Rurik, Prince of Ladoga and Novgorod

Rurik, Prince of Ladoga and Novgorod

Male 830 - 0879  (~ 49 years)

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  • Name Rurik  
    Suffix Prince of Ladoga and Novgorod 
    Born ~0830  Jutland, Denmark Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2, 3
    Gender Male 
    Residence Staraya Lagoda, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Also Known As a Viking 
    Also Known As Hrorekr, Rorik, Rurik of Jutland, Ryurik  [2
    Also Known As Rorik  [2
    Also Known As Varangian 
    Died 0879  Novgorod, Ukraine Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2, 3
    Person ID I51068  The Hennessee Family
    Last Modified 11 May 2018 

    Residence (Family) Kiev, Ukraine Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. Igor of Kiev, Prince of the Rus',   b. ~0900, (Kiev, Ukraine) Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 0945, Korosten, Ukraine Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 45 years)
    Last Modified 13 Nov 2018 
    Family ID F19015  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - ~0830 - Jutland, Denmark Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsResidence - - Staraya Lagoda, Russia Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 0879 - Novgorod, Ukraine Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsResidence (Family) - - Kiev, Ukraine Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photos
    Rurik, Prince of Ladoga and Novgorod
    Rurik, Prince of Ladoga and Novgorod

  • Notes 
    • Rurik (also Riurik; Old Church Slavonic ?????? Rjuriku, from Old Norse Hr˛râik?; c. 830 – 879), according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle, was a Varangian chieftain of the Rus' who in the year 862 gained control of Ladoga, and built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod (Varangian defined: http://thehennesseefamily.com/showmedia.php?mediaID=3071&medialinkID=3073). He is the founder of the Rurik Dynasty, which ruled the Kievan Rus' and its successor states, including the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Tsardom of Russia, until the 17th century.[1]

      The only information about Rurik is contained in the 12th-century Primary Chronicle written by one Nestor, which states that Chuds, Eastern Slavs, Merias, Veses, and Krivichs "...drove the Varangians back beyond the sea, refused to pay them tribute, and set out to govern themselves". Afterwards the tribes started fighting each other and decided to invite the Varangians, led by Rurik, to reestablish order. Rurik came in 860-862 along with his brothers Sineus and Truvor and a large retinue.

      According to the Primary Chronicle, Rurik was one of the Rus', a Varangian tribe likened by the chronicler to Danes, Swedes, Angles, and Gotlanders.

      Sineus established himself at Beloozero (now Belozersk), on the shores of lake Beloye, and Truvor at Izborsk (or at Pskov). Truvor and Sineus died shortly after the establishment of their territories, and Rurik consolidated these lands into his own territory.

      According to the entries in the Radzivil and Hypatian Chronicles[2] under the years 862–864, Rurik’s first residence was in Ladoga. He later moved his seat of power to Novgorod, a fort built not far from the source of the Volkhov River. The meaning of this place name in medieval Russian is 'new fortification', while the current meaning ('new city') developed later.

      Rurik remained in power until his death in 879. On his deathbed, Rurik bequeathed his realm to Oleg, who belonged to his kin, and entrusted to Oleg's hands his son Igor, for he was very young. His successors (the Rurik Dynasty) moved the capital to Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus', which persisted until the Mongol invasion in 1240. A number of extant princely families are patrilineally descended from Rurik, although the last Rurikid to rule Russia, Vasily IV, died in 1612.

      Historicity debate
      Archaeological evidence

      In the 20th century, archaeologists partly corroborated the chronicle's version of events. It was discovered that the settlement of Ladoga, whose foundation has been ascribed to Rurik, was actually established in the mid-9th century, although doubt is now cast on this by the dendrochronological evidence that Ladoga existed by the mid-8th century.[citation needed] Earthenware, household utensils, and types of buildings from the period of Rurik's purported foundation correspond to patterns then prevalent in Jutland.[citation needed] but mostly the excavations denied most of the chronicle's data about Rurik's arrival when it was apparent that the old settlement stretched to the mid-8th century and the excavated objects were mostly of Finno-Ugric and Slavic origin, dated to the mid-8th century, which showed the settlement was not Scandinavian from the beginning.[3][page needed]

      Hypothesis of identity with Rorik of Dorestad
      Main article: Rorik of Dorestad

      Rorik of Dorestad, as conceived by H. W. Koekkoek
      The only similarly named figure described in the Carolingian Annales Fuldenses and Annales Bertiniani was Rorik of Dorestad (also spelled R˛rik, Rčorik, Roerik, Hrčorek, etc.), a Germanic king from the royal Scylding house of Haithabu in the Jutland Peninsula. Since the 19th century, there have been attempts to identify him with the Rurik of Russian chronicles.

      Rorik of Dorestad was born about ca. 810–820 to Ali Anulo, 9th king of Haithabu. Frankish chroniclers mention that he received lands in Friesland from Emperor Louis I. This was not enough for him, and he started to plunder neighbouring lands: he took Dorestad in 850, captured Haithabu in 857, and looted Bremen in 859. The Emperor was enraged and stripped him of all his possessions in 860. After that, Rorik disappears from the Western sources for a considerable period of time, while only two years later, in 862, the Russian chronicle's Rurik arrives in the eastern Baltic, builds the fortress of Ladoga, and later moves to Novgorod.

      Rorik of Dorestad reappeared in Frankish chronicles in 870, when his Friesland demesne was returned to him by Charles the Bald; in 882 Rorik of Dorestad is mentioned as dead (without a date of death specified). The Russian chronicle places the death of Rurik of Novgorod at 879, a three year gap prior than the Frankish chronicles. According to Western sources, the ruler of Friesland was converted to Christianity by the Franks. This may have parallels with the Christianization of the Rus', as reported by Patriarch Photius in 867.

      The idea of identifying the Rurik of Nestor's chronicle with Rorik of Dorestad of the Carolingian chronicles was revived by the anti-Normanists Boris Rybakov and Anatoly H. Kirpichnikov in the mid-20th century,[4] while modern scholars like Alexander Nazarenko object to it.[5] The hypothesis of their identity currently lacks support among scholars,[6] though support for a "Normannic" (i.e. Norse, rather than Slavic) origin of the Rus' has increased.

      Legacy

      Further information: Rurikid dynasty

      Rurik and his brothers Sineus and Truvor arrive at Ladoga
      The Rurik dynasty (or Rurikids) went on to rule the Kievan Rus', and ultimately the Tsardom of Russia, until 1598, and numerous noble Russian and Ruthenian families claim a male-line descent from Rurik. Vasily Tatishchev (a Rurikid himself) claimed that Rurik was of Wendish extraction and went so far as to name Rurik's wife, Efanda of Norway (Edvina); mother, Umila; his maternal grandfather, Gostomysl; and a cousin, Vadim (apparently basing his account on the lost Ioachim Chronicle).[citation needed]

      References

      Christian Raffensperger and Norman W. Ingham, "Rurik and the First Rurikids," The American Genealogist, 82 (2007), 1–13, 111–19.
      Ipat’ievskaia letopis’ 1962:14; Radzivilovskaia letopis’ 1989:16
      Kirpichnikov, Anatoliy N. (2004). "A Viking Period workshop in Staraya Ladoga, excavated in 1997" (PDF). Journal of Swedish Antiquarian Research. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
      Kirpichnikov, Anatoly H. "???????? ? ????????? ???????. ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????". ?????? ????????????? ??????, ???; 1997; ch. 7–18.
      Nazarenko, Alexander. "Rjurik ? Riis Th., Rorik", Lexikon des Mittelalters, VII; Munich, 1995; pp. 880, 1026.
      Andrei Mozzhukhin (5 October 2014). «????? — ??? ???????» ["Rurik – is a legend"] (in Russian). Russian Planet. Retrieved 12 November 2014. Interview with Igor Danilevsky.

      end of this biography [1]
    • Alternative Titles: Hrorekr, Rorik, Rurik of Jutland, Ryurik

      Rurik, also spelled Rorik or Hrorekr, Russian Ryurik, (died AD 879), the semilegendary founder of the Rurik dynasty of Kievan Rus.

      (Rurik Dynasty, princes of Kievan Rus and, later, Muscovy who, according to tradition, were descendants of the Varangian prince Rurik, who had been invited by the people of Novgorod to rule that city (c. 862); the Rurik princes maintained their control over Kievan Rus and, later, Muscovy until 1598.

      Rurik’s successor Oleg (d. 912) conquered Kiev (c. 882) and established control of the trade route extending from Novgorod, along the Dnieper River, to the Black Sea. Igor (allegedly Rurik’s son; reigned 912–945) and his successors—his wife, St. Olga (regent 945–969), and their son Svyatoslav (reigned 945–972)—further extended their territories; Svyatoslav’s son Vladimir I (St. Vladimir; reigned c. 980–1015) consolidated the dynasty’s rule.

      Vladimir compiled the first Kievan Rus law code and introduced Christianity into the country. He also organized the Kievan Rus lands into a cohesive confederation by distributing the major cities among his sons; the eldest was to be grand prince of Kiev, and the brothers were to succeed each other, moving up the hierarchy of cities toward Kiev, filling vacancies left by the advancement or death of an elder brother. The youngest brother was to be succeeded as grand prince by his eldest nephew whose father had been a grand prince. This succession pattern was generally followed through the reigns of Svyatopolk (1015–19); Yaroslav the Wise (1019–54); his sons Izyaslav (1054–68; 1069–73; and 1077–78), Svyatoslav (1073–76), and Vsevolod (1078–93); and Svyatopolk II (son of Izyaslav; reigned 1093–1113).

      The successions were accomplished, however, amid continual civil wars. In addition to the princes’ unwillingness to adhere to the pattern and readiness to seize their positions by force instead, the system was upset whenever a city rejected the prince designated to rule it. It was also undermined by the tendency of the princes to settle in regions they ruled rather than move from city to city to become the prince of Kiev.)

      Rurik was a Viking, or Varangian, prince. His story is told in the The Russian Primary Chronicle (compiled at the beginning of the 12th century) but is not accepted at face value by modern historians. According to the chronicle, the people of Novgorod, tired of political strife, invited the Varangians about AD 862 to establish an orderly and just government there. Hence, Rurik came with his two brothers and a large retinue (druzhina) and became ruler of the city and region of Novgorod.

      Some historians think that Rurik came from the Scandinavian peninsula or from Jutland (now in Denmark) and seized the town of Ladoga, on Lake Ladoga. After establishing a stronghold there (c. 855), he may have gone southward along the Volkhov and captured Novgorod. Another possibility is that Rurik and his army were mercenaries, hired to guard the Volkhov-Dnieper waterway, who turned against their employers.

      Rurik’s kinsman Oleg founded the grand principality of Kiev. Oleg’s successor, Igor, believed to be Rurik’s son, is considered the real founder of the Russian princely house.

      end of this biography [2]
    • HISTORY

      Rurik or Riurik ( from the Nordic East Rorik, means "famous leader") (?30 - ?79) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in ?62 and built the Holmgard settlement (Rurikovo Gorodische) in Novgorod.

      Rurik name is the Slavic name being the same Germanic name as the modern English Roderick, or Spanish and Portuguese Rodrigo. In Germanic languages: Hrodric in (Old High German), Hroşricus in (Old English). In Old Norse, Hrśrekr (Norwegian, Icelandic) and Hr˛rikr or Rorik (Danish, Swedish), which is derived from Rurik. It also appears in Beowulf as Hreşrik.

      Princes of Kievan Rus and later on, of Muscovy that, according to tradition, were descendants of Rurik Varangian Prince, who had been invited by the people of Novgorod to rule that town (C. 862), the Princes of Rurik remained their control over Kievan Rus and, later, Muscovy until 1598.

      The successor Oleg (D. 912) conquered Kiev Rurik (C. 882) and established control of the trade route that stretched from Novgorod, along the Dnieper River, to the Black Sea. Igor (alleged son of Rurik, reigned from 912 to 945) and his successor, to her wife, Olga or St. Olga Olga (ruler from 945 - to 969), and later his son Svyatoslav (945-972) - hereinafter extended their territories; Vladimir, son of Svyatoslav I (St. Vladimir; reigned from 980-1015) thus well consolidated the Varegiana Dynasty.
      Vladimir compiled the first law code of Kievan Rus and introduced Christianity to the country.


      HISTORICAL SUMMARY. RUSSIA

      Russia means "Land of Rus'. Before the tenth century, Russia was formed by scattered cities which fought between them. In the year 862, an extranger warrior gripped the state of Novgorod and joined several cities under its power. Some say that he arrived under invitation to restore order and others say that he reached power by force. This legendary Viking was a warrior. His name was Rurik and belonged to the family of the Rus. Rurik and his two brothers Truvor and Sineus imposed their control over the Slavs of the area. Rurik's followers are also known as Varangians. "Varangians" means "allies". "Rus" comes from the Swedish rosti, which means "oar", since we know the Vikings were driving paddle boats. Then Russia means "Land of Oars".



      SLAVIC AND nORMANDS

      Does not seem being any doubt about the Indo-European affiliation descent of the Slavs, but there are little news about them because the Germans isolated them of the Roman Empire. When there were invasions that ended the Empire, the displacement of the Germans allowed the Slavic movement westward, and so, in the sixth century, penetrations were already seen by peoples of this race in present Poland and Bohemia, and Brandenburg (Germany). Furthermore the Slavic incursions also came to the South, settling on the Adriatic coast of the Balkans.

      In the seventh century,the penetration of barbarians folks, as well as the Avars in Central Europe, disconnected thus these Slavs from their racial brothers, becoming known by the name of South Slavs, who still nowadays make up the most of the population of Yugoslavia.

      The Slavs who remained in the current western Russia were limited in their expansion to the east and to south by the establishment of other barbarians folks: the Khazars (or Kazars), the Pechenegs and Magyars. But taking as the axis of their residence the Dnieper River, became merchants carrying southward, to the country of the Khazars and even the Byzantine Empire, skins, honey and wax.

      Rurik-Russia-Rurikovich-History

      At the mid-ninth century already existed in this territory a true urban culture, while in Western Europe began The Feudalism. A number of towns located in the axis just spoken ensured the commercial link between the Baltic See and the Byzantine Empire: Kiev, Smolensk, Novgorod, Tchernigov, Minsk, Ryazan, Pskov Iaroslav and were the main ones.



      For the same time lies the penetration of Vikings groups from Sweden, called "Varangians". These Vikings took upon themselves trade and defense of Slav cities against attacks from other nations. And according the oldest Russian chronicle, was a Varangian, Rurik, the first prince who ruled that fusion of Slavs and Vikings, in which it seems certain that the Vikings were absorbed by the Slavs, being in the history of Russia as a mere episode.

      The successors of Rurik, Oleg (879-912) and Igor (912-944), alternated trade relations with Byzantium and the attacks on the capital of the Empire, until that Olga times (945-965) succeeded to Byzantine influence when became that princess to Christianity in 955 by the name of Elena in a trip she did to Constantinople.
      From then on, Kiev had already surpassed the importance of Novgorod, and the princes of that city dominated the other, which, however, left some autonomy on the condition that they pay taxes regularly. The same soldiers who perceive them-in-kind were engaged then transfer them for sale in the Byzantine Empire.

      The fullness of the rising state was in the last third of the tenth century, under the rule of Prince of Kiev, Sviatoslav (965-973), son of Olga, who, still pagan, was the first to conceive the idea of reaching out to an open sea - the Mediterranean in this case - so repeatedly present since then on this Russian policy of all time. The distribution of territories that Sviatoslav did on his death caused struggle between his sons, in which the winner was Vladimir the Great (973-1015), who married a Byzantine princess, Anna, was converted to Christianity in 988 forcing his subjects to embrace mass.

      The bad policy of dividing the kingdom, repeated by his successors, caused the decline of the bright state, which finished at casting down new Asian nomadic invasions. Among these princes can still be noted to Yaroslav, founder of the archbishop of Kiev in 1035 and editor of the Russian law code called Russkaya Pravda.

      From Rurik was born the famous dynasty of Russian Tsars that ruled Russia for over 750 years. At the beginning of the tenth century the military company of the Princes of Novgorod from Constantinople to protect trade relations with Byzantium were concluded by the integration of East-Slavic tribes in the ancient state of Kievan Rus.


      The title of Tzar, Czar or Csar, (????) was first adopted by Ivan IV as a symbol of the changing nature of the Russian Monarchy in 1547.


      Ivan IV Vasilyevich (???? ?????????? IV), also known as Ivan the Terrible (Kolomenskoie, Russia, August 25, 1530 - Moscow, March 18, 1584) Tsar of Russia (1547-1584). Considered one of the creators of the Russian state. He married at least seven times, but his most important marriage was the first one, with Anastasia Romanova in 1547. His greatest contributions were Russian conquest of Siberia, creating a new legal code, the Sudiâebnik, the centralization of the power in the capital, the creation of institutions with popular participation, the conquest of the khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan Tatars, the destruction of the Teutonic Order and big internal reforms, including the reform of the army and the revision of the legal code.

      His Early years:

      Grandson of Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich III the Great and son of Vasily III and Elena Glinskaya, belongs to the lineage Varangian of Rurik and princess of Lithuania. According to the legend he was born with two teeth. He was crowned Grand Prince of Moscow within three years after the death of his father. However, the kingdom was administered by his mother, who was poisoned five years after the coronation of boyars clans who vied for power. He was recluded to the humiliation of the boyars, which overshadowed his character. He was held in the Kremlin Palace of living almost as a beggar. This fact led in Ivan a great hatred against boyars, and has as a consequence the constant persecution and massacres that he organized against these clans. In these early years Ivan suffered mental ramblings, now irreversibles, which led him to give vent to their anger and throwing torturing dogs from the towers. It is known that he had a deaf brother who nothing more is known.


      With 13 years people began to respect him and ordered to one of his loyal groups to capture the Prince Andrei Shuisky in order to throw a pack of dogs against him, which brutaly tore him. With 16 years already stated in writing and was an avid reader of books, besides of being and a big, muscular young. He studied rhetoric from the hand of Bishop Macarius. During this time it was deeply religious.


      To be respected as Tsar, Macario determined that Ivan came (according to a family tree) of the lineage of the first Roman Caesars.

      © Sovereign Royal and Imperial House of Rurikovich

      end of narrative [3]

  • Sources 
    1. [S12476] "Rurik", Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rurik, abstracted by David A. Hennessee, info@classroomfurniture.com,.

    2. [S12748] "Rurik", NORSE LEADER, Biography, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Rurik, abstracted by David A. Hennessee, info@classro.

    3. [S12758] "Sovereign Royal and Imperial House of Rurikovich", http://www.royalrurikovich.com/index.php/history.html, abstracted by.