William Carey

William Carey

Male 1500 - 1528  (~ 28 years)

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Generation: 1

  1. 1.  William CareyWilliam Carey was born ~ 1500, Aldenham, Hertfordshire, England; died 22 Jun 1528.


    William Carey, of Aldenham, in Hertfordshire (c. 1500 - 22 June 1528) was a courtier and favourite of King Henry VIII of England. He served the king as a Gentleman of the Privy chamber, and Esquire of the Body to the King. His wife, Mary Boleyn, is known to history as a mistress of King Henry VIII and the sister of Henry's second wife, Anne Boleyn.


    William Carey was the second son of Sir Thomas Carey (1455–1500), of Chilton Foliat in Wiltshire, and his wife, Margaret Spencer, daughter of Sir Robert Spencer and Eleanor Beaufort, and grandson of Sir William Cary of Cockington, Devon, an eminent Lancastrian.[2] This Cary family were anciently recorded in Devon, and originally held the manors at Cockington and Clovelly in that county.[3] Eleanor was the daughter of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, whose brother John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, was the father of Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, grandmother of King Henry VIII; thus William and Henry VIII were third cousins. William's maternal aunt was Catherine Spencer, Countess of Northumberland, and through her, he was first cousin to Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland, the former suitor of his sister-in-law Anne Boleyn.

    On 4 February 1520,[4] he was married to Mary Boleyn, the elder daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard. They resided at Aldenham in Hertfordshire.

    Shortly after their marriage, Mary became the mistress of King Henry VIII. The Boleyns received grants of land, and Carey himself profited from his wife's unfaithfulness, being granted manors and estates by the King while it was in progress.[5] Carey was also a noted art collector and he introduced the famed Dutch artist, Lucas Horenbout, to the Kingdom of England in the mid-1520s. Perhaps one of the reasons the athletic King Henry VIII favoured Carey was the fact that Carey appears to have been fond of activities such as riding, hunting and jousting. Carey distinguished himself in jousting at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.

    Anne Boleyn, Mary's sister, caught Henry's eye a year after his affair with Mary ended. Henry proposed marriage to her in 1527. William Carey did not live to enjoy his sister-in-law's prosperity, since he died of the sweating sickness the following year. Brian Tuke, Henry's secretary at the time of Carey's death wrote this to Lord Legat the day after his death: "Now is word common that M. Cary, which before I came lay in the chamber where I lie, and with whom at my first coming I met here in this place, saying that he had been with his wife at Plashey, and would not be seen within, because he would ride again and hunt, is dead of the sweat. Our Lord have mercy on his soul; and hold his hand over us." He died greatly in debt, and his wife was reduced to pawning her jewellery before Anne Boleyn arranged a pension for her.

    Children of William Carey and Mary Boleyn[edit]
    William Carey and Mary Boleyn were the parents of two children:

    Catherine Carey (c. 1524 – 15 January 1568). Maid of Honour to Anne of Cleves and Catherine Howard. She was married to the Puritan Sir Francis Knollys, Knight of the Garter. She was later lady-in-waiting to her cousin, Elizabeth I. One of her daughters, Lettice Knollys, became the second wife of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, the favourite of Elizabeth I.
    Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon (4 March 1526 – 23 July 1596). He was ennobled by Queen Elizabeth I just after her coronation and created Knight of the Garter in 1561. When Henry was dying, Elizabeth offered him the Boleyn family title, Earl of Ormonde, which he had long sought, but he refused the honour.
    Because of Mary's affair, it has been suggested that Catherine and Henry may have been instead Henry VIII's biological children (see Issue of Mary Boleyn). The veracity of this claim is the subject of historical debate.


    William married Mary Boleyn 4 Feb 1520. Mary (daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire and Elizabeth Howard, Countess of Wiltshire) was born 1499-1500, Blickling Hall, Norfolk, England; died 19 Jul 1543. [Group Sheet]

    1. 2. Catherine Carey  Descendancy chart to this point was born ~ 1524; died 15 Jan 1569, Hampton Court Palace, London, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. 3. Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon  Descendancy chart to this point was born 0Mar 1526.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  Catherine CareyCatherine Carey Descendancy chart to this point (1.William1) was born ~ 1524; died 15 Jan 1569, Hampton Court Palace, London, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Catherine married Francis Knollys, Knight 26 Apr 1540, Hertfordshire, England. Francis (son of Robert Knollys and Lettice Penystone) was born 1511-1514, Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire, England; died 19 Jul 1596; was buried Rotherfield Greys, England. [Group Sheet]

    1. 4. Lettice Knollys  Descendancy chart to this point was born 8 Nov 1543, Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire, England; died 25 Dec 1634, Drayton Bassett, Staffordshire, England; was buried Collegiate Church of St Mary, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.
    2. 5. Henry Knollys  Descendancy chart to this point died 0___ 1583.
    3. 6. Anne Knollys, Lady de la Warr  Descendancy chart to this point was born 15 Jul 1555, Reading, Berkshire, England; died 30 Aug 1608, Lasham, Hampshire, England.

  2. 3.  Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon Descendancy chart to this point (1.William1) was born 0Mar 1526.

Generation: 3

  1. 4.  Lettice KnollysLettice Knollys Descendancy chart to this point (2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 8 Nov 1543, Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire, England; died 25 Dec 1634, Drayton Bassett, Staffordshire, England; was buried Collegiate Church of St Mary, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Essex
    • Also Known As: Countess of Leicester
    • Also Known As: Lady Essex
    • Also Known As: Lettice Dudley
    • Also Known As: Viscountess Hereford


    Lettice Knollys (/'no?lz/ nohlz, sometimes called Laetitia, also known as Lettice Devereux or Lettice Dudley), Countess of Essex and Countess of Leicester (8 November 1543[1] – 25 December 1634), was an English noblewoman and mother to the courtiers Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex and Lady Penelope Rich, although via her marriage to Elizabeth I's favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, she incurred the Queen's unrelenting displeasure.[2][3]

    A grandniece of Anne Boleyn and close to Princess Elizabeth since childhood, Lettice Knollys was introduced early into court life. At 17 she married Walter Devereux, Viscount Hereford, who in 1572 became Earl of Essex. After her husband went to Ireland in 1573 she possibly became involved with Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. There was plenty of scandalous talk, not least when Essex died in Ireland of dysentery in 1576. Two years later Lettice Knollys married Robert Dudley in private. When the Queen was told of the marriage she banished the Countess forever from court, effectively curtailing her social life. The couple's child, Robert, Lord Denbigh, died at the age of three, to the great grief of his parents and ending all prospects for the continuance of the House of Dudley. Lettice Knollys' union with Leicester was nevertheless a happy one, as was her third marriage to the much younger Sir Christopher Blount, whom she unexpectedly married in 1589 only six months after the Earl's death. She continued to style herself Lady Leicester.

    The Countess was left rich under Leicester's will; yet the discharge of his overwhelming debts diminished her wealth. In 1604–1605 she successfully defended her widow's rights in court when her possessions and her good name were threatened by the Earl's illegitimate son, Robert Dudley, who claimed that he was his father's legitimate heir, thus implicitly declaring her marriage bigamous. Lettice Knollys was always close to her large family circle. Helpless at the political eclipse of her eldest son, the second Earl of Essex, she lost both him and her third husband to the executioner in 1601. From the 1590s she lived chiefly in the Staffordshire countryside, where, in reasonably good health until the end, she died at age 91 on Christmas Day 1634.

    Family and upbringing

    Lettice Knollys was born on 8 November 1543 at Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire.[1] Her father, Sir Francis Knollys, was a Member of Parliament and acted as Master of the Horse to Prince Edward.[4] Her mother, Catherine Carey, was a daughter of Mary Boleyn, sister to Anne Boleyn. Thus Catherine was Elizabeth I's first cousin, and Lettice Knollys her first cousin once removed.[5] Lettice was the third of her parents' 16 children.[6]

    Sir Francis and his wife were Protestants.[6] In 1556 they went to Frankfurt in Germany to escape religious persecution under Queen Mary I, taking five of their children with them.[6] It is unknown whether Lettice was among them, and she may have passed the next few years in the household of Princess Elizabeth with whom the family had a close relationship since the mid-1540s.[1] They returned to England in January 1559, two months after Elizabeth I's succession.[1] Francis Knollys was appointed Vice-Chamberlain of the Royal Household; Lady Knollys became a senior Lady of the Bedchamber, and her daughter Lettice a Maid of the Privy Chamber.[6]

    First marriage and love affair

    Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, Lettice Knollys' first husband in 1572, aged 32
    In late 1560 Lettice Knollys married Walter Devereux, Viscount Hereford. The couple lived at the family seat of Chartley in Staffordshire.[1] Here the two eldest of their five children, the daughters Penelope and Dorothy, were born in 1563 and 1564, respectively.[7] Lettice Devereux returned to court on at least one occasion, in the summer of 1565, when the Spanish ambassador Diego Guzmâan de Silva described her as "one of the best-looking ladies of the court" and as a favourite with the Queen.[8] Pregnant with her first son, she flirted with Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, the Queen's favourite.[1] The Queen found out at once and succumbed to a fit of jealousy.[9] The Viscountess went back to Staffordshire where, in November 1565, she gave birth to Robert, later 2nd Earl of Essex. Two more sons followed: Walter, who was born in 1569, and Francis, who died soon after birth at an unknown date.[10]

    Walter Devereux was raised to the earldom of Essex in 1572.[1] In 1573 he successfully suggested to the Queen a project to plant Englishmen in Ulster.[1] In the autumn he went to Ireland, not to return for two years. During this time Lettice Devereux possibly engaged in a love-affair with the Earl of Leicester; her whereabouts in the following years are largely unknown, though.[1] In 1573 Leicester sent her a present of venison to Chartley from his seat Kenilworth Castle in Warwickshire, and she made hunting visits to Kenilworth in 1574 and 1576.[1] She was also present in July 1575 when Dudley entertained the Queen with a magnificent 19-days festival at the castle.[11] Elizabeth and the court (including the Earl of Leicester) then progressed to Chartley, where they were welcomed by the Countess of Essex.[12]

    When Walter Devereux returned to England in December 1575, the Spanish agent in London, Antonio de Guaras, reported:

    As the thing is publicly talked of in the streets, there can be no harm in my writing openly about the great enmity between the Earl of Leicester and the Earl of Essex, in consequence, it is said, of the fact that while Essex was in Ireland his wife had two children by Leicester. ... Great discord is expected in consequence.[13]

    These rumours were elaborated on years later in Leicester's Commonwealth, a Catholic underground libel against the Protestant Earl of Leicester satirically detailing his alleged enormities.[14] Here the Countess of Essex, after having a daughter by Leicester, kills a second child "cruelly and unnaturally" by abortion to prevent her homecoming husband from discovering her affair.[15] There is no evidence that any such children ever existed.[13]

    The Earl of Essex returned to Ireland in July 1576. At Dublin, he died of dysentery on 22 September during an epidemic, bemoaning the "frailness of women" in his last words.[16] Rumours of poison, administered by Leicester, immediately sprung up and continued notwithstanding an official investigation which concluded that Essex had died of natural causes.[17][18] His body was carried over to Carmarthen, where his widow attended the funeral.[1]

    The Countess' jointure, the lands left to her under her husband's will, was too little to live by and did not comprise Chartley, so that she and her children had to seek accommodation elsewhere.[1][19] She partly lived in her father's house at Rotherfield Greys, but also with friends; Leicester's Commonwealth claimed that Leicester had her move "up and down the country from house to house by privy ways".[1] She pleaded for an augmentation of her jointure with the authorities and, to reach a compromise with the late Earl's executors, threatened "by some froward advice" to claim her dower rights.[1] These would have amounted to one third of the Devereux estate.[20] After seven months of wrangling a more satisfactory settlement was reached, the Countess declaring to be "content to respect my children more than myself".[20] She equally—though unsuccessfully—tried to move the Queen to forgive Essex' debts to the Crown, which very much burdened the inheritance of her son, the young Earl of Essex.[21]

    Marriage to Leicester and banishment from court

    Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 1575, aged about 43
    Lettice Knollys married Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester on 21 September 1578 at around seven o'clock in the morning. Only six other people were present at the Earl's country house at Wanstead, Essex; among these were the bride's father and brother, Francis and Richard Knollys, the bridegroom's brother, Ambrose, Earl of Warwick, and his two friends, the Earl of Pembroke and Lord North.[22] The officiating chaplain Humphrey Tyndall later remarked that the bride wore a "loose gown" (an informal morning dress[23]), which has triggered modern speculation that she was pregnant and that the ceremony happened under pressure from her father.[1][note 1] The marriage was, however, in planning between Leicester and his wedding guests for almost a year. While Lettice Devereux may well have been pregnant, there is no further indication as to this.[1][23] The marriage date coincided with the end of the customary two-years-mourning for a widow.[1]

    Leicester—a widower since 1560—had for many years been in hope of marrying Elizabeth herself, "for whose sake he had hitherto forborne marriage", as he confessed to Lord North.[22] He also feared Elizabeth's reaction and insisted that his marriage be kept a secret. It did not remain one for long, the French ambassador, Michel de Castelnau, reporting it only two months later.[1] When the Queen was told of the marriage the next year, she banished Lettice Dudley permanently from court; she never forgave her cousin, nor could she ever accept the marriage.[24][25] Even Lady Leicester's movements through London were resented by the Queen,[26] let alone summer visits to Kenilworth by husband and wife.[1]

    Dorothy and Penelope Devereux, the daughters of Lettice Knollys, c. 1580
    Lettice Dudley continued to style herself Countess of Essex for several years into her new marriage.[1] She lived very discreetly, often with her relatives at the Knollys family home in Oxfordshire. In February 1580 she was expecting the birth of a child there. For the birth of Leicester's heir, Robert, Lord Denbigh, in June 1581, she moved to Leicester House on the Strand. A further advanced pregnancy was reported in September 1582 by the French ambassador, yet the outcome is again unknown.[1] The next year Lettice Dudley became officially resident at Leicester House, and Elizabeth was once again furious with the Earl "about his marriage, for he opened the same more plainly than ever before".[1] A few weeks later Michel de Castelnau was a guest at Leicester's palatial mansion: "He especially invited me to dine with him and his wife, who has much influence over him and whom he introduces only to those to whom he wishes to show a particular mark of attention."[27]

    Robert Dudley had been close to the Knollys family since the early 1550s; several of Lettice's brothers had been in his service and his marriage only enhanced his relations with her siblings. To his four stepchildren he was a concerned and generous stepfather.[1][28] The Dudleys' domestic life is partly documented in the Earl's accounts;[1] Lettice Dudley financed her personal expenses and servants out of her revenue as Dowager Countess of Essex,[29] remaining largely excluded from society life.[27]

    The three-year-old Lord Denbigh died suddenly on 19 July 1584 at Wanstead. His death shattered the dynastical hopes of the House of Dudley.[23] Leicester stayed away from his court duties for a few weeks "to comfort my sorrowful wife for the loss of my little son, whom God has lately taken from us."[30] He also thanked Lord Burghley for—unsuccessfully—pleading with the Queen "on behalf of my poor wife. For truly my Lord, in all reason she is hardly dealt with."[31]

    In 1585 Leicester led an English expedition to assist the rebellious United Provinces against Spain. He incurred Elizabeth's wrath when he accepted the title of Governor-General in January 1586—what had especially kindled her fury was a tale that the Countess of Leicester was planning to follow her husband to the Netherlands "with such a train of ladies, and gentlewomen, and such rich coaches, litters, and side-saddles, as Her Majesty had none, and that there should be such a court of ladies, as should far pass Her Majesty's court here."[1][32] Thomas Dudley, who informed Leicester about these events, stressed that "this information" was "most false".[32] At this same time the Earl was giving his wife authority to handle certain land issues during his absence, implying they had no plans to meet in Holland.[1] William Davison, whom Leicester had sent to explain his doings to the Queen, described a visit to the Countess during the crisis: "I found her greatly troubled with tempestuous news she received from court, but somewhat comforted when she understood how I had proceeded with Her Majesty."[33][34]

    The Earl returned to England in December 1586, but was sent again to the Netherlands in the following June—to the grief of his wife, as the young Earl of Essex remarked in a letter.[1] Leicester eventually resigned his post in December 1587. The Countess was with him when he died unexpectedly, possibly of malaria, on 4 September 1588 at Cornbury Park, Oxfordshire; they had been on their way to Kenilworth and Buxton.[35] The Earl's funeral at Warwick in October 1588 was attended by his widow as well as numerous members of her family circle.[35][36]

    Blount and Essex

    Lettice Knollys, c.1595, by Nicholas Hilliard
    Lettice Dudley was left a wealthy widow. Leicester's will appointed her as executrix and her income from both her husbands' jointures amounted to ¹3,000 annually, to which came plate and movables worth ¹6,000. However, her jointure was to suffer greatly from paying off Leicester's debts, which at some ¹50,000 were so overwhelming that she was advised to decline the responsibility of dealing with her husband's financial legacy.[1]

    In March or April 1589 the Countess married Sir Christopher Blount,[37] a relatively poor Catholic soldier 12 years her junior, who had been the Earl of Leicester's Gentleman of the Horse and a trusted friend of his.[38][39] The marriage was a great surprise and the Earl of Essex complained that it was an "unhappy choice".[1][37] In the face of tittle-tattle that had reached even France,[37] Lady Leicester—she continued to be styled thus[40]—explained her choice with being a defenceless widow; like her marriage to Leicester, the union proved to be a "genuinely happy" one.[1][37] Some 60 years later it was claimed in a satirical poem that she had poisoned the Earl of Leicester on his deathbed, thereby forestalling her own murder at his hands, because he had found out about her supposed lover, Sir Christopher Blount.[41]

    In 1593 Lettice Knollys sold Leicester House to her son, after which it became known as Essex House. She moved to Drayton Bassett near Chartley in Staffordshire, her main residence for the rest of her life.[1] Still banished from court, she saw no point in returning to London without being reconciled to Elizabeth. In December 1597 she had heard from friends that "Her Majesty is very well prepared to hearken to terms of pacification", and was prepared to do "a winter journey" if her son thought "it be to any purpose".[1] "Otherwise a country life is fittest for disgraced persons", she commented.[42] She travelled to London, staying at Essex House from January till March 1598,[1] and seeking a reconciliation with Elizabeth. At last a short meeting was granted in which the Countess kissed the Queen and "the Queen kissed her", but nothing really changed.[42]

    Lettice's second son, Walter Devereux, died 1591 in France while on military duty,[43] and in subsequent years she was anxious for her elder son's safety. She addressed him "Sweet Robin", longing for his letters and helpless about his moodiness and depression.[44][45] After returning from his command in Ireland without licence, Essex was imprisoned in 1599; his mother came to London to intercede for him with the Queen.[1] She tried to send Elizabeth a present in form of a gown, which Elizabeth neither accepted nor refused.[46] Her efforts to get sight of her son made matters worse: "Mislike is taken that his mother and friends have been in a house that looks into York Garden where he uses to walk and have saluted each other out of a window."[46]

    During Essex' revolt, trial, and execution in February 1601, Lettice remained at Drayton Basset. She not only lost her son but her "best friend", as she called her third husband.[1][40] Sir Christopher Blount was executed on 18 March 1601, three weeks after the execution of his stepson, to whom he had been a friend and confidant for many years.[1][37]

    Litigation and old age

    Effigy of Lettice Knollys, Collegiate Church of St Mary, Warwick
    The executions and attainders of Essex and Blount led to a legal dispute over the Countess of Leicester's remaining property. In this context she claimed that Blount, in the process of paying off Leicester's debts, had squandered her jewels and much of her landed wealth.[1][37] The death of Elizabeth I in 1603 meant some form of rehabilitation for the Countess; the new monarch, James I, not only restored her grandson, the third Earl of Essex, to his father's title and estate, but quickly cancelled the rest of her debts to the Crown, almost ¹4,000.[1]

    Even more than his debts, the Earl of Leicester's will triggered litigation. He had intended his illegitimate son from his early 1570s relationship with Douglas Sheffield, the adolescent Robert Dudley, to inherit Kenilworth after the death of his brother, Ambrose Dudley, 3rd Earl of Warwick. Some of the countess' jointure manors lay in the castle's vicinity, while at the same time they had been assigned to the younger Dudley's inheritance by the overseers of Leicester's will. After Warwick's death in February 1590, lengthy legal proceedings ensued over whether particular parts of Lady Leicester's jointure belonged to the Kenilworth estate or not.[47]

    In 1603 Dudley initiated moves to prove that he was the legitimate son of his parents and thus the heir to the earldoms of Warwick and Leicester. If successful, this claim would not only have implied that Lettice Knollys' union with Leicester had been bigamous, but would also have nullified her jointure rights.[47] Consequently, in February 1604, she filed a complaint against Dudley in the Star Chamber, accusing him of defamation. She was backed by Sir Robert Sidney, who considered himself the only legitimate heir of his uncles Leicester and Warwick. During the Star Chamber proceedings 56 former servants and friends of the Earl of Leicester testified that he had always regarded Dudley as his illegitimate son.[1] The other side was unable to cite clear evidence and the King's chief minister, Robert Cecil, thought it unwise to rake up the existing property settlement, so the outcome was in favour of Lady Leicester. All the evidence was impounded to preclude a resumption of the case.[1][47]

    Throughout her life, Lettice Knollys cared for her siblings, children, and grandchildren.[48][49][50] Until their respective deaths in 1607 and 1619, her daughters Penelope and Dorothy were her closest companions.[1] The young third Earl of Essex, also called Robert, shared much of his life with the old Countess at Chartley and Drayton Bassett.[1] Still walking a mile a day at nearly 90, she died in her chair in the morning of 25 December 1634, aged 91.[1][51] Widely mourned as a symbol of a by-gone age, she wished to be buried "at Warwick by my dear lord and husband the Earl of Leicester with whom I desire to be entombed".[1] Her request was respected and she came to rest in the Beauchamp Chapel of Collegiate Church of St Mary, Warwick, opposite the tomb of her son, young Lord Denbigh.[1]


    Lettice married Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex 1561-1562. Walter (son of Richard Devereux, Knight and Dorothy Hastings) was born 16 Sep 1541, Chartley Lodge, Stafford, England; died 22 Sep 1576. [Group Sheet]

    1. 7. Penelope Devereux  Descendancy chart to this point was born 0Jan 1563, Chartley Castle, Staffordshire, England; died 7 Jul 1607.
    2. 8. Dorothy Devereux, Countess of Northumberland  Descendancy chart to this point was born 0___ 1564, Chartley Lodge, Stafford, England; died 3 Aug 1619; was buried Petworth, Sussex, England.
    3. 9. Robert Devereux, KG, PC, 2nd Earl of Essex  Descendancy chart to this point was born 10 Nov 1565, Bromyard, Herefordshire, England; died 25 Feb 1601, Tower of London, London, Middlesex, England.

  2. 5.  Henry Knollys Descendancy chart to this point (2.Catherine2, 1.William1) died 0___ 1583.

  3. 6.  Anne Knollys, Lady de la WarrAnne Knollys, Lady de la Warr Descendancy chart to this point (2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 15 Jul 1555, Reading, Berkshire, England; died 30 Aug 1608, Lasham, Hampshire, England.


    Anne West, Lady De La Warr (nâee Knollys) (19 July 1555 – 30 August 1608) was a lady at the court of Queen Elizabeth I of England

    Born 19 July 1555
    probably Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire or Reading, Berkshire
    Died 30 August 1608 (aged 53)
    Lasham, Hampshire, England
    Noble family Knollys
    Spouse(s) Thomas West, 2nd Baron De La Warr
    Sir Robert West
    Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr
    Walsingham West
    Francis West
    John West
    Nathaniel West
    Elizabeth West
    Lettice, Lady Ludlow
    Anne West
    Penelope, Lady Pelham
    Katherine, Lady Strelby
    Helen, Lady Savage
    Anna West (again)
    Elisabeth, Lady Saltonstall
    Father Sir Francis Knollys
    Mother Catherine Carey


    Anne Knollys was the third daughter of Sir Francis Knollys, Treasurer of the Royal Household (1514–1596) to Queen Elizabeth I, and his wife Lady Catherine Carey.

    Her maternal grandparents were Sir William Carey and Mary Boleyn. Mary was a sister of Anne Boleyn, second wife of Henry VIII of England. Anne Knollys' mother was thus a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII. Mary Boleyn had preceded her more famous sister in the King's affections, and had affairs with both Francis I of France and Henry VIII. Both Catherine Carey and Henry Carey may have been Henry's children, although we are unsure of their exact dates of birth. If true, this would make Anne the granddaughter of Henry VIII.

    Anne's eldest sister was Lettice Knollys, chief Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth and the mother of the queen's favourite, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex.

    Marriage and issue

    Anne Knollys married, on 19 November 1571, Thomas West, 2nd Baron De La Warr, by whom she had six sons and eight daughters:[1]

    Sir Robert West, who married Elizabeth Coks and predeceased his father.[citation needed]

    Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr (7 July 1577 – c. February 1624), who married Cecily Shirley, youngest daughter of Sir Thomas Shirley and Anne Kempe, daughter of Sir Thomas Kempe of Olantigh, Kent.[2]
    Walsingham West.

    Francis West (28 October 1586 – c.1634), esquire, Governor of Virginia, who emigrated to Virginia, and married firstly, before 6 February 1626, Margaret, widow of Edward Blayney; secondly, on 31 March 1628, Temperance Flowerdew (d. December 1628), widow of Sir George Yeardley, Governor of Virginia, daughter of Anthony Flowerdew of Hethersett, Norfolk, by Martha Stanley; and thirdly in 1630, Jane Davye, by whom he had a son, Francis West.[3]

    John West (14 December 1590 – 1659), Governor of Virginia, who emigrated to Virginia, and married a wife named Anne Percy,[4] by whom he had a son, John West.[5]
    Lieutenant Colonel Nathaniel West (30 November 1592 – 7 June 1618), who emigrated to Virginia, where in 1621 he married Frances Greville (d.1634), by whom he had a son, Nathaniel West. His widow married secondly Abraham Peirsey, esquire (d. 16 January 1628), and thirdly Captain Samuel Mathews, esquire (died c. March 1658).[6]

    Elizabeth West (11 September 1573 – 15 January 1633), who married at Wherwell, Hampshire, on 12 February 1594, as his second wife, Herbert Pelham (c.1546 – 12 April 1620), esquire, a widower with two sons and a daughter by his first wife, Katherine Thatcher, by whom she had three sons and six daughters.[6]

    Lettice West (b. 1579),[citation needed] who married Henry Ludlow.[citation needed]

    Anne West (b. 13 February 1588), who married firstly, by licence dated 30 August 1608, John Pellatt (d. 22 October 1625), esquire, of Bolney, Sussex, by whom she had three daughters; secondly Christopher Swale (d. 7 September 1645), by whom she had a son, Christopher, and a daughter,

    Elizabeth; and thirdly Leonard Lechford (died c. 29 November 1673), by whom she had no issue.[3]

    Penelope West (9 September 1582 – c.1619), who married, about 1599, as his first wife, Herbert Pelham (c.1580 – 13 July 1624)), esquire, of Hastings, Sussex, stepson of Penelope West's elder sister, Elizabeth, by whom she had five sons and four daughters.[7]

    Katherine West (b. 1583),[citation needed] who married Nickolas Strelby.[citation needed]

    Helen West (b. 15 December 1587), who married Sir William Savage of Winchester, Hampshire, by whom she had a son, John Savage, and two daughters, Cecily and Anne.[3]

    Anne West (again).

    Elizabeth West (again), who married Sir Richard Saltonstall of Huntwick, Yorkshire.[6]

    Related material

    The US state of Delaware is named after Anne's son, Thomas West, Baron De La Warre.

    end of biography

    Anne married Thomas West, 2nd Baron de la Warr 1 Nov 1571. Thomas (son of William West, 1st Baron de la Warr and Elizabeth Strange) was born ~1556, Wherwell, Hampshire, England; died 21 Mar 1602. [Group Sheet]

    1. 10. John West, 6th Colonial Governor of Virginia  Descendancy chart to this point was born 14 Dec 1590; died 1659.

Generation: 4

  1. 7.  Penelope DevereuxPenelope Devereux Descendancy chart to this point (4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 0Jan 1563, Chartley Castle, Staffordshire, England; died 7 Jul 1607.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Penelope Rich


    Penelope Rich, Lady Rich, later styled Penelope Blount, Countess of Devonshire (nâee Devereux; January 1563[1] – 7 July 1607) was an English noblewoman. She was the sister of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex and is traditionally thought to be the inspiration for "Stella" of Sir Philip Sidney's Astrophel and Stella sonnet sequence (published posthumously in 1591).[2][3] She married Robert Rich, 3rd Baron Rich (later 1st Earl of Warwick) and had a public liaison with Charles Blount, Baron Mountjoy, (later first Earl of Devonshire), whom she married in an unlicensed ceremony following her divorce from Rich. She died in 1607.

    Early life and first marriage

    Born Penelope Devereux at Chartley Castle in Staffordshire, she was the elder daughter of Walter Devereux, 2nd Viscount Hereford, later 1st Earl of Essex and Lettice Knollys, daughter of Sir Francis Knollys and Catherine Carey, and sister of William Knollys, later 1st Earl of Banbury. Catherine Carey was the daughter of Lady Mary Boleyn by either her husband Sir William Carey, Gentleman of the Privy Chamber, or her lover King Henry VIII.

    Her father was created Earl of Essex in 1572. Penelope was a child of fourteen when Sir Philip Sidney accompanied her distant cousin Queen Elizabeth on a visit to Lady Essex in 1575, on her way from Kenilworth, and must have been frequently thrown into the society of Sidney, in consequence of the many ties between the two families. Essex died at Dublin in September 1576. He had sent a message to Philip Sidney from his death-bed expressing his desire that he should marry his daughter, and later his secretary wrote to the young man's father, Sir Henry Sidney, in words which seem to point to the existence of a very definite understanding.[3]

    Penelope's brother, Robert, Viscount Hereford, inherited the Earldom of Essex on their father's death in 1576, and Penelope, her sister Dorothy, and younger brother Walter were entrusted to the guardianship of their kinsman Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon.[4][5] In 1578[6] their widowed mother married the Queen's favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. Perhaps the marriage of Lady Essex with the earl of Leicester, which destroyed Philip Sidney's prospects as his uncle Leicester's heir,[7] had something to do with the breaking off of the proposed match with Penelope.[3]

    In January 1581, she arrived at court accompanied by her guardian's wife, Catherine, Countess of Huntingdon, who was Leicester's sister and Sidney's aunt.[4] In March 1581 Huntingdon as her guardian secured the queen's assent through Lord Burghley, Master of the Court of Wards, for her marriage with Robert Rich, 3rd Baron Rich (later 1st Earl of Warwick). Penelope is said to have protested in vain against the alliance with Rich.[3][8]

    Penelope's children by Robert Rich were:

    Robert Rich (1587–1658), later 2nd Earl of Warwick
    Henry Rich (1590–1649), later 1st Earl of Holland
    Sir Charles Rich (d. 1627), died unmarried and without issue
    Lettice Rich (d. 1619), named after her maternal grandmother Lettice Knollys. Married firstly Sir George Carey and secondly Sir Arthur Lake
    Penelope Rich, married Sir Gervase Clifton
    Essex Rich, married Sir Thomas Cheek and had three sons and five daughters
    Isabella Rich, married Sir John Smythe, son of Sir Thomas Smythe, first governor of the East India Company
    Poets' muse[edit]

    Portrait at Longleat House believed to be of Dorothy and Penelope Devereux c. 1581
    Penelope Rich was considered one of the beauties of Elizabeth's court. She was golden-haired with dark eyes, a gifted singer and dancer, fluent in French, Italian, and Spanish.[3][9]

    Penelope is traditionally thought to have inspired Philip Sidney's sonnet sequence Astrophel and Stella (sometimes spelled Astrophil and Stella). Likely composed in the 1580s, it is the first of the famous English sonnet sequences, and contains 108 sonnets and 11 songs. Many of the poems were circulated in manuscript form before the first edition was printed by Thomas Newman in 1591, five years after Sidney's death.[3][10] They were set by the French lutenist Charles Tessier and published in London in 1597.

    Whether Sidney fell passionately in love with Penelope in the years between her arrival at court in 1581 and his own marriage in 1583, or whether the "Stella" sonnets were courtly amusements reflecting fashionable poetic conceits may never be known. In her essay "Sidney, Stella, and Lady Rich", Katherine Duncan-Jones writes:

    No one since 1935 has seriously doubted that Sidney intended the first readers of Astropil and Stella, whoever they may have been, to link "Stella" with Lady Rich. The exact nature of Sidney's relationship with the famous beauty is another and much more ticklish matter ..." [11]

    Sidney died of wounds received at the Battle of Zutphen in 1586. In 1590, Penelope's brother Essex married Sidney's widow Frances, daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham, and Lady Rich was much cultivated by poets and musicians during her brother's ascendancy at court in the 1590s.[12] Poet Richard Barnfield dedicated The Affectionate Shepherd, his first work, which was published anonymously in November 1594, to Penelope Rich.[8] Bartholomew Yong dedicated his translation of Jorge de Montemayor's Diana (1598) to her; and sonnets are addressed to her by John Davies of Hereford and (to her portrait by Nicholas Hilliard) by Henry Constable.[3][8]

    The queen's miniaturist Nicholas Hilliard is known to have painted two miniatures of Lady Rich, in 1589 and 1590 respectively. One was given to James VI of Scotland (later James I of England) and the other to the French ambassador. A miniature in the Royal Collection (above) may be one of these.[13] Charles Tessier dedicated his book of part-songs in French and Italian, Le premier livre de chansons, to "Madame Riche", commending (in Italian) her musical judgement,[14] and John Dowland composed "My Lady Rich's Galliard" in her honour.

    Love affair

    Penelope's marriage to Rich was unhappy, and by 1595 she had begun a secret affair with Charles Blount, Baron Mountjoy. Lord Rich took no action during the lifetime of Penelope's brother, the powerful Earl of Essex, who became the aging Queen's favourite in the years after the death of Leicester in 1588.[15]

    But Penelope was tainted by association with her brother's plotting. Essex shocked many people, after the failure of the Earl of Essex Rebellion, by denouncing her as a traitor- and after his execution for treason in 1601, Lord Rich had Penelope and her children by Mountjoy cast out. Mountjoy, like Penelope, had been implicated in the Essex rebellion, but the Queen, who wished to show as much clemency as possible to the rebels, took no action against either of them. Lady Rich moved in with her lover, and the couple began a very public relationship. Mountjoy was created Earl of Devonshire on the accession of James I, and Lady Rich was in high favour at court,.[3] She was among the ladies who escorted Anne of Denmark on her entry to London in 1603 and served Anne as a Lady of the Bedchamber.[8][9] She danced as the nymph Ocyte in Ben Jonson's Masque of Blackness on Twelfth Night 1605.[8][16]

    In 1605, Rich sued for a divorce, and Penelope wanted to marry Blount and legitimise their children. In the divorce proceedings, she publicly admitted to adultery. The divorce was granted, but the requests to remarry and legitimise her children were refused. She married Blount in a private ceremony conducted by his chaplain, William Laud, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, on 26 December 1605 at Wanstead House in London. This proceeding, carried out in defiance of canon law, was followed by the disgrace of both parties, who were banished from court by King James. The couple continued to live together as husband and wife with their children until his death a few months later. Blount died on 3 April 1606[3] and Penelope on 7 July 1607.

    Penelope's illegitimate children acknowledged by Charles Blount were:

    Mountjoy Blount (1597–1663), later 1st Earl of Newport
    Elizabeth Blount
    John Blount
    Ruth Blount

    Penelope married Charles Blount, Knight 20 Dec 1605, London, Middlesex, England. Charles (son of James Blount, 6th Baron Mountjoy and Catherine Leigh) was born 0___ 1563, Derbyshire, England; died 3 Apr 1606, Gloucestershire, England. [Group Sheet]

    1. 11. Ruth Devonshire  Descendancy chart to this point was born 0___ 1600, Selling, Fabersham Hundred, Kent, England; died 0___ 1694, Manokin, Somerset County, Maryland.

  2. 8.  Dorothy Devereux, Countess of NorthumberlandDorothy Devereux, Countess of Northumberland Descendancy chart to this point (4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 0___ 1564, Chartley Lodge, Stafford, England; died 3 Aug 1619; was buried Petworth, Sussex, England.


    Dorothy "Countess of Northumberland" Devereux Percy

    Birth: 1564
    Stafford Borough
    Staffordshire, England
    Death: Aug. 3, 1619, England

    Dorothy Percy, Countess of Northumberland, was born in c. 1561, the daughter of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, and Lettice Knollys, lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth I. Her siblings included Robert, 2nd Earl of Essex, Queen Elizabeth's favourite who was executed for treason in 1601, and Penelope, Lady Rich, later the Countess of Devonshire.

    Dorothy married Thomas Perrot, 1st Baronet of Haroldston, son of the Lord Deputy of Ireland John Perrot. They had three daughters before Thomas's death in 1594. In the same year, she married Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland. The marriage had varying levels of success; despite separation after a row, the couple later reconciled, and Dorothy visited her husband frequently while he was in the Tower of London.

    Dorothy died on August 3, 1619, and was buried at St Mary's, Petworth, near the family home Petworth House. Her death greatly affected the Earl, who was not released until 1621.

    Family links:
    Walter Devereux (1540 - 1576)
    Lettice Knollys Dudley (1543 - 1634)

    Thomas Perrot (1553 - 1594)*
    Henry Percy (1564 - 1632)*

    Penelope Perrot Naunton (____ - 1654)*
    Dorothy Percy Sidney (1598 - 1659)*
    Lucy Percy Hay (1599 - 1660)*
    Algernon Percy (1602 - 1668)*

    Penelope Devereux (1563 - 1607)*
    Dorothy Devereux Percy (1564 - 1619)
    Robert Devereux (1566 - 1601)*
    Walter Devereux (1569 - 1591)*
    Robert Dudley (1579 - 1584)**

    *Calculated relationship

    St Mary the Virgin Churchyard, Petworth
    Chichester District
    West Sussex, England
    Plot: Percy family vault

    Created by: Peter Symonds
    Record added: Jul 25, 2010
    Find A Grave Memorial# 55411182


    Dorothy married Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland Abt 1584, England. Henry (son of Henry Percy, 8th Earl of Northumberland and Katherine Neville) was born 27 Apr 1564, Tynemouth Castle, Tynemouth, Northumberland, England; died 5 Nov 1632; was buried Petworth House, West Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]

    1. 12. Dorothy Percy  Descendancy chart to this point was born 0Aug 1598, Northumberlandshire, England; was christened 20 Aug 1598, Petworth, Sussex, England; died 19 Aug 1659, Penshurst, Kent, England; was buried 20 Aug 1659, Penshurst, Kent, England.
    2. 13. Algernon Percy, Knight  Descendancy chart to this point was born 29 Sep 1602, (Northumberlandshire, England); died 13 Oct 1668, London, Middlesex, England.

  3. 9.  Robert Devereux, KG, PC, 2nd Earl of EssexRobert Devereux, KG, PC, 2nd Earl of Essex Descendancy chart to this point (4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 10 Nov 1565, Bromyard, Herefordshire, England; died 25 Feb 1601, Tower of London, London, Middlesex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Chartley Castle, Staffordshire, England
    • Residence: Lamphey, Pembrokeshire, Wales


    Sir Robert appears as a competing spy to Sir Robert Cecil during the 2nd episode of the PBS production, "Queen Elizabeth's Secret Agents".

    Sir Robert is related to the grandchildren of Vernia Elvira Swindell Byars;


    end of comment

    Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, KG, PC (/'d?v??ru?/; 10 November 1565[1] – 25 February 1601), was an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, and a committed general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years' War in 1599. In 1601, he led an abortive coup d'âetat against the government and was executed for treason.

    Born 10 November 1565
    Netherwood near Bromyard, Herefordshire, England
    Died 25 February 1601 (aged 35)
    Tower of London, Liberties of the Tower
    Cause of death Decapitation
    Resting place Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula, London
    Title Earl of Essex
    Tenure 1576–1601
    Known for Favourite of Elizabeth I
    Nationality English
    Residence Essex House, London
    Wars and battles Dutch revolt
    Spanish Armada
    English Armada
    Capture of Cadiz
    Azores expedition, 1597
    Irish Nine Years' War
    Offices Master of the Horse
    Privy Councillor
    Earl Marshal
    Master-General of the Ordnance
    Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
    Predecessor Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex
    Successor Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex
    Spouse(s) Frances Walsingham
    Elizabeth Southwell (mistress)
    Issue Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex
    Lady Dorothy Devereux
    Frances Seymour, Duchess of Somerset
    Sir Walter Devereux (illegitimate)
    Parents Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex
    Lettice Knollys

    Early life

    Essex was born on 10 November 1565 at Netherwood near Bromyard, in Herefordshire, the son of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, and Lettice Knollys.[2] His maternal great-grandmother Mary Boleyn was a sister of Anne Boleyn, the mother of Queen Elizabeth I, making him a first-cousin-twice-removed of the Queen.

    He was brought up on his father's estates at Chartley Castle, Staffordshire, and at Lamphey, Pembrokeshire, in Wales. His father died in 1576, and the new Earl of Essex became a ward of Lord Burghley. In 1577, he was admitted as a fellow-commoner at Trinity College, Cambridge; in 1579, he matriculated; and in 1581 he graduated as Master of Arts.[3]

    On 21 September 1578, Essex's mother married Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Elizabeth I's long-standing favourite and Robert Devereux's godfather.[4]

    Essex performed military service under his stepfather in the Netherlands, before making an impact at court and winning the Queen's favour. In 1590, he married Frances Walsingham, daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham and widow of Sir Philip Sidney, by whom he was to have several children, three of whom survived into adulthood. Sidney, who was Leicester's nephew, had died in 1586 at the Battle of Zutphen in which Essex had also distinguished himself. In October 1591, Essex's mistress, Elizabeth Southwell, gave birth to a son who survived into adulthood.[5][6]

    Court and military career

    Melancholy youth representing the Earl of Essex, c.1588, miniature by Nicholas Hilliard[7]
    Essex first came to court in 1584, and by 1587 had become a favourite of the Queen, who relished his lively mind and eloquence, as well as his skills as a showman and in courtly love. In June 1587 he replaced the Earl of Leicester as Master of the Horse.[8] After Leicester's death in 1588, the Queen transferred the late Earl's royal monopoly on sweet wines to Essex, providing him with revenue from taxes. In 1593, he was made a member of her Privy Council.[9]

    Essex underestimated the Queen, however, and his later behaviour towards her lacked due respect and showed disdain for the influence of her principal secretary, Robert Cecil. On one occasion during a heated Privy Council debate on the problems in Ireland, the Queen reportedly cuffed an insolent Essex round the ear, prompting him to half draw his sword on her.[10]

    In 1589, he took part in Francis Drake's English Armada, which sailed to Spain in an unsuccessful attempt to press home the English advantage following the defeat of the Spanish Armada, although the Queen had ordered him not to take part. In 1591, he was given command of a force sent to the assistance of King Henry IV of France. In 1596, he distinguished himself by the capture of Câadiz.[2] During the Islands Voyage expedition to the Azores in 1597, with Walter Raleigh as his second-in-command, he defied the Queen's orders, pursuing the Spanish treasure fleet without first defeating the Spanish battle fleet.

    So when the 3rd Spanish Armada first appeared off the English coast in October 1597, the English fleet was far out to sea, with the coast almost undefended, and panic ensued. This further damaged the relationship between the Queen and Essex, even though he was initially given full command of the English fleet when he reached England a few days later. Fortunately a storm dispersed the Spanish fleet - a number of ships were captured by the English and though there were a few landings, the Spanish withdrew.


    This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
    Main article: Essex in Ireland

    Frances Walsingham, countess of Essex, and her son Robert
    by Robert Peake the elder, 1594
    Essex's greatest failure was as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, a post which he talked himself into in 1599.[2] The Nine Years' War (1595–1603) was in its middle stages, and no English commander had been successful. More military force was required to defeat the Irish chieftains, led by Hugh O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone and supplied from Spain and Scotland.

    Essex led the largest expeditionary force ever sent to Ireland—16,000 troops—with orders to put an end to the rebellion. He departed London to the cheers of the Queen's subjects, and it was expected the rebellion would be crushed instantly, but the limits of Crown resources and of the Irish campaigning season dictated otherwise. Essex had declared to the Privy Council that he would confront O'Neill in Ulster.

    Instead, he led his army into southern Ireland, where he fought a series of inconclusive engagements, wasted his funds, and dispersed his army into garrisons, while the Irish won two important battles in other parts of the country. Rather than face O'Neill in battle, Essex entered a truce that some considered humiliating to the Crown and to the detriment of English authority. The Queen herself told Essex that if she had wished to abandon Ireland it would scarcely have been necessary to send him there.

    In all of his campaigns Essex secured the loyalty of his officers by conferring knighthoods, an honour the Queen herself dispensed sparingly, and by the end of his time in Ireland more than half the knights in England owed their rank to him. The rebels were said to have joked that, "he never drew sword but to make knights." But his practice of conferring knighthoods could in time enable Essex to challenge the powerful factions at Cecil's command.

    He was the second Chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin, serving from 1598 to 1601.

    First trial

    Relying on his general warrant to return to England, given under the great seal, Essex sailed from Ireland on 24 September 1599, and reached London four days later. The Queen had expressly forbidden his return and was surprised when he presented himself in her bedchamber one morning at Nonsuch Palace, before she was properly wigged or gowned.[11] On that day, the Privy Council met three times, and it seemed his disobedience might go unpunished, although the Queen did confine him to his rooms with the comment that "an unruly beast must be stopped of his provender."

    Essex by Isaac Oliver, c. 1597
    Essex appeared before the full Council on 29 September, when he was compelled to stand before the Council during a five-hour interrogation. The Council—his uncle William Knollys, 1st Earl of Banbury included—took a quarter of an hour to compile a report, which declared that his truce with O'Neill was indefensible and his flight from Ireland tantamount to a desertion of duty. He was committed to the custody of Sir Richard Berkeley[12] in his own York House on 1 October, and he blamed Cecil and Raleigh for the queen's hostility. Raleigh advised Cecil to see to it that Essex did not recover power, and Essex appeared to heed advice to retire from public life, despite his popularity with the public.

    During his confinement at York House, Essex probably communicated with King James VI of Scotland through Lord Mountjoy, although any plans he may have had at that time to help the Scots king capture the English throne came to nothing. In October, Mountjoy was appointed to replace him in Ireland, and matters seemed to look up for the Earl. In November, the queen was reported to have said that the truce with O'Neill was "so seasonably made... as great good... has grown by it." Others in the Council were willing to justify Essex's return from Ireland, on the grounds of the urgent necessity of a briefing by the commander-in-chief.

    Cecil kept up the pressure and, on 5 June 1600, Essex was tried before a commission of 18 men. He had to hear the charges and evidence on his knees. Essex was convicted, was deprived of public office, and was returned to virtual confinement.

    Essex rebellion

    Main article: Essex's Rebellion
    In August, his freedom was granted, but the source of his basic income—the sweet wines monopoly—was not renewed. His situation had become desperate, and he shifted "from sorrow and repentance to rage and rebellion." In early 1600, he began to fortify Essex House, his town mansion on the Strand, and gathered his followers. On the morning of 8 February, he marched out of Essex House with a party of nobles and gentlemen (some later involved in the 1605 Gunpowder Plot) and entered the city of London in an attempt to force an audience with the Queen. Cecil immediately had him proclaimed a traitor. A force under Sir John Leveson placed a barrier across the street at Ludgate Hill. When Essex's men tried to force their way through, Essex's stepfather, Sir Christopher Blount, was injured in the resulting skirmish, and Essex withdrew with his men to Essex House.[13] Essex surrendered after Crown forces besieged Essex House.[14]

    Treason trial and death

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    Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, Essex's chief

    Captain Thomas Lee by Marcus Gheeraerts.
    On 19 February 1601, Essex was tried before his peers on charges of treason.[15] Quoting from State Trials (compiled by T. B. Howell and T. J. Howell, 33 vols., London, 1809-26, vol. I, pp. 1334-1360), author Laura Hanes Cadwallader summarized the indictment:

    The indictment charged Essex with "conspiring and imagining at London, . . . to depose and slay the Queen, and to subvert the Government." It also stated that Essex had "endeavored to raise himself to the Crown of England, and usurp the royal dignity," and that in order to fulfill these intentions, he and others "rose and assembled themselves in open rebellion, and moved and persuaded many of the citizens of London to join them in their treason, and endeavored to get the city of London into their possession and power, and wounded and killed many of the Queen's subjects then and there assembled for the purpose of quelling such rebellion." Essex was charged also with holding the Lord Keeper and the other Privy Councillors in custody "for four hours and more."[16]

    Part of the evidence showed that he was in favour of toleration of religious dissent. In his own evidence, he countered the charge of dealing with Catholics, swearing that "papists have been hired and suborned to witness against me." Essex also asserted that Cecil had stated that none in the world but the Infanta of Spain had right to the Crown of England, whereupon Cecil (who had been following the trial at a doorway concealed behind some tapestry) stepped out to make a dramatic denial, going down on his knees to give thanks to God for the opportunity. The witness whom Essex expected to confirm this allegation, his uncle William Knollys, was called and admitted there had once been read in Cecil's presence a book treating such matters (possibly either The book of succession supposedly by an otherwise unknown R. Doleman but probably really by Robert Persons or A Conference about the Next Succession to the Crown of England explicitly mentioned to be by Persons, in which a Catholic successor friendly to Spain was favoured).[17] However he denied he had heard Cecil make the statement. Thanking God again, Cecil expressed his gratitude that Essex was exposed as a traitor while he himself was found an honest man.

    Essex was found guilty and, on 25 February 1601, was beheaded on Tower Green, becoming the last person to be beheaded in the Tower of London. It was reported to have taken three strokes by the executioner Thomas Derrick to complete the beheading. Previously Thomas Derrick had been convicted of rape but was pardoned by the Earl of Essex himself (clearing him of the death penalty) on the condition that he became an executioner at Tyburn. At Sir Walter Raleigh's own execution on 29 October 1618, it was alleged that Raleigh had said to a co-conspirator, "Do not, as my Lord Essex did, take heed of a preacher. By his persuasion he confessed, and made himself guilty." In that same trial, Raleigh also denied that he had stood at a window during the execution of Essex's sentence, disdainfully puffing out tobacco smoke in sight of the condemned man. Essex at the end shocked many by denouncing his sister Penelope, Lady Rich as his co-conspirator: the Queen, who was determined to show as much clemency as possible, ignored the charge.

    Some days before the execution, Captain Thomas Lee was apprehended as he kept watch on the door to the Queen's chambers. His plan had been to confine her until she signed a warrant for the release of Essex. Capt. Lee, who had served in Ireland with the Earl, and who acted as go-between with the Ulster rebels, was tried and put to death the next day.

    Essex's conviction for treason meant that the earldom was forfeit, and his son did not inherit the title. However, after the Queen's death, King James I reinstated the earldom in favour of the disinherited son, Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex.

    The Essex ring

    There is a widely repeated romantic legend about a ring given by Elizabeth to Essex. There is a possible reference to the legend by John Webster in his 1623 play The Devil's Law Case suggesting that it was known at this time, but the first printed version of it is in the 1695 romantic novel The Secret History of the most renowned Queen Elizabeth and the Earl of Essex, by a Person of Quality. The version given by David Hume in his History of England says that Elizabeth had given Essex a ring after the expedition to Cadiz that he should send to her if he was in trouble. After his trial he tried to send the ring to Elizabeth via the Countess of Nottingham, but the countess kept the ring as her husband was an enemy of Essex, as a result of which Essex was executed. On her deathbed the countess is said to have confessed this to Elizabeth, who angrily replied "May God forgive you, Madam, but I never can." The chapter house museum in Westminster Abbey has a gold ring which is claimed to be this one.

    Some historians consider this story of the ring to be a myth, partly because there are no contemporary accounts of it. John Lingard in his history of England says the story appears to be a fiction, Lytton Strachey states "Such a narrative is appropriate enough to the place where it was first fully elaborated — a sentimental novelette; but it does not belong to history", and Alison Weir calls it a fabrication.[18]


    Like many other Elizabethan aristocrats Essex was a competent lyric poet, who also participated in court entertainments. He engaged in literary as well as political feuds with his principal enemies, including Walter Raleigh. His poem "Muses no more but mazes" attacks Raleigh's influence over the queen.[19]

    Other lyrics were written for masques, including the sonnet "Seated between the old world and the new" in praise of the queen as the moral power linking Europe and America, who supports "the world oppressed" like the mythical Atlas. During his disgrace he also wrote several bitter and pessimistic verses. His longest poem, "The Passion of a Discontented Mind" (beginning "From silent night..."), is a penitential lament, probably written while imprisoned awaiting execution.[19]

    Several of Essex's poems were set to music. English composer John Dowland set a poem called "Can she excuse my wrongs with virtue's cloak?" in his 1597 publication First Booke of Songs: these lyrics have been attributed to Essex, largely on the basis of the dedication of "The Earl of Essex's Galliard", an instrumental version of the same song. Dowland also sets the opening verses of Essex's poem "The Passion of a Discontented Mind" ("From silent night") in his 1612 collection of songs. Orlando Gibbons set lines from the poem in the same year.[19] Settings of Essex's poems "Change thy minde" (set by Richard Martin) and "To plead my faith" (set by Daniel Bacheler) are published in A Musicall Banquet (1610), a collection of songs edited by Robert Dowland.

    executed for treason...

  4. 10.  John West, 6th Colonial Governor of Virginia Descendancy chart to this point (6.Anne3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 14 Dec 1590; died 1659.

    John — Anne Percy. (daughter of George Percy and Anne Floyd) [Group Sheet]

    1. 14. John West  Descendancy chart to this point

Generation: 5

  1. 11.  Ruth Devonshire Descendancy chart to this point (7.Penelope4, 4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 0___ 1600, Selling, Fabersham Hundred, Kent, England; died 0___ 1694, Manokin, Somerset County, Maryland.



    Ruth was born in 1600 in Selling, Kent county, England. She was the illegitimate daughter of Lady Penelope (Devereux) Rich and Charles Blount, 8th Baron Montjoy, KG, both eminent members of the British aristocracy and courtiers of the ageing Queen Elizabeth I. Lady Penelope, considered "a leading beauty" in her time, had several legitimate children by her husband, Baron Robert Rich, but their marriage had turned sour and, in light of his refusal to divorce her, by 1595 she entered into a well-known "secret" liaison with Charles Blount, who was later named the 1st Earl of Devonshire (hence Ruth's adopted name: "Ruth Devonshire").

    See Penelope Blount Countess of Devonshire article on Wikipedia for a full account of Lady Penelope's life, including mention of her 4 illegitimate children by the Earl of Devonshire, who died less than a year after the two finally married in 1605 and he legitimized their children (but in midst of a scandal that continued to "taint" Ruth and her sister Elizabeth Blount). Lady Penelope died in July 1607, leaving all her Blount/Devonshire children as minors.

    A convenient solution for Ruth Blount Devonshire's future was to marry her to a younger son of a well-bred gentry family from her native Kent. Christopher Tilghman, whose mother, Ann Saunders Tilghman, was a great-great grand-daughter of King Edward III by Philippa of Hainaut, was a perfect match for Ruth. He was a second son and had been born about the same time as Ruth in Selling Parish, Kent.

    It's probable that the pair were married in Kent, where Christopher Tilghman had obtained possession of Rhodes Court, formerly owned by Thomas Bealde, in about 1621 (his majority year). In "The Visitations of Kent," Christopher Tilghman is described as "of this parish, gent., who owned [Rhodes Court] in 1621 and [later] sold it to Thomas Carter..." Rhodes Court is described as being a manor situated in the southeast extremity of Selling parish, in the borough of Rhodes. Selling Parish, adjoins Boughton to the south of Graveney. A small part of it, within the Borough of Rhodes, is within Faversham Hundred, Kent.

    Some genealogies say that Christopher and Ruth married in 1630; this seems logical but is unproven. It is possible that two of their four children were born in Kent, England. These were:

    Mildred Tilghman, b. ca. 1631 in Boughton Under Bleane, Kent
    John Tilghman, b. ? in Faversham Hundred, Kent, England

    There may have been other children who died in infancy; that may be the reason why some genealogies state that Ruth was born in 1625 (it may have been a first daughter named Ruth who died young).

    In 1638, Christopher Tilghman, who, according to family tradition, had had a violent dispute with his older brother John, agreed to "seek his fortune" in Virginia. This solution would have met with favor among those who knew his wife's origins and who sought to "export" her to the distant British colony of Virginia.[1]

    In "Cavaliers and Pioneers," by Nell Marion Nugent, it is stated that Christopher Tilghman came to Virginia in the party organized by George Mynifie, a merchant, on April 19, 1638. No mention is made of exactly where he settled, nor of his wife and children (leading some to guess that he married Ruth Devonshire in Virginia, but 38 was very old for either a man or woman to marry at that time). Land records indicate that the family settled on land near the Charles River in Charles City County and later moved across the Bay to Accomack County on Virginia's "Eastern Shore".[2]

    Christopher and Ruth (Devonshire) Tilghman had 2 children in Virginia:

    Roger Tilghman b: 1641 Charles River, Charles City Co., VA
    Gideon Tilghman b: ca. 1652 in Accomack Co, VA
    Christopher Tilghman died in 1673 either in James City County, Virginia, or, as family tradition asserts, at the home of his son Gideon Tilghman, located on the Manokin River in Somerset Co., Maryland. His wife survived and died in 1694, most likely also at her son Gideon Tilghman's home in Somerset Co., Maryland.


    Mayo, ashton, coplin, comer, salinas and lystra families and supporting families - Christopher Tilghman. A well-researched family genealogy that cites the family Bible and traditions, recounting Ruth & Christopher's situation. See also: Ann Devonshire by the same authors.
    See preceding note; cited in family genealogy from secondary sources.

    See also:

    Penelope Blount Countess of Devons on Wikipedia. Lists "Ruth Blount" as one of her 4 illegitimate children by Charles Blount, 1st Earl of Devonshire. This daughter was later called "Ruth Devonshire" by family genealogists.
    Source: S-1299699169 Repository: #R-1552298038 U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900; compiled by Yates Publishing: Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2004. APID: 1,7836::0
    Repository: R-1552298038 Name: Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com
    Source: S-1300436665 Repository: #R-1552298038 Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry.com members. http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=48463223&pid=236

    Thank you to Bob Nichol for creating WikiTree profile Devonshire-17 through the import of Hamilton.ged on Mar 9, 2013. Click to the Changes page for the details of edits by Bob and others.
    Thank you to Margaret Moyer for creating WikiTree profile Devonshire-18 through the import of mmcook3.ged on May 24, 2013. Click to the Changes page for the details of edits by Margaret and others.
    Thank you to Fran Mason for creating WikiTree profile Devonshire-22 through the import of Mason Family Tree.ged on Oct 28, 2013. Click to the Changes page for the details of edits by Fran and others.
    Thank you to Crickett Lucero, for creating WikiTree profile Blount-430 from firsthand knowledge. See the Changes page for the details of edits by Crickett and others.
    Thank you to Chet Snow for researching this person, cleaning up sources in preparation for merging so there is just one profile for his historic personage, on December 1, 2015.

    Ruth married Christopher Tilghman, The Immigrant 0___ 1647, Accomack County, Virginia Colony. Christopher (son of Christopher Tilghman, Sr. and Anna Sanders) was born 0___ 1600, Selling, Kent, England; died 0___ 1673, James City County, Virginia. [Group Sheet]

    1. 15. Roger Tillman  Descendancy chart to this point was born 0___ 1650, Allentown, Accomack County, Virginia Colony; died 0___ 1690, Prince George County, Virginia.

  2. 12.  Dorothy Percy Descendancy chart to this point (8.Dorothy4, 4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 0Aug 1598, Northumberlandshire, England; was christened 20 Aug 1598, Petworth, Sussex, England; died 19 Aug 1659, Penshurst, Kent, England; was buried 20 Aug 1659, Penshurst, Kent, England.

    Dorothy married Robert Sydney, 2nd Earl of Leicester 0___ 1616, Penshurst, Kent, England. Robert was born 1 Dec 1595, Baynard's Castle, London, England; died 2 Nov 1677, Penshurst, Kent, England. [Group Sheet]

    1. 16. Dorothy "Sacharissa" Sydney, Countess of Sunderland  Descendancy chart to this point was born 5 Oct 1617, Sion House, Isleworth, Middlesex, England; was christened 6 Oct 1617, Isleworth, Middlesex, England; was buried 25 Feb 1683, Spencer Chapel, Brington Church, Brington, Northamptonshire, England.

  3. 13.  Algernon Percy, Knight Descendancy chart to this point (8.Dorothy4, 4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 29 Sep 1602, (Northumberlandshire, England); died 13 Oct 1668, London, Middlesex, England.

    Algernon — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]

    1. 17. Benjamin Peircy  Descendancy chart to this point was born ~ 1648; died 11 Jan 1689, Warwickshire, England.

  4. 14.  John West Descendancy chart to this point (10.John4, 6.Anne3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1)

Generation: 6

  1. 15.  Roger Tillman Descendancy chart to this point (11.Ruth5, 7.Penelope4, 4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 0___ 1650, Allentown, Accomack County, Virginia Colony; died 0___ 1690, Prince George County, Virginia.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Roger Tilghman


    Confliting marriage record - John Coffey cites Roger's wife as Susannah Parrum, daughter of Lewis Parrum, which is contrary to James Cocke's citation...DAH
    Hope Nelson Tillman's website, http://www.hopetillman.com/tng/getperson.php?personID=I388&tree=tree1&PHPSESSID=8704e7a1124a598446cebb625c58469e, agrees with James Cocke...DAH

    Conflict settled, Winnefred is his 1st wife - found in http://www.hopetillman.com/tng/getperson.php?personID=I385&tree=tree1

    ROGER TILGHMAN (of 1467), b. circa 1650 in Accomac County, Virginia. He left a family Bible, or journal, to his son Robert. Fragments of this have been retained by several descendant lines. M. 1st 1674 Winnefred Austin.

    Children: Robert born 1675. M. 2nd 1680 (Mrs.) Susannah Parram (or Parham) born 1648 and died 2 March 1717 and settled Prince George County, Virginia. Children: John born 1682, George 10 January 1683, Jane who married Nicholas Robinson, and Christine who married Robert Abernathy.

    Roger Tilghman located on 1,060 acres of land in Bristol Parish, Charles City County, Virginia, 20 April 1689, according to records of the land office at Richmond, Virginia. This patent was for the transportation of 22 persons into the Colony, and was in the form of headrights.

    The settlement was known as Fort Tillman, and was situated on the south side of the Appomattox River at Moneus-a-Nock (Monk's Neck), thence to Gravelly Run. This is now in Dinwiddie County, Virginia.

    On coming to Prince George County, Virginia, he changed the spelling of his name from Tilghman to Tillman.

    Roger TILGHMAN

    Father: Christopher TILGHMAN b: ABT 1585 in Selling Parish, England
    Mother: Ruth DEVONSHIRE b: ABT 1618 in England

    Marriage 1 Winnifred AUSTIN
    Married: 1674 in Virginia
    Marriage 1 Unknown
    Robert TILLMAN

    Marriage 2 Susannah PARHAM b: ABT 1647 in Virginia
    Married: ABT 1680 in Prince George Co., Virginia
    Christine TILLMAN b: 1681 in Virginia
    George TILGHMAN
    From Stephen Tillman:

    1. ROGER TILLMAN, son of Christopher and Ruth (Devonshire) Tilghman, was born 1641. He left a family journal or Bible, of his marriage, etc., which passed on to the family of his first-born son Robert. Why he changed the spelling of his name from Tilghman to that of Tillman is not known. The land office at Richmond, Virginia, show that on April 20, 1689 Roger Tillman received patent to 1,060 acres located in Bristol Parish, Charles City County, Virginia, from Nathaniel Bacon, President of the Council.

    This was for the transportation of 22 persons into the Colony. This would indicate that Roger Tillman was a man of means at this time, since the patent was no doubt in the form of headrights. These headrights were granted to persons who would, in reality, have been "indentured servants," or persons who lacked the price of their transportation from England. This servant class was widely inclusive. In it were farm laborers, mechanics, masons, carpenters, shipbuilders, and often educated but impecunious clerks, tutors and teachers. They sold themselves for a specific period, to planters in the Colonies prepared to pay the cost of their voyage. Not only did the importing planters acquire their labor for "their time," but something that was even more coveted, their headrights. For the period of his service the indentured servant was really a white slave, and as such was bought and sold, given as wedding presents to children, bequeathed in wills along with horses, cows and other livestock of the plantation, just as was his successor, the negro slave. This would indicate that Roger Tillman was of sufficient means to pay the cost of transportation of 22 persons.

    This settlement, known as Fort Tillman, was located on the south side of the Appomattox River at a place called "Moneusa-Nock" (Monk's Neck), "beginning at ye mouth of ye Great Branch and runneth up that branch, being nigh (near) the line of Thomas Lee: crossing Moneus-a-Nock main creek, thence to Gravelly Run." It is believed that the present location of this settlement would be in Dinwiddie County, Virginia.

    Roger Tillman married first 1674 Winnefred Austin. Issue by this marriage: Robert, born 1675. Later Roger married (2d) 1680 a widow by the name of Susannah Parram (or Parham), who died March 2, 1717 in Prince George County, Virginia. Issue: John, born 1682, George, born January 10, 1683, Jane, who married Nicholas Robinson: and Christene, who married Robert Abernathy.

    Christopher Tilghman was born in 1600 in Kent, England. In 1630 he married Ruth Devonshire and they had children: George, John and Roger. Christopher died in James City, VA. Christopher Tilghman is listed in Early Emigrants and Patents of VA. He came to possess Rhodes Court and later sold it to Thomas Carter. Rhodes Court was a manor in the southeast Parish of Selling in the borough of Rhodes in England. Christopher arrived in VA to James City County on 9 May 1635. Roger Tilghman was born in 1650 in Accomac, VA and married before 1675 to Winnifred Austin. He married secondly in 1680 to Susannah Parham. His children are: Robert, Jane, Christine, John and George. Roger owned 1060 acres in Bristol Parish, Charles County, VA. He transported 22 persons into the colony (perhaps including Robert A. Abernathy). His land was known as Fort Tilman and was located on the south side of Appamattox River at Monk's Head. Roger died in 1690 in Prince George, VA. After settling in VA, Roger changed his name from Tilghman to Tillman.

    Also in Accomac, VA was Ruth Devonshire's family and Winnifred Austin's family.

    Roger married Winnefred Austin 0___ 1675, Accomack County, Virginia Colony. Winnefred was born 0___ 1647, Charles City, Accomack County, Virginia Colony; died 0___ 1680, Charles City, Accomack County, Virginia Colony. [Group Sheet]

    1. 18. Robert Tilman  Descendancy chart to this point was born 0___ 1675, Prince George County, Virginia; died 0___ 1737, Albermarle County, Virginia.

  2. 16.  Dorothy "Sacharissa" Sydney, Countess of Sunderland Descendancy chart to this point (12.Dorothy5, 8.Dorothy4, 4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 5 Oct 1617, Sion House, Isleworth, Middlesex, England; was christened 6 Oct 1617, Isleworth, Middlesex, England; was buried 25 Feb 1683, Spencer Chapel, Brington Church, Brington, Northamptonshire, England.

    Dorothy married Henry Spencer, 3rd Baron Spencer-1st Earl of Sunderland 20 Sep 1639, Penshurst, Kent, England. Henry (son of William Spencer, 2nd Baron Spencer and Penelope Wriothesley) was born 0___ 1620, Brington, Northamptonshire, England; was christened 23 Nov 1620, Brington, Northamptonshire, England; died 20 Sep 1643, Berkshire, England. [Group Sheet]

    1. 19. Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland  Descendancy chart to this point was born 5 Sep 1641, Paris, France; died 28 Sep 1702, Althorp House, Brington, Northamptonshire, England; was buried St. Mary the Virgin with St John Churchyard, Great Brington, Northamptonshire, England.

  3. 17.  Benjamin Peircy Descendancy chart to this point (13.Algernon5, 8.Dorothy4, 4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born ~ 1648; died 11 Jan 1689, Warwickshire, England.

    Benjamin — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]

    1. 20. Richard Percy  Descendancy chart to this point was born ~ 1673, Wolfhamcote, Bedford, Warwickshire, England; died ~ 1729, Bedford, Warwickshire, England.

Generation: 7

  1. 18.  Robert Tilman Descendancy chart to this point (15.Roger6, 11.Ruth5, 7.Penelope4, 4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 0___ 1675, Prince George County, Virginia; died 0___ 1737, Albermarle County, Virginia.

    Other Events:

    • Death: 0___ 1738, (Colony of Virginia)

    Robert married Hannah Morris 0___ 1718, (Colony of Virginia). Hannah was born (~ 1690), (Colony of Virginia); died 0___ 1735. [Group Sheet]

    1. 21. Thomas Tilman, Sr.  Descendancy chart to this point was born 1 May 1720, Prince George County, Virginia; died 0___ 1813, Albermarle County, Virginia.

  2. 19.  Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland Descendancy chart to this point (16.Dorothy6, 12.Dorothy5, 8.Dorothy4, 4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 5 Sep 1641, Paris, France; died 28 Sep 1702, Althorp House, Brington, Northamptonshire, England; was buried St. Mary the Virgin with St John Churchyard, Great Brington, Northamptonshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Sunderland
    • Birth: 4 Aug 1640, Paris, France


    Robert was a lady-killer and had several mistresses, whilst his wife was little better: she had her gallants. Throughout his career, Robert, known as Sunderland, showed himself to be an intriguer — treacherous, profligate and rapacious. He supported James II whilst maintaining secret meetings with William of Orange. On James’ fall he declared he was a protestant and so, in April 1697, he was made Lord Chamberlain, although he resigned the following December. Sunderland and Anne had three sons and four daughters.

    Althorp House was built by Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland , in 1688.

    The estate has been the ancestral home of the Spencer family since the 16th century. Their fortune derived from its earliest known ancestor, Sir John Spencer of Wormleighton , Warwickshire, who bought Althorp in 1508 from the Catesby family with the huge profits from his sheep-rearing business.The house was originally a red brick Tudor building but its appearance was radically altered in the 18th century when the architect Henry Holland was commissioned to make extensive changes starting in 1788.

    The interior of the house is generally considered its strongest asset as the Spencer family has assembled an impressive collection of portrait art including several pieces painted by the Flemish master Anthony van Dyck. One of the rooms in the estate is called the Queen Mary bedroom, which was used by Queen Mary and George V during their visit to the estate in 1913.

    Robert married Ann Digby 10 Jun 1655, St. Vedast's Church, London, England. [Group Sheet]

    1. 22. Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland  Descendancy chart to this point was born 23 Apr 1675; died 19 Apr 1772, Sunderland House, Piccadilly, London, England; was buried St. Mary the Virgin with St John Churchyard, Great Brington, Northamptonshire, England.

  3. 20.  Richard Percy Descendancy chart to this point (17.Benjamin6, 13.Algernon5, 8.Dorothy4, 4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born ~ 1673, Wolfhamcote, Bedford, Warwickshire, England; died ~ 1729, Bedford, Warwickshire, England.

    Richard — Mary LNU. Mary was born ~ 1665; died ~ 1705, (England). [Group Sheet]

    1. 23. William Percy  Descendancy chart to this point was born ~ 1684; died ~ 1760, Bedworth, Warwickshire, England.

Generation: 8

  1. 21.  Thomas Tilman, Sr. Descendancy chart to this point (18.Robert7, 15.Roger6, 11.Ruth5, 7.Penelope4, 4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 1 May 1720, Prince George County, Virginia; died 0___ 1813, Albermarle County, Virginia.


    Posted By: Kimberly Catron
    Subject: Thomas Tilman & Hannah Morris - Fluvanna Co VA
    Post Date: October 28, 2005 at 15:17:34
    Message URL: http://genforum.genealogy.com/tillman/messages/1297.html
    Forum: Tillman Family Genealogy Forum
    Forum URL: http://genforum.genealogy.com/tillman/

    I'm working on researching this Tilman line. My interest is Mary Tilman who married John Bush in Amherst County, VA in 1782. Mary's father Thomas Tilman gave permission for her to marry. Unfortunately, the document copy I have does not show whether Thomas signed with a "T" or an "X", so I do not know if her father was Thomas Tilman Sr. or Jr. so I am hoping to find another document to prove the relationship.

    Here's what I've found that I think will be of interest to you:

    Thomas Tilman Sr. married Lucy Hix, daughter of Daniel Hix. She is the "wife of Thomas Tilman" who died in 1763 (not Susan Moon). Support for this is found in an 1811 court record which names Lucy as the daughter of Daniel Hix and wife of Thomas Tilman. Record also names their children as Daniel Tilman, Thomas Tilman Jr., Winnifred wife of Richard Marr, Lucy wife of Jesse Mills and Elizabeth wife of William Walton (Elizabeth and William are both deceased by this date). Record gives Lucy's date of death as 1763 or 1768 and Thomas's date of death as 180_. I do not have the original of this record, only an abstract from Marilyn Poitras' ancestry world tree. Acquiring the full original document is on my extensive "to do" list.

    Also on my "to do" list is attaining full original copy of Hugh Rice Morris' will. I would like to verify the information previously seen. (i.e. did he leave land to Thomas Tilman Jr.?)

    Deed records in Fluvanna County, VA prove that Thomas Tilman Sr. had a second wife named Hannah. Deeds also prove he had a son Jacob (presumably by Hannah as we know Jacob was not a son of Lucy). To secure debts due to Jacob Tilman, Thomas Tilman Sr. deeded personal property to Zachariah Tilman. Rice Tilman (probably Hugh Rice Tilman) frequently witnesses deeds for Thomas Tilman Sr. as does Jacob Tilman, John Morris and Jacob Morris. Thomas Tilman Sr. deeded land to Samuel Coles Tilman but deed does not specify relationship. Thomas Tilman Sr. also deeded land to his wife Hannah, the original deed was delivered to Samuel C. Tilman nearly 50 years later.

    I have several more Fluvanna County microfilms to go through and I hope that I can add to the above.

    Here's what I'm wondering:
    Can the list of children frequently seen for Thomas Tilman Jr. be documented?
    Can any marriage for Thomas Tilman Jr. be documented?

    Any feedback will be appreciated.


    Hello David,

    I'm happy to share what information I have and greatly appreciate anything you might be able to add to it.

    I have not had the opportunity to do any original research on Johannes Tilghman. Stephen F. Tillman estimated Johannes' date of birth as circa 1725 and gave his residence as Snodland Parish, Kent County
    England. Mr. Tillman arrived at that date by estimating 25 years for each of seven generations, so Johannes' actual birth date could be considerably different.

    Much of my research time on the Tilman line was spent on Thomas Tilman St.'s family. My interest is in Mary "Polly" Tilman who married John Bush. Many researchers have her listed as a daughter of Thomas Tilman Jr. but I believe she is the daughter of Thomas Tilman Sr. by his second wife Hannah. Are you a descendant of Thomas and his first wife Lucy?

    Thomas Tilman was born 1 May 1720 in Martin-Brandon Parish, Prince George County, Virginia, according to Stephen F. Tillman.

    21 Feb 1735, Goochland Co., VA. The will of Josiah Woodson of St. James Parish was witnessed by Thomas Tilman (his mark - T ). *Note that if dob is correct, Thomas was not quite 15 yrs. old. Might suggest that Thomas' dob was actually a few years prior or that there was a close, perhaps even family, relationship between Thomas Tilman and Josiah Woodson.

    15 July 1740, Goochland Co., VA. Thomas Tillman witnessed two deeds. 1) Richard Daniel of St. James Parish to James Daniel of same, 100 acres, part of patent to James Daniel dec'd, bounded by Appamattock River and Lewis Jenkins. Witnessed by Gideon Marr, Thomas Tillman and Luies Jenkins. 2) Lewis and Mary Jenkins of St. James Parish to Richard Jenkins of same, 100 acres, part of patent to Lewis Jenkins.
    Witnessed by Gideon Marr, Thomas Tillman and Richard Daniel.

    18 Feb 1745, Goochland Co., VA. "Thomas & Luxey Tillman to Amox Hix". *I only have this abstract, no details.

    11 Feb 1752, Albemarle Co., VA. Geo. Dameril and wife, Ann Thany, deeded to Thos. Tilman, Goochland Co., 400 acres both sides Hardware. Adjoins Benjamin Woodson. Witnessed by Matt. Jordan, Alex. McCaul, Thos. Thornell.

    1761, Albemarle Co., VA. Deed from Wm. Walton to Thos. Tilman.

    28 Nov 1763, Albemarle Co., VA. Will of Abraham Childres witnessed by Thomas Tilman (his mark - T ).

    12 July 1764, Albemarle Co., VA. Deed from Wm. Cox to Danl. McKinsey for 594 acres. Land adjoins Walton, Sect's rolling road, Thos. Napier, Rockfish Branch and Jno. Douglas. Witnessed by John Tompkins, Thos. Hickamn and Thos. Tilman. *No mark noted from Thos.
    Tilman so this could have been either Sr. or Jr.

    9 Aug 1764, Albemarle Co., VA. Noel Burton to Jno. Moor, 400 acres on N side Hardware. Adjoins Rich. Daniels. Witness Geo. Perry, Jer. Wade, and Thos.Tilman. *Again, no mark, could be Sr. or Jr.

    6 Aug 1765, Amherst county, VA. Marriage bond of Jesse Mill and Lucy Tilman, spinster. John Fraser, surety. Consent of her father, Thomas Tilman.

    11 Oct 1765, Albemarle Co., VA. Indenture from Thomas Tilman, Albemarle Co. to Alexander McCaul, Henrico Co., for sum of five shillings. 150 acres in Co. of Albemarle on the Fluvannah River between Great Rockfish & Little Rockfish Creeks, bounded by John Ware and John Henry Gent, land purchased by Thomas Tilman of William Walton. Also 400 acres in Co. of Albemarle on Hardware River between the lands of John Moore & Hugh Morris which land was purchased by Thomas Tilman of George Dameron. Also 11 named Negro slaves, a bay mare, a black horse & colt, eleven black cattle, thirty hogs, five feather beds & furniture, two chests, six pewter dishes and one dozen pewter plates. Provided that Thomas Tilman shall pay unto Alexander McCaul the full sum of Two hundred & sixty four pounds five shillings & four pence half penny with interest upon the 10th day of October 1768 then these presents shall be void. Thomas Tilman signed with his mark - T.

    15 Jan 1767, Albemarle Co., VA. Deed from Creed Childress to John WAre, 400 acres by the River. Witnessed by W. Henry, Jas. Hilton, DAniel Tilman, Charles Carel, Edmd. Winston, Abraham Childers, Geo. Seaton, Thomas Tilman (his mark- T ), Philip Henson, John Melton. Proved 13 May 1768 by oath of Daniel Tilman, Charles Carel & Thomas Tilman.

    27 Dec 1769, Albemarle Co., VA. Deed from Hugh Morris to son Hugh Rice Morris, 400 acres in the place called the North Garden. Witnessed by Jacob Morris, Zachariah Taylor, Thos. Tilman (his mark - T ). Proved Aug 1772 by oath of Jacob Morris and Thomas Tilman.

    7 Feb 1772 Albemarle Co., VA. Deed from Joseph Morriss to son Hugh Price Morris, 200 acres on Totier Creek. Witnessed by Edmund Cobbs, Thomas Tilman (his mark- T ), John Moore and Alexr. Gordon. Proved March 1772 by oath of Edmund Cobbs, Thomas Tilman and John Moore.

    17 Sep 1773, Albemarle Co., VA. Will of Hugh Rice Morris. Names wife Mary, sons John, Jacob and Hugh Rice Morris, daughters Elizabeth Austin, Lurana Taylor and Hanna Tilman. Makes bequest to Thomas Tilman Jr. but does not identify a relationship. Witnessed by George Taylor, Robert R Lilly, Thomas T Tilman and Richard Perkins. *The LDS microfilm of this record is my source. The T is not labeled as a mark but that is what it appears to be. ** Other researchers have used this will as a basis for the conclusion that Hannah Morris was the wife of Thomas Tilman Jr., but it should be noted that Hugh Rice Morris did not name Thomas Tilman Jr. as a son or son-in-law.

    26 Mar 1776. Thomas Tilman was paid for the capture of two guns from the British.

    Well, David, that's all I have time for today. I hope this is the type of information you are looking for.

    This is about half of the transactions I have for Thomas Sr. I also have a couple of references to Lucy, records for Hannah and records for several of the children. Please let me know if you are not interested in these type of items, or if there is anything specific you are looking for. I also have full transcripts for a few of these records if you prefer to have that rather than the abstract. I can provide source for each if you would like. I will try to e-mail more to you in the next day or two.

    Have a great day and God bless,


    --- "ClassroomFurniture.com"

    > Hello Kim.
    > Read your comments and and admire your research re the early Tillman
    > family.
    > Was wondering if you would share more info re Thomas & Lucy, i.e.,
    > event dates & locations. Do you happen to know more about Johannes
    > Tilghman?
    > Would be most grateful for anything you can share.
    > Warmest regards,
    > David Hennessee


    Thomas married Lucy Hix (~ 1740), (Goochland County) Virginia. Lucy (daughter of Daniel Hix and Joan Irwin) was born 0___ 1722, Prince George County, Virginia; died 5 May 1763, Goochland County, Virginia. [Group Sheet]

    1. 24. Daniel Tilman  Descendancy chart to this point was born 0___ 1739, Prince George County, Virginia; died 0___ 1811.
    2. 25. Thomas Tilman, Jr.  Descendancy chart to this point was born ~ 1740, (Goochland County, Virginia).
    3. 26. Elizabeth Tilman  Descendancy chart to this point was born 29 Apr 1744, Goochland County, Virginia; died 8 Sep 1787, Morganton, Burke County, North Carolina.
    4. 27. Winnifred Tilman  Descendancy chart to this point was born 0___ 1749, Goochland County, Virginia; died 0___ 1819, Albermarle County, Virginia.
    5. 28. Lucy Tilman  Descendancy chart to this point was born 0___ 1750; died 0___ 1800.

  2. 22.  Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland Descendancy chart to this point (19.Robert7, 16.Dorothy6, 12.Dorothy5, 8.Dorothy4, 4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born 23 Apr 1675; died 19 Apr 1772, Sunderland House, Piccadilly, London, England; was buried St. Mary the Virgin with St John Churchyard, Great Brington, Northamptonshire, England.


    One of these sons was the Statesman and Bibliophile, Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, Whig M.P. for Tiverton. He was born in 1674 and died on 19 April 1722. He held high office under Queen Anne and George I, being prime minister in 1718 until he was ruined by the South Sea Bubble. This man was thrice married:

    1) in 1695 to Lady Arabella Cavendish, who died 1698;
    2) in January 1700 to Lady Anne Churchill, 2nd daughter of the Duke of Marlborough and Sarah Jennings. (Anne is said to have converted her mother to Whiggism and was her father's favourite. Sadly she died at the age of 28 in April 1716);
    3) on 5 Dee. 1717, Judith, daughter of Benjamin Tichborne, a very wealthy man. When Charles Spencer died, Judith married Robert Sutton, K.B. and died herself in 1749.

    Charles married Anne Churchill 2 Jan 1699, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England. [Group Sheet]

    1. 29. John Spencer  Descendancy chart to this point was born 13 May 1708, Althorp House, Brington, Northamptonshire, England; died 20 Jun 1746, Wimbledon Park, Surrey, England; was buried 30 Jun 1746, St. Mary the Virgin with St John Churchyard, Great Brington, Northamptonshire, England.
    2. 30. Charles Spencer, 5th Earl of Sunderland  Descendancy chart to this point was born 22 Nov 1706, (Althorp House, Brington, Northamptonshire, England); died 20 Oct 1758.

  3. 23.  William Percy Descendancy chart to this point (20.Richard7, 17.Benjamin6, 13.Algernon5, 8.Dorothy4, 4.Lettice3, 2.Catherine2, 1.William1) was born ~ 1684; died ~ 1760, Bedworth, Warwickshire, England.

    William — Elizabeth LNU. Elizabeth was born ~ 1697; died ~ 1757, London, England. [Group Sheet]

    1. 31. Ann Percy  Descendancy chart to this point was born Bef 23 Oct 1709; died ~ 1765, Bedworth, Warwickshire, England.