman

Female 1749 - 1819  (~ 70 years)

Generations:      Standard    |    Vertical    |    Compact    |    Box    |    Text    |    Ahnentafel    |    Media    |   Map

Generation: 1

  1. 1.  Winnifred Tilman was born 0___ 1749, Goochland County, Virginia (daughter of Thomas Tilman, Sr. and Lucy Hix); died 0___ 1819, Albermarle County, Virginia.

    Winnifred married Richard Marr 29 Aug 1782, Goochland County, Virginia. Richard was born 1752-1759, Virginia Colony; died ~ 1819. [Group Sheet]

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  Thomas Tilman, Sr. was born 1 May 1720, Prince George County, Virginia (son of Robert Tilman and Hannah Morris); died 0___ 1813, Albermarle County, Virginia.


    Posted By: Kimberly Catron
    Subject: Thomas Tilman & Hannah Morris - Fluvanna Co VA
    Post Date: October 28, 2005 at 15:17:34
    Message URL:
    Forum: Tillman Family Genealogy Forum
    Forum URL:

    I'm working on researching this Tilman line. My interest is Mary Tilman who married John Bush in Amherst County, VA in 1782. Mary's father Thomas Tilman gave permission for her to marry. Unfortunately, the document copy I have does not show whether Thomas signed with a "T" or an "X", so I do not know if her father was Thomas Tilman Sr. or Jr. so I am hoping to find another document to prove the relationship.

    Here's what I've found that I think will be of interest to you:

    Thomas Tilman Sr. married Lucy Hix, daughter of Daniel Hix. She is the "wife of Thomas Tilman" who died in 1763 (not Susan Moon). Support for this is found in an 1811 court record which names Lucy as the daughter of Daniel Hix and wife of Thomas Tilman. Record also names their children as Daniel Tilman, Thomas Tilman Jr., Winnifred wife of Richard Marr, Lucy wife of Jesse Mills and Elizabeth wife of William Walton (Elizabeth and William are both deceased by this date). Record gives Lucy's date of death as 1763 or 1768 and Thomas's date of death as 180_. I do not have the original of this record, only an abstract from Marilyn Poitras' ancestry world tree. Acquiring the full original document is on my extensive "to do" list.

    Also on my "to do" list is attaining full original copy of Hugh Rice Morris' will. I would like to verify the information previously seen. (i.e. did he leave land to Thomas Tilman Jr.?)

    Deed records in Fluvanna County, VA prove that Thomas Tilman Sr. had a second wife named Hannah. Deeds also prove he had a son Jacob (presumably by Hannah as we know Jacob was not a son of Lucy). To secure debts due to Jacob Tilman, Thomas Tilman Sr. deeded personal property to Zachariah Tilman. Rice Tilman (probably Hugh Rice Tilman) frequently witnesses deeds for Thomas Tilman Sr. as does Jacob Tilman, John Morris and Jacob Morris. Thomas Tilman Sr. deeded land to Samuel Coles Tilman but deed does not specify relationship. Thomas Tilman Sr. also deeded land to his wife Hannah, the original deed was delivered to Samuel C. Tilman nearly 50 years later.

    I have several more Fluvanna County microfilms to go through and I hope that I can add to the above.

    Here's what I'm wondering:
    Can the list of children frequently seen for Thomas Tilman Jr. be documented?
    Can any marriage for Thomas Tilman Jr. be documented?

    Any feedback will be appreciated.


    Hello David,

    I'm happy to share what information I have and greatly appreciate anything you might be able to add to it.

    I have not had the opportunity to do any original research on Johannes Tilghman. Stephen F. Tillman estimated Johannes' date of birth as circa 1725 and gave his residence as Snodland Parish, Kent County
    England. Mr. Tillman arrived at that date by estimating 25 years for each of seven generations, so Johannes' actual birth date could be considerably different.

    Much of my research time on the Tilman line was spent on Thomas Tilman St.'s family. My interest is in Mary "Polly" Tilman who married John Bush. Many researchers have her listed as a daughter of Thomas Tilman Jr. but I believe she is the daughter of Thomas Tilman Sr. by his second wife Hannah. Are you a descendant of Thomas and his first wife Lucy?

    Thomas Tilman was born 1 May 1720 in Martin-Brandon Parish, Prince George County, Virginia, according to Stephen F. Tillman.

    21 Feb 1735, Goochland Co., VA. The will of Josiah Woodson of St. James Parish was witnessed by Thomas Tilman (his mark - T ). *Note that if dob is correct, Thomas was not quite 15 yrs. old. Might suggest that Thomas' dob was actually a few years prior or that there was a close, perhaps even family, relationship between Thomas Tilman and Josiah Woodson.

    15 July 1740, Goochland Co., VA. Thomas Tillman witnessed two deeds. 1) Richard Daniel of St. James Parish to James Daniel of same, 100 acres, part of patent to James Daniel dec'd, bounded by Appamattock River and Lewis Jenkins. Witnessed by Gideon Marr, Thomas Tillman and Luies Jenkins. 2) Lewis and Mary Jenkins of St. James Parish to Richard Jenkins of same, 100 acres, part of patent to Lewis Jenkins.
    Witnessed by Gideon Marr, Thomas Tillman and Richard Daniel.

    18 Feb 1745, Goochland Co., VA. "Thomas & Luxey Tillman to Amox Hix". *I only have this abstract, no details.

    11 Feb 1752, Albemarle Co., VA. Geo. Dameril and wife, Ann Thany, deeded to Thos. Tilman, Goochland Co., 400 acres both sides Hardware. Adjoins Benjamin Woodson. Witnessed by Matt. Jordan, Alex. McCaul, Thos. Thornell.

    1761, Albemarle Co., VA. Deed from Wm. Walton to Thos. Tilman.

    28 Nov 1763, Albemarle Co., VA. Will of Abraham Childres witnessed by Thomas Tilman (his mark - T ).

    12 July 1764, Albemarle Co., VA. Deed from Wm. Cox to Danl. McKinsey for 594 acres. Land adjoins Walton, Sect's rolling road, Thos. Napier, Rockfish Branch and Jno. Douglas. Witnessed by John Tompkins, Thos. Hickamn and Thos. Tilman. *No mark noted from Thos.
    Tilman so this could have been either Sr. or Jr.

    9 Aug 1764, Albemarle Co., VA. Noel Burton to Jno. Moor, 400 acres on N side Hardware. Adjoins Rich. Daniels. Witness Geo. Perry, Jer. Wade, and Thos.Tilman. *Again, no mark, could be Sr. or Jr.

    6 Aug 1765, Amherst county, VA. Marriage bond of Jesse Mill and Lucy Tilman, spinster. John Fraser, surety. Consent of her father, Thomas Tilman.

    11 Oct 1765, Albemarle Co., VA. Indenture from Thomas Tilman, Albemarle Co. to Alexander McCaul, Henrico Co., for sum of five shillings. 150 acres in Co. of Albemarle on the Fluvannah River between Great Rockfish & Little Rockfish Creeks, bounded by John Ware and John Henry Gent, land purchased by Thomas Tilman of William Walton. Also 400 acres in Co. of Albemarle on Hardware River between the lands of John Moore & Hugh Morris which land was purchased by Thomas Tilman of George Dameron. Also 11 named Negro slaves, a bay mare, a black horse & colt, eleven black cattle, thirty hogs, five feather beds & furniture, two chests, six pewter dishes and one dozen pewter plates. Provided that Thomas Tilman shall pay unto Alexander McCaul the full sum of Two hundred & sixty four pounds five shillings & four pence half penny with interest upon the 10th day of October 1768 then these presents shall be void. Thomas Tilman signed with his mark - T.

    15 Jan 1767, Albemarle Co., VA. Deed from Creed Childress to John WAre, 400 acres by the River. Witnessed by W. Henry, Jas. Hilton, DAniel Tilman, Charles Carel, Edmd. Winston, Abraham Childers, Geo. Seaton, Thomas Tilman (his mark- T ), Philip Henson, John Melton. Proved 13 May 1768 by oath of Daniel Tilman, Charles Carel & Thomas Tilman.

    27 Dec 1769, Albemarle Co., VA. Deed from Hugh Morris to son Hugh Rice Morris, 400 acres in the place called the North Garden. Witnessed by Jacob Morris, Zachariah Taylor, Thos. Tilman (his mark - T ). Proved Aug 1772 by oath of Jacob Morris and Thomas Tilman.

    7 Feb 1772 Albemarle Co., VA. Deed from Joseph Morriss to son Hugh Price Morris, 200 acres on Totier Creek. Witnessed by Edmund Cobbs, Thomas Tilman (his mark- T ), John Moore and Alexr. Gordon. Proved March 1772 by oath of Edmund Cobbs, Thomas Tilman and John Moore.

    17 Sep 1773, Albemarle Co., VA. Will of Hugh Rice Morris. Names wife Mary, sons John, Jacob and Hugh Rice Morris, daughters Elizabeth Austin, Lurana Taylor and Hanna Tilman. Makes bequest to Thomas Tilman Jr. but does not identify a relationship. Witnessed by George Taylor, Robert R Lilly, Thomas T Tilman and Richard Perkins. *The LDS microfilm of this record is my source. The T is not labeled as a mark but that is what it appears to be. ** Other researchers have used this will as a basis for the conclusion that Hannah Morris was the wife of Thomas Tilman Jr., but it should be noted that Hugh Rice Morris did not name Thomas Tilman Jr. as a son or son-in-law.

    26 Mar 1776. Thomas Tilman was paid for the capture of two guns from the British.

    Well, David, that's all I have time for today. I hope this is the type of information you are looking for.

    This is about half of the transactions I have for Thomas Sr. I also have a couple of references to Lucy, records for Hannah and records for several of the children. Please let me know if you are not interested in these type of items, or if there is anything specific you are looking for. I also have full transcripts for a few of these records if you prefer to have that rather than the abstract. I can provide source for each if you would like. I will try to e-mail more to you in the next day or two.

    Have a great day and God bless,


    --- ""

    > Hello Kim.
    > Read your comments and and admire your research re the early Tillman
    > family.
    > Was wondering if you would share more info re Thomas & Lucy, i.e.,
    > event dates & locations. Do you happen to know more about Johannes
    > Tilghman?
    > Would be most grateful for anything you can share.
    > Warmest regards,
    > David Hennessee


    Thomas married Lucy Hix (~ 1740), (Goochland County) Virginia. Lucy (daughter of Daniel Hix and Joan Irwin) was born 0___ 1722, Prince George County, Virginia; died 5 May 1763, Goochland County, Virginia. [Group Sheet]

  2. 3.  Lucy Hix was born 0___ 1722, Prince George County, Virginia (daughter of Daniel Hix and Joan Irwin); died 5 May 1763, Goochland County, Virginia.
    1. Daniel Tilman was born 0___ 1739, Prince George County, Virginia; died 0___ 1811.
    2. Thomas Tilman, Jr. was born ~ 1740, (Goochland County, Virginia).
    3. Elizabeth Tilman was born 29 Apr 1744, Goochland County, Virginia; died 8 Sep 1787, Morganton, Burke County, North Carolina.
    4. 1. Winnifred Tilman was born 0___ 1749, Goochland County, Virginia; died 0___ 1819, Albermarle County, Virginia.
    5. Lucy Tilman was born 0___ 1750; died 0___ 1800.

Generation: 3

  1. 4.  Robert Tilman was born 0___ 1675, Prince George County, Virginia (son of Roger Tillman and Winnefred Austin); died 0___ 1737, Albermarle County, Virginia.

    Other Events:

    • Death: 0___ 1738, (Colony of Virginia)

    Robert married Hannah Morris 0___ 1718, (Colony of Virginia). Hannah was born (~ 1690), (Colony of Virginia); died 0___ 1735. [Group Sheet]

  2. 5.  Hannah Morris was born (~ 1690), (Colony of Virginia); died 0___ 1735.
    1. 2. Thomas Tilman, Sr. was born 1 May 1720, Prince George County, Virginia; died 0___ 1813, Albermarle County, Virginia.

  3. 6.  Daniel Hix was born 0___ 1696, Goochland County, Virginia (son of John Joseph Hix, The Immigrant and Sarah Preston); died 0___ 1735, Goochland County, Virginia.

    Other Events:

    • Will: 26 Nov 1734, Goochland County, Virginia
    • Probate: 15 Jul 1735, Goochland County, Virginia


    From Chalkley’s Augusta County Records:

    Vol. 2 - Tilman's heirs vs. Dawson---O. S. 259; N. S. 91---Bill, 29th July 1811. Complainants are, viz: Daniel Tilman, eldest son and heir of Lucy Tilman, by Thomas Tilman, Sr., her husband, and who was formerly Lucy Hix daughter of Daniel Hix, deceased; Thomas Tilman, Jr.; Richd Marr and Winifred (Tilman); Jesse Mills and Lucy (Tilman), and the heirs of William Walton and Elizabeth (Tilman) being children and heirs of Lucy Tilman and her husband Thomas.

    Daniel Hix died, testate, in Goochland. Daniel's wife was Joan. Lucy (Hix) Tilman died 1768 or 1763 and Thomas in 180_.

    Daniel devised a slave to his daughter Lucy and she was sold to Drury Christian, who is now dead, and said slave and increase are now in possession of Drury Christian's representatives, viz: John Christian, deceased, leaving Elizabeth Christian, his widow, and children, infants; wife of Pleasant Dawson (daughter of Drury); _____, wife of Henry Moorman (daughter of Drury).

    Answer of Dawson sworn to in Amherst. Will of Daniel Hix. Wife, Joan; daughters, Lucy and Winifred; cousin, Archer Hix, set of Troopers' Arms. Dated 26th November, 1734. Recorded in Goochland, 15th July, 1735.


    Records in Augusta County, VA
    From Chalkley’s Augusta County Records:

    Vol. 2 - Tilman's heirs vs. Dawson---O. S. 259; N. S. 91---Bill, 29th July 1811. Complainants are, viz: Daniel Tilman, eldest son and heir of Lucy Tilman, by Thomas Tilman, Sr., her husband, and who was formerly Lucy Hix daughter of Daniel Hix, deceased; Thomas Tilman, Jr.; Richd Marr and Winifred (Tilman); Jesse Mills and Lucy (Tilman), and the heirs of William Walton and Elizabeth (Tilman) being children and heirs of Lucy Tilman and her husband Thomas.

    Daniel Hix died, testate, in Goochland. Daniel's wife was Joan. Lucy (Hix) Tilman died 1768 or 1763 and Thomas in 180_. Daniel devised a slave to his daughter Lucy and she was sold to Drury Christian, who is now dead, and said slave and increase are now in possession of Drury Christian's representatives, viz: John Christian, deceased, leaving Elizabeth Christian, his widow, and children, infants; wife of Pleasant Dawson (daughter of Drury); _____, wife of Henry Moorman (daughter of Drury).

    Answer of Dawson sworn to in Amherst. Will of Daniel Hix. Wife, Joan; daughters, Lucy and Winifred; cousin, Archer Hix, set of Troopers' Arms. Dated 26th November, 1734. Recorded in Goochland, 15th July, 1735.


    Daniel married Joan Irwin 0___ 1720, Goochland County, Virginia. Joan was born ~ 1697, (Goochland County, Virginia); died Aft 1735, (Goochland County, Virginia). [Group Sheet]

  4. 7.  Joan Irwin was born ~ 1697, (Goochland County, Virginia); died Aft 1735, (Goochland County, Virginia).
    1. 3. Lucy Hix was born 0___ 1722, Prince George County, Virginia; died 5 May 1763, Goochland County, Virginia.
    2. Winifred Hix was born ~ 1722; died 0___ 1790.

Generation: 4

  1. 8.  Roger Tillman was born 0___ 1650, Allentown, Accomack County, Virginia Colony (son of Christopher Tilghman, The Immigrant and Ruth Devonshire); died 0___ 1690, Prince George County, Virginia.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Roger Tilghman


    Confliting marriage record - John Coffey cites Roger's wife as Susannah Parrum, daughter of Lewis Parrum, which is contrary to James Cocke's citation...DAH
    Hope Nelson Tillman's website,, agrees with James Cocke...DAH

    Conflict settled, Winnefred is his 1st wife - found in

    ROGER TILGHMAN (of 1467), b. circa 1650 in Accomac County, Virginia. He left a family Bible, or journal, to his son Robert. Fragments of this have been retained by several descendant lines. M. 1st 1674 Winnefred Austin.

    Children: Robert born 1675. M. 2nd 1680 (Mrs.) Susannah Parram (or Parham) born 1648 and died 2 March 1717 and settled Prince George County, Virginia. Children: John born 1682, George 10 January 1683, Jane who married Nicholas Robinson, and Christine who married Robert Abernathy.

    Roger Tilghman located on 1,060 acres of land in Bristol Parish, Charles City County, Virginia, 20 April 1689, according to records of the land office at Richmond, Virginia. This patent was for the transportation of 22 persons into the Colony, and was in the form of headrights.

    The settlement was known as Fort Tillman, and was situated on the south side of the Appomattox River at Moneus-a-Nock (Monk's Neck), thence to Gravelly Run. This is now in Dinwiddie County, Virginia.

    On coming to Prince George County, Virginia, he changed the spelling of his name from Tilghman to Tillman.

    Roger TILGHMAN

    Father: Christopher TILGHMAN b: ABT 1585 in Selling Parish, England
    Mother: Ruth DEVONSHIRE b: ABT 1618 in England

    Marriage 1 Winnifred AUSTIN
    Married: 1674 in Virginia
    Marriage 1 Unknown
    Robert TILLMAN

    Marriage 2 Susannah PARHAM b: ABT 1647 in Virginia
    Married: ABT 1680 in Prince George Co., Virginia
    Christine TILLMAN b: 1681 in Virginia
    George TILGHMAN
    From Stephen Tillman:

    1. ROGER TILLMAN, son of Christopher and Ruth (Devonshire) Tilghman, was born 1641. He left a family journal or Bible, of his marriage, etc., which passed on to the family of his first-born son Robert. Why he changed the spelling of his name from Tilghman to that of Tillman is not known. The land office at Richmond, Virginia, show that on April 20, 1689 Roger Tillman received patent to 1,060 acres located in Bristol Parish, Charles City County, Virginia, from Nathaniel Bacon, President of the Council.

    This was for the transportation of 22 persons into the Colony. This would indicate that Roger Tillman was a man of means at this time, since the patent was no doubt in the form of headrights. These headrights were granted to persons who would, in reality, have been "indentured servants," or persons who lacked the price of their transportation from England. This servant class was widely inclusive. In it were farm laborers, mechanics, masons, carpenters, shipbuilders, and often educated but impecunious clerks, tutors and teachers. They sold themselves for a specific period, to planters in the Colonies prepared to pay the cost of their voyage. Not only did the importing planters acquire their labor for "their time," but something that was even more coveted, their headrights. For the period of his service the indentured servant was really a white slave, and as such was bought and sold, given as wedding presents to children, bequeathed in wills along with horses, cows and other livestock of the plantation, just as was his successor, the negro slave. This would indicate that Roger Tillman was of sufficient means to pay the cost of transportation of 22 persons.

    This settlement, known as Fort Tillman, was located on the south side of the Appomattox River at a place called "Moneusa-Nock" (Monk's Neck), "beginning at ye mouth of ye Great Branch and runneth up that branch, being nigh (near) the line of Thomas Lee: crossing Moneus-a-Nock main creek, thence to Gravelly Run." It is believed that the present location of this settlement would be in Dinwiddie County, Virginia.

    Roger Tillman married first 1674 Winnefred Austin. Issue by this marriage: Robert, born 1675. Later Roger married (2d) 1680 a widow by the name of Susannah Parram (or Parham), who died March 2, 1717 in Prince George County, Virginia. Issue: John, born 1682, George, born January 10, 1683, Jane, who married Nicholas Robinson: and Christene, who married Robert Abernathy.

    Christopher Tilghman was born in 1600 in Kent, England. In 1630 he married Ruth Devonshire and they had children: George, John and Roger. Christopher died in James City, VA. Christopher Tilghman is listed in Early Emigrants and Patents of VA. He came to possess Rhodes Court and later sold it to Thomas Carter. Rhodes Court was a manor in the southeast Parish of Selling in the borough of Rhodes in England. Christopher arrived in VA to James City County on 9 May 1635. Roger Tilghman was born in 1650 in Accomac, VA and married before 1675 to Winnifred Austin. He married secondly in 1680 to Susannah Parham. His children are: Robert, Jane, Christine, John and George. Roger owned 1060 acres in Bristol Parish, Charles County, VA. He transported 22 persons into the colony (perhaps including Robert A. Abernathy). His land was known as Fort Tilman and was located on the south side of Appamattox River at Monk's Head. Roger died in 1690 in Prince George, VA. After settling in VA, Roger changed his name from Tilghman to Tillman.

    Also in Accomac, VA was Ruth Devonshire's family and Winnifred Austin's family.

    Roger married Winnefred Austin 0___ 1675, Accomack County, Virginia Colony. Winnefred was born 0___ 1647, Charles City, Accomack County, Virginia Colony; died 0___ 1680, Charles City, Accomack County, Virginia Colony. [Group Sheet]

  2. 9.  Winnefred Austin was born 0___ 1647, Charles City, Accomack County, Virginia Colony; died 0___ 1680, Charles City, Accomack County, Virginia Colony.


    I am searching for the ancestry of Winnefred Austin, who married Christopher Tilghman (or Tillman)in Virginia Colony. I've discovered the immigrants Richard Austin, George Austin, Thomas Austin, Edward Austin, all Virginia immigrants of the time period, probably arriving in Charles City, Virginia Colony, but have been unable to find records of their respective children.

    The name may also be spelled "Austen." Other possible variant: "Austan." George Austin (b. 1620 in London or Surrey, England) may be a possibility.

    I would appreciate any information. I have discovered Austin families in Massachusetts Bay Colony but don't believe the Austins of Virginia are related, although they may be.

    1. 4. Robert Tilman was born 0___ 1675, Prince George County, Virginia; died 0___ 1737, Albermarle County, Virginia.

  3. 12.  John Joseph Hix, The Immigrant was born 0___ 1658, England; died 0___ 1720, Williamsburg, James City County, Virginia.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: John Hicks
    • Also Known As: John Hixe
    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1658, St Peters Parish, New Kent, Virginia,


    John Hixe, lived during the formative years of Virginia and American colonial history and probably participated in a number of historical events. As is so often the case with our forefathers, however, facts concerning his biography are somewhat “iffy.” In some cases we have no information, and in some we have information which may belong to another colonist named John Hix, Hicks, or Hixe who is not related to us. We must realize that our John Hixe was born over 350 years ago; thus, much of the information about him is hard to find and/or prove.

    Early Life

    John was in born in England in 1658, (reportedly the son of Thomas Hixe and his wife. ) [Correction: John's parents have not as yet been identified.] Information about John’s early life indicated that he had at least two brothers, and that around 1680, when they became adults, the three young men immigrated to the new English colony of Virginia. We’ve all heard the stories of the difficulties faced by the first colonists in Jamestown, Roanoke, and Plymouth in just staying alive. The hard life of our early Americans may have been the reason that John’s two brothers changed their minds about living in the New World. Whatever the case, not too long after they had arrived, they boarded a ship bound for England and returned home. Rather than going back home with his brothers, 22-year-old John prepared to set down roots in Virginia. By making this decision to remain in Virginia, John Hixe became “The Immigrant” for our branch of the Hixe family. Early in his life in the colonies John dropped the “e” from his last name. We do not know exactly when and why the spelling change occurred, but it may have been made as part of his decision to stay in America. On the other hand, it may have been made around the time he met his future wife. (Although John dropped the “e” from his name, we will keep it in this article to distinguish him from other John Hix, Hicks, and Hixes since most of today’s information about him seems to use this spelling. All of his children, however, used the spelling Hix. Documents of the time show our John’s name under several spellings.)


    John was not alone for long in his new homeland. Soon he found a young lady, and she became his wife. Her name was Sarah Preston (1662-1697); she was 19 years old, and she was the daughter of Joseph Preston (c1635-?). (A few sources list John’s wife as Margaret Preston, daughter of Joseph, but Sarah is usually the name given. [Perhaps her name was Sarah Margaret or Margaret Sarah.] ) John and Sarah were wed in James City County, VA in 1681, and the next year they acquired land in that same county. The VA Patent book shows the acquisition as: “Patent to John Hicks, … October 22, 1682, for 183 acres, James City County, beginning on the South side of South swamp over against the mouth of Preston’s [S]pring [B]ranch.” Other sources mention land he owned along the Chickahominy River and in Henrico County, but these descriptions usually mention Preston’s Spring Branch and may be speaking of the same 1682 land purchase in James City County. (I suspect a link between the Preston of Preston’s Spring Branch and John’s wife Sarah Preston but have been unable to find any proof.)


    The consensus is that John and Sarah had five children: 1. Sarah Hix (1680-?), 2. Joseph Hix (c1682-1711), 3. Nathaniel Hix (c1684-1735), 4. Thomas Hix (c1686-?), and 5. John Hix (c1688- d. c1778).

    (Claims have been made that the family contained other children as well. One source, for example, lists eleven children. Some of these claims may have merit, but some may only exist because a particular person was named Hix, lived in the area, and needed to be attached to a family. These additional children include: Marmaduke, Samuel, Robert, Henry, Hubbel, Richard, Daniel, George, and William. Some, none, or all of these children may or may not be children of our John Hixe.)

    Of the five “established” children, Sarah, our ancestor, married a Scotsman named Martin Martin, Sr. (1678-1744) in St. Peters Parish, New Kent Co., VA on 10 Feb. 1698 or 1699. Martin, who had been born on the Isle of Skye, Scotland, was the son of Thomas Martin, (One source listed Martin Martin, Sr. with the title, “Rev.,” but I was unable to find anything to back this up.) Although Martin and Sarah later moved to what is now Washington Co., VA, their children were all born in New Kent County, VA and included: 1. Amesen Martin (b. 6 April 1706-d.?); 2. Anne Martin (our ancestor) (b. 9 Jun 1708-d. before 8 Mar 1805) m. 1722 to Meredith Webb in Goochland County, VA; Anne and Merry are the 3-great grandparents of Elder Israel Hatcher, Mamaw’s father. Anne’s original name was apparently Elizabeth Anne, but she is called Anne in many documents 3. Valentine Martin (b. 1710- d.c1760 in Cumberland Co., VA), m. Jane Bridgewater; 4. Orson Martin (b. 1713-d.?); 5. Martin Martin, Jr. (b. c 1715-?); 6. Henry Martin (b. c 1717-d.?); 7. Thomas Martin (b. 4 June 1720-d.?), and 8. Lucy Martin (b. c1726-d. after 1793 in Franklin Co., VA), m. William Amos. (As one might expect, dates, number, and names for Martin and Sarah’s children are disputed.)

    Of the remaining “established” children, Joseph is usually considered John and Sarah’s eldest son, but some sources say Nathaniel was born before him. Joseph may have married a woman named Susannah Peawd (no dates). (The name Peawd is unusual and is often followed by a period, indicating that it may be an abbreviation, perhaps for Peawood. However, the name Peawd Hicks appears later in several official documents. For example in 1767, he is on the list of Tithables, and in 1784 when he has “grown old and incapable,” he is the subject of what we would probably call a conservatorship today. Peawd is apparently the son of Joseph and Susannah.) Some sources say that Richard, another of Joseph’s sons, was killed during the Revolutionary War, and that Joseph brought up Richard’s son Robert (his grandson). Information on other children of Joseph and Susannah was not located.

    A Nathaniel Hix definitely existed, and we have a copy of his will as proof. Some, however, do not feel that he is John Hixe’s son. Nathaniel married a woman named Rebecca (Rebekah, Rebecker) Johnson in 1709 and named seven children in his will on 26 Nov 1728. The names of the children are in dispute because of the penmanship and spelling on the original will. They are thought to be: Archibald (Arcbd or Arch’l in the will), Elsie (Elce in the will), Ann (An in the will), Amos, Sarah, Stephen, and Edith (Edeth in the will) Information on the two remaining “established” children, Thomas and John, is more difficult to verify—especially that for John since there were several John Hix, Hixes, Hicks, etc. For example, in 1704 a John Hix rented 400 acres of land in Essex County, VA, but we do not know which John Hix. John Hix the son would only have been 16 years old at the time—too young to own land and probably too young to rent. (Seventeen was the legal age for owning land.) His father, however, would have been 46 and more likely to be the person involved in this transaction. In addition, it seems that another John Hix family lived in the Goochland County area at the same time our John Hixe lived in James City County. Records show that some of our John’s children may have moved to the Goochland area, confusing things even further. Hardships John and Sarah made their home in Virginia during a difficult time. In addition to the trials of living in a new land, there were also problems with Indians. One early Virginia document discusses a dispute between the Pamamunkey Indians and some of the settlers of the Diascund Creek area in James City County. This is the area where our John and Sarah lived. The John Hixe mentioned in that document may very likely be our John. He is called, “a Great Man of the Paumaunk.” (On the other hand, the John in this document could have been an Indian since he is described as “of the Paumaunk,” [could either name the region or the tribe] and since there were colonists who had married into Indian tribes of the area.) Records from the House of Burgesses mention in 1698 that a committee of both houses was appointed to ”settle the controversies arising from claims to lands in Pomunkey [sic] Neck and on that side of the Blackwater Swamp.” If our John lived in the area and was also part of this committee appointed by the House of Burgesses, he might indeed be called a “Great Man of the Paumaunk,” or these may have been two totally different land controversies. House of Burgesses In the late Seventeenth Century John was appointed to the position of Doorkeeper of the Virginia House of Burgesses. For us this is both good and bad news. The good is that it gives him a mark of distinction; the bad is that House of Burgesses’ doorkeepers were not taxed. Although seemingly good, that fact keeps John off tax records and makes researching him more difficult. In addition, tradition has it that some of John’s sons and grandsons filled the same post or office; thus, they, too, were tax exempt and not listed on tax records. Being associated with the Virginia House of Burgesses was no doubt a feather in John’s cap. The House of Burgesses was the first elected political body in the colonies and turned out to be the longest-lived of all the colonial governments. It had been in operation since 1619—39 years before John was born and 61 years before he came to the colonies. Over time the name House of Burgesses came to represent the entire official legislative body of the colony of Virginia. The Burgesses could make laws—which could be vetoed by the governor or the directors of the Virginia Company—but even at the risk of being vetoed, the colonists had some control over their destinies, and the Virginia Company thought that this “control” would help keep the colonists happy. William Hatcher John Hixe was not the first of our ancestors to be associated with the House of Burgesses. Earlier in the Seventeenth Century another of our ancestors, William Hatcher, was elected as a member of the House of Burgesses seven times. The last two terms he was elected—1658 and 1659—were the last years of his public service in elective offices. He was first elected at age 31 and was about 47 years old when he left office for good. Although he was an old man by the time Bacon’s Rebellion occurred, he participated in it. He was “punished” for his part in the uprising by being forced to pay a very large fine (in commodities, not in cash.) (Read about the House of Burgesses and Bacon’s Rebellion in the AOM concerning our ancestor, William Hatcher) Elected or Appointed? It is not entirely clear whether our ancestor John Hixe was an elected member of the House of Burgesses or an employee of the group. Officers in the House included the Speaker of the House, Clerk of the House, a Sergeant-at-arms, Doorkeepers, and a Chaplain. The Speaker and Clerk were elected by the members of the House from within their own ranks; the other officers were appointed. Whether elected or appointed, one would assume that “officers” came from within the group itself. This assumption, however, may not be correct. First of all, in the first session in 1619, the speaker, clerk, and sergeant-at-arms were all paid offices—two were elected; one was appointed. (Later all members received payment, first in tobacco and later in currency.) Secondly, names of men who were appointed Doorkeeper were not listed as Burgesses on the Election Committee’s “List of Elected Delegates to the House.” For example, when John Hix was appointed Doorkeeper in 1699, three other men, Richard Morris, John Remington, and William Drew were also appointed to that office. None of their names appear on the list of elected Burgesses for that year. In 1700, the same four men petitioned to “continue as Doorkeepers to the House.” Morris, Remington, and our John had their petitions granted, but William Drew was denied, and another man, Anthony Evains, was “admitted to a doorkeeper’s place.” This petition sounds as if the doorkeepers were employees. Again, none of these men, including Evains, was listed on that year’s list of Burgesses. In view of these findings, one is led to believe that the Doorkeepers, although called “officers,” were in actuality employees of the House of Burgesses. (If anyone knows for sure, please let me hear from you.) (One source indicates that Sarah’s father, Joseph Preston, also served as a House of Burgesses’ Doorkeeper in the late 1600’s. This information could be in error or it might give us an idea of how John obtained the position. I was unable to find proof of his service.) John Hixe held his post in the House of Burgesses some 30 years after William Hatcher served and some 70 years before the Revolution began. (I was not able to find the exact years of his time in the House, but he was serving as Doorkeeper on 4 Mar 1692 when he was 34 years old, and the Journal of the House of Burgesses shows him being appointed again on 2 May 1699 when he would have been 42 years of age. We know, also, that he was serving in 1700. Thus he was a Doorkeeper for at least 9 or 10 years, probably longer. We must remember that John also had the responsibility of attending to at least 183 acres that were probably planted in tobacco. Sarah lived long enough to see him achieve the position of Doorkeeper. Location of House of Burgesses The original House of Burgesses was in Jamestown and that town remained as the colony’s seat of government even though the actual building where the governmental body met burned down 4 times. The last time it burned, in the fall of 1698, the members voted when they met in 1699 to move to Middle Plantation, 6 or 8 miles away. When the government actually moved in 1700, Middle Plantation’s name was changed to Williamsburg in honor of King William III. Apparently John Hix served at both the old and new sites of government—for how long we are unsure. A Doorkeeper’s Duties The list of duties for a Doorkeeper of the House of Burgesses seems to have been lost in time. However, references indicate that a doorkeeper may have been needed. In the early days of the assembly in Jamestown, there were arguments over who should be seated, and the minutes seem to indicate some pettiness and squabbling. In 1783, after the Revolution and 63 years after our John Hixe was dead, the House was moved again—this time from Williamsburg to Richmond. A visitor to the House of Burgesses at that time described it in the following manner: During my stay at Richmond the Assembly was in session. A small frame building serves as House of Assembly, and with a change of properties as ballroom and banquet room. The term is used, 'the Assembly sits.' This does not seem to me to be precisely descriptive. The members appeared to me to be anywhere rather than in their seats, and to be discussing anything except laws to be framed. The doorkeeper was busy, and in the vestibule there was an uproar. The vestments of the members are diverse -- boots, trousers, Indian leggings, great-coats, the usual coat, and short jackets. In other words, each one wears what he pleases. The members from the West are greatly inconvenienced in coming so far. They even speak of establishing a separate government for the West, as in the province of New York, where there is a Governor at New York and another at Albany. If this is done, the West will very likely become in a short time an independent State. The pay of members has recently been fixed at 18 Virginia shillings or 3 Spanish dollars per diem. During the war they preferred tobacco (50 pounds) to currency. At a vote, the Speaker calls for the Ayes and Noes, and judges with a critical ear which side has made the majority of sounds. If the predominance is a matter of doubt a division is called. (One may guess that the earlier sessions of the House of Burgesses might have been equally or more unruly. After all, our ancestor William Hatcher was forced to pay a fine and apologize on his knees in the House of Burgesses in 1754 for publicly defaming the Speaker of the House) Religion John, Sarah, and their family were in all probability members of the Church of England (Anglican Church). We can be fairly sure that they attended church regularly. One of the first laws enacted by the House of Burgesses in Jamestown in 1619 was that everyone attend church or suffer a fine or punishment. During the time John and Sarah lived in Jamestown and Williamsburg (1681-1720), all public officials in the royal colony of Virginia were required by law to attend church. As a Doorkeeper of the House of Burgesses, John would have been not only expected but also required to attend. The logical church for them to attend in a royal colony would have been the Church of England. In addition, when he died, John was buried in the cemetery of an Anglican church. Hence, John and Sarah were probably Anglican. Note: Many of the Virginia colonists in pre-Revolutionary times had no religious affiliation at all. Some ethnic groups—like German Lutherans and Scottish Presbyterians—secured ministers for their members, and by the 1760’s Baptist missionaries were converting farmers. Bruton Parish Church The major church in Middle Plantation in John and Sarah’s time was Bruton Parish Church, which housed an Anglican (Church of England) congregation. Bruton Parish Church had been built in 1683 and dedicated in 1684. The building was small but finely constructed and located basically in the center of town. In 1700 when both the government and the College of William and Mary moved to Middle Plantation, two things happened: the town’s name was changed to Williamsburg (in honor of King William III), and Bruton Parish Church was strained almost to the breaking point. In addition to the regular members, the church after 1700 drew government officials, college officials, and college students. By 1706 church officials were asking the government for help in building a new, larger church. In 1715 the new church was finished and outfitted with all needed furnishings and equipment. This church was almost certainly the one John and Sarah attended. A number of prominent Virginians attended Bruton Parish Church during the 1700’s. These included George Washington, James Madison, John Tyler, Patrick Henry, Benjamin Harrison, and Thomas Jefferson, all of whom were also members of the House of Burgesses. Military Service Although John and his sons were born too early to serve in the Revolutionary War, some of his descendants might have served. By the time the “Declaration of Independence” was signed in 1776, John had been dead for 56 years. Three Hix men from Virginia did receive pensions for serving in the Revolutionary War, but their relationship to John Hixe has not been established. One was a William Hix who moved to Kentucky with his wife Mary; one was a William Hix from Goochland County, VA, and the third was a Farthing Hix. End of the Road. Not much else is recorded of John Hixe’s life in Virginia. He died in Williamsburg in 1720 and was buried in the cemetery at the new Bruton Parish Church which had just been built 5 years before. He was 62 years old. His wife, Sarah had preceded him in death 23 years earlier (1697) when she was only 35 years old. At the time of her death the couple had been married for 16 years. Hopefully more information will become available as more researchers dig into the past. John Hixe is Mamaw McCarter’s 6 great grandfather. If you are Mary Elizabeth Hatcher McCarter’s great great grandchild, John Hixe is your 10-great grandfather. Line of Descent from John Hixe to Mary Elizabeth Hatcher John Hixe (1658-1720) + Sarah Preston (1662-1697) Sarah Hix (1682-?) + Martin Martin (1678-1744) Ann Martin (1708-before 1805) + Meredith “Merry” Webb, II (1698-1779) Meredith “Merry’ Webb, IV (1747-1816) + Elizabeth Davidson (?-c1830) Meredith “Merry” Webb, V (1786-1864) + Mary Nancy Couch (no dates) Elizabeth Webb (1808-1881) + Israel McInturff II (1805-1845) Mary Elizabeth McInturff (1837-1915) + James H. Hatcher (1829-1911) Elder Israel Alexander Hatcher (1860-1950) + Susan Ann Sutton (1866-1903) Mary Elizabeth Hatcher (1889-1969) + Rev. Eli McCarter (1886-1955) Sources “Descendants of John Hixe.” NCRANDOL-L Archives “Hix Family Genforum.”

    “Jenny’s Family Forest:” “John Hix.“ “John HIXE.” “John Hixe Lineage.” “Martin Martin” in Appalachian Home McCarter Family Charts and Information ”Our Family Genealogy Pages” Pargellis, S. M. “The Procedure of the Virginia House of Burgesses.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Second Series, Vol. 7i, No. 2 (Apr., 1927), pp. 73-86. Published by Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture. “Petition of John Remington…” From: 'America and West Indies: December 1700, 6-10', Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies, Volume 18: 1700 (1910), pp. 716-731. URL: Pory, John. "A Reporte of the Manner of Proceeding in the General Assembly Convented at James City" (July 30, 1619) found in The Thomas Jefferson Papers Series 8. Virginia Records Manuscripts. 1606-1737. Susan Myra Kingsbury, editor. Records of the Virginia Company, 1606-26, Volume III: Miscellaneous Records Preston Family Genforum “Report of the Committee of Elections.” From: 'America and West Indies: December 1700, 6-10', Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies, Volume 18: 1700 (1910), pp. 716-731. URL: .

    “The House of Burgesses” US History “Virginia Patents regarding Hicks/Hixs and Related Families” Virginia Patent Book 7, p. 183.

    (c) 2006-2010 Eli and Betsy McCarter Family. All rights reserved




    Note: John Hix
    Note: Hix Family Crest / Coat of Arms
    Note: John Hix Doorkeeper
    Note: Bruton Parish Church

    WikiTree profile Hixe-2 created through the import of Stough Family Tree.ged on Nov 1, 2011 by Lindsay Coleman. See the Changes page for the details of edits by Lindsay and others.
    Source: S-1864320709 Repository: #R-1864321417 Title: Ancestry Family Trees Publication: Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. Note: This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. Page: Ancestry Family Trees Note: Data: Text:
    Repository: R-1864321417 Name: Address: Note:
    This person was created through the import of Dickinson Family Tree.ged on 31 March 2011.

    Source: #S-1992164786
    Page: Ancestry Family Trees

    No SOUR record found with id S-1992164786.


    Note: Bruton Parish Church
    Note: John Hix

    WikiTree profile Hix or Hicks-1 created through the import of Dulaney, Kelley Family Tree.ged on Aug 1, 2011 by Christina Marshall. See the or Hicks-1 Changes page for the details of edits by Christina and others.
    Source: S-2135091431 Repository: #R-2135131489 Title: Ancestry Family Trees Publication: Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. Note: This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. Page: Ancestry Family Trees Note: Data: Text:
    Repository: R-2135131489 Name: Address: Note:


    John was born in 1658. John Hix.Hicks ... He passed away in 1720. [1]

    This profile is a collaborative work-in-progress. Can you contribute information or sources?


    ? First-hand information as remembered by Chris Jackson, Sunday, June 15, 2014. Replace this citation if there is another source.


    John married Sarah Preston 0___ 1681, James City County, Virginia. Sarah (daughter of Joseph Preston and unnamed spouse) was born 0___ 1662, (Goochland County, Virginia); died 0___ 1697, (Goochland County, Virginia). [Group Sheet]

  4. 13.  Sarah Preston was born 0___ 1662, (Goochland County, Virginia) (daughter of Joseph Preston and unnamed spouse); died 0___ 1697, (Goochland County, Virginia).
    1. 6. Daniel Hix was born 0___ 1696, Goochland County, Virginia; died 0___ 1735, Goochland County, Virginia.

Generation: 5

  1. 16.  Christopher Tilghman, The Immigrant was born 0___ 1600, Selling, Kent, England (son of Christopher Tilghman, Sr. and Anna Sanders); died 0___ 1673, James City County, Virginia.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Christopher Tillman
    • Possessions: 0___ 1621; Rhodes Court, Selling, Kent, England
    • Immigration: 9 May 1635


    Notes for Christopher Tilghman:

    The time of his arrival in VA is listed in Greer's "Early Emigrants ot Virginia," and in "Patents of Virginia" as May 9, 1635.

    In the "Visitation of Kent," it is recorded that Christopher Tilghman came into possession of Rhodes Court, formerly owned by Thomas Bealde, and that Christopher later sold this estate to Thomas Carter.

    Rhodes Court is described as being a Manor situated in the southeast extremity of the Parish of Selling, in the borough of Rhodes. Selling was a parish on the south or opposite side, of the London Road.

    Rhodes Court, Snelling is a British Listed Building ...

    Grade: II
    Date Listed: 24 January 1967
    English Heritage Building ID: 176825

    OS Grid Reference: TR0577356178
    OS Grid Coordinates: 605773, 156178
    Latitude/Longitude: 51.2676, 0.9483

    Location: Selling, Kent ME13 9PS

    Locality: Selling
    Local Authority: Swale Borough Council
    County: Kent
    Country: England
    Postcode: ME13 9PS

    RHODES-COURT is a manor situated in the south-east extremity of this parish, in the borough of the same name, which borough, though within the parish of Selling, is yet within the hundred of Faversham, the court leet of which claims over it. It was antiently written Rode, and la Rode, and was part of the possessions of the wealthy family of Badlesmere, one of whom, Bartholomew de Badlesmere, in the 9th year of king Edward II. obtained a grant of free-warren for all his demesne lands within this manor. His son Giles de Badlesmere dying in the 12th year of Edward III. s.p. leaving his four sisters his coheirs, (fn. 4) upon the division of their inheritance, this manor was, among others, allotted to Margaret, whose husband Sir John Tibetot, or Tiptost, as the name was usually called, became possessed of it in her right; his son Robert died without male issue, and this manor went into the colateral branch of that family, in which it continued down to John Tiptost, earl of Worcester, who, for his adherence to the house of York, was attained and beheaded in 1471, anno 10 Edward, IV. king Henry being then restored to the crown, through the successful services of Richard, earl of Warwick. He left by his second wife only one son Edward, then an infant, who, though he was afterwards restored in blood by Edward IV. I do not find that he was ever reinstated in the possession of this manor, which seems to have remained in the crown till the reign of Henry VIII. In the 26th year of which, anno 1534, Thomas Bealde, of Godmersham, died possessed of it, leaving two daughters, to whom he devised this manor.

    After this it came into the possession of Christopher Tilghman, gent of this parish, who owned it in 1621, and he sold it to Thomas Carter, of Crundal, in whose family it remained till it was alienated by Thomas Carter. esq. of Crundal, in 1714, to Mr. George Smith, of Faversham, who died in 1763, and his son, of the same name, within these few years, sold it to John Sawbridge, esq. of Ollantigh, whose son Samuel-Elias Sawbridge, esq. is the present possessor of it.

    Accessed November 14th, 2016;

    Death 1673 in Somerset Co. MD or Accomac Co. VA

    Christopher married Ruth Devonshire 0___ 1647, Accomack County, Virginia Colony. Ruth (daughter of Charles Blount, Knight and Penelope Devereux) was born 0___ 1600, Selling, Fabersham Hundred, Kent, England; died 0___ 1694, Manokin, Somerset County, Maryland. [Group Sheet]

  2. 17.  Ruth Devonshire was born 0___ 1600, Selling, Fabersham Hundred, Kent, England (daughter of Charles Blount, Knight and Penelope Devereux); died 0___ 1694, Manokin, Somerset County, Maryland.



    Ruth was born in 1600 in Selling, Kent county, England. She was the illegitimate daughter of Lady Penelope (Devereux) Rich and Charles Blount, 8th Baron Montjoy, KG, both eminent members of the British aristocracy and courtiers of the ageing Queen Elizabeth I. Lady Penelope, considered "a leading beauty" in her time, had several legitimate children by her husband, Baron Robert Rich, but their marriage had turned sour and, in light of his refusal to divorce her, by 1595 she entered into a well-known "secret" liaison with Charles Blount, who was later named the 1st Earl of Devonshire (hence Ruth's adopted name: "Ruth Devonshire").

    See Penelope Blount Countess of Devonshire article on Wikipedia for a full account of Lady Penelope's life, including mention of her 4 illegitimate children by the Earl of Devonshire, who died less than a year after the two finally married in 1605 and he legitimized their children (but in midst of a scandal that continued to "taint" Ruth and her sister Elizabeth Blount). Lady Penelope died in July 1607, leaving all her Blount/Devonshire children as minors.

    A convenient solution for Ruth Blount Devonshire's future was to marry her to a younger son of a well-bred gentry family from her native Kent. Christopher Tilghman, whose mother, Ann Saunders Tilghman, was a great-great grand-daughter of King Edward III by Philippa of Hainaut, was a perfect match for Ruth. He was a second son and had been born about the same time as Ruth in Selling Parish, Kent.

    It's probable that the pair were married in Kent, where Christopher Tilghman had obtained possession of Rhodes Court, formerly owned by Thomas Bealde, in about 1621 (his majority year). In "The Visitations of Kent," Christopher Tilghman is described as "of this parish, gent., who owned [Rhodes Court] in 1621 and [later] sold it to Thomas Carter..." Rhodes Court is described as being a manor situated in the southeast extremity of Selling parish, in the borough of Rhodes. Selling Parish, adjoins Boughton to the south of Graveney. A small part of it, within the Borough of Rhodes, is within Faversham Hundred, Kent.

    Some genealogies say that Christopher and Ruth married in 1630; this seems logical but is unproven. It is possible that two of their four children were born in Kent, England. These were:

    Mildred Tilghman, b. ca. 1631 in Boughton Under Bleane, Kent
    John Tilghman, b. ? in Faversham Hundred, Kent, England

    There may have been other children who died in infancy; that may be the reason why some genealogies state that Ruth was born in 1625 (it may have been a first daughter named Ruth who died young).

    In 1638, Christopher Tilghman, who, according to family tradition, had had a violent dispute with his older brother John, agreed to "seek his fortune" in Virginia. This solution would have met with favor among those who knew his wife's origins and who sought to "export" her to the distant British colony of Virginia.[1]

    In "Cavaliers and Pioneers," by Nell Marion Nugent, it is stated that Christopher Tilghman came to Virginia in the party organized by George Mynifie, a merchant, on April 19, 1638. No mention is made of exactly where he settled, nor of his wife and children (leading some to guess that he married Ruth Devonshire in Virginia, but 38 was very old for either a man or woman to marry at that time). Land records indicate that the family settled on land near the Charles River in Charles City County and later moved across the Bay to Accomack County on Virginia's "Eastern Shore".[2]

    Christopher and Ruth (Devonshire) Tilghman had 2 children in Virginia:

    Roger Tilghman b: 1641 Charles River, Charles City Co., VA
    Gideon Tilghman b: ca. 1652 in Accomack Co, VA
    Christopher Tilghman died in 1673 either in James City County, Virginia, or, as family tradition asserts, at the home of his son Gideon Tilghman, located on the Manokin River in Somerset Co., Maryland. His wife survived and died in 1694, most likely also at her son Gideon Tilghman's home in Somerset Co., Maryland.


    Mayo, ashton, coplin, comer, salinas and lystra families and supporting families - Christopher Tilghman. A well-researched family genealogy that cites the family Bible and traditions, recounting Ruth & Christopher's situation. See also: Ann Devonshire by the same authors.
    See preceding note; cited in family genealogy from secondary sources.

    See also:

    Penelope Blount Countess of Devons on Wikipedia. Lists "Ruth Blount" as one of her 4 illegitimate children by Charles Blount, 1st Earl of Devonshire. This daughter was later called "Ruth Devonshire" by family genealogists.
    Source: S-1299699169 Repository: #R-1552298038 U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900; compiled by Yates Publishing: Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc., 2004. APID: 1,7836::0
    Repository: R-1552298038 Name: -
    Source: S-1300436665 Repository: #R-1552298038 Family Tree files submitted by members.

    Thank you to Bob Nichol for creating WikiTree profile Devonshire-17 through the import of Hamilton.ged on Mar 9, 2013. Click to the Changes page for the details of edits by Bob and others.
    Thank you to Margaret Moyer for creating WikiTree profile Devonshire-18 through the import of mmcook3.ged on May 24, 2013. Click to the Changes page for the details of edits by Margaret and others.
    Thank you to Fran Mason for creating WikiTree profile Devonshire-22 through the import of Mason Family Tree.ged on Oct 28, 2013. Click to the Changes page for the details of edits by Fran and others.
    Thank you to Crickett Lucero, for creating WikiTree profile Blount-430 from firsthand knowledge. See the Changes page for the details of edits by Crickett and others.
    Thank you to Chet Snow for researching this person, cleaning up sources in preparation for merging so there is just one profile for his historic personage, on December 1, 2015.

    1. 8. Roger Tillman was born 0___ 1650, Allentown, Accomack County, Virginia Colony; died 0___ 1690, Prince George County, Virginia.

  3. 26.  Joseph Preston was born ~ 1635.

    Joseph — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]

  4. 27.  unnamed spouse
    1. 13. Sarah Preston was born 0___ 1662, (Goochland County, Virginia); died 0___ 1697, (Goochland County, Virginia).

Generation: 6

  1. 32.  Christopher Tilghman, Sr. was born ~ 1570, Selling, Kent, England (son of Nicholas Tilghman and Jane Benson); died 1615-1619, (Selling, Faversham Hundred, Kent) England.


    Go to...

    "...I found in Virginia Cavaliers by Nell M. Nugent, Vol. I, page 118

    George Mynifie, Merchant, transported Christopher Tilllman among the total of 60 persons, to Virginia. Recorded at James City Co. VA , April, 19, 1638."


    Christopher is described in the "Visitation of Kent," as being "de Selling," which means he lived in the Parish of Selling, Faversham Hundred. English records show that his wife Anna Sanders Tilghman was a direct descendant of William the Conqueror. (through her paternal grandmother, Anna Whetenhall, her mother Alice Berkeley, her mother Elizabeth Neville, her father George Neville, his mother Isabel Despencer, her mother Constance Plantaganet, her father Edmund Langley, his father Edward, his father Henry, his father Geoffrey, his father Fulk Plantaganet)

    Christopher married Anna Sanders 0___ 1589, Selling, Fabersham Hundred, Kent, England. Anna (daughter of Edward Sanders and Anna Pendreth) was born 0___ 1572, Snelling, Fabersham Hundred, Kent, England; died 0___ 1630, Snelling, Fabersham Hundred, Kent, England. [Group Sheet]

  2. 33.  Anna Sanders was born 0___ 1572, Snelling, Fabersham Hundred, Kent, England (daughter of Edward Sanders and Anna Pendreth); died 0___ 1630, Snelling, Fabersham Hundred, Kent, England.


    ...English records show that his wife, Anna Sanders Tilghman, was a direct descendant of William the Conqueror

    through her paternal grandmother, Anna Whetenhall,
    her mother Alice Berkeley,
    her mother Elizabeth Neville,
    her father George Neville,
    his mother Isabel Despencer,
    her mother Constance Plantaganet,
    her father Edmund Langley,
    his father Edward,
    his father Henry,
    his father Geoffrey,
    his father Fulk Plantaganet...

    1. 16. Christopher Tilghman, The Immigrant was born 0___ 1600, Selling, Kent, England; died 0___ 1673, James City County, Virginia.

  3. 34.  Charles Blount, KnightCharles Blount, Knight was born 0___ 1563, Derbyshire, England (son of James Blount, 6th Baron Mountjoy and Catherine Leigh); died 3 Apr 1606, Gloucestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland
    • Also Known As: 8th Baron Mountjoy
    • Also Known As: Earl of Devonshire


    Charles "Eighth Baron Mountjoy, Earl of Devonshire, Lord-lieutenant of Ireland" Blount
    Born 1563 in Derbyshire, Englandmap
    Son of James Blount and Catherine Leigh
    Brother of William Blount
    Husband of Penelope (Devereux) Blount — married 20 Dec 1605 in Abbey, London, Englandmap
    Father of Mountjoy Blount, Ruth (Devonshire) Tilghman, Elizabeth Blount and St. John Blount K.B.
    Died 3 Apr 1606 in Gloucestershire, Englandmap
    Profile manager: Crickett Lile private message [send private message]
    Blount-426 created 8 Oct 2011 | Last modified 29 Jan 2017 | Last edit:
    29 Jan 2017
    05:41: Chris Little edited the Biography for Charles Blount. [Thank Chris for this]
    This page has been accessed 1,195 times.


    1 Biography
    1.1 Family and Education
    2 Sources
    2.1 Acknowledgements

    Charles Blount was born in 1563.

    In 1594, Charles' brother, William seventh Baron Mountjoy, died and Charles succeeded him as eighth Baron Mountjoy.[1]

    Charles was created Earl of Devonshire in 1603 in reward for his services as Lord-lieutenant of Ireland.[1]

    Lord Charles Blount eighth Baron Mountjoy, first Earl of Devonshire, died in 1606, and having previously parted with most of his estate, left Thurvaston in his will to his natural son Mountjoy Blount.[1]

    Unto A Lady, by Mildmay Fane, 2nd Earl of Westmorland

    Family and Education

    b. 1563, 2nd s. of James, 6th Lord Mountjoy, by Catherine, da. of Thomas Lee of St. Oswalds, Yorks. educ.Winchester scholar 1573; Oxf.; Clifford’s Inn; M. Temple 1579. m. 26 Dec. 1605, Lady Penelope Devereux (d. 7 July 1607), da. of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, div. w. of Robert Rich, 3rd Baron Rich, 2s. 2da. all illegit. 1 posth. ch. Kntd. 1587; KG 1597; suc. e. bro. as 8th Lord Mountjoy 1594; cr. Earl of Devonshire 1603. [2]
    Charles had no legitimate children.[1] He did have illegitimate children:

    Mountjoy Blount who was later created Earl of Newport.[1]

    ? 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 J Charles Cox, Notes on the Churches of Derbyshire, Vol III The Hundreds of Appletree and Repton and Gresley, (Chesterfield: W Edmunds, 1877), pp.8.
    ? The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1558-1603, ed. P.W. Hasler, 1981 [1]


    Charles married Penelope Devereux 20 Dec 1605, London, Middlesex, England. Penelope (daughter of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex and Lettice Knollys) was born 0Jan 1563, Chartley Castle, Staffordshire, England; died 7 Jul 1607. [Group Sheet]

  4. 35.  Penelope DevereuxPenelope Devereux was born 0Jan 1563, Chartley Castle, Staffordshire, England (daughter of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex and Lettice Knollys); died 7 Jul 1607.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Penelope Rich


    Penelope Rich, Lady Rich, later styled Penelope Blount, Countess of Devonshire (nâee Devereux; January 1563[1] – 7 July 1607) was an English noblewoman. She was the sister of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex and is traditionally thought to be the inspiration for "Stella" of Sir Philip Sidney's Astrophel and Stella sonnet sequence (published posthumously in 1591).[2][3] She married Robert Rich, 3rd Baron Rich (later 1st Earl of Warwick) and had a public liaison with Charles Blount, Baron Mountjoy, (later first Earl of Devonshire), whom she married in an unlicensed ceremony following her divorce from Rich. She died in 1607.

    Early life and first marriage

    Born Penelope Devereux at Chartley Castle in Staffordshire, she was the elder daughter of Walter Devereux, 2nd Viscount Hereford, later 1st Earl of Essex and Lettice Knollys, daughter of Sir Francis Knollys and Catherine Carey, and sister of William Knollys, later 1st Earl of Banbury. Catherine Carey was the daughter of Lady Mary Boleyn by either her husband Sir William Carey, Gentleman of the Privy Chamber, or her lover King Henry VIII.

    Her father was created Earl of Essex in 1572. Penelope was a child of fourteen when Sir Philip Sidney accompanied her distant cousin Queen Elizabeth on a visit to Lady Essex in 1575, on her way from Kenilworth, and must have been frequently thrown into the society of Sidney, in consequence of the many ties between the two families. Essex died at Dublin in September 1576. He had sent a message to Philip Sidney from his death-bed expressing his desire that he should marry his daughter, and later his secretary wrote to the young man's father, Sir Henry Sidney, in words which seem to point to the existence of a very definite understanding.[3]

    Penelope's brother, Robert, Viscount Hereford, inherited the Earldom of Essex on their father's death in 1576, and Penelope, her sister Dorothy, and younger brother Walter were entrusted to the guardianship of their kinsman Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon.[4][5] In 1578[6] their widowed mother married the Queen's favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. Perhaps the marriage of Lady Essex with the earl of Leicester, which destroyed Philip Sidney's prospects as his uncle Leicester's heir,[7] had something to do with the breaking off of the proposed match with Penelope.[3]

    In January 1581, she arrived at court accompanied by her guardian's wife, Catherine, Countess of Huntingdon, who was Leicester's sister and Sidney's aunt.[4] In March 1581 Huntingdon as her guardian secured the queen's assent through Lord Burghley, Master of the Court of Wards, for her marriage with Robert Rich, 3rd Baron Rich (later 1st Earl of Warwick). Penelope is said to have protested in vain against the alliance with Rich.[3][8]

    Penelope's children by Robert Rich were:

    Robert Rich (1587–1658), later 2nd Earl of Warwick
    Henry Rich (1590–1649), later 1st Earl of Holland
    Sir Charles Rich (d. 1627), died unmarried and without issue
    Lettice Rich (d. 1619), named after her maternal grandmother Lettice Knollys. Married firstly Sir George Carey and secondly Sir Arthur Lake
    Penelope Rich, married Sir Gervase Clifton
    Essex Rich, married Sir Thomas Cheek and had three sons and five daughters
    Isabella Rich, married Sir John Smythe, son of Sir Thomas Smythe, first governor of the East India Company
    Poets' muse[edit]

    Portrait at Longleat House believed to be of Dorothy and Penelope Devereux c. 1581
    Penelope Rich was considered one of the beauties of Elizabeth's court. She was golden-haired with dark eyes, a gifted singer and dancer, fluent in French, Italian, and Spanish.[3][9]

    Penelope is traditionally thought to have inspired Philip Sidney's sonnet sequence Astrophel and Stella (sometimes spelled Astrophil and Stella). Likely composed in the 1580s, it is the first of the famous English sonnet sequences, and contains 108 sonnets and 11 songs. Many of the poems were circulated in manuscript form before the first edition was printed by Thomas Newman in 1591, five years after Sidney's death.[3][10] They were set by the French lutenist Charles Tessier and published in London in 1597.

    Whether Sidney fell passionately in love with Penelope in the years between her arrival at court in 1581 and his own marriage in 1583, or whether the "Stella" sonnets were courtly amusements reflecting fashionable poetic conceits may never be known. In her essay "Sidney, Stella, and Lady Rich", Katherine Duncan-Jones writes:

    No one since 1935 has seriously doubted that Sidney intended the first readers of Astropil and Stella, whoever they may have been, to link "Stella" with Lady Rich. The exact nature of Sidney's relationship with the famous beauty is another and much more ticklish matter ..." [11]

    Sidney died of wounds received at the Battle of Zutphen in 1586. In 1590, Penelope's brother Essex married Sidney's widow Frances, daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham, and Lady Rich was much cultivated by poets and musicians during her brother's ascendancy at court in the 1590s.[12] Poet Richard Barnfield dedicated The Affectionate Shepherd, his first work, which was published anonymously in November 1594, to Penelope Rich.[8] Bartholomew Yong dedicated his translation of Jorge de Montemayor's Diana (1598) to her; and sonnets are addressed to her by John Davies of Hereford and (to her portrait by Nicholas Hilliard) by Henry Constable.[3][8]

    The queen's miniaturist Nicholas Hilliard is known to have painted two miniatures of Lady Rich, in 1589 and 1590 respectively. One was given to James VI of Scotland (later James I of England) and the other to the French ambassador. A miniature in the Royal Collection (above) may be one of these.[13] Charles Tessier dedicated his book of part-songs in French and Italian, Le premier livre de chansons, to "Madame Riche", commending (in Italian) her musical judgement,[14] and John Dowland composed "My Lady Rich's Galliard" in her honour.

    Love affair

    Penelope's marriage to Rich was unhappy, and by 1595 she had begun a secret affair with Charles Blount, Baron Mountjoy. Lord Rich took no action during the lifetime of Penelope's brother, the powerful Earl of Essex, who became the aging Queen's favourite in the years after the death of Leicester in 1588.[15]

    But Penelope was tainted by association with her brother's plotting. Essex shocked many people, after the failure of the Earl of Essex Rebellion, by denouncing her as a traitor- and after his execution for treason in 1601, Lord Rich had Penelope and her children by Mountjoy cast out. Mountjoy, like Penelope, had been implicated in the Essex rebellion, but the Queen, who wished to show as much clemency as possible to the rebels, took no action against either of them. Lady Rich moved in with her lover, and the couple began a very public relationship. Mountjoy was created Earl of Devonshire on the accession of James I, and Lady Rich was in high favour at court,.[3] She was among the ladies who escorted Anne of Denmark on her entry to London in 1603 and served Anne as a Lady of the Bedchamber.[8][9] She danced as the nymph Ocyte in Ben Jonson's Masque of Blackness on Twelfth Night 1605.[8][16]

    In 1605, Rich sued for a divorce, and Penelope wanted to marry Blount and legitimise their children. In the divorce proceedings, she publicly admitted to adultery. The divorce was granted, but the requests to remarry and legitimise her children were refused. She married Blount in a private ceremony conducted by his chaplain, William Laud, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, on 26 December 1605 at Wanstead House in London. This proceeding, carried out in defiance of canon law, was followed by the disgrace of both parties, who were banished from court by King James. The couple continued to live together as husband and wife with their children until his death a few months later. Blount died on 3 April 1606[3] and Penelope on 7 July 1607.

    Penelope's illegitimate children acknowledged by Charles Blount were:

    Mountjoy Blount (1597–1663), later 1st Earl of Newport
    Elizabeth Blount
    John Blount
    Ruth Blount

    1. 17. Ruth Devonshire was born 0___ 1600, Selling, Fabersham Hundred, Kent, England; died 0___ 1694, Manokin, Somerset County, Maryland.

Generation: 7

  1. 64.  Nicholas Tilghman was born Selling, Kent, England (son of Thomas Tilghman and unnamed wife).


    Notes for Nicholas Tilghman:

    Death date estimate is documented in Harleian Manuscript #25 P. 195, T-book #1458.

    Birth location documented "Miscellanea Genealogical et Heraldica", 5th. 5. 4 p. 184.

    Nicholas married Jane Benson 0___ 1539, England. Jane was born England. [Group Sheet]

  2. 65.  Jane Benson was born England.
    1. 32. Christopher Tilghman, Sr. was born ~ 1570, Selling, Kent, England; died 1615-1619, (Selling, Faversham Hundred, Kent) England.

  3. 66.  Edward Sanders was born 0___ 1546, Northbourne, Kent, England (son of John Saunders and Anna Whetenhall); died Northbourne, Kent, England.

    Other Events:

    • Death: 0___ 1636, Chilton, Berkshire, England

    Edward married Anna Pendreth 0___ 1570, (Berkshire) England. Anna (daughter of Miles Pendreth and Elizabeth Lowin) was born 0___ 1550, Chilton, Berkshire, England; died 0___ 1642, Chilton, Berkshire, England. [Group Sheet]

  4. 67.  Anna Pendreth was born 0___ 1550, Chilton, Berkshire, England (daughter of Miles Pendreth and Elizabeth Lowin); died 0___ 1642, Chilton, Berkshire, England.
    1. 33. Anna Sanders was born 0___ 1572, Snelling, Fabersham Hundred, Kent, England; died 0___ 1630, Snelling, Fabersham Hundred, Kent, England.

  5. 68.  James Blount, 6th Baron Mountjoy was born 0___ 1533, Derby, Derbyshire, England (son of Charles Blount, 5th Baron Mountjoy and Anne Willoughby); died 10 Oct 1582, Hook, Dorsetshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1533, Newport, Devonshire, England


    James Blount, 6th Baron Mountjoy, (c. 1533 - 1582) was an English peer.


    James Blount was born circa 1533 in Newport, Devon, the eldest son of Charles Blount, 5th Baron Mountjoy (1516–1544) and Ann Willoughby. He inherited his title on the death of his father. He was made a Knight of the Bath at the coronation of Queen Mary (29 September 1553); and was Lord Lieutenant of Dorset in 1559.[1]

    He was one of the commissioners who tried the Duke of Norfolk (1572), and spent the fortune of his family in the pursuit of alchemy. Sir William Cecil encouraged him in the manufacture of alum and copperas between 1566 and 1572.[1]

    Blount also had a reputation as a supporter of Protestantism, in line with that of his father and grandfather. Henry Bennet lauded him in 1561, mentioning also his patronage of Eliseus Bomelius, and the same year Jean Veron dedicated to him an anti-papal tract.[2][3]


    He married on 17 May 1558 Catherine Leigh, daughter of Thomas Leigh of St. Oswalds. They had 5 children, William, Charles, Christopher, Ann and Edward.[1]

    On his death on 10 October 1582 in Hook, Dorset the title passed to his eldest son William Blount, 7th Baron Mountjoy.[1]

    James married Catherine Leigh 17 May 1558. Catherine (daughter of Thomas Lee and Joan Cotton) was born 0___ 1539, St. Oswalds, Yorkshire, England; died 0___ 1577, Shoreditch, London, England. [Group Sheet]

  6. 69.  Catherine Leigh was born 0___ 1539, St. Oswalds, Yorkshire, England (daughter of Thomas Lee and Joan Cotton); died 0___ 1577, Shoreditch, London, England.


    Catherine Leigh
    Born 1539 in St. Oswalds, Yorkshire, Englandmap
    Daughter of [father unknown] and Joan (Cotton) Chaloner
    [sibling(s) unknown]
    Wife of James Blount — married 17 May 1558 [location unknown]
    Mother of William Blount and Charles Blount
    Died 1577 in Shoreditch, London, Englandmap
    Profile manager: Norman Perry private message [send private message]
    Leigh-522 created 25 Feb 2014 | Last modified 18 Apr 2016
    This page has been accessed 572 times.


    Catherine was born in 1539. Catherine Leigh ... She passed away in 1577. [1]

    CATHERINE LEIGH (1539-1577) Catherine Leigh was the daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Leigh (Lee/Legh) of London, Hogston, Middlesex, and St. Oswalds, Yorkshire (d. November 24, 1545) and Joan Cotton (d. January 1557).

    Her father was active in the dissolution of the monasteries and acquired leases on a number of monastic properties, making his London home in part of the former Haliwell Priory in Shoreditch.

    In his will, written on March 9, 1544, he assigned a third of his lands to the Crown for Catherine's wardship.

    The will was proved December 23, 1545. By October 1550, Catherine's mother had remarried, taking as her second husband Sir Thomas Chaloner (1521-65).

    Catherine became Chaloner's ward and he arranged her marriage to James Blount, 6th baron Mountjoy (c.1533-October 20, 1581). They were married May 17, 1558 and had two sons, William (1561-June 27, 1594) and Charles (1563-April 3, 1606). They were not the parents of Christopher (x.1601).

    Some genealogies also list an Ann and an Edward.

    Mountjoy was fascinated by alchemy and spend his fortune pursuing this interest.

    The biography of the earl of Huntingdon by Claire Cross recounts a small segment of the family's financial difficulties. Mountjoy owned two thirds of the manor of Canford in Dorset. Copperas ore was discovered there and there was the possibility of also producing alum (both were used in dyeing) and in 1564 mining operations were begun, but in 1567, Mountjoy and Catherine mortgaged their part of Canford to John Browne, Catherine's uncle.

    In 1568, Mountjoy assigned a mortgage on the manor of Puddletown, Dorset and leased his alum and copperas workings to George Carleton, another of Catherine's kinsman, and John Hastings.

    In 1570, the earl of Huntingdon bought Puddletown for ¹2500 and the title to the manor at Canford from Browne for ¹2100. Catherine was said to welcome this transaction as relief from the mass of debt her husband had accumulated. Some ¹30,000 in bonds and statutes had been charged by Mountjoy on the property.

    In 1572, Sir Thomas Smith and his associates leased a mining house at Poole from Lady Mountjoy as part of a scheme to try to make copper from iron. She hoped to salvage something for her sons, but Mountjoy continued raising mortgages on the mines. As long as Catherine lived, Huntingdon refrained from asserting control over his purchases, but after her death he laid claim to them. Her sons, William and Charles, promptly started legal proceedings against him, even though their father was still living. The litigation dragged on for another six years.



    First-hand information as remembered by Norman Perry, Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Replace this citation if there is another source.


    1. William Blount, 7th Baron Mountjoy was born 0___ 1561.
    2. 34. Charles Blount, Knight was born 0___ 1563, Derbyshire, England; died 3 Apr 1606, Gloucestershire, England.
    3. Christopher Blount
    4. Ann Blount
    5. Edward Blount

  7. 70.  Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex was born 16 Sep 1541, Chartley Lodge, Stafford, England (son of Richard Devereux, Knight and Dorothy Hastings); died 22 Sep 1576.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Soldier & Courtier
    • Also Known As: Viscount Hereford


    Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, KG (16 September 1541 – 22 September 1576), was an English nobleman and general. From 1573 until his death he fought in Ireland in connection with the Plantation of Ulster, where he ordered the massacre of Rathlin Island. He was the father of Elizabeth I's favourite of her later years, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex.


    Walter Devereux was the eldest son of Sir Richard Devereux, who was created a Knight of the Bath on 20 February 1547 and died that same year, in the lifetime of his father, Walter Devereux, 1st Viscount Hereford. [1] Walter Devereux's mother was Dorothy Hastings, daughter of George Hastings, 1st Earl of Huntingdon and Anne Stafford, said to have been a mistress of Henry VIII. Through his paternal ancestry he was related to the Bourchier family, to which previous Earls of Essex had belonged:[2][a] John Devereux, son of Walter Devereux who died at the Battle of Bosworth, married Cecily Bourchier, sister of Henry Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Essex.[1]


    On his grandfather's death, Devereux became on 27 September 1558 the 2nd Viscount Hereford and 10th Baron Ferrers of Chartley.[3] He was entrusted with joint custody of the Queen of Scots in 1568, and appointed Lord Lieutenant of Staffordshire in 1569 (which he held through the end of his life).[3] Devereux provided signal service in suppressing the Northern Rebellion of 1569, serving as high marshal of the field under the Ambrose Dudley, 3rd Earl of Warwick and Lord Clinton.[3] For his zeal in the service of Queen Elizabeth I on this and other occasions, he was made a knight of the Garter on 17 June 1572 and was created Earl of Essex and Ewe, and Viscount Bourchier on 4 May 1572.[2][3][b]

    Eager to give proof of "his good devotion to employ himself in the service of her Majesty," he offered on certain conditions to subdue or colonise, at his own expense, a portion of the Irish province of Ulster. At that time, Ulster was completely under the dominion of the O'Neills, led by Sir Brian MacPhelim and Turlough Luineach, and of the Scots led by Sorley Boy MacDonnell. His offer, with certain modifications, was accepted. He set sail for Ireland in July 1573, accompanied by a number of earls, knights and gentlemen, and with a force of about 1200 men.

    His enterprise had an inauspicious beginning; a storm dispersed his fleet and drove some of his vessels as far as Cork and the Isle of Man. His forces did not all reach the place of rendezvous till late in the autumn, and he was compelled to entrench himself at Belfast for the winter. Here his troops were diminished by sickness, famine and desertion to not much more than 200 men.

    Intrigues of various sorts and fighting of a guerilla type followed, and Essex had difficulties both with his deputy Fitzwilliam and with the Queen. He was in dire straits, and his offensive movements in Ulster took the form of raids and brutal massacres among the O'Neills. In October 1574, he treacherously captured MacPhelim at a conference in Belfast, and after slaughtering his attendants, had MacPhelim, his wife and brother executed at Dublin. He arrested William Piers, who had been active in driving the Scots out of Ulster, and accused him of passing military intelligence to Brian mac Phelim O'Neill. Essex ordered Piers's arrest and detention in Carrickfergus Castle in December 1574, but Piers was freed and he successfully executed Brian mac Phelim O'Neill for treason.[4]

    After encouraging Essex to prepare to attack the Irish chief Turlough Luineach, apparently at the instigation of the earl of Leicester, the queen suddenly commanded him to "break off his enterprise." However, she left him a certain discretionary power, and he took advantage of that to defeat Turlough Luineach and chastise County Antrim. He also massacred several hundreds of Sorley Boy's following, chiefly women and children, who had hidden in the caves of Rathlin Island in the face of an amphibious assault led by Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norreys.

    He returned to England at the end of 1575, resolved "to live henceforth an untroubled life." He was however persuaded to accept the offer of the queen to make him Earl Marshal of Ireland. He arrived in Dublin in September 1576, but died three weeks later of dysentery. It was suspected that he had been poisoned at the behest of the Earl of Leicester, who married his widow two years later. A post-mortem was carried out and concluded that Essex had died of natural causes. He was succeeded in the Earldom of Essex by his son Robert.

    Marriage and issue

    Dorothy and Penelope Devereux

    In 1561 or 1562, Devereux married Lettice, daughter of Sir Francis Knollys and Catherine Carey. Walter and Lettice had the following children:

    Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex[5] Married Frances Walsingham
    Sir Walter Devereux. Married Margaret, daughter of Arthur Dakyns. He was killed at the siege of Rouen in 1591.[5]
    Penelope Devereux Married Robert Rich, 3rd Baron Rich[5]
    Dorothy Devereux. Married Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland[5]
    Francis Devereux (died in infancy)[6]

    See also

    Betrayal of Clannabuidhe
    Rathlin Island Massacre


    The Bourchier Earldom of Essex and Viscountancy of Bourchier became extinct with the death of Henry Bourchier in 1540. Henry’s daughter, Anne Bourchier, was repudiated by her husband, William Parr, on 17 April 1543 and her children declared bastards and incapable of inheriting. William Parr was created Earl of Essex on 23 December 1543 “with the same place and voice in Parliament as his wife’s [Anne Bourchier’s] father had in his lifetime.” Parr was attainted in 1553 whereby the Earldom of Essex and all his other honors were forfeited. William Parr died 28 October 1570 and Anne Bourchier 28 January 1570/1, and both lacked legitimate heirs causing these titles to become extinct.
    Jump up ^ The titles assumed by the 1st Earl of the Devereux family are attributed to his son in the act of restoration, which recites that “the said Robert, late Earl of Essex, before his said attainder, was lawfully and rightly invested … with the name, state, place, and dignity of Earl of Essex and Ewe, Viscount Hereford and Bourchier, Lord Ferrers of Chartley, and Lord Bourchier and Louvaine.”

    Walter married Lettice Knollys 1561-1562. Lettice (daughter of Francis Knollys, Knight and Catherine Carey) was born 8 Nov 1543, Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire, England; died 25 Dec 1634, Drayton Bassett, Staffordshire, England; was buried Collegiate Church of St Mary, Warwick, Warwickshire, England. [Group Sheet]

  8. 71.  Lettice KnollysLettice Knollys was born 8 Nov 1543, Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire, England (daughter of Francis Knollys, Knight and Catherine Carey); died 25 Dec 1634, Drayton Bassett, Staffordshire, England; was buried Collegiate Church of St Mary, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Essex
    • Also Known As: Countess of Leicester
    • Also Known As: Lady Essex
    • Also Known As: Lettice Dudley
    • Also Known As: Viscountess Hereford


    Lettice Knollys (/'no?lz/ nohlz, sometimes called Laetitia, also known as Lettice Devereux or Lettice Dudley), Countess of Essex and Countess of Leicester (8 November 1543[1] – 25 December 1634), was an English noblewoman and mother to the courtiers Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex and Lady Penelope Rich, although via her marriage to Elizabeth I's favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, she incurred the Queen's unrelenting displeasure.[2][3]

    A grandniece of Anne Boleyn and close to Princess Elizabeth since childhood, Lettice Knollys was introduced early into court life. At 17 she married Walter Devereux, Viscount Hereford, who in 1572 became Earl of Essex. After her husband went to Ireland in 1573 she possibly became involved with Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. There was plenty of scandalous talk, not least when Essex died in Ireland of dysentery in 1576. Two years later Lettice Knollys married Robert Dudley in private. When the Queen was told of the marriage she banished the Countess forever from court, effectively curtailing her social life. The couple's child, Robert, Lord Denbigh, died at the age of three, to the great grief of his parents and ending all prospects for the continuance of the House of Dudley. Lettice Knollys' union with Leicester was nevertheless a happy one, as was her third marriage to the much younger Sir Christopher Blount, whom she unexpectedly married in 1589 only six months after the Earl's death. She continued to style herself Lady Leicester.

    The Countess was left rich under Leicester's will; yet the discharge of his overwhelming debts diminished her wealth. In 1604–1605 she successfully defended her widow's rights in court when her possessions and her good name were threatened by the Earl's illegitimate son, Robert Dudley, who claimed that he was his father's legitimate heir, thus implicitly declaring her marriage bigamous. Lettice Knollys was always close to her large family circle. Helpless at the political eclipse of her eldest son, the second Earl of Essex, she lost both him and her third husband to the executioner in 1601. From the 1590s she lived chiefly in the Staffordshire countryside, where, in reasonably good health until the end, she died at age 91 on Christmas Day 1634.

    Family and upbringing

    Lettice Knollys was born on 8 November 1543 at Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire.[1] Her father, Sir Francis Knollys, was a Member of Parliament and acted as Master of the Horse to Prince Edward.[4] Her mother, Catherine Carey, was a daughter of Mary Boleyn, sister to Anne Boleyn. Thus Catherine was Elizabeth I's first cousin, and Lettice Knollys her first cousin once removed.[5] Lettice was the third of her parents' 16 children.[6]

    Sir Francis and his wife were Protestants.[6] In 1556 they went to Frankfurt in Germany to escape religious persecution under Queen Mary I, taking five of their children with them.[6] It is unknown whether Lettice was among them, and she may have passed the next few years in the household of Princess Elizabeth with whom the family had a close relationship since the mid-1540s.[1] They returned to England in January 1559, two months after Elizabeth I's succession.[1] Francis Knollys was appointed Vice-Chamberlain of the Royal Household; Lady Knollys became a senior Lady of the Bedchamber, and her daughter Lettice a Maid of the Privy Chamber.[6]

    First marriage and love affair

    Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, Lettice Knollys' first husband in 1572, aged 32
    In late 1560 Lettice Knollys married Walter Devereux, Viscount Hereford. The couple lived at the family seat of Chartley in Staffordshire.[1] Here the two eldest of their five children, the daughters Penelope and Dorothy, were born in 1563 and 1564, respectively.[7] Lettice Devereux returned to court on at least one occasion, in the summer of 1565, when the Spanish ambassador Diego Guzmâan de Silva described her as "one of the best-looking ladies of the court" and as a favourite with the Queen.[8] Pregnant with her first son, she flirted with Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, the Queen's favourite.[1] The Queen found out at once and succumbed to a fit of jealousy.[9] The Viscountess went back to Staffordshire where, in November 1565, she gave birth to Robert, later 2nd Earl of Essex. Two more sons followed: Walter, who was born in 1569, and Francis, who died soon after birth at an unknown date.[10]

    Walter Devereux was raised to the earldom of Essex in 1572.[1] In 1573 he successfully suggested to the Queen a project to plant Englishmen in Ulster.[1] In the autumn he went to Ireland, not to return for two years. During this time Lettice Devereux possibly engaged in a love-affair with the Earl of Leicester; her whereabouts in the following years are largely unknown, though.[1] In 1573 Leicester sent her a present of venison to Chartley from his seat Kenilworth Castle in Warwickshire, and she made hunting visits to Kenilworth in 1574 and 1576.[1] She was also present in July 1575 when Dudley entertained the Queen with a magnificent 19-days festival at the castle.[11] Elizabeth and the court (including the Earl of Leicester) then progressed to Chartley, where they were welcomed by the Countess of Essex.[12]

    When Walter Devereux returned to England in December 1575, the Spanish agent in London, Antonio de Guaras, reported:

    As the thing is publicly talked of in the streets, there can be no harm in my writing openly about the great enmity between the Earl of Leicester and the Earl of Essex, in consequence, it is said, of the fact that while Essex was in Ireland his wife had two children by Leicester. ... Great discord is expected in consequence.[13]

    These rumours were elaborated on years later in Leicester's Commonwealth, a Catholic underground libel against the Protestant Earl of Leicester satirically detailing his alleged enormities.[14] Here the Countess of Essex, after having a daughter by Leicester, kills a second child "cruelly and unnaturally" by abortion to prevent her homecoming husband from discovering her affair.[15] There is no evidence that any such children ever existed.[13]

    The Earl of Essex returned to Ireland in July 1576. At Dublin, he died of dysentery on 22 September during an epidemic, bemoaning the "frailness of women" in his last words.[16] Rumours of poison, administered by Leicester, immediately sprung up and continued notwithstanding an official investigation which concluded that Essex had died of natural causes.[17][18] His body was carried over to Carmarthen, where his widow attended the funeral.[1]

    The Countess' jointure, the lands left to her under her husband's will, was too little to live by and did not comprise Chartley, so that she and her children had to seek accommodation elsewhere.[1][19] She partly lived in her father's house at Rotherfield Greys, but also with friends; Leicester's Commonwealth claimed that Leicester had her move "up and down the country from house to house by privy ways".[1] She pleaded for an augmentation of her jointure with the authorities and, to reach a compromise with the late Earl's executors, threatened "by some froward advice" to claim her dower rights.[1] These would have amounted to one third of the Devereux estate.[20] After seven months of wrangling a more satisfactory settlement was reached, the Countess declaring to be "content to respect my children more than myself".[20] She equally—though unsuccessfully—tried to move the Queen to forgive Essex' debts to the Crown, which very much burdened the inheritance of her son, the young Earl of Essex.[21]

    Marriage to Leicester and banishment from court

    Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 1575, aged about 43
    Lettice Knollys married Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester on 21 September 1578 at around seven o'clock in the morning. Only six other people were present at the Earl's country house at Wanstead, Essex; among these were the bride's father and brother, Francis and Richard Knollys, the bridegroom's brother, Ambrose, Earl of Warwick, and his two friends, the Earl of Pembroke and Lord North.[22] The officiating chaplain Humphrey Tyndall later remarked that the bride wore a "loose gown" (an informal morning dress[23]), which has triggered modern speculation that she was pregnant and that the ceremony happened under pressure from her father.[1][note 1] The marriage was, however, in planning between Leicester and his wedding guests for almost a year. While Lettice Devereux may well have been pregnant, there is no further indication as to this.[1][23] The marriage date coincided with the end of the customary two-years-mourning for a widow.[1]

    Leicester—a widower since 1560—had for many years been in hope of marrying Elizabeth herself, "for whose sake he had hitherto forborne marriage", as he confessed to Lord North.[22] He also feared Elizabeth's reaction and insisted that his marriage be kept a secret. It did not remain one for long, the French ambassador, Michel de Castelnau, reporting it only two months later.[1] When the Queen was told of the marriage the next year, she banished Lettice Dudley permanently from court; she never forgave her cousin, nor could she ever accept the marriage.[24][25] Even Lady Leicester's movements through London were resented by the Queen,[26] let alone summer visits to Kenilworth by husband and wife.[1]

    Dorothy and Penelope Devereux, the daughters of Lettice Knollys, c. 1580
    Lettice Dudley continued to style herself Countess of Essex for several years into her new marriage.[1] She lived very discreetly, often with her relatives at the Knollys family home in Oxfordshire. In February 1580 she was expecting the birth of a child there. For the birth of Leicester's heir, Robert, Lord Denbigh, in June 1581, she moved to Leicester House on the Strand. A further advanced pregnancy was reported in September 1582 by the French ambassador, yet the outcome is again unknown.[1] The next year Lettice Dudley became officially resident at Leicester House, and Elizabeth was once again furious with the Earl "about his marriage, for he opened the same more plainly than ever before".[1] A few weeks later Michel de Castelnau was a guest at Leicester's palatial mansion: "He especially invited me to dine with him and his wife, who has much influence over him and whom he introduces only to those to whom he wishes to show a particular mark of attention."[27]

    Robert Dudley had been close to the Knollys family since the early 1550s; several of Lettice's brothers had been in his service and his marriage only enhanced his relations with her siblings. To his four stepchildren he was a concerned and generous stepfather.[1][28] The Dudleys' domestic life is partly documented in the Earl's accounts;[1] Lettice Dudley financed her personal expenses and servants out of her revenue as Dowager Countess of Essex,[29] remaining largely excluded from society life.[27]

    The three-year-old Lord Denbigh died suddenly on 19 July 1584 at Wanstead. His death shattered the dynastical hopes of the House of Dudley.[23] Leicester stayed away from his court duties for a few weeks "to comfort my sorrowful wife for the loss of my little son, whom God has lately taken from us."[30] He also thanked Lord Burghley for—unsuccessfully—pleading with the Queen "on behalf of my poor wife. For truly my Lord, in all reason she is hardly dealt with."[31]

    In 1585 Leicester led an English expedition to assist the rebellious United Provinces against Spain. He incurred Elizabeth's wrath when he accepted the title of Governor-General in January 1586—what had especially kindled her fury was a tale that the Countess of Leicester was planning to follow her husband to the Netherlands "with such a train of ladies, and gentlewomen, and such rich coaches, litters, and side-saddles, as Her Majesty had none, and that there should be such a court of ladies, as should far pass Her Majesty's court here."[1][32] Thomas Dudley, who informed Leicester about these events, stressed that "this information" was "most false".[32] At this same time the Earl was giving his wife authority to handle certain land issues during his absence, implying they had no plans to meet in Holland.[1] William Davison, whom Leicester had sent to explain his doings to the Queen, described a visit to the Countess during the crisis: "I found her greatly troubled with tempestuous news she received from court, but somewhat comforted when she understood how I had proceeded with Her Majesty."[33][34]

    The Earl returned to England in December 1586, but was sent again to the Netherlands in the following June—to the grief of his wife, as the young Earl of Essex remarked in a letter.[1] Leicester eventually resigned his post in December 1587. The Countess was with him when he died unexpectedly, possibly of malaria, on 4 September 1588 at Cornbury Park, Oxfordshire; they had been on their way to Kenilworth and Buxton.[35] The Earl's funeral at Warwick in October 1588 was attended by his widow as well as numerous members of her family circle.[35][36]

    Blount and Essex

    Lettice Knollys, c.1595, by Nicholas Hilliard
    Lettice Dudley was left a wealthy widow. Leicester's will appointed her as executrix and her income from both her husbands' jointures amounted to ¹3,000 annually, to which came plate and movables worth ¹6,000. However, her jointure was to suffer greatly from paying off Leicester's debts, which at some ¹50,000 were so overwhelming that she was advised to decline the responsibility of dealing with her husband's financial legacy.[1]

    In March or April 1589 the Countess married Sir Christopher Blount,[37] a relatively poor Catholic soldier 12 years her junior, who had been the Earl of Leicester's Gentleman of the Horse and a trusted friend of his.[38][39] The marriage was a great surprise and the Earl of Essex complained that it was an "unhappy choice".[1][37] In the face of tittle-tattle that had reached even France,[37] Lady Leicester—she continued to be styled thus[40]—explained her choice with being a defenceless widow; like her marriage to Leicester, the union proved to be a "genuinely happy" one.[1][37] Some 60 years later it was claimed in a satirical poem that she had poisoned the Earl of Leicester on his deathbed, thereby forestalling her own murder at his hands, because he had found out about her supposed lover, Sir Christopher Blount.[41]

    In 1593 Lettice Knollys sold Leicester House to her son, after which it became known as Essex House. She moved to Drayton Bassett near Chartley in Staffordshire, her main residence for the rest of her life.[1] Still banished from court, she saw no point in returning to London without being reconciled to Elizabeth. In December 1597 she had heard from friends that "Her Majesty is very well prepared to hearken to terms of pacification", and was prepared to do "a winter journey" if her son thought "it be to any purpose".[1] "Otherwise a country life is fittest for disgraced persons", she commented.[42] She travelled to London, staying at Essex House from January till March 1598,[1] and seeking a reconciliation with Elizabeth. At last a short meeting was granted in which the Countess kissed the Queen and "the Queen kissed her", but nothing really changed.[42]

    Lettice's second son, Walter Devereux, died 1591 in France while on military duty,[43] and in subsequent years she was anxious for her elder son's safety. She addressed him "Sweet Robin", longing for his letters and helpless about his moodiness and depression.[44][45] After returning from his command in Ireland without licence, Essex was imprisoned in 1599; his mother came to London to intercede for him with the Queen.[1] She tried to send Elizabeth a present in form of a gown, which Elizabeth neither accepted nor refused.[46] Her efforts to get sight of her son made matters worse: "Mislike is taken that his mother and friends have been in a house that looks into York Garden where he uses to walk and have saluted each other out of a window."[46]

    During Essex' revolt, trial, and execution in February 1601, Lettice remained at Drayton Basset. She not only lost her son but her "best friend", as she called her third husband.[1][40] Sir Christopher Blount was executed on 18 March 1601, three weeks after the execution of his stepson, to whom he had been a friend and confidant for many years.[1][37]

    Litigation and old age

    Effigy of Lettice Knollys, Collegiate Church of St Mary, Warwick
    The executions and attainders of Essex and Blount led to a legal dispute over the Countess of Leicester's remaining property. In this context she claimed that Blount, in the process of paying off Leicester's debts, had squandered her jewels and much of her landed wealth.[1][37] The death of Elizabeth I in 1603 meant some form of rehabilitation for the Countess; the new monarch, James I, not only restored her grandson, the third Earl of Essex, to his father's title and estate, but quickly cancelled the rest of her debts to the Crown, almost ¹4,000.[1]

    Even more than his debts, the Earl of Leicester's will triggered litigation. He had intended his illegitimate son from his early 1570s relationship with Douglas Sheffield, the adolescent Robert Dudley, to inherit Kenilworth after the death of his brother, Ambrose Dudley, 3rd Earl of Warwick. Some of the countess' jointure manors lay in the castle's vicinity, while at the same time they had been assigned to the younger Dudley's inheritance by the overseers of Leicester's will. After Warwick's death in February 1590, lengthy legal proceedings ensued over whether particular parts of Lady Leicester's jointure belonged to the Kenilworth estate or not.[47]

    In 1603 Dudley initiated moves to prove that he was the legitimate son of his parents and thus the heir to the earldoms of Warwick and Leicester. If successful, this claim would not only have implied that Lettice Knollys' union with Leicester had been bigamous, but would also have nullified her jointure rights.[47] Consequently, in February 1604, she filed a complaint against Dudley in the Star Chamber, accusing him of defamation. She was backed by Sir Robert Sidney, who considered himself the only legitimate heir of his uncles Leicester and Warwick. During the Star Chamber proceedings 56 former servants and friends of the Earl of Leicester testified that he had always regarded Dudley as his illegitimate son.[1] The other side was unable to cite clear evidence and the King's chief minister, Robert Cecil, thought it unwise to rake up the existing property settlement, so the outcome was in favour of Lady Leicester. All the evidence was impounded to preclude a resumption of the case.[1][47]

    Throughout her life, Lettice Knollys cared for her siblings, children, and grandchildren.[48][49][50] Until their respective deaths in 1607 and 1619, her daughters Penelope and Dorothy were her closest companions.[1] The young third Earl of Essex, also called Robert, shared much of his life with the old Countess at Chartley and Drayton Bassett.[1] Still walking a mile a day at nearly 90, she died in her chair in the morning of 25 December 1634, aged 91.[1][51] Widely mourned as a symbol of a by-gone age, she wished to be buried "at Warwick by my dear lord and husband the Earl of Leicester with whom I desire to be entombed".[1] Her request was respected and she came to rest in the Beauchamp Chapel of Collegiate Church of St Mary, Warwick, opposite the tomb of her son, young Lord Denbigh.[1]


    1. 35. Penelope Devereux was born 0Jan 1563, Chartley Castle, Staffordshire, England; died 7 Jul 1607.
    2. Dorothy Devereux, Countess of Northumberland was born 0___ 1564, Chartley Lodge, Stafford, England; died 3 Aug 1619; was buried Petworth, Sussex, England.
    3. Robert Devereux, KG, PC, 2nd Earl of Essex was born 10 Nov 1565, Bromyard, Herefordshire, England; died 25 Feb 1601, Tower of London, London, Middlesex, England.

Generation: 8

  1. 128.  Thomas Tilghman was born Surry County, England (son of Nicholas Tilghman and unnamed spouse).


    Notes for Thomas Tilghman:
    Thomas is listed in T-book #1457, Harleian Manuscript #25.

    More About Thomas Tilghman:
    Property: Betchworth Castle, Surrey, England. For more information...

    Thomas — unnamed wife. [Group Sheet]

  2. 129.  unnamed wife
    1. 64. Nicholas Tilghman was born Selling, Kent, England.

  3. 132.  John Saunders was born 0___ 1505, Chilton, Kent, England (son of Edward Saunders and Joan Mackerness); died 0___ 1575, (Kent) England.

    John married Anna Whetenhall (Kent) England. Anna (daughter of George Whetenhall and Alice Berkeley) was born 0___ 1505, Hextall's Court, East Peckham, Kent, England; died 0___ 1539, Selling, Kent, England. [Group Sheet]

  4. 133.  Anna Whetenhall was born 0___ 1505, Hextall's Court, East Peckham, Kent, England (daughter of George Whetenhall and Alice Berkeley); died 0___ 1539, Selling, Kent, England.


    No doubt her lines go to the family of WHETENHALL, however, there is a generation or two missing...

    1. 66. Edward Sanders was born 0___ 1546, Northbourne, Kent, England; died Northbourne, Kent, England.

  5. 134.  Miles Pendreth was born 0___ 1524, Chilton, Berkshire, England; died 0___ 1604, Faversham Parish, Kent, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Miles Pandreth

    Miles married Elizabeth Lowin (Kent) England. Elizabeth (daughter of Thomas Lowin and unnamed spouse) was born Bef 1528, Faversham Parish, Kent, England; died 0___ 1550, Berkshire, England. [Group Sheet]

  6. 135.  Elizabeth Lowin was born Bef 1528, Faversham Parish, Kent, England (daughter of Thomas Lowin and unnamed spouse); died 0___ 1550, Berkshire, England.
    1. 67. Anna Pendreth was born 0___ 1550, Chilton, Berkshire, England; died 0___ 1642, Chilton, Berkshire, England.

  7. 136.  Charles Blount, 5th Baron Mountjoy was born 28 Jun 1516, Tourna, Belgium (son of William Blount, KG, 4th Baron Mountjoy and Alice Keble); died 10 Oct 1544, Hooke, Dorset, England; was buried St Mary Aldermary, London, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: France
    • Residence: Yeaveley, Derbyshire, England
    • Will: 30 Apr 1544


    Charles Blount, fifth Baron Mountjoy (28 June 1516 – 10 October 1544) was an English courtier and patron of learning.


    Charles Blount was born on 28 June 1516 in Tournai, where his father, William Blount, 4th Baron Mountjoy, was governor. Charles Blount's mother was William 's second wife, Alice, daughter of Henry Keble, Lord Mayor of London.[1]

    In 1522 Jan van der Cruyce, a graduate of the university at Leuven and a friend of Erasmus, travelled to England to become private tutor to Mountjoy's children. He remained in the household until 1527, when he returned to Leuven and was appointed a professor of Greek. Possibly on the recommendation of Erasmus, van der Cruyce was succeeded by Petrus Vulcanius of Bruges, also a graduate of Leuven, who remained in England until 1531. In 1531 Erasmus praised Blount for his fine written style, but after Vulcanius's departure realized that the credit should have gone to the preceptor rather than the student.

    John Palsgrave, who composed L'esclarcissement de la langue francoyse (printed in 1530 and dedicated to Henry VIII) and was tutor to Henry Fitzroy, also gave tuition to the sons of several court noblemen, Blount among them. One of his fellow schoolmates in this group was Lord Thomas Howard, son of the second Duke of Norfolk, whose own tutor at Lambeth had been John Leland. Leland in turn praised Charles's skill in Latin and presented a book along with commendatory verses to him.

    In 1523 Juan Luis Vives wrote a short educational treatise dedicated to Charles, De ratione studii puerilis ad Carolum Montioium Guilielmi filium. This served as a parallel to the tract on female education Vives had composed in the same year for the benefit of Mary Tudor. Erasmus added Charles's name to that of his father in the dedication to the 1528 edition of the Adagia and Charles was the dedicatee of the next two editions (1533, 1536) as well. Erasmus also dedicated his 1531 edition of Livy to him.

    About August 1530 Charles Blount married his stepsister Anne, daughter of Robert Willoughby, 2nd Baron Willoughby de Broke. Her mother was Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Grey, Marquess of Dorset, who had become the fourth wife of Charles's father.

    Succeeding to the title after his father's death in 1534, Mountjoy was regular in his attendance in the House of Lords. In May 1537 he was one of the peers summoned for the trial of lords Darcy and Hussey and he was also on the panel of 3 December 1538 for the trial of Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu, and Henry Courtenay, Marquess of Exeter, his own brother-in-law. His country house was at Apethorpe, Northamptonshire, and in London he lived in Silver Street.

    After the dissolution of Syon Abbey in 1539 Mountjoy granted asylum at his London house to the pious, learned, and outspokenly conservative priest Richard Whitford, who had been patronized by his father. Whitford remained in the household until his death in 1542 and may have acted as tutor to Mountjoy's children. Like his father, Mountjoy was deeply interested in the humanist educational programme and he tried to engage the learned scholar and educationist Roger Ascham, then teaching at Cambridge, as a tutor to his eldest son and secretary to himself. Although Ascham did not take the position — and he also refused a similar offer from Margaret Roper — he admired Mountjoy and referred in flattering terms to his learning, likening his household for its patronage of learning to that of the Medici.

    Mountjoy was granted Yeaveley Preceptory in Derbyshire, by Henry VIII, following the dissolution.[2]

    Mountjoy drew up his will on 30 April 1544, just before embarking for France with the expeditionary force. In it he admonished his children to 'kepe themselfes worthye of so moche honour as to be called hereafter to dye for there maister and countrey' (PRO, PROB 11/30, fol. 343). He also composed his own epitaph in English verse. After being present with Henry VIII at the siege of Boulogne he died on 10 October 1544 at Hooke, Dorset (formerly the home of his mother), probably from illness contracted on campaign. In his will he reckoned his assets, in money, goods, and debts owed to him, at nearly ¹2,100. Among other bequests he left 40 marks to provide lectures for the children of Westbury-under-the-Plain, Wiltshire, for the succeeding two years. He was buried at St Mary Aldermary in the City of London. His widow remarried and lived until 1582.


    at the Yeaveley Preceptory; definition: 1 : a subordinate house or community of the Knights Templars; broadly : commandery 1. 2 : commandery 2.

    (formerly the home of his mother)

    Charles married Anne Willoughby 0Aug 1530. Anne (daughter of Robert Willoughby and Dorothy Grey) was born Aft 1514; died ~ 1545. [Group Sheet]

  8. 137.  Anne Willoughby was born Aft 1514 (daughter of Robert Willoughby and Dorothy Grey); died ~ 1545.
    1. 68. James Blount, 6th Baron Mountjoy was born 0___ 1533, Derby, Derbyshire, England; died 10 Oct 1582, Hook, Dorsetshire, England.

  9. 138.  Thomas Lee was born (Cumbria) England; died 24 Nov 1545; was buried St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, London, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Denmark
    • Residence: Germay
    • Residence: Durham, England
    • Also Known As: Thomas Leigh, Thomas Legh
    • Occupation: 0___ 1536; Member of Parliament for Hindon, Wiltshire, England
    • Will: 9 Mar 1544, Haggerston, London, England
    • Occupation: 0___ 1545; Member of Parliament for Wilton, Wiltshire, England
    • Probate: 23 Dec 1545


    Family and Education
    b. by 1511. educ. Camb. BCL 1527, DCL 1531; adv. Doctors’ Commons 7 Oct. 1531. m. by 1537, Joan, da. of William Cotton of Oxenhoath, Kent, 1 da. Kntd. 11 May 1544.3

    Offices Held

    Visitor and commr. for suppression of monasteries 1535-9; master, Sherburn hospital, co. Dur. Sept. 1535-d.; master in Chancery 1537.4


    The imperial envoy Chapuys’s description of Thomas Lee as ‘a doctor of low quality’ was undeserved, for its subject came of a cadet branch of the long-established and well-connected Cumberland family of Isel. Lee’s father has not been identified but he was a brother of William Lee of Frizington, Cumberland, and he once said that his father’s lands lay three miles from Calder abbey. Sir James Leyburn was his kinsman and godfather and he seems to have owed his education and early advancement to another ‘cousin’, Rowland Lee, afterwards bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, whom he followed at Cambridge, perhaps at St. Nicholas’s hostel, the hospitium juristarum attended by Dr. John Rokeby, Thomas Lee’s companion from childhood. Lee is to be distinguished from a slightly older namesake who had gone up to Cambridge from Eton.5

    From 1532 Lee found employment in the matter of the King’s divorce, having doubtless been brought to Cromwell’s notice by Rowland Lee. In December 1532 he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Denmark and north Germany and on his return it was he who cited Queen Catherine to appear before Archbishop Cranmer’s court at Dunstable. After attending to such matters as the election of Cromwell’s nominee as abbot of Malmesbury, he was again sent overseas early in 1534, but he was launched on the work for which he is best known by Richard Layton, a Cumberland man also trained in civil law at Cambridge, who in June 1534 urged Cromwell to employ himself and Lee in a visitation of the northern monasteries; both of them, Layton pointed out, were entirely beholden to Cromwell and both had friends within a dozen miles of every religious house and kinsfolk ready to support them in the event of opposition. A year later Lee was still in London, examining a servant of Bishop Fisher, but by August 1535 he had begun the visitation, although not of the northern houses and not with Layton but with the Oxford civilian John Price.6

    Characterized by a modern historian as ‘a humourless, overbearing man, colder but more incisive of mind than Layton’, Lee was to bring lasting discredit upon the visitors by behaviour which some of them deplored. In October 1535, apparently in answer to a letter in which Cromwell had upbraided him for keeping quiet about Lee’s conduct, Price himself described Lee as ‘very insolent and pompatique’, of a ‘satrapic countenance’ and ‘excessive in taking’, while recommending leniency towards faults which could largely be attributed to youth and ‘high courage’ and which to punish severely would compromise government policy. After visiting the south and Cambridge university, Lee joined Layton at Lichfield in December 1535 for a tour of the north. While in Durham he took possession of Sherburn hospital to which he had been collated in the previous September. He was in London by March 1536 but was in Lincolnshire when the rising took place there in October. Chapuys reported that the first act of the rebels was to hang Lee’s cook, and he was named with Layton, Rowland Lee and Cromwell himself among those whose punishment was called for. Lee survived to take part in the examination of captured rebels.7

    By then Lee may already have appeared in the Commons. In a list of boroughs and nominees seemingly prepared by Cromwell for the Parliament of 1536 his name is coupled with Ralph Sadler’s for Hindon. The three boroughs mentioned belonged to the see of Winchester and one of Lee’s namesakes, who was to sit for the city of Winchester in 1539, was probably a servant of Bishop Gardiner; but Gardiner was abroad in 1536 and those named were men of standing, and most of them, like Sadler, were closely linked with the minister. Owing to the loss of so many names it is not possible to say whether, like Sadler, Lee was re-elected to the next two Parliaments before being returned for Wilton. In October 1536 Lee shared with Sadler and his own brother William in a grant of the next presentation to the wardenship of St. Buryan’s chapel, Cornwall, and in the following March he received the reversion to the mastership of the hospital of Burton Lazars, Leicestershire. The 3rd Duke of Norfolk, as founder, opposed this grant on the formal ground that Lee was disqualified by marriage but added, ‘Alas! What a pity it were that such a vicious man should have the governance of that honest house’.8

    During the next three years Lee was busy taking the surrender of religious houses throughout the country, including that of Holme Cultram, Cumberland, which he sought to obtain for himself and his brother: instead, in July 1538, he was granted a lease of Calder abbey. He was in trouble with Cromwell in 1538 for what Bishop Lee called his ‘fickle dealing’ but once again managed to clear himself. He survived the minister’s fall and while no longer needed as a monastic visitor was regularly employed in positions of trust until the year of his death. In 1542 he was included on a commission for the Scottish borders and in July 1543 he was appointed to accompany the treasurer in the army for the Netherlands and at the same time entrusted with ¹2,000 for the Duke of Suffolk’s forces in the north. When Cranmer was accused of heresy and in effect made judge in his own cause, Lee was named to assist his inquiry. He accompanied the army which invaded Scotland under the Earl of Hertford and was knighted at Leith on 11 May 1544. Hertford, who reported to the King that Lee had served ‘honestly and willingly’, may have had a hand in his return for Wilton on 28 Jan. 1545, as may Cranmer, but his distant relationship with the Parrs could have been a sufficient recommendation to the patron of Wilton, (Sir) William Herbert I. Lee’s last public service was to take the surrender of the see of Oxford in May 1545 and he died on the following 25 Nov. His death had been reported in August, so that he had probably been ill for some months and could scarcely have taken his seat in the Parliament which opened on 23 Nov. No evidence has been found of a by-election to replace him.9

    Lee had acquired leases of other monastic property besides Calder, including the priory of St. Bees, Cumberland, the Yorkshire priories of Guisborough and Nostell, and property in Shoreditch, formerly of Haliwell priory, where he made his home while in London. He had made his will on 9 Mar. 1544 as of Haggerston, Middlesex, the London ward which included Shoreditch, and had asked to be buried there ‘if it chance me to die on this side the sea’: a brass was erected to his memory in St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch. He assigned a third of his lands to the crown for the wardship of his only child Catherine, later the wife of James Blount, 6th Lord Mountjoy, left another third to his wife Joan for life and set aside most of the remainder for the payment of debts and the performance of legacies. Calder, however, was to go to his nephew Thomas Lee III who was also to succeed to two thirds of the lands left to the widow should Lee’s hopes for a son be disappointed; if there was a son, this nephew was to share his custody with Joan Lee’s brother-in-law Thomas Gargrave. The widow was named executrix, with the testator’s ‘especial kinsman and friend’ (Sir) Edward North, Gargrave and the younger Thomas Lee as substitutes should she die before the grant of probate. Cranmer, Chancellor Wriothesley, Sir Richard Rich, Dr. Rokeby and Thomas Cotton were named supervisors. The will was proved on 23 Dec. 1545. Joan Lee took as her second husband (Sir) Thomas Chaloner.10

    Ref Volumes: 1509-1558
    Author: T. F.T. Baker


    1.LP Hen. VIII, x. 40(ii) citing Cott. Otho C10, f. 218.
    2. Did not serve for the full duration of the Parliament.
    3. Date of birth estimated from first employment. LP Hen. VIII, xii; Vis. Kent (Harl. Soc. lxxiv), 42; DNB; G. D. Squibb, Doctors’ Commons, 27, 146.
    4.LP Hen. VIII, ix-xiv; VCH Durham, ii. 116.
    5.LP Hen. VIII, v, vi, ix, xii, add; Trans. Cumb. and westmld. Antiq. and Arch. Soc. n.s. xxv. 138-9, 242.
    6.LP Hen. VIII, v-ix; M. L. Robertson, ‘Cromwell’s servants’ (Univ. California Los Angeles Ph.D. thesis, 1975), 203-5, 518.
    7. D. Knowles, Rel. Orders in Eng. iii. 272; LP Hen. VIII, ix-xii; Elton, Reform and Renewal, 32-33.
    8.LP Hen. VIII, xi, xii.
    9. Ibid. xi, xiii, xvii-xx; VCH Cumb. ii. 177; APC. i. 12; C142/74/73.
    10.LP Hen. VIII, xvi-xxi; VCH Cumb. ii. 182; VCH Yorks. ii. 347; CPR, 1550-3, p. 10; PCC 45 Pynnyng; Mill Stephenson, Mon. Brasses, 317.


    He had made his will on 9 Mar. 1544 as of Haggerston, Middlesex, the London ward which included Shoreditch, and had asked to be buried there ‘if it chance me to die on this side the sea’: a brass was erected to his memory in St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch. He assigned a third of his lands to the crown for the wardship of his only child Catherine, later the wife of James Blount, 6th Lord Mountjoy, left another third to his wife Joan for life and set aside most of the remainder for the payment of debts and the performance of legacies.

    Thomas married Joan Cotton BY 1537. Joan (daughter of William Cotton, Esquire and Margaret Culpeper) was born 0___ 1539, (Oxenhoath, Kent, England); died 0Jan 1577. [Group Sheet]

  10. 139.  Joan Cotton was born 0___ 1539, (Oxenhoath, Kent, England) (daughter of William Cotton, Esquire and Margaret Culpeper); died 0Jan 1577.


    Her father was active in the dissolution of the monasteries and acquired leases on a number of monastic properties, making his London home in part of the former Haliwell Priory in Shoreditch.


    1. 69. Catherine Leigh was born 0___ 1539, St. Oswalds, Yorkshire, England; died 0___ 1577, Shoreditch, London, England.

  11. 140.  Richard Devereux, Knight was born ~ 1513 (son of Walter Devereux, 1st Viscount Hereford and Mary Grey); died 13 Oct 1547; was buried London, Middlesex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Member of Parliament
    • Residence: Carmarthenshire, Wales


    Sir Richard Devereux was a rising political figure during the reign of Henry VIII and Edward VI when his career was cut short by his sudden death during the life of his father. His son would complete the family’s ascendency when he was created Earl of Essex.


    He was born by 1513, the son of Walter Devereux, 1st Viscount Hereford and Mary Grey (1491-22 February 1538).[1]

    His paternal grandparents were John Devereux, 8th Baron Ferrers of Chartley and Cecily Bourchier.[1] His maternal grandparents were Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset and his second wife Cecily Bonville, Baroness Harington and Bonville.[1]


    Richard Devereux lived in Carmarthen, Wales where he was Bailiff from 1534 to 1535, and Mayor in 1536 to 1537.[2] He was Commissioner for the tenths of spiritualities for St. David’s diocese in 1535.[2] He later came out strongly for the canons in their dispute with Bishop Barlow of St. David’s.[2] In 1542 he was a candidate for election to Parliament, and noted for enlivening the town of Camarthen by his encouragement of unruly behavior and resort to force, which prompted his adversary to lodge a complaint.[2] Later in 1546 Devereux would be examined by the Privy Council for comments on religious practices he thought were superstitious.[2]

    He was Deputy steward of the lordships of Arwystli and Cyfeiliog in Montgomeryshire in 1537.[2] He supported his father in his dispute with the 2nd Earl of Worcester, and the borough of New Camarthen.[2]

    In 1543 he served under Sir John Wallop when he led a small force to help the Emperor Charles V in his invasion of France.[2] He was mentioned in a dispatch on this campaign.

    Devereux was Deputy justice and chamberlain of South Wales during the reign of Henry VIII.[2] He was justice of peace for Cardiff and Pembrokeshire in 1543, and Gloucester and Monmouthshire in 1547.[2] He was Custos Rotulorum of Carmarthenshire from 1543 until his death in 1547.[2]

    Richard Devereux was created a Knight of the Bath on 20 February 1547[2] at the coronation of Edward VI of England. Later this year he was made a member of the council in the marches of Wales.[2]


    He was elected to Parliament for Carmarthenshire in 1545, and again just prior to his death in 1547.[2]

    Marriage and Children[edit]
    He married Dorothea Hastings on 1 July 1536, a daughter of George Hastings, 1st Earl of Huntingdon and Anne Stafford.[1]

    They had children:

    Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex[1]
    Elizabeth Devereux. She married Sir John Vernon of Hodnet.[1]
    Sir George Devereux[1]
    Ann Devereux. She married Henry Clifford.[1]
    He died on 13 October 1547.[2] He was buried in the parish church of St. Olave Hart Street, London under the inscription 'Richarde Deuereux, sonne and Heyre to the lord Ferrers of Chartley'.[3] His inquisition post-mortem in July 1548 showed possession of Lamphey which was to be held by his wife in her widowhood, and then to his son, George, for life with remainder to his other son, Walter.[2] He also was possessed of the ancestral Devereux manor of Bodenham, Herefordshire.[1]

    He was buried in the parish church of St. Olave Hart Street, London under the inscription 'Richarde Deuereux, sonne and Heyre to the lord Ferrers of Chartley'.

    Richard married Dorothy Hastings 1 Jul 1536. Dorothy (daughter of George Hastings, Knight, 1st Earl of Huntingdon and Anne Stafford, Countess of Huntingdon) was born (Leicestershire, England). [Group Sheet]

  12. 141.  Dorothy Hastings was born (Leicestershire, England) (daughter of George Hastings, Knight, 1st Earl of Huntingdon and Anne Stafford, Countess of Huntingdon).
    1. 70. Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex was born 16 Sep 1541, Chartley Lodge, Stafford, England; died 22 Sep 1576.
    2. Elizabeth Devereux
    3. George Devereux
    4. Ann Devereux

  13. 142.  Francis Knollys, KnightFrancis Knollys, Knight was born 1511-1514, Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire, England (son of Robert Knollys and Lettice Penystone); died 19 Jul 1596; was buried Rotherfield Greys, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Member of Parliament
    • Residence: Ireland
    • Residence: Germany


    Sir Francis Knollys of Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire, KG (c. 1511 / c. 1514 – 19 July 1596) was a courtier in the service of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Elizabeth I, and was a Member of Parliament for a number of constituencies.

    Early appointments

    Francis Knollys was born 1511, the elder son of Sir Robert Knollys (d. 1520/1) and Lettice Peniston (d. 1557/8), daughter of Sir Thomas Peniston of Hawridge, Buckinghamshire, henchman to Henry VIII.[1]

    He appears to have received some education at Oxford. He married Catherine Carey. Henry VIII extended to him the favour that he had shown to his father, and secured to him in fee the estate of Rotherfield Greys in 1538. Acts of Parliament in 1540–41 and in 1545–46 attested this grant, making his wife in the second act joint tenant with him. At the same time Francis became one of the gentlemen-pensioners at court, and in 1539 attended Anne of Cleves on her arrival in England. In 1542 he entered the House of Commons for the first time as member for Horsham.[2]

    At the beginning of Edward VI's reign he accompanied the English army to Scotland, and was knighted by the commander-in-chief, the Duke of Somerset, at the camp at Roxburgh on 28 September 1547.[2]

    Knollys' strong Protestant convictions recommended him to the young king and to his sister the Princess Elizabeth, and he spent much time at court, taking a prominent part not only in tournaments there, but also in religious discussion. On 25 November 1551 he was present at Sir William Cecil's house, at a conference between several Catholics and Protestants respecting the corporeal presence in the Sacrament. About the same date he was granted the manors of Caversham in Oxfordshire (now Berkshire) and Cholsey in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire). At the end of 1552 he visited Ireland on public business.[2]

    Mary I of England and exile

    The accession of Mary in 1553 darkened Knollys' prospects. His religious opinions placed him in opposition to the government, and he deemed it prudent to cross to Germany. On his departure the Princess Elizabeth wrote to his wife a sympathetic note, expressing a wish that they would soon be able to return in safety. Knollys first took up his residence in Frankfurt, where he was admitted a church-member on 21 December 1557, but afterwards removed to Strasburg. According to Fuller, he "bountifully communicated to the necessities" of his fellow-exiles in Germany, and at Strasburg he seems to have been on intimate terms with John Jewel and Peter Martyr.[2]

    Before Mary's death he returned to England, and as a man "of assured understanding and truth, and well affected to the Protestant religion," he was admitted to Elizabeth's privy council in December 1558. He was soon afterwards made Vice-Chamberlain of the Household and captain of the halberdiers, while his wife – a first cousin of Elizabeth – became a woman of the queen's privy chamber. In 1560 Knollys' wife and son Robert were granted for their lives the manor of Taunton, part of the property of the see of Winchester.[2]

    Member of Parliament & other offices

    In 1559 Knollys was chosen MP for Arundel and in 1562 knight of the shire for Oxfordshire.[3] He was appointed chief steward of Oxford in Feb 1564 until 1592. In 1572 he was re-elected member for Oxfordshire, and sat for that constituency until his death. Throughout his parliamentary career he was a frequent spokesman for the government on questions of general politics, but in ecclesiastical matters he preserved as a zealous puritan an independent attitude.[2]

    Knollys' friendship with the queen and Cecil led to his employment in many state offices. In 1563 he was governor of Portsmouth, and was much harassed in August by the difficulties of supplying the needs in men and money of the Earl of Warwick, who was engaged on his disastrous expedition to Le Havre. In April 1566 he was sent to Ireland to control the expenditure of Sir Henry Sidney, the lord deputy, who was trying to repress the rebellion of Shane O'Neill, and was much hampered by the interference of court factions at home; but Knollys found himself compelled, contrary to Elizabeth's wish, to approve Sidney's plans. It was, he explained, out of the question to conduct the campaign against the Irish rebels on strictly economical lines. In August 1564 he accompanied the queen to Cambridge, and was created MA. Two years later he went to Oxford, also with his sovereign, and received a like distinction there. In the same year he was appointed treasurer of the queen's chamber[2] and in 1570 promoted to Treasurer of the Household.

    Mary, Queen of Scots

    In May 1568 Mary, Queen of Scots fled to England, and flung herself on Elizabeth's protection. She had found refuge in Carlisle Castle, and the delicate duty of taking charge of the fugitive was entrusted jointly to Knollys and to Henry Scrope, 9th Baron Scrope of Bolton. On 28 May Knollys arrived at the castle, and was admitted to Mary's presence. At his first interview he was conscious of Mary's powerful fascination. But to her requests for an interview with Elizabeth, and for help to regain her throne, he returned the evasive answers which Elizabeth's advisers had suggested to him, and he frankly drew her attention to the suspicions in which Darnley's murder involved her.[2]

    A month passed, and no decision was reached in London respecting Mary's future. On 13 July Knollys contrived to remove her, despite "'her tragical demonstrations", to Bolton Castle, the seat of Lord Scrope, where he tried to amuse her by teaching her to write and speak English.[citation needed] Knollys's position grew more and more distasteful, and writing on 16 July to Cecil, whom he kept well informed of Mary's conversation and conduct, he angrily demanded his recall. But while lamenting his occupation, Knollys conscientiously endeavoured to convert his prisoner to his puritanic views, and she read the English prayer-book under his guidance. In his discussions with her he commended so unreservedly the doctrines and forms of Geneva that Elizabeth, on learning his line of argument, sent him a sharp reprimand. Knollys, writing to Cecil in self-defence, described how contentedly Mary accepted his plain speaking on religious topics. Mary made in fact every effort to maintain good relations with him. Late in August she gave him a present for his wife, desired his wife's acquaintance, and wrote to him a very friendly note, her first attempt in English composition.[2]

    In October, when schemes for marrying Mary to an English nobleman were under consideration, Knollys proposed that his wife's nephew, George Carey, might prove a suitable match. In November the inquiry into Mary's misdeeds which had begun at York, was reopened at Westminster, and Knollys pointed out that he needed a larger company of retainers to keep his prisoner safe from a possible attempt at rescue. In December he was directed by Elizabeth to induce Mary to assent to her abdication of the Scottish throne. In January 1569 he plainly told Elizabeth that, in declining to allow Mary either to be condemned or to be acquitted on the charges brought against her, she was inviting perils which were likely to overwhelm her, and entreated her to leave the decision of Mary's fate to her well-tried councillors. On 20 January orders arrived at Bolton to transfer Mary to Tutbury, where the Earl of Shrewsbury was to take charge of her. Against the removal the Scottish queen protested in a pathetic note to Knollys, intended for Elizabeth's eye, but next day she was forced to leave Bolton, and Knollys remained with her at Tutbury till 3 February. His wife's death then called him home. Mary blamed Elizabeth for the fatal termination of Lady Knollys' illness, attributing it to her husband's enforced absence in the north.[2]

    Relations with Elizabeth I

    In April 1571 Knollys strongly supported the retrospective clauses of the bill for the better protection of Queen Elizabeth, by which any person who had previously put forward a claim to the throne was adjudged guilty of high treason. Next year he was appointed treasurer of the royal household, and he entertained Elizabeth at Abbey House in Reading [1], where he often resided by permission of the crown. The office of treasurer he retained till his death.[2]

    Elizabeth was a first cousin of Knollys' wife. Although he was invariably on good terms personally with his sovereign, he never concealed his distrust of her statesmanship. Her unwillingness to take "safe counsel", her apparent readiness to encourage parasites and flatterers, whom he called "King Richard the Second's men", was, he boldly pointed out, responsible for most of her dangers and difficulties. In July 1578 he repeated his warnings in a long letter, and begged her to adopt straightforward measures so as to avert such disasters as the conquest of the Low Countries by Spain, the revolt of Scotland to France and Mary Stuart, and the growth of papists in England. He did not oppose the first proposals for the queen's marriage with Alenðcon which were made in 1579, but during the negotiations he showed reluctance to accept the scheme, and Elizabeth threatened that "his zeal for religion would cost him dear".[2]

    In December 1581 he attended the Jesuit Campion's execution, and asked him on the scaffold whether he renounced the pope. He was a commissioner for the trials of Parry the Jesuit in 1585, of Anthony Babington and his fellow-conspirators, whom he tried to argue into Protestantism, in 1586, and of Queen Mary at Fotheringay in the same year. He urged Mary's immediate execution in 1587 both in Parliament and in the council. In April 1589 he was a commissioner for the trial of Philip Howard, earl of Arundel. On 16 December 1584 he introduced into the House of Commons the bill legalising a national association to protect the queen from assassination. In 1585 he offered to contribute ¹100 for seven years towards the expenses of the war for the defence of the Low Countries, and renewed the offer, which was not accepted, in July 1586. In 1588–9 he was placed in command of the land forces of Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire, which had been called together to resist the Spanish Armada. Knollys was interested in the voyages of Frobisher and Drake, and took shares in the first and second Cathay expeditions.[2]


    Knollys never wavered in his consistent championship of the puritans. In May 1574 he joined Bishop Grindal, Sir Walter Mildmay, and Sir Thomas Smith in a letter to Parkhurst, Bishop of Norwich, arguing in favour of the religious exercises known as "prophesyings". But he was zealous in opposition to heresy, and in September 1581 he begged Burghley and Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester to repress such "anabaptisticall sectaries" as members of the "Family of Love", "who do serve the turn of the papists". Writing to Whitgift, archbishop of Canterbury, 20 June 1584, he hotly condemned the archbishop's attempts to prosecute puritan preachers in the Court of High Commission as unjustly despotic, and treading "the highway to the pope". He supported Cartwright with equal vehemence. On 24 May 1584 he sent to Burghley a bitter attack on "the undermining ambition and covetousness of some of our bishops", and on their persecutions of the puritans. Repeating his views in July 1586, he urged the banishment of all recusants and the exclusion from public offices of all who married recusants. In 1588 he charged Whitgift with endangering the queen's safety by his popish tyranny, and embodied his accusation in a series of articles which Whitgift characterised as a fond and scandalous syllogism.[2]

    In the parliament of 1588–9 he vainly endeavoured to pass a bill against non-residence of the clergy and pluralities. In the course of the discussion he denounced the claims of the bishops "to keep courts in their own name", and denied them any "worldly pre-eminence". This speech, "related by himself" to Burghley, was published in 1608, together with a letter to Knollys from his friend, the puritan John Rainolds, in which Bishop Bancroft's sermon at St Paul's Cross (9 February 1588–9) was keenly criticised. The volume was entitled "Informations, or a Protestation and a Treatise from Scotland … all suggesting the Usurpation of Papal Bishops". Knollys' contribution reappeared as "Speeches used in the parliament by Sir Francis Knoles", in William Stoughton's "Assertion for True and Christian Church Policie" (London, 1642). Throughout 1589 and 1590 he was seeking, in correspondence with Burghley, to convince the latter of the impolicy of adopting Whitgift's theory of the divine right of bishops. On 9 January 1591 he told his correspondent that he marvelled "how her Majestie can be persuaded that she is in as much danger of such as are called Purytanes as she is of the Papysts". Finally, on 14 May 1591, he declared that he would prefer to retire from politics and political office rather than cease to express his hostility to the bishops' claims with full freedom.[2]

    Domestic affairs and death

    Knollys' domestic affairs at times caused him anxiety. In spite of his friendly relations with the Earl of Leicester, he did not approve the royal favourite's intrigues with his daughter, Lettice, widow of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, and he finally insisted on their marriage at Wanstead on 21 September 1578. The wayward temper of his grandson, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (son of his daughter Lettice by her first husband), was a source of trouble to him in his later years, and the queen seemed inclined to make him responsible for the youth's vagaries. Knollys was created KG in 1593 and died on 19 July 1596. He was buried at Rotherfield Greys, and an elaborate monument, with effigies of seven sons, six daughters, and his son William's wife, still stands in the church there.[2]


    He married Catherine Carey, the daughter of Sir William Carey of Aldenham and Mary Boleyn in Hertfordshire on 26 April 1540. Sir Francis and Lady Knollys had a total of 15 children:

    Mary Knollys (c. 1541[4] – 1593). She married Edward Stalker.
    Sir Henry Knollys (c. 1542 – 1583). He was a Member of Parliament representing Shoreham, Sussex in 1562, Reading, Berkshire (1563–1572) and then Oxfordshire. Esquire of the Body to Elizabeth I. He was married to Margaret Cave (1549–1600), daughter of Sir Ambrose Cave and Margaret Willington. Their daughter Lettice Knollys (1583–1655) married before 19 June 1602 William Paget, 4th Baron Paget.
    Lettice Knollys, Countess of Essex and of Leicester (8 November 1543 – 25 December 1634). She married first Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, secondly Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester and thirdly Sir Christopher Blount.

    Lettice Knollys, Catherine's eldest daughter

    Robert Devereux son of Lettice Knollys
    Sir William Knollys, 1st Earl of Banbury, (c. 1544[5] – 25 May 1632). Member of Parliament for Tregony and Oxfordshire. He was married first to Dorothy Bray, who was 20 years his senior; and secondly to Elizabeth Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk and his second wife Catherine Knyvett.
    Edward Knollys (1546–1580). He was a member of Parliament for Oxford (1571–1575).
    Sir Robert Knollys (1547[6] 1619 or 1626[7]). Member of Parliament representing Reading, Berkshire (1572–1589), Brecknockshire (1589–1604), Abingdon, Oxfordshire (1604, 1624–1625) and finally Berkshire again (1626). He married Catherine Vaughan, daughter of Sir Rowland Vaughan, of Porthamel.
    Richard Knollys (1548[8] – 21 August 1596). Member of Parliament representing first Wallingford (1584) and then Northampton (1588). Married Joan Heigham, daughter of John Heigham, of Gifford's Hall, Wickhambrook, Suffolk.
    Elizabeth Knollys (15 June 1549 – c.1605). She married Sir Thomas Leighton of Feckenham, Worcester, son of John Leighton of Watlesburgh and Joyce Sutton, in 1578. Her husband served as Governor of Jersey and Guernsey.
    Maud Knollys (c.1550[9] – 155?/6?), died young.
    Sir Thomas Knollys (1558[10] – 1596). Better known for service in the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648). Governor of Ostend in 1586. Married Odelia de Morana, daughter of John de Morada, Marquess of Bergen.
    Sir Francis Knollys "the Younger" (c. 1552[11] – 1648[12]). Privateer and admiral and Member of Parliament representing several constituencies from 1575 to his death in 1648. He married Lettice Barrett, daughter of John Barrett, of Hanham. Father-in-law of John Hampden.
    Anne Knollys (19 July 1555 – 30 August 1608),[citation needed] who married Thomas West, 2nd Baron De La Warr,[13] by whom she had six sons and eight daughters, including Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr,[14] after whom the state of Delaware is named.
    Catherine Knollys (21 October 1559 – 20 December 1620). Married first in October 1578[15] Gerald FitzGerald, Baron Offaly (son of Gerald FitzGerald, 11th Earl of Kildare and Mabel Browne) and secondly Sir Phillip Butler, of Watton Woodhall. She was the mother of Lettice Digby, 1st Baroness Offaly.
    Cecily Knollys (c. 1560 - ?).[citation needed] No known descendants.
    Dudley Knollys (1562 - 156?/157?), died young.


    Knollys family
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    (Redirected from Knollys (family))
    Knollys, the name of an English family descended from Sir Thomas Knollys (died 1435), Lord Mayor of London. The first distinguished member of the family was Sir Francis Knollys (c. 1514–1596), English statesman, son of Sir Robert Knollys, or Knolles (died 1521), a courtier in the service and favour of Henry VII and Henry VIII. Robert had also a younger son, Sir Henry, who took part in public life during the reign of Elizabeth I and who died in 1583. From the time of Sir Francis, the family were associated with Greys Court at Rotherfield Greys and Caversham Park, then in Oxfordshire, as well as the nearby town of Reading in Berkshire, where the family's private chapel could once be seen in the church of St Laurence.

    Contents [show]
    Sir Francis Knollys (c.1514–1596)[edit]
    Main article: Francis Knollys (the elder)
    Francis Knollys, who entered the service of Henry VIII before 1540, became a member of parliament in 1542 and was knighted in 1547 while serving with the English army in Scotland. He became custodian of Wallingford Castle in 1551. A strong and somewhat aggressive supporter of the reformed doctrines, he retired to Germany soon after Mary became queen, returning to England to become a privy councillor, vice-Chamberlain of the royal household and a member of parliament under Queen Elizabeth, whose cousin Catherine Carey (d. 1568), daughter of William Carey and niece of Anne Boleyn, was his wife. After serving as governor of Plymouth, Knollys was sent in 1566 to Ireland, his mission being to obtain for the queen confidential reports about the conduct of the lord-deputy Sir Henry Sidney.

    Approving of Sidney's actions, he came back to England, and in 1568 was sent to Carlisle to take charge of Mary, Queen of Scots, who had just fled from Scotland; afterwards he was in charge of the queen at Bolton Castle and then at Tutbury Castle. He discussed religious questions with his prisoner, although the extreme Protestant views which he put before her did not meet with Elizabeth's approval, and he gave up the position of guardian just after his wife's death in January 1569. In 1584 he introduced into the House of Commons, where since 1572 he had represented Oxfordshire, the bill legalising the national association for Elizabeth's defence, and he was treasurer of the royal household from 1572 until his death on 19 July 1596.

    His monument may still be seen in the church of Rotherfield Greys. Knollys was repeatedly free and frank in his objections to Elizabeth's tortuous foreign policy; but, possibly owing to his relationship to the queen, he did not lose her favour and he was one of her commissioners on such important occasions as the trials of Mary Queen of Scots, of Philip Howard, earl of Arundel, and of Anthony Babington. An active and lifelong Puritan, his attacks on the bishops were not lacking in vigour and he was also very hostile to heretics. He received many grants of land from the queen, and was chief steward of the city of Oxford and a Knight of the Garter.

    It would seem that his son Sir Francis Knollys the Younger, in earlier years a pirate and soldier was Elizabeth's Vice-Chamberlain, who may be associated with The Lord Chamberlain's Men – Shakespeare's company – through Carey family connections to Sir Francis the Elder. In either case, Franklin's or Francolin's – an anagram of Francis Knollys – substitutes for Chamberlain's as a pun in the company's title.

    Children of Sir Francis Knollys the Elder[edit]
    Sir Francis's sons Sir Henry (died 1583), Sir Edward (died 1580), Sir Robert (died 1625), Sir Richard (died 1596), Sir Francis (died 1648) and Sir Thomas, were all courtiers and served the queen in parliament or in the field. Richard's family continued to live at Rotherfield Greys, while Francis Junior's descendants held Battle Manor in Reading. The latter's daughter, Lettice (died 1666), was the second wife of the parliamentarian, John Hampden. Francis Senior's daughter, Lettice (1540–1634), married Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex and then Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester. She was the mother of Elizabeth's favourite, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex.

    Sir Francis Knollys's second son William (c. 1547–1632) served as a member of parliament and a soldier during the reign of Queen Elizabeth and was knighted in 1586. William inherited his father's estates in Oxfordshire (his eldest brother Henry having died without sons in 1583) and became in 1596 a privy councillor and comptroller, and subsequently treasurer, of the royal household. Sir William enjoyed the favour of the new king, James I, whom he had visited in Scotland in 1585, and was made Baron Knollys in 1603 and Viscount Wallingford in 1616. But in this latter year his fortunes suffered a temporary reverse. Through his second wife Elizabeth Howard (1586–1658), daughter of Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, William was related to Frances, Countess of Somerset, and when this lady was tried for the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury her relatives were regarded with suspicion; consequently Lord Wallingford resigned the treasurership of the household and two years later the mastership of the Court of Wards, an office which he had held since 1614. However, he regained the royal favour, and was created earl of Banbury in 1626. He died in London on 25 May 1632.

    Some of Sir Francis Knollys's letters are in T. Wright's Queen Elizabeth and Her Times (1838) and the Burghley Papers, edited by S. Haynes (1740); and a few of his manuscripts are still in existence. A speech which Knollys delivered in parliament against some claims made by the bishops was printed in 1608 and again in W. Stoughton's Assertion for True and Christian Church Policie (London, 1642).

    The parish church includes the 16th-century Knollys Chapel, which houses an ornate tomb of the Knollys family. This includes effigies of Sir Francis Knollys and his wife, who was lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth I. ...

    Francis married Catherine Carey 26 Apr 1540, Hertfordshire, England. Catherine (daughter of William Carey and Mary Boleyn) was born ~ 1524; died 15 Jan 1569, Hampton Court Palace, London, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. [Group Sheet]

  14. 143.  Catherine CareyCatherine Carey was born ~ 1524 (daughter of William Carey and Mary Boleyn); died 15 Jan 1569, Hampton Court Palace, London, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    1. 71. Lettice Knollys was born 8 Nov 1543, Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire, England; died 25 Dec 1634, Drayton Bassett, Staffordshire, England; was buried Collegiate Church of St Mary, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.
    2. Henry Knollys died 0___ 1583.
    3. Anne Knollys, Lady de la Warr was born 15 Jul 1555, Reading, Berkshire, England; died 30 Aug 1608, Lasham, Hampshire, England.