Rollo

Rollo

Male 0846 - 0931  (~ 85 years)

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  • Name Rollo  
    Born 0846  (Denmark) Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2
    Gender Male 
    Alt Birth ~0846  Maer, Norway Find all individuals with events at this location  [3
    Also Known As "Hrolf", "Rolf", "Rollo", "Gange-Rolv", "Gange-Rolf", "GŤongu-Hr‚olfr", "le marcheur", "the walker", "the dane", "duke of normandy", "Rollo the Walker" 
    Also Known As French: Robert Rognvalsson De Heidmark, Norwegian: Hrolf Ragnvaldsson, Norse, Old: Gange-Hr‚olfr Ragnvaldsson  [4
    Also Known As Hrolf the Ganger  [3
    Also Known As Rolf the Walker  [3
    Also Known As Rollo of Normandy  [5
    Also Known As Rollo Ragnvaldsson  [4
    Also Known As Rollo Rognvaldsson "The Dane" Duke of Normandy  [3
    Also Known As Rollo the Dane  [2
    Died 0931  [1
    Buried Rouen Cathedral, Rouen, Normandy, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Person ID I51065  The Hennessee Family
    Last Modified 17 Mar 2018 

    Family Poppa of Bayeux,   b. (0850), Bayeux, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   bur. Rouen Cathedral, Rouen, Normandy, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married Y  [1, 2, 5
    • Poppa was captured in a raid and married to Rollo of Normandy.
    Residence (Family) Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. William of Normandy, I, Duke of Normandy,   b. Normandy, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 17 Dec 0942
    Last Modified 18 Apr 2018 
    Family ID F19013  Group Sheet

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 0846 - (Denmark) Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsAlt Birth - ~0846 - Maer, Norway Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - - Rouen Cathedral, Rouen, Normandy, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsResidence (Family) - - Normandie, France Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Maps 
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photos
    Gaange Rolf, Rollo
    Gaange Rolf, Rollo
    Rollo (870 - 932) 1st Duke of Normandy
    Rollo (870 - 932) 1st Duke of Normandy
    The Founding of Normandy
    The Founding of Normandy

  • Notes 
    • Rollo or Gaange Rolf[1] (Norman: Rou; Old Norse: Hr‚olfr; French: Rollon; c. 846 Ė c. 930 AD) was a Viking who became the first ruler of Normandy, a region of France. He is sometimes called the 1st Duke of Normandy. His Scandinavian name Rolf was extended to Gaange Rolf because he as an adult became too heavy for a horse to carry, therefore he had to walk ("gaa" in older Dano-Norwegian). Rollo emerged as the outstanding personality among the Norsemen who had secured a permanent foothold on Frankish soil in the valley of the lower Seine. Charles the Simple, the king of West Francia, ceded them lands between the mouth of the Seine and what is now the city of Rouen in exchange for Rollo agreeing to end his brigandage, and provide the Franks with protection against future Viking raids.[2]

      Rollo is first recorded as the leader of these Viking settlers in a charter of 918, and he continued to reign over the region of Normandy until at least 928. He was succeeded by his son, William Longsword in the Duchy of Normandy that he had founded.[3] The offspring of Rollo and his followers became known as the Normans. After the Norman conquest of England and their conquest of southern Italy and Sicily over the following two centuries, their descendants came to rule Norman England (the House of Normandy), the Kingdom of Sicily (the Kings of Sicily) as well as the Principality of Antioch from the 10th to 12th century, leaving behind an enduring legacy in the historical developments of Europe and the Near East.[4]

      Name
      The name Rollo is generally presumed to be a latinisation of the Old Norse name Hr‚olfr Ė a theory that is supported by the rendition of Hr‚olfr as Roluo in the Gesta Danorum. It is also sometimes suggested that Rollo may be a Latinised version of another Norse name, Hrollaugr.[5]

      Rollo is generally identified with one Viking in particular Ė a man of high social status mentioned in Icelandic sagas, which refer to him by the Old Norse name GŤongu-Hr‚olfr, meaning "Hr‚olfr the Walker". (GŤongu-Hr‚olfr is also widely known by an Old Danish variant, Ganger-Hrolf.) The byname "Walker" is usually understood to suggest that Rollo was so physically imposing that he could not be carried by a horse and was obliged to travel on foot. Norman and other French sources do not use the name Hr‚olfr, and the identification of Rollo with GŤongu-Hr‚olfr is based upon similarities between circumstances and actions ascribed to both figures.[citation needed]

      The 10th-century Norman historian Dudo records that Rollo took the baptismal name Robert.[6] A variant spelling, Roul, is used in the 12th-century Norman French Roman de la Rou, which was compiled by Wace and commissioned by King Henry II of England (a descendant of Rollo).[citation needed]

      Origins and historiography
      Rollo was born in the latter half of the 9th century; his place of birth is unknown.

      The earliest well-attested historical event associated with Rollo is his leadership of Vikings who besieged Paris in 885Ė886.[7]

      Perhaps the earliest known source to mention Rollo's early life is the French chronicler Richer of Reims, who claims (in the 10th century) that Rollo was the son of a Viking named Ketill.[8] In terms of onomastics, it is interesting that Richer also names Ė without explicitly linking him to Rollo Ė a man named Ketill as being the leader of subsequent Viking raids (in 888), against areas on the coast of West Francia, between the Seine and the Loire.

      Medieval sources contradict each other regarding whether Rollo's family was Norwegian or Danish in origin. In part, this disparity may result from the indifferent and interchangeable usage in Europe, at the time, of terms such as "Vikings", "Northmen", "Danes", "Norwegians" and so on (in the Medieval Latin texts Dani vel Nortmanni means "Danes or Northmen").

      A biography of Rollo, written by the cleric Dudo of Saint-Quentin in the late 10th Century, claimed that Rollo was from Denmark. One of Rollo's great-grandsons and a contemporary of Dudo was known as Robert the Dane. However, Dudo's Historia Normannorum (or Libri III de moribus et actis primorum Normanniae ducum) was commissioned by Rollo's grandson, Richard I of Normandy and Ė while Dudo likely had access to family members and/or other people with a living memory of Rollo Ė this fact must be weighed against the text's potential biases, as an official biography. According to Dudo, an unnamed king of Denmark was antagonistic to Rollo's family, including his father Ė an unnamed Danish nobleman Ė and Rollo's brother Gurim. Following the death of Rollo and Gurim's father, Gurim was killed and Rollo was forced to leave Denmark.[9] Dudo appears to have been the main source for William of JumiŠeges (after 1066) and Orderic Vitalis (early 12th century), although both include additional details.[10]

      A Norwegian background for Rollo was first explicitly claimed by Goffredo Malaterra (Geoffrey Malaterra), an 11th-century Benedictine monk and historian, who wrote: "Rollo sailed boldly from Norway with his fleet to the Christian coast."[11] Likewise, the 12th-century English historian William of Malmesbury stated that Rollo was "born of noble lineage among the Norwegians".[12]

      A chronicler named Beno„it (probably Beno„it de Sainte-More) wrote in the mid-12th Century Chronique des ducs de Normandie that Rollo had been born in a town named "Fasge". This has since been variously interpreted as referring to Faxe, in SjĶlland (Denmark), Fauske, in HÍalogaland (Norway), or perhaps a more obscure settlement that has since been abandoned or renamed. Beno„it also repeated the claim that Rollo had been persecuted by a local ruler and had fled from there to "Scanza island", by which Beno„it probably means Scania (Swedish SkÍane). While Faxe was physically much closer to Scania, the mountainous scenery of "Fasge", described by Beno„it, would seem to be more like Fauske.

      The claim that Rollo was the brother of a King of Norway, Harald Finehair was made by an anonymous 12th-century Welsh author, in The Life of Gruffudd ap Cynan.[13]

      Rollo was first explicitly identified with Hr‚olf the Walker (Norse GŤongu-Hr‚olfr; Danish Ganger-Hr‚olf) by the 13th-century Icelandic sagas, Heimskringla and Orkneyinga Saga. Hr‚olf the Walker was so named because he "was so big that no horse could carry him".[14] The Icelandic sources claim that Hr‚olfr was born in M≤re, western Norway, in the late 9th century and that his parents were the Norwegian jarl Rognvald Eysteinsson ("Rognvald the Wise") and a noblewoman from M≤re named Hildr Hr‚olfsd‚ottir. However, these claims were made three centuries after the history commissioned by Rollo's own grandson.

      There may be circumstantial evidence for kinship between Rollo and his historical contemporary, Ketill Flatnose, King of the Isles Ė a Norse realm centred on the Western Isles of Scotland. If, as Richer suggested, Rollo's father was also named Ketill and as Dudo suggested, Rollo had a brother named Gurim, such names are onomastic evidence for a family connection: Icelandic sources name Ketill Flatnose's father as BjŤorn Gr‚imsson,[15] and "Grim" Ė the implied name of Ketill Flatnose's paternal grandfather Ė was likely cognate with Gurim. In addition, both Irish and Icelandic sources suggest that Rollo, as a young man, visited or lived in Scotland, where he had a daughter named Cadlinar (Kaļl‚in; Kathleen).[16][17] Moreover, Ketill Flatnose's ancestors were said to have come from M≤re Ė Rollo's ancestral home in the Icelandic sources. However, Ketill was a common name in Norse societies,[18] as were names like Gurim and Grim. It is also possible that the later sources were attempting to suggest an otherwise undocumented link between the historical figures of Rollo and Ketill Flatnose, by way of little-known, possibly apocryphal figures like Grim, Gurim and the Ketill said to be Rollo's father.[citation needed]

      Biography

      Statue of Rollo in Rouen. There are two bronze replicas of this statue: one at ÍAlesund (Norway) and the other one at Fargo, North Dakota (United States)
      Dudo tells us that Rollo seized Rouen in 876. He is supported by the contemporary chronicler Flodoard, who records that Robert of the Breton March waged a campaign against the Vikings, who nearly levelled Rouen and other settlements; eventually, he conceded "certain coastal provinces" to them.[19]

      According to Dudo, Rollo struck up a friendship in England with a king that Dudo calls Alstem. This has puzzled many historians, but recently the puzzle has been resolved by recognition that this refers to Guthrum, the Danish leader whom Alfred the Great baptised with the baptismal name Athelstan, and then recognised as king of the East Angles in 880.[20]

      Dudo records that when Rollo took Bayeux by force, he carried off with him the beautiful Popa or Poppa, a daughter of Berenger, Count of Rennes, took her in marriage and with her had their son and Rollo's heir, William Longsword.[21]


      Rollo's grave at the Cathedral of Rouen

      There are few contemporary mentions of Rollo. The earliest record is from 918, in a charter of Charles III to an abbey, which referred to an earlier grant to "the Normans of the Seine", namely "Rollo and his associates" for "the protection of the kingdom." [22] Dudo retrospectively stated that this pact took place in 911 at Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In return for formal recognition of the lands he possessed, Rollo agreed to be baptised and assist the king in the defence of the realm. Rollo took the baptismal name Robert. The seal of agreement was to be marriage between Rollo and Gisla, daughter of Charles. Dudo claims that Gisla was a legitimate daughter of Charles.[23] Since Charles first married in 907, that would mean that Gisla was at most 5 years old at the time of the treaty of 911 which offered her in marriage.[24] It has therefore been speculated that she could have been an illegitimate daughter.[25] However a diplomatic child betrothal need not be doubted.[26]

      After pledging his fealty to Charles III as part of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, Rollo divided the lands between the rivers Epte and Risle among his chieftains, and settled with a de facto capital in Rouen.[27]

      Charles was overthrown by a revolt in 923, and his successor, Robert I, was killed by the Vikings in 923. His successor, Ralph, conceded the Bessin and Maine to Rollo shortly afterwards, the chronicler Flodoard tells us.[28]

      Rollo died sometime between a final mention of him by Flodoard in 928, and 933, the year in which a third grant of land, usually identified as being the Cotentin and Avranchin areas, was made to his son and successor William.[29]

      Descendants

      A genealogical chart of the Norman dynasty
      Rollo's son and heir, William Longsword, and grandchild, Richard the Fearless, forged the Duchy of Normandy into West Francia's most cohesive and formidable principality.[30] The descendants of Rollo and his men assimilated with their maternal Frankish-Catholic culture and became known as the Normans, lending their name to the region of Normandy.

      Rollo is the great-great-great-grandfather of William the Conqueror, or William I of England. Through William, he is one of the ancestors of the present-day British royal family, as well as an ancestor of all current European monarchs and a great many claimants to abolished European thrones.

      One daughter of Rollo, Gerloc (also known as Adele), who married William III, Duke of Aquitaine, was mentioned by Dudo. According to William of JumiŠeges, writing in the latter half of the 11th century, Gerloc's mother was named Poppa.[31]

      According to the medieval Irish text An Banshenchas and Icelandic sources, another daughter, Cadlinar (Kaļl‚in; Kathleen) was born in Scotland (probably to a Scots mother) and married an Irish prince named Beoll‚an mac Ciarmaic, later King of South Brega (Lagore). A daughter of Cadlinar and Beoll‚an named Nithbeorg was abducted by an Icelandic Viking named Helgi Ottarsson,[32][33] and became the mother of the poet Einarr Helgason and grandmother of Guļr‚un ”sv‚ifrsd‚ottir (protagonist of the Laxdúla saga).

      A genetic investigation into the remains of Rollo's grandson, Richard the Fearless, and his great-grandson, Richard the Good, was announced in 2011 with the intention of discerning the origins of the historic Viking leader.[34] On 29 February 2016 Norwegian researchers opened Richard the Good's tomb and found his lower jaw with eight teeth in it.[35] Unfortunately, the skeletal remains in both graves turned out to significantly predate Rollo and therefore are not related to him.[36]

      Depictions in fiction

      Rollo is the subject of the seventeenth-century play Rollo Duke of Normandy, written by John Fletcher, Philip Massinger, Ben Jonson, and George Chapman.

      A character, broadly inspired by the historical Rollo but including many events before the real Rollo was born, played by Clive Standen, is Ragnar Lothbrok's brother in the History Channel television series Vikings.[37]

      end of biography [2]
    • Also known as Hrolf the Ganger or Rollon, 1st Duke of Normandy from 911 to 927, called also Rolf the Walker, because, being so tall, he preferred to go afoot rather than ride the little Norwegian horses. Also shown as Rollon, Row, or Robert. Originally a Norse Viking, he was noted for strength and martial prowess. In the reign of Charles II the Bald, he sailed up the Seine River and took Rouen, which he kept as a base of operations. He gained a number of victories over the Franks, and extorted the cession of the province since called Normandy. By the famous treaty which Charles the Bald and Rollo signed the latter agreed to adopt Christianity. He was born in 846 and died in 932, and was buried in the Cathedral at Rouen.
      -------------------------------------------------------
      From: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/rollo000.htm

      Commentary
      Supposed father: Rognvaldr, jarl of M≤re.

      Supposed mother: Ragnhildr or Hildr.

      The origin of Rollo is contraversial. There are several medieval sources which claim to give information about the origin of Rollo, the most widely repeated of which would make him a son of Rognvaldr, jarl of M≤re by Ragnhildr or Hildr. As can be seen from the following brief notices, the various primary sources offer very contradictory information about Rollo's origin.

      The earliest author to attribute an explicit origin to Rollo was Richer of Rheims, writing between 996 and 998, who called Rollo the son of another Viking invader of France named Catillus (presumably representing the Norse name Ketil) [Richer i, 28 (see PL 138: 35)]. Since Catillus appears to be a legendary individual, this account has generally been discredited, probably correctly [see Douglas 420-1].

      According to Dudo of St. Quentin (writing early 11th century), author of the earliest history of the Normans, Rollo had a younger brother named Gurim, presumed to be the familiar name Gorm. Dudo states that Rollo and Gurim were sons of a man who held many lands in "Dacia" (Dudo's word for Denmark, following other authors), and that after the death of the (unnamed) father of Rollo and Gurim, the king of Dacia fought against the sons, killing Gurim and driving Rollo out [Dudo ii, 2-4 (pp. 26-7)]. Dudo later refers to duke Richard I as being related to a "king of Dacia" named Haigrold [Dudo iv, 84-88 (pp. 114-20 passim)], who must have been the Viking raider of France of that name [Flodoard's Annals, s.a. 945, see PL 135: 463-4, van Houts 51], and not king Harald "Bluetooth" of Denmark. Note that Gurim cannot be the famous Gorm "the Old" of Denmark, who survived Rollo by many years.

      William of Malmesbury (early 12th century) appears to be the earliest author to attribute a Norwegian origin to Rollo [WM ii, 5 (p. 125)].

      As is well known, the Orkneyinga Saga (late twelfth century) [OrkS 4 (pp. 29-30)], followed by other Icelandic sources (such as the well known Heimskringla and Landn‚amab‚ok), gives Rollo the name Hr‚olfr, and make him a son of Rognvaldr, jarl of M≤re, and brother of (among others) jarl Torf-Einarr of the Orkneys [OI 1: 187]. Earlier sources, such as Ari's Õslendingab‚ok (early to middle 12th century), mention Rognvald of M≤re and his son Hrollaugr who settled in Iceland, but not the supposed connection to the dukes of Normandy [Ari 49, 61]. A poem allegedly written by Einar mentions his brothers, including a Hr‚olfr, but does not connect Hr‚olfr to Normandy, and does not name a Gorm among the brothers. (See the page on Rognvaldr for more on this poem.)

      Historia Gruffud vab Kenan (ca. 1250), apparently a Welsh translation and/or revision of an earlier Latin life of Gruffudd ap Cynan, gives Haraldr H‚arfagri of Norway ("Harald Harfagyr") a brother named Rodulf (i.e., the Latin form of Hr‚olfr) who is called the founder of Normandy [HGK, 3-4]. However, this is evidently a corrupt version of the Scandinavian version, and the suggestion that Rollo was a brother of Haraldr H‚arfagri need not be given any credence.

      The most prominent argument of the case for accepting the Scandinavian account that Rollo was the same person as Hr‚olfr, son of Rognvaldr of M≤re, was given by D. C. Douglas [Douglas 419-23], and those who accept this identification have generally followed the same arguments. On the other side, arguments against the identification were given by Viggo Starcke in his book Denmark in World History [Starcke 222-7].

      Most of the argument of Douglas consists of accepting the tale of the sagas and rejecting evidence from the Norman sources which contradict the saga version, while explaining away the problems (on which more below). The evidence which Douglas puts forward as "a powerful, if not a conclusive, argument in favor of the identity of Rollo with Ganger-Rolf" concerns a passage in Landn‚aamab‚ok that refers to a daughter of Gongu-Hr‚olfr:

      "... Annarr son ”ttars vas Helge; hann herjaļe ‚a Skottland, ok feck §ar at herfange Niļbiorgo, d‚ottor Beolans konungs ok Caļl‚inar, d‚ottor Gongo-Hr‚olfs" (Another son of ”ttarr was Helge. He harried in Scotland, and won there as his booty Niļbjorg, daughter of king Beolan and Caļl‚in, daughter of Gongu-Hr‚olfr.) [OI 1: 66-7]

      This passage, which Douglas attributed to "Ari the Learned" (who may or may not have been the author), is then compared with a passage from the nearly contemporary Plaintsong of Rollo's son William "Longsword" which was written soon after William's death:

      "Hic in orbe transmarino natus patre
      in errore paganorum permanente
      matre quoque consignata alma fide
      sacra fuit lotus unda"
      (Born overseas from a father who stuck to the pagan error and from a mother who was devoted to the sweet religion, he was blessed with the holy chrism.)
      [Douglas 422 (Latin); van Houts 41 (English translation)]

      After explaining that the two stories are consistent with one another, Douglas then state that "[t]he suggestion of the Landn‚amab‚ok is thus confirmed by an epic poem composed in Gaul in the tenth century." While it is true that the two accounts as they stand are consistent with each other and with the claim that Rollo and Gongu-Hr‚olfr were the same man (ignoring all other evidence), it is surely a gross overstatement to claim that the Plaintsong "confirms" the other account, for there is not a single statement in the passage from Landn‚amab‚ok that is confirmed by the Plaintsong. This is a clear case of circular reasoning, for without first assuming that Rollo and Gongu-Hr‚olfr were the same man, there is no evidence that the two passages have any relation whatsoever. Douglas's case is further undermined by the fact that another source [Laxdúla Saga chapter 32, see OI 1: 246] makes Niļbjorg's mother Caļl‚in a daughter of Gongu-Hr‚olfr, son of Oxna-ī‚orir, directly contradicting the thesis that Caļl‚in was supposedly a granddaughter of Rognvaldr of M≤re. Yet, Douglas apparently regarded this as the strongest part of his argument.

      There are three main strands of evidence (somewhat related to each other) against the identification of Rollo with Hr‚olfr son of Rognvaldr:

      1. The discrepancies between the Norman and Icelandic sources.
      Among other contradictions, the Norman sources give Rollo a brother named Gurim, while the Icelandic sources give Hr‚olfr several brothers, none of them named Gormr (the presumed Old-Norse form for Gurim). Although both of the sources have their problems, earlier native sources would seem to have a higher priority than later foreign sources. While many elements of the Dudo's account are clearly legendary, there appears to be no clear motive on the part of Dudo (writing less than a century after Rollo's death) to invent a younger brother for Rollo who is then immediately killed off.

      2. The general unreliability of Norse source for the early tenth century.
      For the period under consideration, i.e., the early ninth century, the sagas have a poor record for reliability, even for Scandinavian history. For example, consider the following words of Peter Sawyer (written with regard to a different matter, but true in general), a well known expert on early Viking history: "... These sagas cannot, however, be accepted as reliable sources for the tenth century. The only trustworthy evidence for the tenth century in those sagas are the contemporary verses around which the saga writers wove their tales." [Sawyer 42] None of these verses confirm the identity of Rollo and Hr‚olfr. The suspicion is made even larger by the fact that the Icelandic sources show no knowledge of Norman history other than the fact (well known throughout Europe at the time) that William the Conqueror was a descendant of the dukes of Normandy.

      3. Rollo and Hr‚olfr appear to be different names.
      The natural Latinization of the name Hr‚olfr would be Radulfus or Rodulfus. Yet, the Frankish and Norman sources consistently refer to the founder of Normandy as Rollo. Since these sources also include numerous individuals named Rodulfus, and consistently separate the two names, it appears that the names were regarded as different. Douglas explained this by suggesting a hypothetical hypochoristic form "Hrolle" of the name "Hroļwulf" as the basis for the name Rollo, and provides a single charter in which Rollo is referred to as "Rolphus" as evidence that the names were the same, acknowledging, however, that the charter itself was "not above suspicion." If the names were really regarded as the same, it would be expected that more convincing evidence to this effect could be offered.

      Personally, I am inclined to believe that the identification of Hr‚olfr and Rollo has no basis in fact, that it was likely to have been invented by a saga writer who wanted to give the jarls of Orkney some famous relatives (i.e., the kings of England), and that whatever the confusing Norman sources say are probably about the closest we are going to get to Rollo's origin. However, based on the surviving evidence, it is not possible to come to any definitive conclusion one way or the other, and Rollo's parentage should be listed as "unknown" unless further evidence becomes available.

      Supposed second wife:

      Gisla, said to be daughter of Charles the Simple, king of France [Dudo, 46-7, 53]. She is unknown in the Frankish sources. The fact that Charles the Simple's kinsman Charles the Fat had a daughter also named Gisla who married a Viking (Godefridus) in the ninth century has led to the natural suspicion that this Gisla is an invention based on the earlier woman of the name. If she existed at all, there is no reason to believe that she was a mother of any of Rollo's children.

      Supposed additional child:

      Caļlin (Kathleen), said by Norse sources to have married a certain king Beolan, who is otherwise unidentified. As discussed above, the evidence for her is less than satisfactory.

      end of commentary [3]
    • Rollo Ragnvaldsson
      French: Robert Rognvalsson De Heidmark, Norwegian: Hrolf Ragnvaldsson, Norse, Old: Gange-Hr‚olfr Ragnvaldsson
      Also Known As: "Hrolf", "Rolf", "Rollo", "Gange-Rolv", "Gange-Rolf", "GŤongu-Hr‚olfr", "le marcheur", "the walker", "the dane", "duke of normandy", "Rollo the Walker", "Viking", "Gange Rolf"
      Birthdate: circa 860 (71)
      Death: 931 (67-75)
      Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
      Place of Burial: Rouen, Haute-Normandie, France
      Immediate Family:
      Son of Ragnvald Eysteinsson, Earl of M≤re and Ragnhild 'Hild' Hr‚olfsd‚ottir, of More
      Husband of Poppa of Bayeux and GisŠele
      Partner of Kaļlin's mother
      Father of William "Longsword"; AdŠele of Normandy and Kaļlin
      Brother of Gutum Ragnvaldson
      Half brother of Hrollager Rognvaldsson; Hallad Ragnvaldsson Orkneyjarl, .; Einarr "Turf" Rognvaldsson, Orkneyjarl and Hrollaug Ragnvaldsson EyjafjŤorļur, Õslands
      Occupation: Duc de Normandie, Comte de Rouen, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Normandy (911 - 932), duc de Normandie, Earl of Normandy, Viking chief, Count of Normandy, 'Agongah-woekh' Aeuello (Rollo Rognvaldsson), First Duke of Normandy, Duke of Normandy 1st, Norse Viking
      Managed by: Private User
      Last Updated: October 12, 2017

      About Gange-Hr‚olfr 'Rollo' of Normandy
      http://www.friesian.com/flanders.htm#norman

      http://genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020055&tree=LEO

      Duke of Normandy was the title given to the rulers of the Duchy of Normandy in northwestern France, which has its origins as the County of Rouen, a fief created in 911 by King Charles III "the Simple" of France for Rollo, a Norwegian nobleman and Viking leader of Northmen.

      Gangu-Hr‚olfr Ragnvaldsson, or Rollo de Normandie was a Norse nobleman and the founder and first ruler of the Viking principality in what soon became known as Normandy. The name "Rollo" is a Frankish-Latin name probably taken from the Old Norse name Hr‚olfr, modern Scandinavian name Rolf (cf. the latinization of Hr‚olfr into the similar Roluo in the Gesta Danorum).

      Parents: Ragnvald Eysteinsson M≤rejarl & Hild Nefja (uncertain, see below)
      Spouses:
      1. Poppa de Bayeux
      Children:
      Vilhjalm Langaspj‚ot (Guillaume Longue ‚Ep‚ee)
      Geirlaug (Gerloc) who later took the name Adela
      2. Gisela de France (betrothal, no children)
      According to Landn‚ama (The book of Settlers in Iceland, written in the 12th century), Rollo had a daughter named Kaļl‚in (Kathlin or Cathlin) her mother is not named (Notes by Anna Petursdottir):

      Kaļlin (Kathlin)
      Kaļl‚in is mentioned along with her father Rollo in chapter 33 in Landn‚amab‚ok (The Book of Settlers) and her father, Rollo, and his brothers, also their father, Ragnvald are mentioned in chapert 82 : https://www.snerpa.is/net/snorri/landnama.htm

      BIG NEWS
      French and Norwegian scientists within several fields go together in a project to extract DNA from the remains of Rollo's grandson and great grandson in F‚ecamp. This might give us the final answer to Rollo's origin (Note from Anna Petursdottir: Provided that the remains that are being researched, are in fact the persons in question and also are legitimate grandsons of Rollo). Excavations are expected in July 2011, results sometime autumn 2011.

      Links and Resources
      Snorre's saga
      Dudo's account (eng): http://the-orb.arlima.net/orb_done/dudo/dudindex.html
      Store Norske Leksikon
      MEDIEVAL LANDS
      [ROLLO [Hrolf "Ganger/the Walker"] (-[928]). Orkneyinga Saga names ďHrolf who conquered NormandyĒ as son of ďEarl RognwaldĒ and his wife ďRagnhild the daughter of Hrolf NoseĒ, adding that he was so big that no horse could carry him, giving rise to his name ďGŤongu-HrolfĒ[153]. Snorre names "Rolf and Thorer" as the two sons of "Earl Ragnvald" and his wife Hild, recording that Rolf was banished from Norway by King Harald and travelled to the Hebrides, settling first in Orkney before moving southwards through Scotland, and eventually conquering Normandy[154]. The Historia Norwegie records that, after Orkney was conquered by "principi Rogwaldi" and his followers, "de quorum collegioÖRodulfus" captured Rouen in Normandy, commenting that he was known as "Gongurolfr" because he was obliged to walk as he was too large to travel on horseback[155]. This source makes no reference to any blood relationship between Rollo and "principi Rogwaldi".

      According to Dudo of Saint-Quentin, Rollo arrived in northern France in 876[156], although there is some debate about [900] being a more likely date[157]. William of JumiŠeges records that Rollo was chosen by lot to be leader of the Viking colonists[158]. Viking raids intensified in northern France. Although they were defeated after raiding Chartres [911], Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks granted the Normans land around Rouen in which to settle[159]. The uncertain nature of the demise was the source of future problems between the French crown, which claimed that it was an enfeofment for which the ruler owed allegiance, and the later Dukes of Normandy who claimed it was an unconditional allod for which no allegiance was owed. A charter dated 14 Mar 918 which granted land to the monastery of Saint-Germain-des-Pr‚es "except that partÖwhich we have granted to the Normans of the Seine, namely to Rollo and his companions"[160]. He was later known as ROBERT I Comte [de Normandie].

      ROLLO ["Ganger" Hrolf], son of [RAGNVALD "the Wise" Jarl of MŤore in Norway & his wife Ragnhild ---] (-Rouen [928/33], bur ---, transferred [1064] to Rouen Cathedral[6]). The parentage of Rollo/Rolf is uncertain and the chronology of his life confused. Richer names "Rollone filio Catilli" as leader of the Vikings who raided along the Loire and against whom "Robertus CelticĶ GalliĶ dux" campaigned[7]. No further reference has been found to "Catillus/Ketel". Flodoard provides no information on Rolloīs ancestry. The early 12th century William of Malmesbury states that "RolloÖ[was] born of noble lineage among the Norwegians, though obsolete from its extreme antiquity" and adds that he was "banished by the kingīs command from his own country"[8]. The later Orkneyinga Saga is more specific, naming ďHrolf who conquered NormandyĒ as son of ďEarl RognwaldĒ and his wife ďRagnhild the daughter of Hrolf NoseĒ, adding that he was so big that no horse could carry him, giving rise to his name ďGŤongu-HrolfĒ[9]. Snorre names "Rolf and Thorer" as the two sons of "Earl Ragnvald" and his wife Hild, recording that Rolf was banished from Norway by King Harald and travelled to the Hebrides, settling first in Orkney before moving southwards through Scotland, and eventually conquering Normandy[10]. The Historia Norwegie records that, after Orkney was conquered by "principi Rogwaldi" and his followers, "de quorum collegioÖRodulfus" captured Rouen in Normandy, commenting that he was known as "Gongurolfr" because he was obliged to walk as he was too large to travel on horseback[11]. This source makes no reference to any blood relationship between Rollo and "principi Rogwaldi". Guillaume de JumiŠeges accords a Danish origin to Rollo, stating that his father "poss‚edant presque en totalit‚e le royaume de Dacie, conquit en outre les territoires limitrophes de la Dacie et de līAlanie" and left "deux filsÖlīa„in‚e Rollon et le plus jeune Gurim"[12]. He records that the king of Denmark defeated the two brothers and killed Gorm, and that Rollo fled the country, first landing in England, where he made peace with "le roiÖAlstem"[13]. If this refers to •thelstan King of Wessex, the account must be confused given King •thelstanīs succession in 924. Freeman suggests that Guillaume de JumiŠeges must be referring to "Guthrum-•thelstan of East-Anglia"[14], although this does not resolve the chronological problems assuming that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is correct in recording Guthrumīs death in 890[15]. After recording Rolloīs expeditions in Frisia, Guillaume de JumiŠeges states that Rollo landed at JumiŠeges after sailing up the Seine in 876[16], another suspect date which Houts suggests should be corrected to [900][17]. Guillaume de JumiŠeges records that Rollo defeated "Renaud duc de toute la France", captured "le ch„ateau de Meulan", defeated and killed Duke Renaud in another campaign, besieged Paris, captured Bayeux, and attacked Paris again while his other troops devastated Evreux where they killed "son ‚ev„equeÖSibor"[18]. Guillaume de JumiŠeges records that Rollo attacked Chartres but withdrew after being defeated by "Richard duc de Bourgogne" and "Anselme l ‚ev„eque"[19].

      William of Malmesbury records that "RolloÖexperienced a check at Chartres" but escaped the "plentiful slaughter" of the Vikings by the townspeople, before capturing Rouen "in 876"[20]. Guillaume of JumiŠeges records that Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks granted Rollo "tout le territoire maritime qui sī‚etend depuis la riviŠere dīEpte jusquīaux confines de la Bretagne" together with "sa filleÖGisŠele", that "les princes de cette provinceÖB‚eranger et Alain" swore allegiance to Rollo, and that Rollo was baptised in 912 by "līarch‚ev„eque Francon", adopting the name ROBERT after "le duc Robert" who acted as his sponsor[21].

      William of Malmesbury records that "it was determined by treaty, that [Rollo] should be baptised, and hold the country of the king as his lord"[22]. The charter which confirms the original grant (assuming that there was such a document) has not survived. However, the grant of land is inferred from a charter dated 14 Mar 918, under which land was donated to the monastery of Saint-Germain-des-Pr‚es specifying that the donation excluded "that partÖwhich we have granted to the Normans of the Seine, namely to Rollo and his companions"[23]. The uncertain nature of the demise was the source of future problems between the French crown, which claimed that Normandy was an enfeofment for which the ruling duke owed allegiance, and the later dukes of Normandy, who claimed that it was an unconditional allod for which no allegiance was owed[24].

      The version of events recorded by Flodoard provides a different slant and names two Viking leaders. Firstly, Flodoard records that in 923 "Ragenoldus princeps Nortmannorum" who occupied "in fluvio Ligeri" devastated "Franciam trans Isaram", that "Nortmanni" made peace in 924 "cum Francis", that King Raoul granted them "Cinomannis et BaiocĶ" [Maine and Bayeux], but that "Raginoldus cum suis Nortmannis" devasted the land between the Loire and the Seine[25]. This passage makes no mention of the supposed earlier grant of land along the shore. Secondly, the same source records that "Raginoldus cum suis Nortmannis" devasted Burgundy in 925, that H‚eribert [II] Comte de Vermandois besieged Norman castles "super Sequanam", that "Nortmanni" devastated "pagum Belvacensem atque Ambianensem" [Beauvais and Amboise], while Comte H‚eribert and Arnoul Count of Flanders forced "Rollo princeps" from his strongholds[26]. Thirdly, Flodoard states that "Hugo filius Rotberti et Heribertus comes" campaigned against "Nortmannos" in 927, that "filius Rollonis" did homage to ex-king Charles at "castellumÖAuga", and that "Rollo" held "filius Heriberti Odo" as a hostage in 928, which suggests some sort of alliance between Rollo and Comte H‚eribert[27]. William of Malmesbury records that Rollo died at Rouen[28]. The date of his death is uncertain: Flodoard names Rollo as living in 928 (see above) but the same source names "Willelmus princeps Nortmannorum" in 933[29]. Orderic Vitalis implies that the transfer of Robert's body to Rouen Cathedral took place after the "the ninth year" in office of Archbishop Maurilius, who had succeeded Mauger de Normandie[30], which would date the event to [1064]. He is known to history as ROBERT I Comte [de Normandie], although no early source has been identified which refers to him by this name or title.

      [m] [firstly] ---. The identity of Rolloīs first wife or concubine is not known.

      m [secondly] ([886] or after, repudiated, remarried after 912) POPPA, daughter of BERENGAR Comte de Bayeux & his wife ---. Guillaume of JumiŠeges records that Rollo took "Popa, fille de B‚erenger, homme illustre" when he captured Bayeux and "sīunit avec elle, Ša la maniŠere des Danois"[31]. According to Orderic Vitalis, Rollo "stormed and captured Bayeux, slew its count Berengar and took to wife his daughter Poppa"[32]. In another passage, the same source records that Rollo besieged Paris, captured Bayeux, killed "Berengarium comitem" and married his daughter Popa, in 886[33], although this date appears early in light of the likely birth date range of the couple's son Guillaume. The Chronico Rotomagensis records that "mortua a Gisla, accepit Rollo propriam uxorem filiam comitis Silvanectensis Widonis"[34]. Robert of Torigny combines the information, recording that "Rollo dux Northmannorum" married "Popam prius repudiatam uxoremÖfiliamÖBerengarii comitis Baiocensis neptem vero Widonis comitis Silvanectensis"[35]. The Historia Norwegie records that, after capturing Rouen, "Rodulfus" married the daughter of its deceased count by whom he was father of "WillelmumÖLongosped"[36]. Guillaume de JumiŠeges records that "le comte Bernard" welcomed "son neveu Richard" (grandson of Rollo) at Senlis after his escape from captivity[37], although in another passage he describes how Rollo captured Bayeux and took "une trŠes-noble jeune fille Popa, fille de B‚erenger" in the town, marrying her "Ša la maniŠere des Danois"[38], in a later passage adding that Rollo married Poppa, whom he had previously repudiated, a second time after the death of his wife[39]. It would be possible to reconcile the different versions if Comte Bernard's mother was married twice, her first husband being B‚erenger Comte de Bayeux.

      m thirdly (912) GISELA, daughter of CHARLES III "le Simple" King of the West Franks & his first wife Frederuna --- ([908/16]-before her husband). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hyrmintrudim, Frederunam, Adelheidim, Gislam, Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as the children of "Karolus rexÖex Frederuna regina"[40]. Guillaume of JumiŠeges records that Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks granted Rollo "tout le territoire maritime qui sī‚etend depuis la riviŠere dīEpte jusquīaux confines de la Bretagne" together with "sa filleÖGisŠele", and their marriage which took place after Rolloīs baptism[41]. Her marriage is recorded in the Norman annals for 912, which state that she died without issue, presumably soon after the marriage when Gisla must still have been an infant. The chronicle of Dudo of Saint-Quentin[42] describes her as of "tall stature, most elegantÖ", which is of course inconsistent with her supposed birth date range. The Liber Modernorum Regum Francorum records the marriage of "filiam suam [=rex Karolus] nomine Gillam" to "Rollo"[43]. Settipani considers that the marriage did not occur, and that the Norman sources confused it with the marriage of Gisela, daughter of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia, to the Viking leader Gotfrid[44].

      Rollo & his [first wife] had two children:

      1. [KADLINE . Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Landn‚ama-Boc which records that "son of Oht-hereÖHelge" captured and married [her daughter] "Nidh-beorg, daughter of king Beolan and Cadh-lina, daughter of Walking-Rolf [Gongo-Hr‚olfs]" when he "harried in Scotland", and also records their descendants[45]. No other record has been found of "king Beolan" and the accuracy of this report is unknown. m BEOLAN King [in Scotland].]

      2. [NIEDERGA . Niederga is shown in EuropŤaische Stammtafeln[46] as the second daughter of Rollo by his first wife but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.]

      Robert & his [second] wife had two children:

      3. GUILLAUME (Rouen [900/05]-murdered Pequigny 17 Dec 942, bur ---, transferred [1064] to Rouen Cathedral[47]). Guillaume de JumiŠeges names "Guillaume etÖGerloc" as children of Rollo and Poppa[48]. However, the Planctus for William Longsword[49], composed shortly after the murder of Guillaume, states that he had a Christian mother of overseas origin. Dudo of Saint-Quentin states that he was born in Rouen and, in a later passage, describes him as a "young man" one year before his father's death[50]. His father chose him as heir one year before his death[51]. Guillaume de JumiŠeges records that he was born before his father's marriage to Gisela and his remarriage with Popa after Gisela's death[52]. Flodoard records that "filius Rollonis" did homage to ex-king Charles III "le Simple" at "castellumÖAuga" in 927[53]. He succeeded his father in [928/33] as GUILLAUME I "Longuespee" Comte [de Normandie]. Flodoard names "Willelmus princeps Nortmannorum" in 933[54]. He quelled a rebellion by the Viking chief Riulf after the latter besieged Rouen[55]. In return for swearing allegiance to Raoul King of France, he appears to have been granted rights to further territory along the coast in 933, maybe the Cotentin and Avranchin. If this is correct, it would have created rivalry with the dukes of Brittany. Dudo of Saint-Quentin describes Comte Guillaume's invasion of Brittany shortly after his accession to quell a rebellion against him, and his defeat of the rebels at Bayeux[56]. Responding to raids by Comte Guillaume, Arnoul I Count of Flanders invaded Ponthieu and in 939 captured Montreuil from Herluin Comte de Ponthieu, although it was recaptured by Comte Guillaume's forces. In 939, Guillaume joined the alliance against Louis IV King of France which was led by Otto I "der GroŌe" King of Germany who raided Frankish territory. Comte Guillaume, however, met King Louis at Amiens, receiving a confirmation of the grant of his lands in Normandy. Guillaume de JumiŠeges records that Guillaume was tricked into a meeting on the river Seine at Pecquigny by Arnoul Count of Flanders to settle their dispute over the castle of Montreuil, but was murdered on Count Arnoul's orders, recording his death on 17 Dec[57]. The Annalibus Rotomagensibus record that "Willermus dux Normannorum filius Rollonis" was killed "943 XVI Kal Jan"[58]. Orderic Vitalis implies that the transfer of his body to Rouen Cathedral took place after the "the ninth year" in office of Archbishop Maurilius, who had succeeded Mauger de Normandie[59], which would date the event to [1064].

      [m] firstly SPROTA, daughter of ---. Guillaume de JumiŠeges records that Guillaume married "une trŠes-noble jeune fille SprotaÖselon l'usage des Danois"[60]. From Brittany. It is possible that Sprota was Count Guillaume's concubine rather than wife, particularly as no reference has been found to a dissolution of any marriage before she married Esperleng. She married Esperleng de P„itres, by whom she had Rodulf [Raoul] Comte d'Ivry.

      m secondly ([940]) as her first husband, LUITGARDIS de Vermandois, daughter of HERIBERT II Comte de Vermandois & his wife Adela [Capet] (before 925-14 Nov after 985, bur Chartres, Abbaye de Saint-PŠere). Rodulfus Glauber refers to the wife of Comte Guillaume as "sororem [Heribertum Trecorum comitem]", specifying that she was childless by her first husband, when recording her second marriage to "Tetbaldus"[61]. Guillaume de JumiŠeges records the marriage of Guillaume and the daughter of Heribert, specifying that it was arranged by Hugues "le Grand"[62]. The source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. She married secondly Thibaut I Comte de Blois. "Hugonis ducis, Odonis comitis, Hugonis sanctĶ Bituricensis archiprĶsulis, Letgardis comitissĶ, BertĶ comitissĶ, Gauzfridi vicecomitisÖ" subscribed the charter dated 985 under which "Robertus" donated property to "Sancti Petri Carnotensis", on the advice of "Odonem, simul cum sua matre Ledgarde, pariterque dominam meam Bertam, ipsius Ķque coniugem"[63]. The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "XVIII Kal Dec" of "Letgardis comitissa"[64]. Guillaume & his first wife had one child:

      a) RICHARD (F‚ecamp [932]-20 Nov 996, bur F‚ecamp). Guillaume de JumiŠeges names Richard as son of Guillaume and Sprota, recording that news of his birth was brought to his father when he was returning from his victory against the rebels led by "Riulf"[65]. After the death of Richard's father, Louis IV "d'Outremer" King of the West Franks briefly controlled Rouen, and kept Richard prisoner, before the latter was able to escape, whereupon he succeeded as RICHARD I "Sans Peur" Comte [de Normandie].

      4. GERLOC (-after 969). Guillaume de JumiŠeges names "Guillaume etÖGerloc" as children of Rollo and Poppa, in a later passage records her marriage to "Guillaume comte de Poitou"[66]. Robert of Torigny also names "Willermum Longum Spatam et Gerloch" as children of "Rollo dux Northmannorum" and Poppa[67]. The Chronico Richardi Pictavensis records that "HeblusÖPictavorum Comes et Dux AquitaniĶ duxit Adelam filiam Rolli Rothomagensis"[68], although this is presumably an error for Guillaume son of Ebles. She adopted the name ADELA when baptised. "Guillelmi comitis, Adeleidis comitisse" subscribed a charter recording a donation to Cluny dated [963][69]. Lothaire King of France granted her 14 Oct 962 the right to dispose of extensive property in Poitiers, la Cour de Faye, this grant effectively putting an end to the long dispute between her husband and the family of Hugues "Capet". She used the property to found the Monastery of Sainte-Trinit‚e[70]. m (935) GUILLAUME I "T„ete d'Etoupe" Comte de Poitou, son of EBLES "Mancer" Comte de Poitou, Duke of Aquitaine & his first wife Aremburga ([900]-3 Apr 963). He succeeded in 959 as GUILLAUME III Duke of Aquitaine.

      Rollo's origin
      He is named as Rollo and said to have come from Dacia by Dudo of St. Quentin (c. 965-after 1043), the historian of the Norman dukes and the earliest source. Dudo does not name Rollo's parents. The Orkneyinga saga, a later source (c. 1230), identifies him with Hrolf Gange, who is said to have been a son of Ragnvald Eysteinsson, jarl of M≤re. Modern scholars generally doubt the identification with Hrolf. See, for example, Stewart Baldwin, "Rollo of Normany" in soc.genealogy.medieval, Mar. 16, 1998.

      There is much support for the claim of Rollo's homeland being Sykkylven in Sunnm≤re (M≤re), Norway.

      Dacia, the country Dudo refers to as Rollo's homeland, was what people outside Scandinavia called the Nordic countries as a unity: Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Iceland together. Dudo describes Dacia as a country of high mountains, surrounding Rollo's estate - just like Gange-Hrolf's Fauske in Sykkylven. (see photos)

      At the time the language, Old Norse (called dŤonsk tunga by Snorri and others) was still the same and had not started to divide into separate dialects or languages.

      Fasge, the place Adam of Bremen describes as Rollo's home, can easily be placed in Sykkylven where Gangu-Hrolfr had his estate at the farm called Fauske, Aure or Aurum. The Danish historian Steenstrup identified (works from 1876-82) Fasge with the town Faxe in Denmark, but linguistic argument shows that this consonant change is highly unlikely, and that the Norwegian place-name Fauske is more probable.

      The outstanding linguist HÍakon Melberg argued in his dissertation that linguistic studies could shed light on the origin of the Scandinavian people and their history. In particular he opposes Steenstrup's analysis and points at several discrepancies, making Denmark improbable as Gange-Hrolf's origin.

      http://books.google.com/books?hl=no&id=KGIeAAAAMAAJ&q=fauske#search_anchor

      Sources
      Linge, Per Eldar: Gangerolvs mektige M≤re, Sunnm≤rsposten forlag 1992.
      More here: http://www.eutopia.no/Gangerolv.html

      Melberg, HÍakon: Origin of the Scandinavian Nations and Languages : An Introduction (doctoral dissertation). University of Oslo, 1952.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H%C3%A5kon_Melberg http://books.google.com/books?id=KGIeAAAAMAAJ&hl=no&pgis=1 http://ask.bibsys.no/ask/action/show?pid=921271042&kid=biblio

      Languages
      Gangu-Hrolf's Languages: Old French and Old Norse (the language spoken in the Nordic countries at the time):

      "Danish tounge", dansk tunga, would be the language spoken in all of Scandinavia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Norse_language

      dŤonsk tunga: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Icelandic_language#The_Scandinavian_period_.28550.E2.80.931050.29 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_French

      Snorri Sturlusson
      From Heimskringla, Snorri: "24. ROLF GANGER DRIVEN INTO BANISHMENT.

      Earl Ragnvald was King Harald's dearest friend, and the king had the greatest regard for him. He was married to Hild, a daughter of Rolf Nefia, and their sons were Rolf and Thorer. Earl Ragnvald had also three sons by concubines, -- the one called Hallad, the second Einar, the third Hrollaug; and all three were grown men when their brothers born in marriage were still children Rolf became a great viking, and was of so stout a growth that no horse could carry him, and wheresoever he went he must go on foot; and therefore he was called Rolf Ganger. He plundered much in the East sea. One summer, as he was coming from the eastward on a viking's expedition to the coast of Viken, he landed there and made a cattle foray. As King Harald happened, just at that time, to be in Viken, he heard of it, and was in a great rage; for he had forbid, by the greatest punishment, the plundering within the bounds of the country. The king assembled a Thing, and had Rolf declared an outlaw over all Norway. When Rolf's mother, Hild heard of it she hastened to the king, and entreated peace for Rolf; but the king was so enraged that here entreaty was of no avail. Then Hild spake these lines: --

      "Think'st thou, King Harald, in thy anger, To drive away my brave Rolf Ganger Like a mad wolf, from out the land? Why, Harald, raise thy mighty hand? Why banish Nefia's gallant name-son, The brother of brave udal-men? Why is thy cruelty so fell? Bethink thee, monarch, it is ill With such a wolf at wolf to play, Who, driven to the wild woods away May make the king's best deer his prey."

      Rolf Ganger went afterwards over sea to the West to the Hebrides, or Sudreys; and at last farther west to Valland, where he plundered and subdued for himself a great earldom, which he peopled with Northmen, from which that land is called Normandy. Rolf Ganger's son was William, father to Richard, and grandfather to another Richard, who was the father of Robert Longspear, and grandfather of William the Bastard, from whom all the following English kings are descended. From Rolf Ganger also are descended the earls in Normandy. Queen Ragnhild the Mighty lived three years after she came to Norway; and, after her death, her son and King Harald's was taken to the herse Thorer Hroaldson, and Eirik was fostered by him." (Snorri Sturlasson )

      Gange-Rolv (GŤongu-Hr‚olfr), var en norsk vikingh≤vding og sagafigur som egentlig het Hr‚olfr RŤognvaldsson (ca 860-932) og var s≤nn av Ragnvald M≤rejarl, kjent som jarlen som klippet Harald HÍarfagre etter at Norge var samlet til ett rike.

      Gange-Rolv fikk tilnavnet fordi han var sÍa stor at han alltid mÍatte gÍa til fots, underforstÍatt at hesten ble for liten. I f≤lge norsk og islandsk tradisjon er denne personen identisk med den historiske Rollo, som i 911 ble utnevnt til hertug over Normandie. Rollos opphav er imidlertid omdiskutert og nok umulig Ía stadfeste helt sikkert ettersom kildene spriker i alle retninger. En sannsynlig slektning, Vilhelm Erobreren av Normandie, inntok England i 1066 og grunnla et nytt normannisk kongehus i der.

      Gange-Rolv var med pÍa mange tokt i Austerled, men ble forvist fra landet av Harald HÍarfagre etter et strandhogg han gjorde i Viken (Norge). I henhold til Snorre dro Rolv til Valland (Frankrike) etter landsforvisningen. Der ble han blant annet ble gift med kongsdatteren Gisela, og han skal ha blitt d≤pt i Saint-Clair-katedralen.

      WIKIPEDIA (Eng)
      Rollo (c. 860 - c. 932) was the founder and first ruler of the Viking principality in what soon became known as Normandy. He is also in some later sources known as Robert of Normandy.

      The name Rollo is a Frankish-Latin name probably taken from Scandinavian name Hr‚olf (cf. the latinization of Hr‚olf Kraki into the similar Roluo in the Gesta Danorum).

      Historical evidence Rollo was a Viking leader of contested origin. Dudo of St. Quentin, in his De moribus et actis primorum Normannorum ducum (Latin), tells of a powerful Danish nobleman at loggerheads with the king of Dacia, who then died and left his two sons, Gurim and Rollo, leaving Rollo to be expelled and Gurim killed. William of JumiŠeges also mentions Rollo's prehistory in his Gesta Normannorum Ducum however he states that he was from the Danish town of Fasge. Wace, writing some 300 years after the event in his Roman de Rou, also mentions the two brothers (as Rou and Garin), as does the Orkneyinga Saga.

      Norwegian and Icelandic historians identified this Rollo with a son of Rognvald Eysteinsson, Earl of M≤re, in Western Norway, based on medieval Norwegian and Icelandic sagas that mention a Ganger Hrolf (Hrolf, the Walker). The oldest source of this version is the Latin Historia Norvegiae, written in Norway at the end of the 12th century. This Hrolf fell foul of the Norwegian king Harald Fairhair, and became a Jarl in Iceland. The nickname of that character came from being so big that no horse could carry him. [1]

      The question of Rollo's Danish or Norwegian origins was a matter of heated dispute between Norwegian and Danish historians of the 19th and early 20th century, particularly in the run-up to Normandy's 1000-year-anniversary in 1911. Today, historians still disagree on this question, but most would now agree that a certain conclusion can never be reached.'

      Invasion of France In 885, Rollo was one of the lesser leaders of the Viking fleet which besieged Paris under Sigfred. Legend has it that an emissary was sent by the king to find the chieftain and negotiate terms. When he asked for this information, the Vikings replied that they were all chieftains in their own right. In 886, when Sigfred retreated in return for tribute, Rollo stayed behind and was eventually bought off and sent to harry Burgundy.

      Later, he returned to the Seine with his followers (known as Danes, or Norsemen). He invaded the area of northern France now known as Normandy.

      Rather than pay Rollo to leave, as was customary, the Frankish king, Charles the Simple, understood that he could no longer hold back their onslaught, and decided to give Rollo the coastal lands they occupied under the condition that he defend against other raiding Vikings.

      In the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte (911) with King Charles, Rollo pledged feudal allegiance to the king, changed his name to the Frankish version, and converted to Christianity, probably with the baptismal name Robert. In return, and in admission of defeat, King Charles granted Rollo the lower Seine area (today's upper Normandy) and the titular rulership of Normandy, centred around the city of Rouen. There exists some argument among historians as to whether Rollo was a "duke" (dux) or whether his position was equivalent to that of a "count" under Charlemagne. According to legend, when required to kiss the foot of King Charles, as a condition of the treaty, he refused to perform so great a humiliation, and when Charles extended his foot to Rollo, Rollo ordered one of his warriors to do so in his place. His warrior then lifted Charles' foot up to his mouth causing him to fall to the ground. [2]

      Settlement Initially, Rollo stayed true to his word of defending the shores of the Seine river in accordance to the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, but in time he and his followers had very different ideas. Rollo began to divide the land between the Epte and Risle rivers among his chieftains and settled there with a de facto capital in Rouen. With these settlements, Rollo began to further raid other Frankish lands, now from the security of a settled homeland, rather than a mobile fleet. Eventually, however, Rollo's men intermarried with the local women, and became more settled as Frenchmen. At the time of his death, Rollo's expansion of his territory had extended as far west as the Vire River.

      Death Sometime around 927, Rollo passed the fief in Normandy to his son, William Longsword. Rollo may have lived for a few years after that, but certainly died before 933. According to the historian Adhemar, 'As Rollo's death drew near, he went mad and had a hundred Christian prisoners beheaded in front of him in honour of the gods whom he had worshipped,[citation needed] and in the end distributed a hundred pounds of gold around the churches in honour of the true God in whose name he had accepted baptism.' Even though Rollo had converted to Christianity, some of his pagan roots surfaced at the end.

      Legacy Rollo is a direct ancestor of William the Conqueror. Through William, he is a direct ancestor and predecessor of the present-day British royal family, including Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

      The "Clameur de Haro" in the Channel Islands is, supposedly, an appeal to Rollo.

      Depictions in Fiction Rollo is the subject of the 17th Century play Rollo Duke of Normandy written by John Fletcher, Philip Massinger, Ben Jonson, and George Chapman.

      References ^ GŤongu-Hr‚olfs saga in Old Norse from heimskringla.no ^ Holden, A.J. (1970). Le Roman de Rou de Wace. Paris: ‚Editions A.J. Picard. p.54. Lines 1147-1156 D.C. Douglas, "Rollo of Normandy", English Historical Review, Vol. 57 (1942), pp. 414-436 Robert Helmerichs, [Rollo as Historical Figure] Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish Kingdom under the Carolingians, 751-987, (Longman) 1983 Dudonis gesta Normannorum - Dudo of St. Quentin Gesta Normannorum Latin version at Bibliotheca Augustana Dudo of St. Quentin's Gesta Normannorum - An English Translation Gwyn Jones. Second edition: A History of the Vikings. Oxford University Press. (1984). William W. Fitzhugh and Elizabeth Ward. Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga. Smithsonian Institute Press. (2000) Eric Christiansen. The Norsemen in the Viking Age. Blackwell Publishers Ltd. (2002) Agnus Konstam. Historical Atlas of the Viking World. Checkmark Books. (2002) Holgar Arbman. Ancient People and Places: The Vikings. Thames and Husdson. (1961) Eric Oxenstierna. The Norsemen, New York Graphics Society Publishers, Ltd. (1965)

      TEXT - SOURCE? Rollo was a Viking leader, probably (based on Icelandic sources) from Norway, the son of Ragnvald, Earl of Moer; sagas mention a Hrolf, son of Ragnvald jarl of Moer. However, the latinization Rollo has in no known instance been applied to a Hrolf, and in the texts which speak of him, numerous latinized Hrolfs are included. Dudo of St. Quentin (by most accounts a more reliable source, and at least more recent and living nearer the regions concerned), in his Gesta Normannorum, tells of a powerful Dacian nobleman at loggerheads with the king of Dacia, who then died and left his two sons, Gurim and Rollo, leaving Rollo to be expelled and Gurim killed.(1) With his followers (known as Normans, or northmen), Rollo invaded the area of northern France now known as Normandy. Wace, writing some 300 years after the event, gives a Scandinavian origin, as does the Orkneyinga Saga, Danish or Norwegian most likely.

      Unlike most Vikings whose intentions were to plunder Frankish lands, Rollo's true intentions were to look for lands to settle. Upon arrival in France, and after many battles with the Vikings, Charles the Simple understood that he could no longer hold back their advances, and decided as a tempory measure to give Rollo land around Rouen, as he did with his other barons, but under the condition that he would convert to Christianity and defend the Seine River from other raiding Vikings. In the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte (911) with the French King Charles the Simple, "for the protection of the realm," Rollo pledged feudal allegiance to the king, changed his name to the Frankish version, and converted to Christianity, probably with the baptismal name Robert. In return, and in admission of defeat, King Charles granted Rollo the lower Seine area (today's upper Normandy) and the titular rulership of Normandy, centred around the city of Rouen. There exists some argument among historians as to whether Rollo was a "duke" (dux) or whether his position was equivalent to that of a "count" under Charlemagne. According to legend, when required, in conformity with general usage, to kiss the foot of King Charles, he refused to stoop to what he considered so great a degradation; yet as the homage could not be dispensed with, he ordered one of his warriors to perform it for him. The latter, as proud as his chief, instead of stooping to the royal foot, raised it so high, that the King fell to the ground. It is important to note that Rollo did stay true to his word of defending the shores of the Seine river in accordance to the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, but in time Rollo and his followers had very different ideas. Rollo began to divide the land between the Epte and Risle rivers among his chieftains and settled there with a de-facto capital in Rouen. With these settlements, Rollo began to further raid other Frankish lands, now from the security of a settled homeland, rather than a mobile fleet.

      Rollo expanded his territory as far west as the Vire River and sometime around 927 he passed the Duchy of Normandy to his son, William Longsword. Rollo may have lived for a few years after that, but certainly died before 933. According to the historian Adhemar, 'As Rollo's death drew near, he went mad and had a hundred Christian prisoners beheaded in front of him in honour of the gods whom he had worshiped, and in the end distributed a hundred pounds of gold around the churches in honour of the true god in whose name he had accepted baptism.' Even though Rollo had converted to Christianity, at the end, some of Rollo's pagan roots eventually came to the surface. He was a direct ancestor of William the Conqueror. By William, he was a direct ancestor of the present-day British royal family, including Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The "clameur de haro" on the Channel Islands is, supposedly, an appeal to Rollo.

      TEXT - SOURCE??? Rollo (later Robert) "of Normandy" Viking leader in France, d. 932.

      Although he is often referred to as the first Duke of Normandy, that title is an anachronism. Probably about 911, King Charles the Simple of France ceded a district around the city of Rouen to Rollo, which eventually evolved into the duchy of Normandy. He is said to have been baptized in 912, assuming the Christian name Robert. He was still living in 928, when he was holding Eudes, son of Heribert of Vermandois, as a captive and was probably dead by 932, when his son William was mentioned as leading the Normans.

      end of biography [4]
    • ROLLO THE VIKING

      DIED 931 A.D.



      I



      For more than two hundred years during the Middle Ages the Christian countries of Europe were attacked on the southwest by the Saracens of Spain, and on the northwest by the Norsemen, or Northmen. The Northmen were so called because they came into Middle Europe from the north. Sometimes they were called Vikings, or pirates, because they were adventurous sea-robbers who plundered all countries which they could reach by sea.



      Their ships were long and swift In the center was placed a single mast, which carried one large sail. For the most part, however, the Norsemen depended on rowing, not on the wind, and sometimes there were twenty rowers in one vessel.



      The Vikings were a terror to all their neighbors; but the two regions that suffered most from their attacks were the Island of Britain and that part of Charlemagne's empire in which the Franks were settled.







      Nearly fifty times in two hundred years the lands of the Franks were invaded. The Vikings sailed up the large rivers into the heart of the region which we now call France and captured and pillaged cities and towns. Some years after Charlemagne's death they went as far as his capital, Aix, took the place, and stabled their horses in the cathedral which the great emperor had built.



      In the year 860 they discovered Iceland and made a settlement upon its shores. A few years later they sailed as far as Greenland, and there established settlements which existed for about a century.



      These Vikings were the first discoverers of the continent on which we live. Ancient books found in Iceland tell the story of the discovery. It is related that a Viking ship was driven during a storm to a strange coast, which is thought to have been that part of America now known as Labrador.



      When the captain of the ship returned home he told what he had seen. His tale so excited the curiosity of a young Viking prince, called Leif the Lucky, that he sailed to the newly discovered coast.



      Going ashore, he found that the country abounded in wild grapes; and so he called it Vinland, or the land of Vines. Vinland is thought to have been a part of what is now the Rhode Island coast.



      The Vikings were not aware that they had found a great unknown continent. No one in the more civilized parts of Europe knew anything about their discovery; and after a while the story of the Vinland voyages seems to have been forgotten, even among the Vikings themselves.



      So it is not to them that we owe the discovery of America, but to Columbus; because his discovery, though nearly five hundred years later than that of the Norsemen, actually made known to all Europe, for all time, the existence of the New World.



      II



      THE Vikings had many able chieftains. One of the most famous was Rollo the Walker, so called because he was such a giant that no horse strong enough to carry him could be found, and therefore he always had to walk. However, he did on foot what few could do on horseback.



      In 885 seven hundred ships, commanded by Rollo and other Viking chiefs, left the harbors of Norway, sailed to the mouth of the Seine, and started up the river to capture the city of Paris.



      Rollo and his men stopped on the way at Rouen, which also was on the Seine, but nearer its mouth. The citizens had heard of the giant, and when they saw the river covered by his fleet they were dismayed. However, the bishop of Rouen told them that Rollo could be as noble and generous as he was fierce; and he advised them to open their gates and trust to the mercy of the Viking chief. This was done, and Rollo marched into Rouen and took possession of it. The bishop had given good advice, for Rollo treated the people very kindly.



      Soon after capturing Rouen he left the place, sailed up the river to Paris, and joined the other Viking chiefs. And now for six long miles the beautiful Seine was covered with Viking vessels, which carried an army of thirty thousand men.



      A noted warrior named Eudes was Count of Paris, and he had advised the Parisians to fortify the city. So not long before the arrival of Rollo and his companions, two walls with strong gates had been built round Paris.



      It was no easy task for even Vikings to capture a strongly walled city. We are told that Rollo and his men built a high tower and rolled it on wheels up to the walls. At its top was a floor well manned with soldiers. But the people within the city shot hundreds of arrows at the besiegers, and threw down rocks, or poured boiling oil and pitch upon them.



      The Vikings thought to starve the Parisians, and for thirteen months they encamped round the city. At length food became very scarce, and Count Eudes determined to go for help. He went out through one of the gates on a dark, stormy night, and rode post-haste to the king. He told him that something must be done to save the people of Paris.







      So the king gathered an army and marched to the city. No battle was fought--the Vikings seemed to have been afraid to risk one. They gave up the siege, and Paris was relieved.



      Rollo and his men went to the Duchy of Burgundy, where, as now, the finest crops were raised and the best of wines were made.



      III



      PERHAPS after a time Rollo and his Vikings went home; but we do not know what he did for about twenty-five years. We do know that he abandoned his old home in Norway in 911. Then he and his people sailed from the icy shore of Norway and again went up the Seine in hundreds of Viking vessels.



      Of course, on arriving in the land of the Franks, Rollo at once began to plunder towns and farms.



      Charles, then king of the Franks, although his people called him the Simple, or Senseless, had sense enough to see that this must be stopped.



      So he sent a message to Rollo and proposed that they should have a talk about peace. Rollo agreed and accordingly they met. The king and his troops stood on one side of a little river, and Rollo with his Vikings stood on the other. Messages passed between them. The king asked Rollo what he wanted.



      "Let me and my people live in the land of the Franks; let us make ourselves home here, and I and my Vikings will become your vassals," answered Rollo. He asked for Rouen and the neighboring land. So the king gave him that part of Francia; and ever since it has been called Normandy, the land of the Northmen.



      When it was decided that the Vikings should settle in Francia and be subjects of the Frankish king, Rollo was told that he must kiss the foot of Charles in token that he would be the king's vassal. The haughty Viking refused. "Never," said he, "will I bend my knee before any man, and no man's foot will I kiss." After some persuasion, however, he ordered one of his men to perform the act of homage for him. The king was on horseback and the Norseman, standing by the side of the horse, suddenly seized the king's foot and drew it up to his lips. This almost made the king fall from his horse, to the great amusement of the Norsemen.



      Becoming a vassal to the king meant that if the king went to war Rollo would be obliged to join his army and bring a certain number of armed men--one thousand or more.



      Rollo now granted parts of Normandy to his leading men on condition that they would bring soldiers to his army and fight under him. They became his vassals, as he was the king's vassal.



      The lands granted to vassals in this way were called feuds, and this plan of holding lands was called the Feudal System.



      It was established in every country of Europe during the Middle Ages.



      The poorest people were called serfs. They were almost slaves and were never permitted to leave the estate to which they belonged. They did all the work. They worked chiefly for the landlords, but partly for themselves.



      Having been a robber himself, Rollo knew what a shocking thing it was to ravage and plunder, and he determined to change his people's habits. He made strict laws and hanged robbers. His duchy thus became one of the safest parts of Europe.



      The Northmen learned the language of the Franks and adopted their religion.



      The story of Rollo is especially interesting to us, because Rollo was the forefather of that famous Duke of Normandy who, less than a hundred and fifty years later, conquered England and brought into that country the Norman nobles with their French language and customs. [6]

  • Sources 
    1. [S12470] "Richard I of Normandy", Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_I_of_Normandy, abstracted by David A. Hennesse.

    2. [S12471] "Rollo", Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rollo, abstracted by David A. Hennessee, info@classroomfurniture.com,.

    3. [S12535] "Rollo Rognvaldsson "The Dane" Duke of Normandy", Biography, http://www.deloriahurst.com/deloriahurst%20page/3310.html,.

    4. [S12542] "Gange-Hr‚olfr 'Rollo' of Normandy", https://www.geni.com/people/Gange-Hr%C3%B3lfr-Rollo-of-Normandy/2915061, Biography,.

    5. [S12540] "Berengar II of Neustria", Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berengar_II_of_Neustria, by David A. Hennessee, info.

    6. [S12543] "Gange-Hr‚olfr 'Rollo' of Normandy", https://www.geni.com/people/Gange-Hr%C3%B3lfr-Rollo-of-Normandy/2915061, Biography,.