Donald II of Scotland, King of Alba

Donald II of Scotland, King of Alba

Male (0850-0860) - 0900

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  • Name Donald II of Scotland 
    Suffix King of Alba 
    Born (0850-0860)  (Scotland) Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Gender Male 
    Also Known As King of the Picts  [2
    Died 0900  Forres, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    • A brief history and overview of Forres; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forres

      The earliest written reference to Forres may be the ????a? e?s??s?? (Ou‚arar e‚ischysis, 'Varar Estuary') mentioned in the second century Geography of Claudius Ptolemy. A royal castle was present in the area from at least 900 AD, and around 1140 AD Forres became a royal burgh. Royal burghs were founded by the Kings of Scots of the 12th century to encourage trade and economic improvement. The local abbey was plundered by the Wolf of Badenoch.

      On 23 June 1496 King James IV of Scotland issued a Royal Charter laying down the rights and privileges that the town's people are believed to have held by an earlier charter since the reign of King David I some 300 years earlier.
    Buried Isle of Iona, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  [3
    Person ID I51111  The Hennessee Family
    Last Modified 24 Mar 2018 

    Family unnamed spouse 
    Married Y  [2
    Children 
     1. Malcolm I of Scotland, King of Alba,   b. 0897, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 0954, Auldearn, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 57 years)
    Last Modified 14 Dec 2018 
    Family ID F19041  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - (0850-0860) - (Scotland) Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 0900 - Forres, Scotland Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - - Isle of Iona, Scotland Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photos
    Donald II
    Donald II

  • Notes 
    • Donald II (a.k.a. Domnall mac Causant‚in and Domnall II) lived from 862 to 900 and was King of Alba from 889 to 900. The wider picture in Scotland at the time is set out in our Historical Timeline.

      Donald II was the son of King Constantine I of the Picts and Scots, and it is arguable that he should have succeeded to the throne on the death of his uncle, King Aedh. However, Aedh's murder in 878 was followed by the joint rule of Eochaid and Giric. In 889 Eochaid tried to gain sole control of the crown by commissioning Donald to kill Giric. This Donald did, at Dundurn near St Fillans at the eastern end of Loch Earn. He then went on to exile Eochaid, before taking the crown for himself.

      However dubious Eochaid's claims to the Crown of the Picts and Scots had been, he claim to be King of Strathclyde was much stronger. When Eochaid was exiled by Donald II to Gwynedd in Wales most of the nobility of Strathclyde left with him, and Donald II combined the Crowns of the Picts and Scots and the Crown of Strathclyde, becoming the first person to be referred to in his own time as King of Alba. Alba had been an entity since the merging of the Crowns of the Picts and the Scots by Kenneth I in 843; but until Donald, Kings had taken the title King of Picts or King of the Picts and Scots.

      Donald II's reign was a turbulent one. During it, much of northern Scotland fell under the control of the Vikings under Sigurd the Mighty. He was also the first Scottish King (though not the last) to be recorded as fighting against Highlanders.

      Donald was killed in battle by the Danes at Dunnottar, in 900 and was buried in the graveyard at Saint Oran's Chapel on the Isle of Iona. His successor was his cousin, King Constantine II. Donald's son, Malcolm, later became King Malcolm I.

      end of biography [3]
    • Domnall mac Causant‚in (Modern Gaelic: DŠomhnall mac ChŠoiseim),[1] anglicised as Donald II (died 900) was King of the Picts or King of Scotland (Alba) in the late 9th century. He was the son of Constantine I (Causant‚in mac Cin‚aeda). Donald is given the epithet D‚asachtach, "the Madman", by The Prophecy of Berch‚an.[2]

      Life

      Donald became king on the death or deposition of Giric (Giric mac D‚ungail), the date of which is not certainly known but usually placed in 889. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba reports:

      Doniualdus son of Constantini held the kingdom for 11 years [889Ė900]. The Northmen wasted Pictland at this time. In his reign a battle occurred between Danes and Scots at Innisibsolian where the Scots had victory. He was killed at Opidum Fother [modern Dunnottar] by the Gentiles.[3]

      It has been suggested that the attack on Dunnottar, rather than being a small raid by a handful of pirates, may be associated with the ravaging of Scotland attributed to Harald Fairhair in the Heimskringla.[4] The Prophecy of Berch‚an places Donald's death at Dunnottar, but appears to attribute it to Gaels rather than Norsemen; other sources report he died at Forres.[5] Donald's death is dated to 900 by the Annals of Ulster and the Chronicon Scotorum, where he is called king of Alba, rather than king of the Picts. He was buried on Iona. Like his father, Constantine, he died a violent death at a premature age.

      The change from king of the Picts to king of Alba is seen as indicating a step towards the kingdom of the Scots, but historians, while divided as to when this change should be placed, do not generally attribute it to Donald in view of his epithet.[6] The consensus view is that the key changes occurred in the reign of Constantine II (Causant‚in mac Ńeda),[7] but the reign of Giric has also been proposed.[8]

      The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba has Donald succeeded by his cousin Constantine II. Donald's son Malcolm (M‚ael Coluim mac Domnall) was later king as Malcolm I. The Prophecy of Berch‚an appears to suggest that another king reigned for a short while between Donald II and Constantine II, saying "half a day will he take sovereignty". Possible confirmation of this exists in the Chronicon Scotorum, where the death of "Ead, king of the Picts" in battle against the U‚i Õmair is reported in 904. This, however, is thought to be an error, referring perhaps to •dwulf, the ruler of Bernicia, whose death is reported in 913 by the other Irish annals.[9]

      end of biography [2]
    • Timeline: Prehistory to 1000

      8500 BC: The date of the oldest human settlement yet found in Scotland, at Cramond, near Edinburgh.

      3000 BC: Maeshowe chambered tomb is built on Orkney.

      3000 BC: Alleged date of origin of the Fortingall Yew, probably the world's oldest living thing.

      3000 BC: Occupation of what may be the first Crannog or artificial islet residence, on the islet Eilean Domhnuill on Loch Olabhat in North Uist.

      2500 BC to 2000 BC: Stone village of Skara Brae on Orkney in occupation.

      1400 BC: The era of Scota, the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh, who features in the foundation myth of Ireland an Scotland, and who Scotland is named after.

      500 BC: Crannogs, houses built on stilts or artificial islets, begin to appear widely on Scottish lochs.

      200 BC: According to Irish legend, the "School for Heroes" is run by the warrior queen Sc‚athach, or Sgathach, at her fortress D‚un Sc‚aith, near Tarskavaig on Skye.

      200 BC to AD 200: Building and occupation of Brochs, circular stone defensive towers.

      20 BC: Pontius Pilate, later to become the Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, is born at Fortingall.

      AD 80: Julius Agricola Roman Governor of Britain, invades Scotland, reaching a line between the Rivers Clyde and Forth by AD 82.

      AD 83: Julius Agricola invades northern Scotland.

      AD 84: The Battle of Mons Graupius takes place at a location still uncertain. The Romans under Julius Agricola convincingly defeat the Caledonians under Calgacus. They fail to press home their advantage, however, and instead establish a defensive line of forts extending north east from Loch Lomond to Stonehaven to guard the exits from the main highland glens.

      AD 105: The Romans withdraw from Scotland to a defensive line between the Rivers Solway and Tyne. This is fortified as Hadrian's Wall from AD 121.

      AD 139: The Romans advance again, to a line between the Forth and Clyde and build the Antonine Wall.

      AD 170: The Romans withdraw to Hadrian's Wall once more.

      AD 208: Roman Emperor Septimius Severus launches the last campaign intended to conquer Scotland, establishing a major base at Cramond, on the site of a fort built in AD 142.

      AD 211: Septimius Severus dies in York. His successor Caracalla abandons territory north of Hadrians Wall and in 212 the Romans withdraw from what will later become Scotland for the final time.

      AD 250: The first raids take place in western Scotland by the strong Irish tribe, the Scots.

      AD 367: The Picti, or the Picts, push the Romans back from Hadrian's Wall. "Picti" is the Romans' disparaging slang for their northern neighbours, meaning the painted (or tattooed) ones.

      AD 397: Saint Ninian dedicates the first Christian church in Scotland, the Candida Casa at Whithorn, to St Martin.

      AD 500: Increased migration of Scoti or Scots from Ireland to Scotland leads to the establishment of the kingdom of Dalriada in what is now Argyll, with its capital at Dunadd in Kilmartin Glen.

      AD 500: King of the Scots of Dalriada, Fergus Mor fights both the Picts to the east and the Britons of Strathclyde to the south for land.

      10 March 520: St Kessog, the original patron saint of Scotland, is killed at Bandry, on the western shore of Loch Lomond.

      7 December 521: The birth in County Donegal in Ireland of the man who would go on to become Saint Columba.

      AD 550: The Angles establish Bernicia, later called Northumbria, with boundaries extending south to Yorkshire.

      AD 552: St Mungo or St Kentigern founds a church on part of the site that later became Glasgow Cathedral.

      AD 562: St Moluag founds a settlement on the Isle of Lismore in the mouth of Loch Linnhe.

      12 May 563: Saint Columba and twelve companions land on the island of Iona to establish a monastery.

      25 June 592: St Moluag dies in Rosemarkie.

      9 June 597: St Columba dies in his monastery at Iona.

      13 January 614: St Mungo or St Kentigern dies, and is buried at his church in Clas-gu which later becomes Glasgow.

      17 April 617: Saint Donan and 52 of his followers are murdered during a raid on their monastery on the Island of Eigg.

      AD 638: Edinburgh - Din Eidyn - is overrun by the Angles of the Kingdom of Northumbria.

      3 January 642: The birth in Ireland of Saint Maelrubha, a monk who founded a monastery at what is now Applecross.

      5 August 642: The death at the Battle of Maserfield (near modern Oswestry) of King Oswald of Northumbria, later known as St Oswald.

      31 August 651: The death in what is now St Aidan's Church in Bamburgh of St Aidan of Lindisfarne, the Apostle of Northumbria.

      AD 672: A Pictish uprising against the Kingdom of Northumbria is suppressed.

      AD 678: St Nathalan dies on Deeside.


      Clickable Index Map


      8500 BC: The date of the oldest human settlement yet found in Scotland, at Cramond, near Edinburgh.

      3000 BC: Maeshowe chambered tomb is built on Orkney.

      3000 BC: Alleged date of origin of the Fortingall Yew, probably the world's oldest living thing.

      3000 BC: Occupation of what may be the first Crannog or artificial islet residence, on the islet Eilean Domhnuill on Loch Olabhat in North Uist.

      2500 BC to 2000 BC: Stone village of Skara Brae on Orkney in occupation.

      1400 BC: The era of Scota, the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh, who features in the foundation myth of Ireland an Scotland, and who Scotland is named after.

      500 BC: Crannogs, houses built on stilts or artificial islets, begin to appear widely on Scottish lochs.

      200 BC: According to Irish legend, the "School for Heroes" is run by the warrior queen Sc‚athach, or Sgathach, at her fortress D‚un Sc‚aith, near Tarskavaig on Skye.

      200 BC to AD 200: Building and occupation of Brochs, circular stone defensive towers.

      20 BC: Pontius Pilate, later to become the Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, is born at Fortingall.

      AD 80: Julius Agricola Roman Governor of Britain, invades Scotland, reaching a line between the Rivers Clyde and Forth by AD 82.

      AD 83: Julius Agricola invades northern Scotland.

      AD 84: The Battle of Mons Graupius takes place at a location still uncertain. The Romans under Julius Agricola convincingly defeat the Caledonians under Calgacus. They fail to press home their advantage, however, and instead establish a defensive line of forts extending north east from Loch Lomond to Stonehaven to guard the exits from the main highland glens.

      AD 105: The Romans withdraw from Scotland to a defensive line between the Rivers Solway and Tyne. This is fortified as Hadrian's Wall from AD 121.

      AD 139: The Romans advance again, to a line between the Forth and Clyde and build the Antonine Wall.

      AD 170: The Romans withdraw to Hadrian's Wall once more.

      AD 208: Roman Emperor Septimius Severus launches the last campaign intended to conquer Scotland, establishing a major base at Cramond, on the site of a fort built in AD 142.

      AD 211: Septimius Severus dies in York. His successor Caracalla abandons territory north of Hadrians Wall and in 212 the Romans withdraw from what will later become Scotland for the final time.

      AD 250: The first raids take place in western Scotland by the strong Irish tribe, the Scots.

      AD 367: The Picti, or the Picts, push the Romans back from Hadrian's Wall. "Picti" is the Romans' disparaging slang for their northern neighbours, meaning the painted (or tattooed) ones.

      AD 397: Saint Ninian dedicates the first Christian church in Scotland, the Candida Casa at Whithorn, to St Martin.

      AD 500: Increased migration of Scoti or Scots from Ireland to Scotland leads to the establishment of the kingdom of Dalriada in what is now Argyll, with its capital at Dunadd in Kilmartin Glen.

      AD 500: King of the Scots of Dalriada, Fergus Mor fights both the Picts to the east and the Britons of Strathclyde to the south for land.

      10 March 520: St Kessog, the original patron saint of Scotland, is killed at Bandry, on the western shore of Loch Lomond.

      7 December 521: The birth in County Donegal in Ireland of the man who would go on to become Saint Columba.

      AD 550: The Angles establish Bernicia, later called Northumbria, with boundaries extending south to Yorkshire.

      AD 552: St Mungo or St Kentigern founds a church on part of the site that later became Glasgow Cathedral.

      AD 562: St Moluag founds a settlement on the Isle of Lismore in the mouth of Loch Linnhe.

      12 May 563: Saint Columba and twelve companions land on the island of Iona to establish a monastery.

      25 June 592: St Moluag dies in Rosemarkie.

      9 June 597: St Columba dies in his monastery at Iona.

      13 January 614: St Mungo or St Kentigern dies, and is buried at his church in Clas-gu which later becomes Glasgow.

      17 April 617: Saint Donan and 52 of his followers are murdered during a raid on their monastery on the Island of Eigg.

      AD 638: Edinburgh - Din Eidyn - is overrun by the Angles of the Kingdom of Northumbria.

      3 January 642: The birth in Ireland of Saint Maelrubha, a monk who founded a monastery at what is now Applecross.

      5 August 642: The death at the Battle of Maserfield (near modern Oswestry) of King Oswald of Northumbria, later known as St Oswald.

      31 August 651: The death in what is now St Aidan's Church in Bamburgh of St Aidan of Lindisfarne, the Apostle of Northumbria.

      AD 672: A Pictish uprising against the Kingdom of Northumbria is suppressed.

      AD 678: St Nathalan dies on Deeside.

      20 May 685: The Battle of Dunnichen or Nechtansmere, near Forfar. King Ecgfrith of Northumbria is decisively defeated by the Picts, paving the way for the development of a separate Scottish nation. The battle is later depicted on a cross slab at Aberlemno Kirk.

      20 March 687: The death on Inner Farne Island of St Cuthbert, the a monk, bishop and hermit regarded as the patron saint of northern England.

      23 September 704: The death of Adomn‚an of Iona, also known as Saint Adomn‚an. He was Abbot of Iona, the author of the Life of Columba and the promoter of the hugely influential Law of Adomn‚an.

      6 March 757: The death on Bass Rock of Saint Baldred of Tyninghame.

      8 June 793: The monastery at Lindisfarne suffers its first raid by Vikings. Others will follow, leading to the abandonment of the monastery in 875.

      795: First recorded Viking raid (probably from Orkney), on Iona, which is raided twice more in the following decade.

      839: The Picts, who have controlled all of Scotland north of the Forth and Clyde except for Argyll, suffer a heavy defeat at the hands of the Vikings. Most of the Pictish nobility is wiped out in the defeat, including King Bridei VI.

      843: Kenneth Mac Alpin becomes King of the Scots of Dalriada; and later becomes King of the Picts of Pictland as well, unifying the main groups in Scotland north of the Forth-Clyde line for the first time within the Kingdom of Alba.

      850: Viking pressure leads to the relocation of the capital of Alba from Argyll to Scone, near Perth. The religious centre, and the relics of St Columba, moves from Iona to Dunkeld.

      850: Kenneth Mac Alpin, also known as Kenneth I, raids Northumbria six times in the 850s.

      858: Kenneth Mac Alpin is succeeded by Donald I.

      863: Donald I is succeeded by Constantine I.

      870: Following a 15 week siege the Vikings capture the fortress at Dumbarton Rock guarding the entrance to the Clyde and the British Kingdom of Strathclyde.

      872: Constantine I arranges the death of the King of Strathclyde in 872. He replaces him with his own brother in law, Rhun: effectively making Strathclyde a subordinate kingdom to Alba.

      877: Constantine I is succeeded by King Aedh.

      878: King Aedh is succeeded by the joint rule of Kings Eochaid and Giric.

      889: Kings Eochaid and Giric are succeeded by Donald II.

      890: The Vikings capture the Pictish fortress at Dunnottar, near Stonehaven.

      900: Constantine II succeeds Donald II and helps incorporate Viking settlers into the emerging Kingdom of Scotland.

      937: A joint army comprising Constantine II's Scots and Olaf III Guthfrithson's Vikings is defeated at the Battle of Brunanburh by King Athelstan of England in 937: largely securing the future of what is to become England.

      943: Constantine II is succeeded by Malcolm I.

      945: Edmund, a Danish King ruling Northumbria, gives Cumbria to Malcolm I of Scotland in return for military support.

      954: Malcolm I is succeeded by King Indulf.

      962: King Indulf is succeeded by King Duff.

      967: King Duff is succeeded by King Culen.

      971: King Culen is succeeded by Kenneth II.

      995: Kenneth II is succeeded by Constantine III.

      997: Constantine III is succeeded by Kenneth III.

      end of timeline
      [4]

  • Sources 
    1. [S12568] "Malcolm I of Scotland", Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_I_of_Scotland, by David A. Hennessee, info@cla.

    2. [S12569] "Donald II of Scotland", Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_II_of_Scotland, by David A. Hennessee, info@cla.

    3. [S12571] "King Donald II", Biography, https://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/usbiography/monarchs/donaldii.html, by David A. Henn.

    4. [S12574] "Timeline: (Scottish) Prehistory to 1000", https://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/usfeatures/timeline/to1000.html, by Da.