Ragnvald Eysteinsson, Earl of Mar

Male 825 - 894  (69 years)


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  • Name Ragnvald Eysteinsson 
    Suffix Earl of Mar 
    Born 825  Jamtland, Sweden Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Gender Male 
    Also Known As Ragnvald M˛rejarl  [2
    Also Known As Rognvald Eysteinsson  [2
    Also Known As Rognvald the Powerful  [2
    Also Known As Rognvald the Wise  [2
    Also Known As Rognvaldr Eysteinsson  [2
    Died 890-894  Giske, Norway Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2
    Buried Giske, Norway Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Person ID I53960  The Hennessee Family
    Last Modified 30 Oct 2019 

    Family 1 Ragnhild Hrâolfsdâottir, Countess of Mar,   b. 848, Vestfold, Norway Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 892, Norway Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 44 years) 
    Married Vestfold, Norway Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Children 
     1. Rollo,   b. 846, Maer, Norway Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 931  (Age 85 years)
    Last Modified 19 Aug 2020 
    Family ID F20242  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Frille,   b. (Sweden) Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. (Norway) Find all individuals with events at this location 
    _MARRIED
    _MSTAT Partners 
    Children 
     1. Hrollanger Rognvaldsson,   b. 859, Giske, Norway Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 896, (Reykjavik), Iceland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 37 years)
    Last Modified 19 Aug 2020 
    Family ID F20243  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 825 - Jamtland, Sweden Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 890-894 - Giske, Norway Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - - Giske, Norway Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - - Vestfold, Norway Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Notes 
    • Rognvald Eysteinsson (fl. 865) was the founding Jarl (or Earl) of M˛re in Norway, and a close relative and ally of Harald Fairhair, the earliest known King of Norway. In the Norse language he is known as Rognvaldr Eysteinsson and in modern Norwegian as Ragnvald M˛rejarl. He is sometimes referred to with bynames that may be translated into modern English as "Rognvald the Wise" or "Rognvald the Powerful".

      The earliest available sources regarding Rognvald are mutually contradictory and were compiled long after he died. The best known are the Norse Sagas, although modern scholars highlight many inconsistencies and improbable claims regarding Rognvald in the sagas, and believe that they must be treated with caution:[2] The texts of the sagas were compiled three centuries after the events described and their accuracy in regard to Rognvald's life and historical significance is now questioned. Hence some scholars instead emphasise other accounts, closer to the historical period in question, such as Irish and Scottish sources.

      While Rognvald does appear to have had some kind of role in the founding of the Norse Earldom of Orkney, most historians now doubt claims in the Sagas that Rognvald led one particular "great voyage" - a Norwegian expedition that attacked rebel vikings, who had been raiding Norway from bases on Orkney and Shetland, before raiding the Scottish mainland, Ireland and the Isle of Man. It is now generally believed that any such expedition would have occurred after Rognvald's lifetime. A modern authority on Orcadian history, William P. L. Thomson, comments that the story of the "great voyage is so thoroughly ingrained in popular and scholarly history, both ancient and modern, that it comes as a bit of a shock to realise that it might not be true."[3]

      Modern scholars also highlight inconsistencies and improbable claims in the sagas' claims regarding: the relationship between Rognvald and Harald; the names and biographies of Rognvald's immediate family, and; the founding of the earldom of M˛re.

      Rognvald was the father of Torf-Einarr (d. circa 910) an earl of Orkney. Some Norse accounts claimed that another son, Hrâolfr, settled in France and, under the name Rollo (d. 930), founded the Duchy of Normandy. However, French sources suggest that Rollo's father was an unnamed Danish or Norwegian nobleman, or a viking named Ketill.


      Contents
      1 Traditional accounts
      1.1 Sources
      1.2 Family
      1.3 Death and legacy
      2 Modern interpretations
      2.1 Harald Fairhair and the voyage to the west
      2.2 Founding of the earldom of Orkney
      2.3 Rognvald's brother and sons
      2.4 Similarities to Ragnall ua Ímair
      2.5 Broad themes
      3 References
      4 External links
      Traditional accounts

      Sources

      The oldest account that may refer to Rognvald and the Earldom of Orkney appears to be the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland. These annals are believed to date from the lifetime of Donnchad mac Gilla Pâatraic, who died in 1039,[4] although they survive only as incomplete copies made by Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh (17th century).

      ...for it was not long before this that there had been every war and every trouble in Norway, and this was the source of that war in Norway: two younger sons of Albdan, king of Norway, drove out the eldest son, i.e. Ragnall son of Albdan, for fear that he would seize the kingship of Norway after their father. So Ragnall came with his three sons to the Orkney Islands. Ragnall stayed there then, with his youngest son.
      Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, FA 330. Edited and translated by Joan N. Radnor.
      These events are placed after an account of the devastation of Fortriu, dated to around 866,[5] and the mention of an eclipse confirms a date of 865.[6]

      Dating the Orkneyinga saga has proven to be controversial but a recent analysis has the "majority of scholars in favour of dates between 1170 and 1220"[7] whilst admitting that "it remains to be established when, why, where, for whom and by whom it was written".[8] Much of the information it contains is "hard to corroborate".[2]

      Rognvald is also referred to in Snorri Sturluson's Heimskringla (written c. 1230), written in Iceland.


      Christian Krohg's portrait of Snorri Sturluson, 13th century compiler of the Heimskringla. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Snorre_Sturluson-Christian_Krohg.jpg
      While the Historia Norvegiae (written c. 1505) includes an account of the foundation of the Orkney earldom, as well as some questionable details about pre-Viking Orkney, it has relatively little to say about Rognvald.

      Family

      It is not certain that the Ragnall of the Irish annals is synonymous with Rognvald Eysteinsson. The relevant entry goes on to describe Ragnall's older sons raiding in Spain and North Africa, but there is no specific mention of the Earldom of Orkney. There is also a separate piece of circumstantial evidence, suggesting a link between Ragnall and the 9th century figure Ragnar Lodbrok: runic inscriptions found inside Maeshowe, dating from the 12th century, state that the mound was "built before Loşbrâok".[6]

      There is no agreement in the available sources on Rognvald's parentage. According to the Irish annals, Ragnall was the son of "Halfdan, King of Lochlann". This is generally understood to mean Halfdan the Black, which would make Ragnall the brother of King Harald Fairhair. This is contradicted by later Norse sagas, which suggest that Halfdan was Rognvald's grandfather.[9] The Orkneyinga saga says that Rognvald was the son of Eystein Ivarsson and grandson of Ívarr Upplendingajarl.[10]

      He was married, according to the Orkneyinga saga to Ragnhild, the daughter of a man named Hrâolfr Nose,[11] although in the Heimskringla his wife is named Hild.[12]

      Both sagas refer to six sons. The oldest, "by concubines", were Hallad, Einarr and Hrollaug, who were "grown men when their brothers born in marriage were still children".[11][12] The latter were Ivar, Hrâolfr, and Thorir the Silent. Hrâolfr, who "was so big that no horse could carry him", hence his byname of "Ganger-Hrâolf",[11] is identified by the saga writers with Rollo, founder of Duchy of Normandy (in 911).[12]

      In the Orkneyinga saga Rognvald was made the Earl of M˛re by Harald Fairhair. The Saga of Harald Fairhair in Heimskringla recounts that Rognvald caused Harald Fairhair to be given his byname by cutting and dressing his hair, which had been uncut for ten years on account of his vow never to cut it until he was ruler of all Norway.[13] Rognvald accompanied the king on a great military expedition. First the islands of Shetland and Orkney were cleared of vikings who had been raiding Norway and then continued on to Scotland, Ireland and the Isle of Man. During this campaign Rognvald's son Ivarr was killed and in compensation Harald granted Rognvald Orkney and Shetland.

      Rognvald thereafter returned to Norway, giving the northern isles to his brother Sigurd Eysteinsson.[14][11] Sigurd had been the forecastleman on Harald's ship and after sailing back east the king "gave Sigurd the title of earl".[11] However, the Heimskringla states specifically that Sigurd was the first Earl of Orkney.[15] According to the Orkneyinga Saga, after Sigurd became earl he died in a curious fashion, following a battle with Mâael Brigte of Moray. Sigurd's son Gurthorm ruled for a single winter after this and died childless.[16][17] Rognvald's son Hallad then inherited the title. However, unable to constrain Danish raids on Orkney, he gave up the earldom and returned to Norway, which "everyone thought was a huge joke."[18] Still, there is a tradition among the folk at Strath Halladale, Sutherland, which is named for Hallad, that he returned and was slain in battle at the beginning of the tenth century and was buried near the battle site in a circular trench ten or twelve feet wide. His sword, it is said, was placed beside him in the grave, and a stone was placed in the center of the circle, part of which was still visible at the beginning of the eighteenth century. The site was near a little town called Dal Halladha, Halladha's field.[19]


      A page from the Orkneyinga saga, as it appears in the 14th century Flateyjarbâok. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6a/Flatey_Book%2C_Orkneyinga_saga.jpg/220px-Flatey_Book%2C_Orkneyinga_saga.jpg
      The Danish raids caused Rognvald to fly into a rage and summon his sons Thorir and Hrolluag. He predicted that Thorir's path would keep him in Norway and that Hrolluag was destined seek his fortune in Iceland. Turf-Einar, the youngest, then came forward and offered to go to the islands. Rognvald said: "Considering the kind of mother you have, slave-born on each side of her family, you are not likely to make much of a ruler. But I agree, the sooner you leave and the later you return the happier I'll be."[20] His father's misgivings notwithstanding, Torf-Einarr succeeded in defeating the Danes and founded a dynasty which retained control of the islands for centuries after his death.[21]

      Historia Norvegiae includes some questionable details about pre-Viking Orkney - such as an account of the Picts as a small people who hid in the daytime - as well as the foundation of the Orkney earldom,.

      In the days of Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, certain pirates, of the family of the most vigorous prince Ronald [Rognvald], set out with a great fleet, and crossed the Solundic sea..., and subdued the islands to themselves. And being there provided with safe winter seats, they went in summer-time working tyranny upon the English, and the Scots, and sometimes also upon the Irish, so that they took under their rule, from England, Northumbria; from Scotland, Caithness; from Ireland, Dublin, and the other sea-side towns.[22]

      This account does not specifically associate Rognvald with the earldom, attributing the "dominion" of the islands to the anonymous kinfolk of his son Hrâolfr.[23]

      Death and legacy
      Rognvald was killed by King Harald's son Halfdan Hęalegg and Gudrod Gleam, who engineered a sudden attack, surrounding the house in which Rognvald was staying, and burned it to the ground with the earl and 60 of his men inside it. Harald "flew into a rage" when he heard about this and sent out a "great force" against Gudrod who was then banished. Halfdan escaped into the western seas and Rognvald's death was later avenged by Torf-Einarr, who killed him on North Ronaldsay and then made peace with Harald. Rognvald's son Thorir was then made Earl of M˛re by Harald, who also gave Thorir his daughter Alof in marriage.[24][25][26]

      The sagas thus identify Rognvald as the apical figure of the Norse Earls of Orkney who controlled the islands until the early 13th century, and a forerunner of important Icelandic families. Furthermore, through his son Hrolfr, Rognvald is portrayed as an ancestor of the Dukes of Normandy who, following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, became the kings of England.[11]

      Modern interpretations
      Harald Fairhair and the voyage to the west
      Black and white drawing of a snapshot showing shipmasts with flags and warriors marching below. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Kong-magnus-berrfott-menn.jpg/170px-Kong-magnus-berrfott-menn.jpg
      Magnus Barefoot's army in Ireland. Magnus' actions in the west clearly form the basis of the saga narrative about the submission of Orkney and Shetland to Harald Fairhair's fleet.[27]
      Rognvald's life occurs within the first eight short chapters within the Orkneyinga saga and it is clear that in this early period it contains generally less detail and historical accuracy than in the later events it describes.[28] Recorded in the 13th century, the sagas are informed by Norwegian politics of the day.

      Harald Fairhair's supposed expeditions to the west, recounted by Snorri Sturluson in Heimskringla are no longer accepted as historical realities by many modern historians, including Thomson.[3] Later (mid-13th century) rivalry between the Norwegians and the Kings of the Scots over the Hebrides and the Isle of Man are seen to have driven Sturluson's account.[29] At least in part, the sagas aim to legitimise Norwegian claims to both the Northern Isles and the Kingdom of the Isles in the west.[27] The situation faced by Earl Harald Maddadsson of Orkney in 1195, when he was forced to submit himself to royal authority after an ill-judged intervention in Norwegian affairs, would have made legendary material of this nature of considerable interest in Orkney, at the time that the sagas were written.[30]

      It is also clear that elements in the narrative are drawn from the much later expeditions undertaken by Magnus Barefoot.[27]

      Nonetheless, the view that the Orkney earldom was created by "members of the M˛re family" continues to receive academic support.[31]

      Harald Fairhair's victory in the Battle of Hafrsfjord, which gave him dominion over parts of Norway, is traditionally dated to 872, but was probably later, perhaps as late as 900.[32] What little is known of Scottish events in the period from the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba would correspond equally well with Harald's attacks on Scotland in the reign of Domnall mac Causantâin (ruled 889-900).[33] However, this would not correspond with the sequence in the earliest account of the origins of the Orkney earldom, which places this a generation earlier. The entry in the Fragmentary Annals at an early date also makes it difficult to reconcile the saga claims that Harald Fairhair was involved in Rognvald's conquest of the northern isles.


      The monument at Haraldshaugen, erected to celebrate the millennial anniversary of Norway's unification under the rule of King Harald Fairhair after the Battle of Hafrsfjord. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Haraldshaugen.JPG/220px-Haraldshaugen.JPG
      Other saga material provides an alternative description. In the Eyrbyggja saga the same story of a great expedition to punish unruly Vikings who were raiding Norway is undertaken, but here it is Ketil flatnefr (Ketil Flatnose) who leads it. Although this is apparently done at Harald's behest, Ketil then claims the islands as his own. Once again, the chronology is flawed by Harald's inclusion in the tale as other information provided about Ketil gives him a floruit of the mid, rather than late, 9th century.[3]

      Furthermore, contemporary Irish sources have a great deal to say about Viking raids on the coasts of Ireland and southern Scotland and those who led them, but none mention King Harald. The earliest of the large expeditions again belong to a period-the 840s-that pre-dates the time of Harald's kingship.[34]

      Smyth (1984) credits the launching of the great voyage to the west to Olaf the White, whom he provides with a royal Vestfold origin along with various military activities in Scotland and for whom, assuming an identification of Olaf with Amlaib "Conung" the King of Dublin, there is a contemporary Irish reference dating to 853.[35] Icelandic sources also have Olaf marrying Aud the Deep-Minded, Ketil flatnefr's daughter, and the ''Annals of Ulster'' record what may be dynastic in-fighting between Olaf and his father-in-law in 857.[36][Note 1]

      Founding of the earldom of Orkney
      By implication the Orkneyinga saga identifies Rognvald as the founder of the earldom, although Heimskringla has his brother Sigurd as the first to formally hold the title. Other sources are less specific (see above) and the sagas have been interpreted in various other ways. Smyth (1984), having banished King Harald's role in the voyage to the west to the realms of myth concludes that the role of the brothers Eysteinsson can be similarly so dispatched and that Torf-Einarr "may be regarded as the first historical earl of Orkney".[38]

      Drawing on Adam of Bremen's assertion that Orkney was not conquered until the time of Harald Hardrada, who ruled Norway from 1043-66, Woolf (2007) speculates that Sigurd "the Stout" Hlodvirsson, Torf-Einarr's great-grandson, may have been the first Earl of Orkney [39]

      Rognvald's brother and sons

      Orkney and Shetland at centre, in relation to nearby territories https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/Shetland_and_surrounding_lands.png/220px-Shetland_and_surrounding_lands.png
      The notion that Rognvald could hand over his Northern Isles estates to his brother has been interpreted in various ways. For example, it may be that he was aware of ongoing Viking raiding in the area and considered the gift from the king as a mixed blessing.[40] This is also one of a number of instances in which the writer of the Orkneyinga saga attempts to reconcile the conflicting themes of independence from Norway (Rognvald gifts the islands to Sigurd) and dependence on royal authority (Harald formalises the process by confirming Sigurd as earl).[41] Beuermann (2011) speculates that Rognvald's transfer of power to his brother may have been an attempt by the saga writers to imply that the Orkney earldom had more independence from Norway than that of M˛re[42] and that Rognvald's holdings in Caithness may have allowed for an even greater degree of freedom of action. Such implications are more likely to be rooted in the writer's interest in emphasising Orcadian independence at the time of writing rather than the 9th/10th century events they purport to describe.[43]

      After Hallad's failure in Orkney there is a dialogue between father and sons that has been interpreted as being about Rognvald's desire to cement his own position as Earl of M˛re and an allusion to the early history of Iceland, where the sagas were written. Thorir is a compliant son who Rognvald is happy to keep at home. Hrolluag is portrayed as a man of peace who will go to Iceland. Einarr is aggressive and a threat to his father's position so can be spared for the dangers of Orkney.[44] In the Landnâamabâok version the equally aggressive Hrolfr is also present, and his destiny is anticipated to be in conveniently far-away Normandy.[45][Note 2]

      Similarities to Ragnall ua Ímair
      Alex Woolf suggests that saga authors may have synthesised elements of the life of Ragnall ua Ímair, a later figure, into the figure of Rognvald Eysteinsson of M˛re. Ragnall ua Ímair, who was active between 914 and 921 in the Irish Sea region, was a grandson of Ímar, the "king of the Northmen of all Britain and Ireland", whose death is recorded in the Annals of Ulster in 873.[46]

      There are at least two major similarities between the two figures include: both are grandsons of an Ímar/Ivarr and; like Rognvald, a close relative of Ragnall named Ímar was killed in battle in Scotland (Ímar ua Ímair, d. 904).[47]

      Broad themes
      There are several recurring themes in the Orkneyinga saga, including strife between brothers, relationships between the jarls and the Norwegian crown, and raiding in the Hebrides,[48] all of which are touched on during the saga's coverage of Rognvald's life and times. In part, the saga's purpose was to "explore such social and psychological tensions as these in the history of the people of Orkney, and to help them understand themselves through a knowledge of their origins".[49]

      References
      Notes
      More controversially, Smyth also identifies Olaf the White with Olaf Geirstad-Alf, a legendary Norwegian king of the House of Yngling - a suggestion dismissed by Ó Corrâain (1979).[37]
      In the Heimskringla Hrolfr is banished by King Harald.[12]
      Footnotes
      Muir (2005) Preface: Genealogical table of the Earls of Orkney.
      Woolf (2007) p. 242
      Thomson (2008) p. 25
      Radner (1999) p. 322-23
      Anderson (1990) p. 296; Annals of Ulster, s.a. 865.
      Thomson (2008) p. 22
      Phelpstead (2001) p. xvi
      Phelpstead (2001) p. ix, quoting Inger Ekrem.
      Crawford (1987) pp. 53-54
      Orkneyinga saga (1981) Chapter 3 - "The Sea-Kings" p. 25-26
      Orkneyinga saga (1981) Chapter 4 - " To Shetland and Orkney" pp. 26-27
      Saga of Harald Fairhair Chapter 24 - Rolf Ganger Driven Into Banishment.
      Saga of Harald Fairhair, cc. 4 & 23
      Anderson (1990) pp. 332-334; Saga of Harald Fairhair Chapter 22- King Harald's Voyage To The West.
      Heimskringla. "Chapter 99 - History Of The Earls Of Orkney".
      Thomson (2008) p. 28.
      Orkneyinga saga (1981) Chapter 5 - "A poisoned tooth" pp. 27-28
      Thomson (2008) p. 30 quoting chapter 5 of the Orkneyinga saga.
      Pinkerton, John (1809). A General Collection of the Best and Most Interesting Voyages and in All Parts of the World, Vol. 3. London. p. 152. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
      Orkneyinga saga (1981) Chapter 6 - "Forecasts" pp. 28-29.
      Thomson (2008) p. 29
      Anderson (1990) pp. 330-331
      Phelpstead (2001) p. 9
      Saga of Harald Fairhair, cc. 29-30
      Orkneyinga saga (1981) Chapter 8 - "Troublemakers from Norway" pp. 29-33
      Heimskringla. "Harald Harfager's Saga, Part 30 - Earl Ragnvald Burnt In His House".
      Thomson (2008) p. 27
      Pâalsson and Edwards (1981) "Introduction" p. 11
      Crawford (1987) pp. 52-53.
      Thomson (2008) pp. 27-28
      Helle, Knut (2006) "Earls of Orkney": The Vikings and Scotland - Impact and Influence, Royal Society of Edinburgh Conference 22-26 September 2006. Edinburgh (Rapporteur: Andrew Heald); retrieved 27 January 2014.
      Crawford (1987) p. 55-56.
      Anderson (1990) pp. 395-396.
      Thomson (2008) p. 26
      Smyth (1984) pp. 152-53
      Smyth (1984) p. 156
      Ó Corrâain (1979) p. 298
      Smyth (1984) p. 153
      Woolf (2007) p. 307
      Muir (2005) p. 6
      Thomson (2008) p. 31
      Beuermann (2011) p. 120
      Beuermann (2011) p. 121
      Pâalsson and Edwards (1981) "Introduction" p. 13
      Pâalsson and Edwards (1981) "Introduction" p. 14
      Ó Corrâain (1998) p. 37
      Woolf (2007) pp. 300-303
      Pâalsson and Edwards (1981) "Introduction" pp. 15-16
      Pâalsson and Edwards (1981) "Introduction" p. 19
      General references
      Anderson, Alan Orr (1990) Early Sources of Scottish History A.D 500-1286, volume 1. Reprinted with corrections. Paul Watkins, Stamford. ISBN 1-871615-03-8
      Beuermann, Ian "Jarla Sogur Orkneyja. Status and power of the earls of Orkney according to their sagas" in Steinsland, Gro; Sigurşsson, Jâon Vişar; Rekda, Jan Erik and Beuermann, Ian (eds) (2011) Ideology and power in the viking and middle ages: Scandinavia, Iceland, Ireland, Orkney and the Faeroes . The Northern World: North Europe and the Baltic c. 400-1700 A.D. Peoples, Economics and Cultures. 52. Leiden. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-20506-2
      Crawford, Barbara (1987) Scandinavian Scotland. Leicester University Press, Leicester. ISBN 0-7185-1282-0
      Muir, Tom (2005) Orkney in the Sagas: The Story of the Earldom of Orkney as told in the Icelandic Sagas. The Orcadian. Kirkwall. ISBN 0954886232.
      Ó Corrâain, Donnchadh (Mar 1979) "High-Kings, Vikings and Other Kings". Irish Historical Studies 22 No. 83 pp. 283-323. Irish Historical Studies Publications.
      Ó Corrâain, Donnchadh (1998) Vikings in Ireland and Scotland in the Ninth Century CELT. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
      Pâalsson, Hermann and Edwards, Paul Geoffrey (1981). Orkneyinga Saga: The History of the Earls of Orkney. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044383-5
      Phelpstead, Karl (ed) (2001) A History of Norway and The Passion and Miracles of the Blessed Ólâafr. (pdf) Translated by Devar Kunin. Viking Society for Northern Research Text Series. XIII. University of London.
      Radner, Joan N. (editor and translator). "Fragmentary Annals of Ireland". CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts. University College Cork. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
      Radner, Joan N. (1999) "Writing history: Early Irish historiography and the significance of form" (PDF), Celtica. 23, pp. 312-325.
      Smyth, Alfred P. (1984) Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80-1000. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh. ISBN 0-7486-0100-7
      Sturluson, Snorri (1992) Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway, translated Lee M. Hollander. Reprinted University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-73061-6
      Sturlson, Snorri Heimskringla. Wisdom Library ;retrieved 21 January 2014.
      Thomson, William P. L. (2008) The New History of Orkney. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-696-0
      Woolf, Alex (2007) From Pictland to Alba, 789-1070. Edinburgh. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-1234-5

      end of this biography [2]
    • Ragnvald Eysteinsson, Earl of M˛re
      Norwegian: Ragnvald Eysteinsson, M˛rejarl
      Also Known As: "R˛gnvald", "Rognvaldr Mśrajarl", "son Eysteins glumru", "den Ręadsnare", "Ragnvald ˘ysteinsson", "Rognvald I Eysteinsson", "Rčognvaldr Mśrajarl"
      Birthdate: 825
      Birthplace: Vestfold, Norway or, ęAre Municipality, Jčamtland County, Sweden
      Death: 894 (69)
      Giske, M˛re og Romsdal, Norway (Norway, Ragnvald, With 60 of His Men, Die In A Longhouse When Two of Harald's Jealous Sons Burned It Down With Them In It)
      Place of Burial: Giske, M˛re og Romsdal, Norway

      Ragnvald is the 37th great grandfather of David Michael Cornett ... http://thehennesseefamily.com/getperson.php?personID=I848&tree=hennessee

      Immediate Family:

      Ragnvald is the 32nd through the 37th great grandfather to Martha Ann Millsaps

      Son of Eystein Ivarsson «the Noisy» Glumra and N.N.
      Husband of Ragnhild Hrâolfsdâottir
      Partner of NN Frille (Mistress/es) of Ragnvald M˛rejarl, mother/s of Torf-Einar, Hrollaug and Hallad
      Father of Hallad Ragnvaldsson, Orkneyjarl; Einarr "Turf" Rognvaldsson, Orkneyjarl; Hrollager Rognvaldsson; Hrollaug Ragnvaldsson Eyjafjčorşur, Íslands; Ivar Ragnvaldsson M˛rejarl and 3 others
      Brother of Sigurd Eysteinsson, I, Jarl of Orkney and Svanhild Eysteinsdotter
      Occupation: M˛rejarl, Earl of M˛re and Romsdal, Earl of More and Romsdal, Earl of More, also "The Wise", Earl of Shetland and Orkney, Count of Maer, Jarl of North and South More and Of Ramsdal, Jarl âa Mµri., Jarl âa Mµri, EARL OF MORE, Earl, Jarl
      Managed by: Harald Tveit Alvestrand
      Last Updated: January 22, 2019

      Immediate Family

      NN Frille (Mistress/es) of Ragnv...partner

      Hallad Ragnvaldsson, Orkneyjarl, son

      Einarr "Turf" Rognvaldsson, Orkn..., son

      Hrollager Rognvaldsson, son

      Hrollaug Ragnvaldsson Eyjafjčor..., son

      Ragnhild Hrâolfsdâottir, wife

      Ivar Ragnvaldsson M˛rejarl, son

      Gange-Hrâolfr 'Rollo' Ragnvaldsson, son

      Tore "Teiande" Ragnvaldsson, son

      Gutum Ragnvaldson, son

      Eystein Ivarsson «the Noisy» G...father

      N.N., mother
      About Ragnvald Eysteinsson, Earl of M˛re
      Rognvaldr Mčorejarl, son Eysteins glumru. Earl of M˛re and father of Gange-Hrolf Rollo of Normandie.

      Basics
      Father: Eystein "Glumra" Ivarsson
      Mother: Asdis (Ascrida) (undocumented)
      Concubines: Names unknown
      Son: Hallad
      Son: Hrollaug, who settled in Iceland
      Son: Torf-Einar, who settled in Orkney
      Wife: Ragnhild (also called Hild) Hrolfsdatter
      Son: Gange-Rolf, who settled in Normandie
      Son: Ivar, killed in battle
      Son: Tore Teiande, who became a jarl in Norway
      LInks and notes
      http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORWEGIAN%20NOBILITY.htm#Ragnvalddied894A http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ragnvald_M%C3%B8rejarl http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ragnvald_Eysteinsson http://lind.no/nor/index.asp?lang=&emne=nor&person=Ragnvald%20%D8ysteinsson

      D˛d omkring 892. Han var s˛nn av ˘ystein Glumra. Ragnvald var gift med Hild Rolvsdatter. De hadde barna: 1. Gange-Rolv Ragnvaldson av Normandie. F˛dt mellom 860 og 866. D˛d 931. 2. Tore Teiande Ragnvaldson M˛rejarl. F˛dt omkring 862. D˛d mellom 938 og 940.
      I henhold til Orkn˛yingenes saga gęar Ragnvalds µtt tilbake til «Heite Gors s˛nn var far til Sveide sj˛konge, far til Halvdan den gamle, far til Ivar Opplendingejarl, far til ˘ystein Glumra, far til Ragnvald jarl den mektige og den ręadsnare». Den samme sagaen strekker hans µtt tilbake til en mytologisk opprinnelse til skikkelse ved navn Fornjot fra Finland eller Kvenland.

      Ragnvald levde pęa Harald Hęarfagres tid, og ble av ham forlenet med Nordm˛re, Romsdal og Sundm˛re i 865. Han var av sine samtidige h˛yt ansett for sin klokskap og ble kalt «den mektige». Det var han som klipte Haralds hęar, som da ikke var klippet pęa 10 ęar. ----------------------------- RAGNVALD "the Wise", son of [EYSTEIN "Glumra/Clatterer" Jarl in Norway & his wife ---] (-[894]). Orkneyinga Saga names “Eystein the Clatterer, father of the wise counsellor Earl Rognwald the Powerful…”, adding that “Earl Rognwald campaigned with King Harald Fine-Hair who gave him charge of North More, South More and Romsdale”[141].

      Snorre names "Ragnvald Earl of More, a son of Eystein "Glumra" when recording that he had become a supporter of King Harald who had invested him with the districts of North More and Raumsdal[142]. Snorre records that he was created Jarl of North and South Mčore and of Raumsdal in Norway by Harald I "Hęarfagre" King of Norway after his victory at Solskiel [869] against Hunthiof King of Mčore and Nokve King of Raumsdal[143].

      Orkneyinga Saga and Snorre both record that King Harald granted Shetland and Orkney to Ragnvald in compensation for the death of his son Ivar[144]. The Historia Norwegie records that "principi Rogwaldi" crossed the Solund Sea, destroyed the peoples of the Orkney islands, in the days of "Haraldi Comati regis…Norwegie"[145].

      Orkneyinga Saga records that “Halfdan Long-Leg and Gudrod Gleam, King Harald´s sons by Snµfrid” attacked “Earl Rognvald of More, killed him and assumed his authority”[146].

      Snorre records that Ragnvald was ambushed in his hall and burned alive by Halfdan Haaleg and Gudred Liomi, two of King Harald's sons[147].

      m [RAGNHILD, daughter of HROLF “Nevja/Nose” & his wife ---. Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Rognwald” married “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose”[148]. Snorre names "Hild, a daughter of Rolf Nefia" as the wife of "Earl Ragnvald"[149].]

      [Ragnvald & his wife had three children:]

      1. [IVAR (-killed in battle either Hafrsfiord [872] or Orkney [874]). Orkneyinga Saga names “Ivar and Thorer the Silent” as the two other sons of “Earl Rognwald” and his wife “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose”, adding that Ivar was killed in battle fighting with Harald I "Hęarfagre" King of Norway in Scotland[150]. Snorre names "Ivar, a son of Ragnvald Earl of More" when recording his death in battle during a Viking campaign against the Scottish islands[151]. The Complete Peerage dates the appointment of Sigurd (Ivar´s reported paternal uncle) as Jarl of Orkney to [875][152], which means that Ivar must have been killed shortly before this date. However, as explained below this causes considerable chronological difficulties with the reported events in the career of Turf-Einar, Ivar´s youngest illegitimate half-brother, so should be considered as extremely approximate.

      2. [ROLLO [Hrolf "Ganger/the Walker"] (-[928]). Orkneyinga Saga names “Hrolf who conquered Normandy” as son of “Earl Rognwald” and his wife “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose”, adding that he was so big that no horse could carry him, giving rise to his name “Gčongu-Hrolf”[153]. Snorre names "Rolf and Thorer" as the two sons of "Earl Ragnvald" and his wife Hild, recording that Rolf was banished from Norway by King Harald and travelled to the Hebrides, settling first in Orkney before moving southwards through Scotland, and eventually conquering Normandy[154]. The Historia Norwegie records that, after Orkney was conquered by "principi Rogwaldi" and his followers, "de quorum collegio…Rodulfus" captured Rouen in Normandy, commenting that he was known as "Gongurolfr" because he was obliged to walk as he was too large to travel on horseback[155]. This source makes no reference to any blood relationship between Rollo and "principi Rogwaldi". According to Dudo of Saint-Quentin, Rollo arrived in northern France in 876[156], although there is some debate about [900] being a more likely date[157]. William of Jumiáeges records that Rollo was chosen by lot to be leader of the Viking colonists[158]. Viking raids intensified in northern France. Although they were defeated after raiding Chartres [911], Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks granted the Normans land around Rouen in which to settle[159]. The uncertain nature of the demise was the source of future problems between the French crown, which claimed that it was an enfeofment for which the ruler owed allegiance, and the later Dukes of Normandy who claimed it was an unconditional allod for which no allegiance was owed. A charter dated 14 Mar 918 which granted land to the monastery of Saint-Germain-des-Prâes "except that part…which we have granted to the Normans of the Seine, namely to Rollo and his companions"[160]. He was later known as ROBERT I Comte [de Normandie].]

      3. [THORE Ragnvaldsson "Tause/the Silent". Orkneyinga Saga names “Ivar and Thorer the Silent” as the two other sons of “Earl Rognwald” and his wife “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose”[161]. Snorre names "Rolf and Thorer" as the two sons of "Earl Ragnvald" and his wife Hild[162]. He succeeded his father in [894] as Jarl of Mčore, having dispossessed Gudrod "Ljome", son of King Harald, who had seized Mčore on the death of Jarl Ragnvald[163].

      m ([890]) ALOF "Aarbod/Season-bettering", daughter of HARALD I "Hęarfagre/Harfagri/Fairhair" King of Norway & his second wife Gyda of Hordaland. Snorre records that King Harald gave Jarl Thore his daughter "Alof, called Arbot" after the king confirmed him as Jarl of Mčore[164].] [Thore & his wife had one child:]

      a) [BERGLJOT Thoresdatter. The Historia Norwegie names "Bergliota filia Thoris Tacentis", from "nobilissima Morensium ac Halogensium comitum prosapia", as the wife of "Siwardo"[165]. Snorre names "Bergljot, a daughter of Earl Thorer the Silent" & his wife as the wife of Sigurd[166].

      m SIGURD Jarl, son of HAAKON Grjotgardson Jarl of Haalogaland & his wife -- (-murdered Oglo 962).]

      [Ragnvald had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:]

      4. [HALLAD . Orkneyinga Saga names “Hallad, Hrollaug and the youngest Einar” as “natural sons” of “Earl Rognwald”[167]. Snorre names "Hallad, the second Einar, the third Hrollaug" as the three sons of "Earl Ragnvald" by concubines, adding that they were all "grown men" when their legitimate brothers were still children[168]. Orkneyinga Saga records that Ragnvald sent “his son Hallad west to the islands” after hearing of the death of his brother and nephew, and that Harald I "Hęarfagre" King of Norway gave “the title of earl” to Hallad who “came to Orkney and took up residence on Mainland”[169]. Snorre records that Earl Ragnvald installed his son Hallad as Jarl of Orkney after the death of his brother Sigurd, but that he resigned the earldom and returned to Norway[170]. Orkneyinga Saga records that, following complaints by farmers about Viking raids, Hallad “tiring of his rule, gave up the earldom and went back to Norway as a common landholder” which “made him a laughing stock”[171].

      5. [HROLLAUG . Orkneyinga Saga names “Hallad, Hrollaug and the youngest Einar” as “natural sons” of “Earl Rognwald”[172]. Snorre names "Hallad, the second Einar, the third Hrollaug" as the three sons of "Earl Ragnvald" by concubines, adding that they were all "grown men" when their legitimate brothers were still children[173].

      Orkneyinga Saga records that Ragnvald told his son Hrollaug that “your fate will take you to Iceland [where] you´ll have plenty of descendants”[174]. His alleged descendants in Iceland shown below are as stated in Thorstein Side-Hallum's Saga and Flatey-book's St Olaf's Saga[175] but the accuracy of this information, which has not been corroborated in other sources, is unknown. m ---. The name of Hrollaug´s wife is not known.] [Hrollaug & his wife had one child:]

      a) [JON Ozur . m ---. The name of Jon´s wife is not known.] [Jon & his wife had one child:]

      i) [THOREY . m ---. The name of Thorey´s wife is not known.] [Thorey & his wife had one child:]

      (a) [HALL of Sida . m ---. The name of Hall´s wife is not known.] [Hall & his wife had two children:]

      (1) [THORSTEIN . Aged 20 at the battle of Clontarf 1014.

      (2) [THORDIS . Orkneyinga Saga records that “the mother of…Ospak was Thordis, daughter of Hall of Sida”[176]. m ---. The name of Thordis´s husband is not known.] Thordis & her husband had one child:

      a. USPAK . Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Erlend Thorfinnson” married “Thora, the daughter of Sumarlidi Ospaksson”, adding that “the mother of…Ospak was Thordis, daughter of Hall of Sida”[177]. m ---. The name of Uspak´s wife is not known. Uspak & his wife had one child:

      (i) SOMERLED . Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Erlend Thorfinnson” married “Thora, the daughter of Sumarlidi Ospaksson”[178]. m ---. The name of Somerled´s wife is not known. Somerled & his wife had one child:

      (a) THORA . Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Erlend Thorfinnson” married “Thora, the daughter of Sumarlidi Ospaksson”, adding that “the mother of this Ospak was Thordis, daughter of Hall of Sida”[179]. Orkneyinga Saga records that “his mother was married…to a man called Sigurd” when her son Magnus returned to Orkney, adding that she and her second husband had a son “Hakon Karl…[and] a farm at Paplay”[180]. m firstly ERLEND Thorfinsson Jarl of Orkney, son of THORFINN "the Black" Jarl of Orkney & his wife Ingibjčorg Finnsdatter (-in prison Nidaros 1098, bur Nidaros). m secondly SIGURD of Paplay .

      b) [HALLBERA . m ASBIORN, son of HRAFUNKEL of Steinrodar-Stadir in Iceland.]

      6. [EINAR "Turf-Einar” . Orkneyinga Saga names “Hallad, Hrollaug and the youngest Einar” as “natural sons” of “Earl Rognwald”[181]. Snorre names "Hallad, the second Einar, the third Hrollaug" as the three sons of "Earl Ragnvald" by concubines, adding that they were all "grown men" when their legitimate brothers were still children[182].

      Orkneyinga Saga records that Ragnvald sent his “youngest son Einar” to “the islands” after his brother Hallad returned to Norway and that Harald I "Hęarfagre" King of Norway gave “the title of earl”, adding that his mother was “slave-born on each side of her family”, and stating that he killed “Thorir Tree-Beard and Kalf Scurvy” and succeeded in imposing his authority in Orkney where “he was the first man to dig peat for fuel…at Tarbat Ness in Scotland”, and that he “was tall and ugly…and…one-eyed”[183]. It should be noted that there are considerable chronological difficulties with the career of Turf-Einar and his sons, as reported in Orkneyinga Saga.

      The starting point for the analysis of these problems is the date of the battle in Northumbria in which Turf-Einar´s two oldest sons were killed, which can with reasonable accuracy be placed in the early 950s. If these two sons were at least in their late thirties or forties when they died (a difficult assumption to make considering that they had no reported direct heirs), their births could not be placed before [905/15] at the earliest. The likelihood would then be that their father, Turf-Einar, was not born much earlier than [975/95]. The difficulty is that this date is completely incompatible with (a) the fact that the illegitimate sons of Ragnvald were reported as “grown men” when their legitimate half-brothers were children, and (b) that the date when Ivar, the oldest legitimate son, was killed is estimated to [874].

      ----------------------------- Snorre Sturlason: Harald Hęarfagres saga: «10. ... Ragnvald M˛rejarl, s˛nn til ˘ystein Glumra, var blitt kong Haralds mann da om sommeren. Kong Harald satte ham til h˛vding over disse to fylkene, Nordm˛re og Romsdal, og ga ham rett til hjelp bęade av stormenn og b˛nder, likesęa skip nok til ęa verge landet for ufred. Han ble kalt Ragnvald jarl den mektige eller den ręadsnare, og de sier at begge navnene var sanne. Kong Harald var i Trondheimen vinteren som fulgte.»

      «23. Kong Harald var i gjestebud pęa M˛re hos Ragnvald jarl; da hadde han lagt hele landet under seg. Da gikk kongen i bad der. Og nęa lot kong Harald hęaret sitt greie, og Ragnvald jarl skar hęaret hans; da hadde det ikke vµrt skęaret eller kjemmet pęa ti ęar. F˛r kalte de ham Harald Luva, men nęa ga Ragnvald jarl ham nytt navn, og kalte ham Harald Hęarfagre. Alle som sęa ham, sa at det var virkelig et sant navn, for han hadde et hęar som var bęade stort og vakkert.»

      Ragnvald ble innebrent pęa sin gęard sammen med 60 mann av Halvdan Hęalegg og Gudr˛d Ljome, to av Haralds s˛nner, som vill vµre jarler over M˛re. 1)

      1). Snorre Sturlason: Harald Hęarfagres saga, avsnitt 10, 23-24. Snorre Sturlason: Olav den helliges saga, avsnitt 96. Mogens Bugge: Vęare forfedre, nr. 278. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 50, 76. ----------------------------------------------- Ragnvald's life is described by Snorri Sturluson in The Saga of Harald Hęarfagre (Fairhair): http://lind.no/nor/index.asp?lang=no&emne=asatru&person=&list=&vis=s_e_harald_harfagre#43 --------------------------------------- About the name Ragnvald in various versions: http://www.nordicnames.de/pojk_r/Ragnvald.html

      Ragnvald ˘ysteinsson M˛rejarl (norr˛nt Rčognvaldr Mśrajarl) (circa 830 - 892) var en jarl pęa nordvestlandet i Norge pęa midten av 800-tallet, tilsvarende det omręadet som i dag heter M˛re og Romsdal.
      Ragnvalds µtt Ragnvald var s˛nn av ˘ystein Ivarsson som ble kalt for ˘ystein Glumra. I henhold til Orkn˛yingenes saga gęar Ragnvalds µtt tilbake til «Heite Gors s˛nn var far til Sveide sj˛konge, far til Halvdan den gamle, far til Ivar Opplendingejarl, far til ˘ystein Glumra, far til Ragnvald jarl den mektige og den ręadsnare». Den samme sagaen strekker hans µtt tilbake til en mytologisk opprinnelse til skikkelse ved navn Fornjot fra Finland eller Kvenland.

      Snorre Sturlasson skriver i Harald Hęarfagres saga i Heimskringla: «Ragnvald M˛rejarl var den kjµreste venn kong Harald hadde, og kongen satte ham h˛yt. Ragnvald jarl var gift med Hild, datter til Rolv Nevja; deres s˛nner var Rolv og Tore. Ragnvald jarl hadde noen frilles˛nner ogsęa; en het Hallad; en annen Einar og en tredje Rollaug; de var voksne da de ektef˛dte br˛drene deres var barn ennęa. Rolv var en stor viking; han var sęa svµr til vekst at ingen hest kunne bµre ham, derfor gikk han til fots overalt. Han ble kalt for Gange-Rolv. Han herjet ofte i austerveg.»

      Ragnvald var sęaledes far til sagnomsuste Gange-Rolf som i sagalitteraturen er blitt identifisert som den nordbo som franskmennene kaller for «Rollo» og som grunnla et jarld˛mme i Normandie. Dette har imidlertid aldri blitt historisk dokumentert. Via s˛nnen Torv-Einar ble Ragnvalds µtt giftet inn i det skotske kongehuset.

      Den ręadsnare If˛lge Snorre satte Harald Hęarfagre Ragnvald til ęa vµre jarl over Nordm˛re og Romsdal (og etter hvert Sunnm˛re). Kongen gav ham rett til hjelp av bęade stormenn og b˛nder, likesęa skip nok til ęa verge landet for ufred. Ragnvald ble ogsęa kalt Ragnvald jarl den mektige eller den ręadsnare, og det ble sagt at begge navnene var sanne.

      Kongen skal ha betraktet Ragnvald som en av sine viktigste menn og legenden sier at Ragnvald var den som klippet kongens hęar da han etter ti ęar var blitt konge over alle i Norge. F˛r ble kongen kalt for «Harald Luva» (Lurvehode), men etter at hęaret var skęaret, ga Ragnvald ham et nytt navn, «Hęarfagre».

      Orkn˛yene Snorre forteller at Ragnvald sendte s˛nnen Hallad vestover etter at broren Sigurd var blitt drept, men han ble sęa plaget av vikinger og ransmenn at han ble lei og kom tilbake. Faren ble da sint og skjelte ham ut for ikke ęa ligne pęa forfedrene sine. Den andre s˛nnen, Einar, lovte da at han kunne reise til Orkn˛yene og aldri komme tilbake til Norge mer. Ragnvald jarl skal da ha sagt at det var like greit om han aldri kom tilbake igjen: «For jeg har ikke st˛rre hęap om at dine frender fęar µre av deg, for alle i morsµtta di er trellbęarne».

      Ragnvald utstyrte s˛nnen med skip og mannskap og lot ham dro vestover hvor han kom i kamp med vikinger og drepte dem. Pęa Orkn˛yene ble han kalt for Torv-Einar for han lot skjµre torv som brensel for det vokste ikke trµr der. Han ble jarl pęa Orkn˛yene og en mektig mann, en˛yd og stygg ęa se pęa.

      Innebrent Da Harald Hęarfagre tok til ęa eldes ble s˛nnene hans Halvdan Hęalegg og Gudr˛d Ljome stadig mer misforn˛yd med at de selv ikke hadde noe rike mens faren hadde innsatt jarler rundt om i fylkene. De besluttet da ęa ikke vente mer pęa odelen sin. Snorre skriver at «de dro ut med en stor flokk og kom uventet over Ragnvald M˛rejarl, kringsatte huset hans og brente ham inne med seksti mann.»

      Da kongen h˛rte dette dro han med en stor hµr mot Gudr˛d som overga seg og ble sendt til Agder. Kongen innsatte sęa Tore Teiande, s˛nn av Ragnvald M˛rejarl, som ny jarl og giftet ham med datteren ęAlov. Kongsdatteren ble siden kalt «ęArbot». Halvdan Hęalegg dro derimot over til Orkn˛yene, kom uventet pęa Torv-Einar som męatte flykte, men samme h˛st kom Torv-Einar tilbake og overrasket Halvdan og fikk ham drept.

      Original text: Snorri, Heimskringla, Haralds saga hins hâarfagra: "Rčognvaldr Mśrajarl, son Eysteins glumru, hafşi ¤âa um sumarit gerzt maşr Haralds konungs. Haraldr konungr setti hann hčofşingja yfir ¤essi tvau fylki, Norşmśri ok Raumsdal, ok fâekk honum ¤ar styrk til bµşi af râikismčonnum ok bâondum, svâa ok skipakost at verja landit fyrir âufrişi. Hann var kallaşr Rčognvaldr hinn râiki eşa hinn râaşsvinni, ok segja menn at hvâarrtveggja vµri sannnefni. Haraldr konungr var um vetrinn eptir âi ´râandheimi."
      [...]

      "12. Brenna Vemundar konungs.

      Eptir ¤at lagşi Haraldr konungr undir sik Sunnmśri. Vemundr, brâoşir Auşbjarnar konungs, hâelt Firşafylki ok gerşist konungr yfir. ´etta var sâişla um haust, ok gera menn ¤at râaş meş Haraldi konungi, at hann skyldi eigi fara suşr um Staş âa haustdegi. ´âa setti Haraldr konungr Rčognvald jarl yfir Mśri hvâaratveggju ok Raumsdal, ok hafşi hann ¤âa um sik mikit fjčolmenni. Haraldr konungr sneri ¤âa norşr aptr til ´râandheims. ´ann sama vetr fâor Rčognvaldr jarl hit işra um Eiş, ok svâa suşr um Fjčorşu. Hann hafşi njâosn af Vemundi konungi, ok kom um nâott ¤ar sem heitir Naustdalr; Var Vemundr konungr ¤ar âa veizlu. Rčognvaldr jarl tâok hâus âa ¤eim, ok brendi konung inni meş nâiutigi manna. Eptir ¤at kom Berşlukâari til Rčognvalds jarls meş langskip alskipat, ok fâoru ¤eir bâaşir norşr âa Mśri. Tâok Rčognvaldr jarl skip ¤au, er âatt hafşi Vemundr konungr, ok alt lausafâe ¤at er hann fâekk. Berşlukâari fâor norşr til ´râandheims âa fund Haralds konungs ok gerşist hans maşr; hann var berserkr mikill."

      Ragnvald Eysteinsson, The Wise (830-890), Earl of Sunnm˛re, Nordm˛re and Romsdal, was born in Maer Nord-Tr˛ndelag, Norway and died at the Orkney Islands.
      He was son of Eystein Glumra the Noisy, Earl of Oppland, and grandson of Halfdan the Old.

      His second wife was Ragnhild Ragnhild Hrolfsdottir (Raghldr (Hldr) Hrolfsdâottir) daughter of Hrolfr Nefjaa. Ragnvald was the father of Hrolf Ganger, the founder of Normandy. He was also the father of Turf-Einar, the ancestor of the jarls of Orkney.

      He was the direct ancestor to William I of England, Edward III of England, James I of England, and, therefore, Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. He is therefore the ancestor of most of the royal families of Europe.

      Ragnvald Eystemssčon, allmčant kallad Mčorejarl. norsk storman i 9:de ęarh., ęatnjčot i hčog grad Harald Hęarfagres fčortroende och styrde sęasom hans jarl Mčorerne (Nord- och Sčondmčore samt Romsdalen). R. blef genom sin ene son. Torv-Einar, stamfader fčor Orkenčo-jarlarna och genom den andre, Gęange-Rolf, stamfader fčor hertigarna af Normandie. Af sina samtida kallades han den »ręadmilde» och den »mčaktige». Trots sin ęadagalagda trohet mot konungen čoverfčolls och drčaptes han af dennes sčoner omkr. 890. Y. s.
      Fręan Nordisk Familjebok

      Rognvald "The Wise" Eysteinsson (son of Eystein Ivarsson) is the founder of the Earldom of Orkney in the Norse Sagas. Three quite different accounts of the creation of the Norse earldom on Orkney and Shetland exist. The best known is that found in the Heimskringla, but other older traditions are found in the Historia Norvegiae and the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland.
      The saga accounts are the best known, and the latest, of the three surviving traditions concerning Rognvald and the foundation of the Earldom of Orkney. Recorded in the 13th century, their views are informed by Norwegian politics of the day. Once, historians could write that no-one denied the reality of Harald Fairhair's expeditions to the west recounted in Heimskringla, but this is no longer the case. The Norwegian contest with the Kings of Scots over the Hebrides and the Isle of Man in the middle 13th century underlies the sagas.[1]

      In the Heimskringla, Rognvald is Earl of M˛re. He accompanies Harald Fairhair on his great expeditions to the west, to Ireland and to Scotland. Here, Rognvald's son Ivarr is killed. In compensation King Harald grants Rognvald Orkney and Shetland. Rognvald himself returns to Norway, giving the northern isles to his brother Sigurd Eysteinsson.[2]

      The Heimskringla recounts other tales of Rognvald. It tells how he causes Harald Finehair to be given his byname Fairhair by cutting and dressing his hair, which had been uncut for ten years on account of Harald's vow never to cut it until he was ruler of all Norway,[3] and it makes him the father of Ganger-Hrâolf, identified by saga writers with the Rollo (Hrâolfr), ancestor of the Dukes of Normandy, who was said to have been established as Count of Rouen by King Charles the Simple in 931.[4]

      Earl Rognvald is killed by Harald's son Halfdan Hęalegg. Rognvald's death is avenged by his son, Earl Turf-Einar, from whom later Orkney earls claimed descent, who kills Halfdan on North Ronaldsay.[5]

      The Historia Norvegiae's account of Rognvald and the foundation of the Orkney earldom is the next oldest, probably dating from the 12th century. This account contains much curious detail on Orkney, including the earliest account of the Picts as small people who hid in the daytime, but it has little to say about Rognvald.

      In the days of Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, certain pirates, of the family of the most vigorous prince Ronald [Rognvald], set out with a great fleet, and crossed the Solundic sea..., and subdued the islands to themselves. And being there provided with safe winter seats, they went in summer-time working tyranny upon the English, and the Scots, and sometimes also upon the Irish, so that they took under their rule, from England, Northumbria; from Scotland, Caithness; from Ireland, Dublin, and the other sea-side towns.[6]

      This account does not associate Rognvald with the earldom, but instead attributes it to his anonymous kinfolk.

      The oldest account of the Rognvald and the earldom of Orkney is that found in the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland. The annals survive only in incomplete copies made by Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh in the 17th century, but the original annals are believed to date from the lifetime of Donnchad mac Gilla Pâatraic (died 1039). The annals are known to have had an influence on later writings in Iceland.

      The annals make Rognvald the son of "Halfdan, King of Lochlann". This is generally understood to mean Halfdan the Black, which would make the Rognvald of the annals the brother of Harald Finehair. However, the sagas claim that Rognvald's grandfather was named Halfdan.[7]

      These events are placed after an account of the devastation of Fortriu, dated to around 866,[8] and the fall of York, reliably dated to late 867. However, such an early date makes it difficult to reconcile the saga claims that Harald Fairhair was involved in Rognvald's conquest of the northern isles.

      Harald Finehair's victory in the Battle of Hafrsfjord, which gave him dominion over parts of Norway, is traditionally dated to 872, but was probably later, perhaps as late as 900.[9] What little is known of Scottish events in the period from the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba would correspond equally well with Harald's attacks on Scotland in the reign of Domnall mac Causantâin (ruled 889–900).[10] However, this would not correspond with the sequence in the earliest account of the origins of the Orkney earldom, which places this a generation earlier.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rognvald_Eysteinsson

      Ragnvald I 'the Wise' Eysteinsson, Earl of More (1) M, #104777 Last Edited=28 Oct 2002
      Ragnvald I 'the Wise' Eysteinsson, Earl of More is the son of Eystein 'the Noisy' Glumra, Jarl of the Uplanders and Ascrida Ragnvaldsdottir. (1) He died circa 890, burnt to death in his house. Ragnvald I 'the Wise' Eysteinsson, Earl of More gained the title of Earl of More. Ragnvald I 'the Wise' Eysteinsson, Earl of More also went by the nick-name of 'The Mighty'.
      Children of Ragnvald I 'the Wise' Eysteinsson, Earl of More and Groa (?) -1. Hallad Ragnvaldsson, Earl of Orkney (1) -2. Turf-Einar Ragnvaldsson, Earl of Orkney (1) -3. Hrollaug Ragnvaldsson (1) Children of Ragnvald I 'the Wise' Eysteinsson, Earl of More and Ragnhild Hrolfsdottir -1. Ivar Ragnvaldsson (1) -2. Thori 'the Silent' Ragnvaldsson, Jarl of More+ (1) -3. Rollo Ragnvaldsson, 1st Duc de Normandie+ b. c 846, d. c 931 (1)

      Forrâas: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10478.htm#i104777

      Rognvald "The Wise" Eysteinsson (son of Eystein Ivarsson) is the founder of the Earldom of Orkney in the Norse Sagas. Three quite different accounts of the creation of the Norse earldom on Orkney and Shetland exist. The best known is that found in the Heimskringla, but other older traditions are found in the Historia Norvegiae and the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland.

      Contents [hide] 1 Sagas 2 Historia Norvegiae 3 Fragmentary Annals of Ireland 4 Notes 5 References

      [edit] Sagas The saga accounts are the best known, and the latest, of the three surviving traditions concerning Rognvald and the foundation of the Earldom of Orkney. Recorded in the 13th century, their views are informed by Norwegian politics of the day. Once, historians could write that no-one denied the reality of Harald Fairhair's expeditions to the west recounted in Heimskringla, but this is no longer the case. The Norwegian contest with the Kings of Scots over the Hebrides and the Isle of Man in the middle 13th century underlies the sagas.[1]

      In the Heimskringla, Rognvald is Earl of M˛re. He accompanies Harald Fairhair on his great expeditions to the west, to Ireland and to Scotland. Here, Rognvald's son Ivarr is killed. In compensation King Harald grants Rognvald the Orkneys and Shetlands. Rognvald himself returns to Norway, giving the northern isles to his brother Sigurd Eysteinsson[2]

      The Heimskringla recounts other tales of Rognvald. It tells how he causes Harald Finehair to be given his byname Fairhair by cutting and dressing his hair, which had been uncut for ten years on account of Harald's vow never to cut it until he was ruler of all Norway,[3] and it makes him the father of Ganger-Hrâolf, identified by saga writers with the Rollo (Hrâolfr), ancestor of the Dukes of Normandy, who was said to have been established as Count of Rouen by King Charles the Simple in 931.[4]

      Earl Rognvald is killed by Harald's son Halfdan Hęalegg. Rognvald's death is avenged by his son, Earl Turf-Einar, from whom later Orkney earls claimed descent, who kills Halfdan on North Ronaldsay.[5]

      [edit] Historia Norvegiae The Historia Norvegiae's account of Rognvald and the foundation of the Orkney earldom is the next oldest, probably dating from the 12th century. This account contains much curious detail on Orkney, including the earliest account of the Picts as small people who hid in the daytime, but it has little to say about Rognvald.

      In the days of Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, certain pirates, of the family of the most vigorous prince Ronald [Rognvald], set out with a great fleet, and crossed the Solundic sea..., and subdued the islands to themselves. And being there provided with safe winter seats, they went in summer-time working tyranny upon the English, and the Scots, and sometimes also upon the Irish, so that they took under their rule, from England, Northumbria; from Scotland, Caithness; from Ireland, Dublin, and the other sea-side towns.[6]

      This account does not associate Rognvald with the earldom, but instead attributes it to his anonymous sons.

      [edit] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland ...for it was not long before this that there had been every war and every trouble in Norway, and this was the source of that war in Norway: two younger sons of Albdan, king of Norway, drove out the eldest son, i.e. Ragnall son of Albdan, for fear that he would seize the kingship of Norway after their father. So Ragnall came with his three sons to the Orkneys. Ragnall stayed there then, with his youngest son. Fragmentary Annals of Ireland , FA 330. Edited and translated by Joan N. Radnor. The oldest account of the Rognvald and the earldom of Orkney is that found in the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland. The annals survive only in incomplete copies made by Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh in the 17th century, but the original annals are believed to date from the lifetime of Donnchad mac Gilla Patrâaic (died 1039). The annals are known to have had an influence on later writings in Iceland.

      The annals make Rognvald the son of "Halfdan, King of Lochlann". This is generally understood to mean Halfdan the Black, which would make the Rognvald of the annals the brother of Harald Finehair. However, the sagas claim that Rognvald's grandfather was named Halfdan.[7]

      These events are placed after an account of the devastation of Fortriu, dated to around 866,[8] and the fall of York, reliably dated to late 867. However, such an early date makes it difficult to reconcile the saga claims that Harald Fairhair was involved in Rognvald's conquest of the northern isles.

      Harald Finehair's victory in the Battle of Hafrsfjord, which gave him dominion over parts of Norway, is traditionally dated to 872, but was probably later, perhaps as late as 900.[9] What little is known of Scottish events in the period from the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba would correspond equally well with Harald's attacks on Scotland in the reign of Domnall mac Causantâin (ruled 889–900).[10] However, this would not correspond with the sequence in the earliest account of the origins of the Orkney earldom, which places this a generation earlier.

      [edit] Notes ^ Crawford, pp. 52–53. ^ Anderson, pp. 332–334; Saga of Harald Fairhair, c. 22. ^ Saga of Harald Fairhair, cc. 4 & 23. ^ Saga of Harald Fairhair, c. 24. ^ Saga of Harald Fairhair, cc. 29–30. ^ Anderson, pp. 330–331. ^ Crawford, pp. 53–54. ^ Anderson, p. 296; Annals of Ulster, s.a. 865. ^ Crawford, p. 55–56. ^ Anderson, pp. 395–396.

      [edit] References Anderson, Alan Orr. Early Sources of Scottish History A.D 500–1286, volume 1. Reprinted with corrections. Paul Watkins, Stamford, 1990. ISBN 1-871615-03-8 Crawford, Barbara. Scandinavian Scotland. Leicester University Press, Leicester, 1987. ISBN 0-7185-1282-0 Ó Corrain, Donnchad. "The Vikings in Scotland and Ireland in the Ninth Century", Peritia, vol 12, pp296–339. (etext (pdf) Radner, Joan N. (editor and translator). Fragmentary Annals of Ireland. CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts. University College Cork. Retrieved on 2007-03-10. Radner, Joan N. "Writing history: Early Irish historiography and the significance of form", Celtica, volume 23, pp. 312–325. (etext (pdf)) Smyth, Alfred P. Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80–1000. Reprinted, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1998. ISBN 0-7486-0100-7 Sturluson, Snorri. Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway, translated Lee M. Hollander. Reprinted University of Texas Press, Austin, 1992. ISBN 0-292-73061-6

      Ragnvald ˘ysteinsson M˛rejarl (norr˛nt Rčognvaldr Mśrajarl) (circa 830 - 892) var en jarl pęa nordvestlandet i Norge pęa midten av 800-tallet, tilsvarende det omręadet som i dag heter M˛re og Romsdal.
      Innhold [skjul] 1 Ragnvalds µtt 2 Den ręadsnare 3 Orkn˛yene 4 Innebrent

      [rediger] Ragnvalds µtt Ragnvald var s˛nn av ˘ystein Ivarsson som ble kalt for ˘ystein Glumra. I henhold til Orkn˛yingenes saga gęar Ragnvalds µtt tilbake til «Heite Gors s˛nn var far til Sveide sj˛konge, far til Halvdan den gamle, far til Ivar Opplendingejarl, far til ˘ystein Glumra, far til Ragnvald jarl den mektige og den ręadsnare». Den samme sagaen strekker hans µtt tilbake til en mytologisk opprinnelse til skikkelse ved navn Fornjot fra Finland eller Kvenland.

      Snorre Sturlasson skriver i Harald Hęarfagres saga i Heimskringla: «Ragnvald M˛rejarl var den kjµreste venn kong Harald hadde, og kongen satte ham h˛yt. Ragnvald jarl var gift med Hild, datter til Rolv Nevja; deres s˛nner var Rolv og Tore. Ragnvald jarl hadde noen frilles˛nner ogsęa; en het Hallad; en annen Einar og en tredje Rollaug; de var voksne da de ektef˛dte br˛drene deres var barn ennęa. Rolv var en stor viking; han var sęa svµr til vekst at ingen hest kunne bµre ham, derfor gikk han til fots overalt. Han ble kalt for Gange-Rolv. Han herjet ofte i austerveg.»

      Ragnvald var sęaledes far til sagnomsuste Gange-Rolf som i sagalitteraturen er blitt identifisert som den nordbo som franskmennene kaller for «Rollo» og som grunnla et jarld˛mme i Normandie. Dette har imidlertid aldri blitt historisk dokumentert. Via s˛nnen Torv-Einar ble Ragnvalds µtt giftet inn i det skotske kongehuset.

      [rediger] Den ręadsnare If˛lge Snorre satte Harald Hęarfagre Ragnvald til ęa vµre jarl over Nordm˛re og Romsdal (og etter hvert Sunnm˛re). Kongen gav ham rett til hjelp av bęade stormenn og b˛nder, likesęa skip nok til ęa verge landet for ufred. Ragnvald ble ogsęa kalt Ragnvald jarl den mektige eller den ręadsnare, og det ble sagt at begge navnene var sanne.

      Kongen skal ha betraktet Ragnvald som en av sine viktigste menn og legenden sier at Ragnvald var den som klippet kongens hęar da han etter ti ęar var blitt konge over alle i Norge. F˛r ble kongen kalt for «Harald Luva» (Lurvehode), men etter at hęaret var skęaret, ga Ragnvald ham et nytt navn, «Hęarfagre».

      [rediger] Orkn˛yene Snorre forteller at Ragnvald sendte s˛nnen Hallad vestover etter at broren Sigurd var blitt drept, men han ble sęa plaget av vikinger og ransmenn at han ble lei og kom tilbake. Faren ble da sint og skjelte ham ut for ikke ęa ligne pęa forfedrene sine. Den andre s˛nnen, Einar, lovte da at han kunne reise til Orkn˛yene og aldri komme tilbake til Norge mer. Ragnvald jarl skal da ha sagt at det var like greit om han aldri kom tilbake igjen: «For jeg har ikke st˛rre hęap om at dine frender fęar µre av deg, for alle i morsµtta di er trellbęarne».

      Ragnvald utstyrte s˛nnen med skip og mannskap og lot ham dro vestover hvor han kom i kamp med vikinger og drepte dem. Pęa Orkn˛yene ble han kalt for Torv-Einar for han lot skjµre torv som brensel for det vokste ikke trµr der. Han ble jarl pęa Orkn˛yene og en mektig mann, en˛yd og stygg ęa se pęa.

      [rediger] Innebrent Da Harald Hęarfagre tok til ęa eldes ble s˛nnene hans Halvdan Hęalegg og Gudr˛d Ljome stadig mer misforn˛yd med at de selv ikke hadde noe rike mens faren hadde innsatt jarler rundt om i fylkene. De besluttet da ęa ikke vente mer pęa odelen sin. Snorre skriver at «de dro ut med en stor flokk og kom uventet over Ragnvald M˛rejarl, kringsatte huset hans og brente ham inne med seksti mann.»

      Da kongen h˛rte dette dro han med en stor hµr mot Gudr˛d som overga seg og ble sendt til Agder. Kongen innsatte sęa Tore Teiande, s˛nn av Ragnvald M˛rejarl, som ny jarl og giftet ham med datteren ęAlov. Kongsdatteren ble siden kalt «ęArbot». Halvdan Hęalegg dro derimot over til Orkn˛yene, kom uventet pęa Torv-Einar som męatte flykte, men samme h˛st kom Torv-Einar tilbake og overrasket Halvdan og fikk ham drept.

      Forgjenger:

      - Jarl av M˛re
      (865–892) Etterf˛lger:

      Tore Teiande
      Hentet fra «http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ragnvald_M%C3%B8rejarl»

      Rognvald Eysteinsson "the Wise" Earl of More (830-) [Pedigree]

      Son of Eystein Glumra Ivarsson Jarl of Hedemarken (810-) and Aseda Rognvaldsdottir (812-)

      REF RFC. A Norwegian viking. Jarl of More b. ABT 830, Maer, Norway b. Abt 0857 r. Upland, Denmark d. 890, Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland d. ABT 890, Maer, Norway
      Married first Rognhild (Hildir) Hrolfsdotter (848-892)

      Children:

      1. Rollo the Dane 1st Duke of Normandy (-927) m(1) Poppa de_Valois Duchess of Norway (872-)
      Married second Ermina

      Children:

      1. Hrollager Rognvaldsson (874-)
      Sources:

      1. "Royalty for Commoners",

      Roderick W. Stuart, 1992, 2nd edition. This book lists all of the known ancestors of John of Gaunt, which amounts to most of the Medieval royalty of Europe. Also see the following article: "A Mediaeval Miscellany: Commentaries on Roderick W. Stuart's Royalty for Commoners," The American Genealogist 69 (April 1994)
      2. "Europaische Stammtafeln",

      Isenburg.
      3. "Plantagenet Ancestry",

      Turton.
      Ragnvald I Eysteinsson , 1st Earl of Orkne

      B: abt 0825 Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway S: Rognvald Mere-Earl and Ragnvald "the wise" S: abt 0872 as Jarl of More and 1st Earl of Orkney D: 0894 Orkney Islands, Orkney, Scotland M: abt 0852

      http://www.geneajourney.com/nrmndy.html
      Eystein Glumra, Jarl of the Upplands, b abt 803, of Norway. The identity of his wife is not known. Known children of Eystein Glumra were: • Ragnvald I, the Wise, Jarl of North and South More and of Ramsdal, b abt 832. • Swanhild b abt 846, of Norway. She md Harald I, "Fairhair, 1st King of Norway, abt 866, son of Halfdan, "the Black, King of Vestfold, and Ragnhild. Ragnvald I, "the Wise", Jarl of North and South More and of Ramsdal, b abt 832, Norway, d 890. He md Hiltrude abt 850, daughter of Hrolf Nefia. She was b abt 834. Child of Ragnvald the Wise and Hiltrude was: Rollo/Robert I of Normandy [a], 1st Duke of Normandy, aka Ganger Rolf, b abt 855, Norway, d abt 927-931, prob Normandy, France. He md Poppa of Bayeux abt 886, daughter of Berenger,Count of Bayeux. She was b abt 876.

      Ragnvald var jarl i Mčore, Norge, och čar nog inte lika omtalad som flera av sina sčoner. En son čar sannolikt 'Gęange-Rolf', som blev stamfader fčor hertigar och kungar i Normandie, Frankrike, och det engelska kungahuset samt den som skapade hertigdčomet Normandie. En annan son 'Torv-Einar' blev jarl pęa Orkneyčoarna liksom hans broder Hallad. Ragnvald var gift med med Ragnhild Rolfsdotter, men hade ocksęa barn med frillan Groa. Ragnvalds syster Svanhild blev gift med Harald 'Hęarfager'. Ragnvald (Mčorejarl) blev mčordad (innebrčand) av Harald 'Hęarfagers' sčoner Halvdan 'Hęalegg' og Gudrčod 'Ljome'. Jarl, dčod ca 890. Ragnvald var jarl pęa Mčore. Hans far skall ha varit čOystein 'Glumra'. Han levde pęa Harald Hęarfagers tid, och blev av honom fčorlčanad med Nordmčore, Romsdal og Sundmčore ęar 865. Han var av sina samtida hčogt ansedd fčor sin klokskap och blev kallad 'den mčaktige'. Det var han som klippte Haralds hęar, som dęa icke varit klippt pęa 10 ęar.

      -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Kčallor

      1) Directory of Royal Genealogical Data, Hull, England
      Ragnvald ˘ysteinsson M˛rejarl (norr˛nt Rčognvaldr Mśrajarl) (circa 830 - 892) var en jarl pęa nordvestlandet i Norge pęa midten av 800-tallet, tilsvarende det omręadet som i dag heter M˛re og Romsdal.

      Ragnvald var s˛nn av ˘ystein Ivarsson som ble kalt for ˘ystein Glumra. I henhold til Orkn˛yingenes saga gęar Ragnvalds µtt tilbake til «Heite Gors s˛nn var far til Sveide sj˛konge, far til Halvdan den gamle, far til Ivar Opplendingejarl, far til ˘ystein Glumra, far til Ragnvald jarl den mektige og den ręadsnare». Den samme sagaen strekker hans µtt tilbake til en mytologisk opprinnelse til skikkelse ved navn Fornjot fra Finland eller Kvenland.

      Snorre Sturlasson skriver i Harald Hęarfagres saga i Heimskringla: «Ragnvald M˛rejarl var den kjµreste venn kong Harald hadde, og kongen satte ham h˛yt. Ragnvald jarl var gift med Hild, datter til Rolv Nevja; deres s˛nner var Rolv og Tore. Ragnvald jarl hadde noen frilles˛nner ogsęa; en het Hallad; en annen Einar og en tredje Rollaug; de var voksne da de ektef˛dte br˛drene deres var barn ennęa. Rolv var en stor viking; han var sęa svµr til vekst at ingen hest kunne bµre ham, derfor gikk han til fots overalt. Han ble kalt for Gange-Rolv. Han herjet ofte i austerveg.»

      Ragnvald var sęaledes far til sagnomsuste Gange-Rolf som i sagalitteraturen er blitt identifisert som den nordbo som franskmennene kaller for «Rollo» og som grunnla et jarld˛mme i Normandie. Dette har imidlertid aldri blitt historisk dokumentert ettersom kildene spriker i alle retninger, en av dem som stiller seg bak de tidligere nevnte tradisjonene er Jâon Vişar Sigurşsson i boken Norsk Historie 800 - 1300 (Det Norske Samlaget, 1999). Via s˛nnen Torv-Einar ble Ragnvalds µtt giftet inn i det skotske kongehuset.

      Den ręadsnare

      If˛lge Snorre satte Harald Hęarfagre Ragnvald til ęa vµre jarl over Nordm˛re og Romsdal (og etter hvert Sunnm˛re). Kongen gav ham rett til hjelp av bęade stormenn og b˛nder, likesęa skip nok til ęa verge landet for ufred. Ragnvald ble ogsęa kalt Ragnvald jarl den mektige eller den ręadsnare, og det ble sagt at begge navnene var sanne.

      Kongen skal ha betraktet Ragnvald som en av sine viktigste menn og legenden sier at Ragnvald var den som klippet kongens hęar da han etter ti ęar var blitt konge over alle i Norge. F˛r ble kongen kalt for «Harald Luva» (Lurvehode), men etter at hęaret var skęaret, ga Ragnvald ham et nytt navn, «Hęarfagre».

      Orkn˛yene

      Snorre forteller at Ragnvald sendte s˛nnen Hallad vestover etter at broren Sigurd var blitt drept, men han ble sęa plaget av vikinger og ransmenn at han ble lei og kom tilbake. Faren ble da sint og skjelte ham ut for ikke ęa ligne pęa forfedrene sine. Den andre s˛nnen, Einar, lovte da at han kunne reise til Orkn˛yene og aldri komme tilbake til Norge mer. Ragnvald jarl skal da ha sagt at det var like greit om han aldri kom tilbake igjen: «For jeg har ikke st˛rre hęap om at dine frender fęar µre av deg, for alle i morsµtta di er trellbęarne».

      Ragnvald utstyrte s˛nnen med skip og mannskap og lot ham dro vestover hvor han kom i kamp med vikinger og drepte dem. Pęa Orkn˛yene ble han kalt for Torv-Einar for han lot skjµre torv som brensel for det vokste ikke trµr der. Han ble jarl pęa Orkn˛yene og en mektig mann, en˛yd og stygg ęa se pęa.

      Innebrent

      Da Harald Hęarfagre tok til ęa eldes ble s˛nnene hans Halvdan Hęalegg og Gudr˛d Ljome stadig mer misforn˛yd med at de selv ikke hadde noe rike mens faren hadde innsatt jarler rundt om i fylkene. De besluttet da ęa ikke vente mer pęa odelen sin. Snorre skriver at «de dro ut med en stor flokk og kom uventet over Ragnvald M˛rejarl, kringsatte huset hans og brente ham inne med seksti mann.»

      Da kongen h˛rte dette dro han med en stor hµr mot Gudr˛d som overga seg og ble sendt til Agder. Kongen innsatte sęa Tore Teiande, s˛nn av Ragnvald M˛rejarl, som ny jarl og giftet ham med datteren ęAlov. Kongsdatteren ble siden kalt «ęArbot». Halvdan Hęalegg dro derimot over til Orkn˛yene, kom uventet pęa Torv-Einar som męatte flykte, men samme h˛st kom Torv-Einar tilbake og overrasket Halvdan og fikk ham drept.

      http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ragnvald_M%C3%B8rejarl

      ROGNVALD I ~
      Rognvald , The Wise, Jarl (Earl) of More, Norway, the first Jarl of Orkney and a near relative of King Harold Fairhair.

      The house of Rognvald was one of the oldest lines of rulers in Norway.

      Rognvald "The Wise" Eysteinsson (son of Eystein Ivarsson) is the founder of the Earldom of Orkney in the Norse Sagas. Three quite different accounts of the creation of the Norse earldom on Orkney and Shetland exist. The best known is that found in the Heimskringla, but other older traditions are found in the Historia Norvegiae and the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland.
      The saga accounts are the best known, and the latest, of the three surviving traditions concerning Rognvald and the foundation of the Earldom of Orkney. Recorded in the 13th century, their views are informed by Norwegian politics of the day. Once, historians could write that no-one denied the reality of Harald Fairhair's expeditions to the west recounted in Heimskringla, but this is no longer the case. The Norwegian contest with the Kings of Scots over the Hebrides and the Isle of Man in the middle 13th century underlies the sagas.

      In the Heimskringla, Rognvald is Earl of M˛re. He accompanies Harald Fairhair on his great expeditions to the west, to Ireland and to Scotland. Here, Rognvald's son Ivarr is killed. In compensation King Harald grants Rognvald Orkney and Shetland. Rognvald himself returns to Norway, giving the northern isles to his brother Sigurd Eysteinsson.

      The Heimskringla recounts other tales of Rognvald. It tells how he causes Harald Finehair to be given his byname Fairhair by cutting and dressing his hair, which had been uncut for ten years on account of Harald's vow never to cut it until he was ruler of all Norway, and it makes him the father of Ganger-Hrâolf, identified by saga writers with the Rollo (Hrâolfr), ancestor of the Dukes of Normandy, who was said to have been established as Count of Rouen by King Charles the Simple in 931.

      Earl Rognvald is killed by Harald's son Halfdan Hęalegg. Rognvald's death is avenged by his son, Earl Turf-Einar, from whom later Orkney earls claimed descent, who kills Halfdan on North Ronaldsay.

      Ragnvald ˘ysteinsson M˛rejarl (norr˛nt Rčognvaldr Mśrajarl) (circa 830 - 892) var en jarl pęa nordvestlandet i Norge pęa midten av 800-tallet, tilsvarende det omręadet som i dag heter M˛re og Romsdal.
      Ragnvald var s˛nn av ˘ystein Ivarsson som ble kalt for ˘ystein Glumra. I henhold til Orkn˛yingenes saga gęar Ragnvalds µtt tilbake til «Heite Gors s˛nn var far til Sveide sj˛konge, far til Halvdan den gamle, far til Ivar Opplendingejarl, far til ˘ystein Glumra, far til Ragnvald jarl den mektige og den ręadsnare». Den samme sagaen strekker hans µtt tilbake til en mytologisk opprinnelse til skikkelse ved navn Fornjot fra Finland eller Kvenland.

      Snorre Sturlasson skriver i Harald Hęarfagres saga i Heimskringla: «Ragnvald M˛rejarl var den kjµreste venn kong Harald hadde, og kongen satte ham h˛yt. Ragnvald jarl var gift med Hild, datter til Rolv Nevja; deres s˛nner var Rolv og Tore. Ragnvald jarl hadde noen frilles˛nner ogsęa; en het Hallad; en annen Einar og en tredje Rollaug; de var voksne da de ektef˛dte br˛drene deres var barn ennęa. Rolv var en stor viking; han var sęa svµr til vekst at ingen hest kunne bµre ham, derfor gikk han til fots overalt. Han ble kalt for Gange-Rolv. Han herjet ofte i austerveg.»

      Ragnvald var sęaledes far til sagnomsuste Gange-Rolf som i sagalitteraturen er blitt identifisert som den nordbo som franskmennene kaller for «Rollo» og som grunnla et jarld˛mme i Normandie. Dette har imidlertid aldri blitt historisk dokumentert ettersom kildene spriker i alle retninger, en av dem som stiller seg bak de tidligere nevnte tradisjonene er Jâon Vişar Sigurşsson i boken Norsk Historie 800 - 1300 (Det Norske Samlaget, 1999). Via s˛nnen Torv-Einar ble Ragnvalds µtt giftet inn i det skotske kongehuset.

      Den ręadsnare

      If˛lge Snorre satte Harald Hęarfagre Ragnvald til ęa vµre jarl over Nordm˛re og Romsdal (og etter hvert Sunnm˛re). Kongen gav ham rett til hjelp av bęade stormenn og b˛nder, likesęa skip nok til ęa verge landet for ufred. Ragnvald ble ogsęa kalt Ragnvald jarl den mektige eller den ręadsnare, og det ble sagt at begge navnene var sanne.

      Kongen skal ha betraktet Ragnvald som en av sine viktigste menn og legenden sier at Ragnvald var den som klippet kongens hęar da han etter ti ęar var blitt konge over alle i Norge. F˛r ble kongen kalt for «Harald Luva» (Lurvehode), men etter at hęaret var skęaret, ga Ragnvald ham et nytt navn, «Hęarfagre».

      Orkn˛yene

      Snorre forteller at Ragnvald sendte s˛nnen Hallad vestover etter at broren Sigurd var blitt drept, men han ble sęa plaget av vikinger og ransmenn at han ble lei og kom tilbake. Faren ble da sint og skjelte ham ut for ikke ęa ligne pęa forfedrene sine. Den andre s˛nnen, Einar, lovte da at han kunne reise til Orkn˛yene og aldri komme tilbake til Norge mer. Ragnvald jarl skal da ha sagt at det var like greit om han aldri kom tilbake igjen: «For jeg har ikke st˛rre hęap om at dine frender fęar µre av deg, for alle i morsµtta di er trellbęarne».

      Ragnvald utstyrte s˛nnen med skip og mannskap og lot ham dro vestover hvor han kom i kamp med vikinger og drepte dem. Pęa Orkn˛yene ble han kalt for Torv-Einar for han lot skjµre torv som brensel for det vokste ikke trµr der. Han ble jarl pęa Orkn˛yene og en mektig mann, en˛yd og stygg ęa se pęa.

      Innebrent

      Da Harald Hęarfagre tok til ęa eldes ble s˛nnene hans Halvdan Hęalegg og Gudr˛d Ljome stadig mer misforn˛yd med at de selv ikke hadde noe rike mens faren hadde innsatt jarler rundt om i fylkene. De besluttet da ęa ikke vente mer pęa odelen sin. Snorre skriver at «de dro ut med en stor flokk og kom uventet over Ragnvald M˛rejarl, kringsatte huset hans og brente ham inne med seksti mann.»

      Da kongen h˛rte dette dro han med en stor hµr mot Gudr˛d som overga seg og ble sendt til Agder. Kongen innsatte sęa Tore Teiande, s˛nn av Ragnvald M˛rejarl, som ny jarl og giftet ham med datteren ęAlov. Kongsdatteren ble siden kalt «ęArbot». Halvdan Hęalegg dro derimot over til Orkn˛yene, kom uventet pęa Torv-Einar som męatte flykte, men samme h˛st kom Torv-Einar tilbake og overrasket Halvdan og fikk ham drept.

      Also known as Count Regnvald ("the Rich") and as "The Wise", Earl of North and South More, of Raumsdale in Norway.{"Royal Ancestors of Magna Charta Barons," Carr P. Collins, Jr., Dallas, 1959, p.201-02, states that he died about 894. (Rogenwald = Regnvald = Rognald)}

      Earl of More/Moer in Norway and Jarl of Orkney and Shetland. He had his name Gallicized to Reginald. He supported King Harold Fairhair in an attempt to unify Norway. Norr: Jarl Rognwald (Rogvald, Raonwald, Regvald, Rouis), created Earl of Moer in 885. Roll: Rognwald, Earl of Maere. Norr: Jarl Rogwald (Raowald, Regvald, Rouis), Earl of Moer 885. Married Hilder. Beyond Rognvald, things get pretty confused. Norr has about 25 generations going back to Oden. RC doesn't agree. But some RC names coming down from RC's Odin agree in the upper portion. But the dates are some 250 years different. RC and Kraentzler agree in taking Rognvald back three more generations. Russell goes way back to Olaf the Sharp-eyed, King of Rerik.

      Rognvald Eysteinsson Rognvald "The Wise" Eysteinsson (son of Eystein Ivarsson) is the founder of the Earldom of Orkney in the Norse Sagas. Three quite different accounts of the creation of the Norse earldom on Orkney and Shetland exist. The best known is that found in the Heimskringla, but other older traditions are found in the Historia Norvegiae and the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland.

      [edit] Sagas The saga accounts are the best known, and the latest, of the three surviving traditions concerning Rognvald and the foundation of the Earldom of Orkney. Recorded in the 13th century, their views are informed by Norwegian politics of the day. Once, historians could write that no-one denied the reality of Harald Fairhair's expeditions to the west recounted in Heimskringla, but this is no longer the case. The Norwegian contest with the Kings of Scots over the Hebrides and the Isle of Man in the middle 13th century underlies the sagas.[1]

      In the Heimskringla, Rognvald is Earl of M˛re. He accompanies Harald Fairhair on his great expeditions to the west, to Ireland and to Scotland. Here, Rognvald's son Ivarr is killed. In compensation King Harald grants Rognvald the Orkneys and Shetlands. Rognvald himself returns to Norway, giving the northern isles to his brother Sigurd Eysteinsson[2]

      The Heimskringla recounts other tales of Rognvald. It tells how he causes Harald Finehair to be given his byname Fairhair by cutting and dressing his hair, which had been uncut for ten years on account of Harald's vow never to cut it until he was ruler of all Norway,[3] and it makes him the father of Ganger-Hrâolf, identified by saga writers with the Rollo (Hrâolfr), ancestor of the Dukes of Normandy, who was said to have been established as Count of Rouen by King Charles the Simple in 931.[4]

      Earl Rognvald is killed by Harald's son Halfdan Hęalegg. Rognvald's death is avenged by his son, Earl Turf-Einar, from whom later Orkney earls claimed descent, who kills Halfdan on North Ronaldsay.[5]

      [edit] Historia Norvegiae The Historia Norvegiae's account of Rognvald and the foundation of the Orkney earldom is the next oldest, probably dating from the 12th century. This account contains much curious detail on Orkney, including the earliest account of the Picts as small people who hid in the daytime, but it has little to say about Rognvald.

      In the days of Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, certain pirates, of the family of the most vigorous prince Ronald [Rognvald], set out with a great fleet, and crossed the Solundic sea..., and subdued the islands to themselves. And being there provided with safe winter seats, they went in summer-time working tyranny upon the English, and the Scots, and sometimes also upon the Irish, so that they took under their rule, from England, Northumbria; from Scotland, Caithness; from Ireland, Dublin, and the other sea-side towns.[6]

      This account does not associate Rognvald with the earldom, but instead attributes it to his anonymous sons.

      [edit] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland ...for it was not long before this that there had been every war and every trouble in Norway, and this was the source of that war in Norway: two younger sons of Albdan, king of Norway, drove out the eldest son, i.e. Ragnall son of Albdan, for fear that he would seize the kingship of Norway after their father. So Ragnall came with his three sons to the Orkneys. Ragnall stayed there then, with his youngest son. Fragmentary Annals of Ireland , FA 330. Edited and translated by Joan N. Radnor. The oldest account of the Rognvald and the earldom of Orkney is that found in the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland. The annals survive only in incomplete copies made by Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh in the 17th century, but the original annals are believed to date from the lifetime of Donnchad mac Gilla Pâatraic (died 1039). The annals are known to have had an influence on later writings in Iceland.

      The annals make Rognvald the son of "Halfdan, King of Lochlann". This is generally understood to mean Halfdan the Black, which would make the Rognvald of the annals the brother of Harald Finehair. However, the sagas claim that Rognvald's grandfather was named Halfdan.[7]

      These events are placed after an account of the devastation of Fortriu, dated to around 866,[8] and the fall of York, reliably dated to late 867. However, such an early date makes it difficult to reconcile the saga claims that Harald Fairhair was involved in Rognvald's conquest of the northern isles.

      Harald Finehair's victory in the Battle of Hafrsfjord, which gave him dominion over parts of Norway, is traditionally dated to 872, but was probably later, perhaps as late as 900.[9] What little is known of Scottish events in the period from the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba would correspond equally well with Harald's attacks on Scotland in the reign of Domnall mac Causantâin (ruled 889–900).[10] However, this would not correspond with the sequence in the earliest account of the origins of the Orkney earldom, which places this a generation earlier.

      Rognvald "The Wise" Eysteinsson (son of Eystein Ivarsson) is the founder of the Earldom of Orkney in the Norse Sagas. Three quite different accounts of the creation of the Norse earldom on Orkney and Shetland exist. The best known is that found in the Heimskringla, but other older traditions are found in the Historia Norvegiae and the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland.

      The saga accounts are the best known, and the latest, of the three surviving traditions concerning Rognvald and the foundation of the Earldom of Orkney. Recorded in the 13th century, their views are informed by Norwegian politics of the day. Once, historians could write that no-one denied the reality of Harald Fairhair's expeditions to the west recounted in Heimskringla, but this is no longer the case. The Norwegian contest with the the Kings of Scots over the Hebrides and the Isle of Man in the middle 13th century underlies the sagas.[1]

      In the Heimskringla, Rognvald is Earl of M˛re. He accompanies Harald Fairhair on his great expeditions to the west, to Ireland and to Scotland. Here, Rognvald's son Ivarr is killed. In compensation King Harald grants Rognvald the Orkneys and Shetlands. Rognvald himself returns to Norway, giving the northern isles to his brother Sigurd Eysteinsson[2]

      The Heimskringla recounts other tales of Rognvald. It tells how he causes Harald Finehair to be given his byname Fairhair by cutting and dressing his hair, which had been uncut for ten years on account of Harald's vow never to cut it until he was ruler of all Norway,[3] and it makes him the father of Ganger-Hrâolf, identified by saga writers with the Rollo (Hrâolfr), ancestor of the Dukes of Normandy, who was established as Count of Rouen by King Charles the Simple in 931.[4]

      Earl Rognvald is killed by Harald's son Halfdan Hęalegg. Rognvald's death is avenged by his son, Earl Turf-Einar, from whom later Orkney earls claimed descent, who kills Halfdan on North Ronaldsay.[5]

      [edit] Historia Norvegiae The Historia Norvegiae's account of Rognvald and the foundation of the Orkney earldom is the next oldest, probably dating from the 12th century. This account contains much curious detail on Orkney, including the earliest account of the Picts as small people who hid in the daytime, but it has little to say about Rognvald.

      In the days of Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, certain pirates, of the family of the most vigorous prince Ronald [Rognvald], set out with a great fleet, and crossed the Solundic sea..., and subdued the islands to themselves. And being there provided with safe winter seats, they went in summer-time working tyranny upon the English, and the Scots, and sometimes also upon the Irish, so that they took under their rule, from England, Northumbria; from Scotland, Caithness; from Ireland, Dublin, and the other sea-side towns.[6]

      This account does not associate Rognvald with the earldom, but instead attributes it to his anonymous sons.

      [edit] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland ...for it was not long before this that there had been every war and every trouble in Norway, and this was the source of that war in Norway: two younger sons of Albdan, king of Norway, drove out the eldest son, i.e. Ragnall son of Albdan, for fear that he would seize the kingship of Norway after their father. So Ragnall came with his three sons to the Orkneys. Ragnall stayed there then, with his youngest son. Fragmentary Annals of Ireland , FA 330. Edited and translated by Joan N. Radnor. The oldest account of the Rognvald and the earldom of Orkney is that found in the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland. The annals survive only in incomplete copies made by Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh in the 17th century, but the original annals are believed to date from the lifetime of Donnchad mac Gilla Patraic (died 1039). The annals are known to have had been influential in later writings on Iceland.

      The annals make Rognvald the son of "Halfdan, King of Lochlann". This is generally understood to mean Halfdan the Black, which would make the Rognvald of the annals the brother of Harald Finehair. However, the sagas claim that Rognvald's grandfather was named Halfdan.[7]

      These events are placed after an account of the devastation of Fortriu, dated to around 866,[8] and the fall of York, reliably dated to late 867. However, such an early date makes it difficult to reconcile the saga claims that Harald Fairhair was involved in Rognvald's conquest of the northern isles.

      Harald Finehair's victory in the Battle of Hafrsfjord, which gave him dominion over parts of Norway, is traditionally dated to 872, but was probably later, perhaps as late as 900.[9] What little is known of Scottish events in the period from the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba would correspond equally well with Harald's attacks on Scotland in the reign of Domnall mac Causantâin (ruled 889–900).[10] However, this would not correspond with the sequence in the earliest account of the origins of the Orkney earldom, which places this a generation earlier.

      Earl of More

      Born: abt 830 Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway Died: 890 Orkney Islands, Orkney, Scotland
      Rčognvaldr Eysteinsson, M˛rejarl1,2,3 b. circa 830, d. 894 Rčognvaldr Eysteinsson, M˛rejarl|b. c 830\nd. 894|p314.htm#i5205|Eysteinn Glumra, Jarl of the Uplanders|b. c 800|p6.htm#i8264|Aseda Rčognvaldsdâottir||p67.htm#i8832|Ivarr O., Jarl of the Uplanders|b. c 760\nd. a 800|p305.htm#i8265|N. N. of Throndheim|b. c 780|p67.htm#i8831|Rčognvaldr H. H. Ó., King of Vestfold||p278.htm#i9457|Thâora Sigurdsdâottir||p111.htm#i13338| Father Eysteinn Glumra, Jarl of the Uplanders4,5 b. circa 800 Mother Aseda Rčognvaldsdâottir

      Also called Jarl Ragnald I of Orkney.6 Rčognvaldr Eysteinsson, M˛rejarl was King Harald Fairhair's dearest friend, and the king had the greatest regard for him.4 Also called Jarl Rognvaldr of M˛re.7 He was per late Icelandic sources, for which there is no good reason to believe that these generations are historical, a son of Eysteinn Glumra, son of Ívarr, son of Hâalfdan the Old.7 Rčognvaldr Eysteinsson, M˛rejarl also went by the name of Ragnvald "the Wise".4,5 He associated with unknown , a concubine.8 Rčognvaldr Eysteinsson, M˛rejarl was born circa 830 at Maer, Norway. He was the son of Eysteinn Glumra, Jarl of the Uplanders and Aseda Rčognvaldsdâottir.4,5 Rčognvaldr Eysteinsson, M˛rejarl became one of H [1]
    • Earl Rognvald joined Harold fair-hair when he seized the land, but he (Harold) gave him lordship over both the Mµren and Romsdale; (7) he had to wife Ragnhilda the daughter of Hrolf nosy; their son was Hrolf who won Normandy, he was so tall that horses could not carry him; for that he was called Ganging-Hrolf; from him are come the Rouen Jarls and the English Kings; their son was also Ivar, and Thorir the silent.

      Rognvald had also base-born sons, their names were Hallad and Hrollaug and Einar, he was the youngest.

      end of this commentary [3]

  • Sources 
    1. [S14723] "Ragnvald Eysteinsson (825-894)", Profile, Biography, Parents & Issue, https://www.geni.com/people/Ragnvald-Eysteinsson-.

    2. [S14755] Rognvald Eysteinsson, Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rognvald_Eysteinsson, This person, place, event, location.

    3. [S14757] "THE ORKNEYINGERS’ SAGA", https://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/ice/is3/is302.htm, This person, place, event, location, docum.