Yaroslav, I, Czar of Russia

Yaroslav, I, Czar of Russia

Male 976 - 1054  (78 years)

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  • Name Yaroslav  
    Suffix I, Czar of Russia 
    Born 976  Kiev, Ukraine Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2
    Gender Male 
    Also Known As Grand Duke of Kiev  [2
    Also Known As Yaroslav the Wise  [3, 4
    Also Known As Yaroslav Vladimirovich  [2
    Died 20 Feb 1054  Kiev, Ukraine Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2
    Person ID I51038  The Hennessee Family
    Last Modified 15 Feb 2019 

    Father Vladimir, Czar of Russia,   b. 956, Kiev, Ukraine Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 15 Jul 1015, Kiev, Ukraine Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 59 years) 
    Mother Rogneda of Polotsk, Princess Consort of Rus,   b. 0Apr 962, Polotsk, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1002, Berestovo, Kiev, Ukraine Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 39 years) 
    Married Y  [1, 5, 6
    Divorced Y  [4
    Family ID F18997  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Ingigerd Olofsdottir, Princess of Sweden,   b. ~1001, Sigtuna, Sweden Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 10 Feb 1050, Kiev, Ukraine Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 48 years) 
    Married 1019  Uppsala, Sweden Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2, 3, 7, 8
     1. Vladimir of Novgorod,   b. 1020, Novgorod, Ukraine Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 4 Oct 1052, Novgorod, Ukraine Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 32 years)
     2. Anna Agnesa Yaraslavna, Queen of France,   b. 1036, Kiev, Ukraine Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 5 Sep 1075, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 39 years)
    Last Modified 19 Aug 2020 
    Family ID F18999  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 976 - Kiev, Ukraine Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 1019 - Uppsala, Sweden Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 20 Feb 1054 - Kiev, Ukraine Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photos
    Yaroslav the Wise
    Yaroslav the Wise

  • Notes 
    • Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus', known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise (Old East Slavic: ???????? ?????????????? ??????; Russian: ??????´? ??´????, translit. Jaroslav Mudryj [j?r?'slaf 'mudr?j]; Ukrainian: ??????´? ??´????, translit. Jaroslav Mudryj [j?ro'sl?u? 'mudr?j]; Old Norse: Jarizleifr Valdamarsson;[1]; Latin: Iaroslaus Sapiens; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. Yaroslav's Christian name was George (Yuri) after Saint George (Old East Slavic: ?????i, Gjurigái).

      A son of Vladimir the Great, the first Christian Prince of Novgorod, Yaroslav acted as vice-regent of Novgorod at the time of his father's death in 1015. Subsequently, his eldest surviving brother, Sviatopolk I of Kiev, killed three of his other brothers and seized power in Kiev. Yaroslav, with the active support of the Novgorodians and the help of Varangian mercenaries, (Varangian defined: http://thehennesseefamily.com/showmedia.php?mediaID=3071&medialinkID=3073) defeated Svyatopolk and became the Grand Prince of Kiev in 1019. Under Yaroslav the codification of legal customs and princely enactments was begun, and this work served as the basis for a law code called the Russkaya Pravda ("Rus Truth [Law]"). During his lengthy reign, Kievan Rus' reached the zenith of its cultural flowering and military power.[2]

      Yaroslav the Wise
      Grand Prince of Kiev and Novgorod
      Reign 1019–1054
      Predecessor Sviatopolk the Accursed
      Successor Iziaslav I
      Prince of Rostov?
      Reign 978–1010
      Prince of Novgorod
      Reign 1010–1019
      Born c.?978
      Died 20 February 1054 (aged c. 76)
      Burial Saint Sophia's Cathedral, Kiev
      Spouse Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden
      Details... Elisiv, Queen of Norway
      Anastasia, Queen of Hungary
      Anne, Queen of the Franks
      Agatha, Queen of England (possibly)
      Vladimir of Novgorod
      Iziaslav I
      Sviatoslav II
      Vsevolod I
      Igor Yaroslavich
      Vyacheslav Yaroslavich
      Full name
      Yaroslav Vladimirovich
      Dynasty Rurikid
      Father Vladimir the Great
      Mother Rogneda of Polotsk (according to the Primary Chronicle)

      Rise to the throne

      The only contemporary image of Yaroslav I the Wise, on his seal.
      Main article: Boleslaw I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis
      The early years of Yaroslav's life are shrouded in mystery. He was one of the numerous sons of Vladimir the Great, presumably his second by Rogneda of Polotsk,[3] although his actual age (as stated in the Primary Chronicle and corroborated by the examination of his skeleton in the 1930s) would place him among the youngest children of Vladimir. It has been suggested that he was a child begotten out of wedlock after Vladimir's divorce from Rogneda and marriage to Anna Porphyrogenita, or even that he was a child of Anna Porphyrogenita herself. Yaroslav figures prominently in the Norse sagas under the name Jarisleif the Lame; his legendary lameness (probably resulting from an arrow wound) was corroborated by the scientists who examined his remains.[citation needed]

      In his youth, Yaroslav was sent by his father to rule the northern lands around Rostov but was transferred to Veliky Novgorod,[4] as befitted a senior heir to the throne, in 1010. While living there, he founded the town of Yaroslavl (literally, "Yaroslav's") on the Volga River. His relations with his father were apparently strained,[4] and grew only worse on the news that Vladimir bequeathed the Kievan throne to his younger son, Boris. In 1014 Yaroslav refused to pay tribute to Kiev and only Vladimir's death, in July 1015, prevented a war.[4]

      During the next four years Yaroslav waged a complicated and bloody war for Kiev against his half-brother Sviatopolk I of Kiev, who was supported by his father-in-law, Duke Boleslaw I Chrobry of Poland.[5] During the course of this struggle, several other brothers (Boris, Gleb, and Svyatoslav) were brutally murdered.[5] The Primary Chronicle accused Svyatopolk of planning those murders,[5] while the saga Eymundar ¤âattr hrings is often interpreted as recounting the story of Boris' assassination by the Varangians in the service of Yaroslav. However, the victim's name is given there as Burizaf, which is also a name of Boleslaus I in the Scandinavian sources. It is thus possible that the Saga tells the story of Yaroslav's struggle against Svyatopolk (whose troops were commanded by the Polish duke), and not against Boris.[citation needed]

      Yaroslav defeated Svyatopolk in their first battle, in 1016, and Svyatopolk fled to Poland.[5] But Svyatopolk returned in 1018 with Polish troops furnished by his father-in-law, seized Kiev[5] and pushed Yaroslav back into Novgorod. Yaroslav at last prevailed over Svyatopolk, and in 1019 firmly established his rule over Kiev.[6] One of his first actions as a grand prince was to confer on the loyal Novgorodians (who had helped him to gain the Kievan throne), numerous freedoms and privileges. Thus, the foundation of the Novgorod Republic was laid. For their part, the Novgorodians respected Yaroslav more than they did other Kievan princes; and the princely residence in their city, next to the marketplace (and where the veche often convened) was named Yaroslav's Court after him. It probably was during this period that Yaroslav promulgated the first code of laws in the lands of the East Slavs, the Russkaya Pravda.


      Coins of Yaroslav and his descendants represent the trident.

      Depiction of Yaroslav the Wise from Granovitaya Palata.
      Power struggles between siblings
      Leaving aside the legitimacy of Yaroslav's claims to the Kievan throne and his postulated guilt in the murder of his brothers, Nestor the Chronicler and later Russian historians often presented him as a model of virtue, styling him "the Wise". A less appealing side of his personality is revealed by his having imprisoned his youngest brother Sudislav for life. Yet another brother, Mstislav of Chernigov, whose distant realm bordered the North Caucasus and the Black Sea, hastened to Kiev and, despite reinforcements led by Yaroslav's brother-in-law King Anund Jacob of Sweden (as Jakun - "blind and dressed in a gold suit"),[7] inflicted a heavy defeat on Yaroslav in 1024. Yaroslav and Mstislav then divided Kievan Rus' between them: the area stretching left from the Dnieper River, with the capital at Chernihiv, was ceded to Mstislav until his death in 1036.

      Scandinavian allies
      In his foreign policy, Yaroslav relied on the Scandinavian alliance and attempted to weaken the Byzantine influence on Kiev. In 1030, he reconquered Red Ruthenia from the Poles and concluded an alliance with King Casimir I the Restorer, sealed by the latter's marriage to Yaroslav's sister, Maria. In another successful military raid the same year, he captured Tartu, Estonia and renamed it Yuryev[8] (named after Yury, Yaroslav's patron saint) and forced the surrounding province of Ugaunnia to pay annual tribute.

      Campaign against Byzantium
      In 1043, Yaroslav staged a naval raid against Constantinople led by his son Vladimir of Novgorod and general Vyshata. Although his navy was defeated in the Rus'–Byzantine War (1043), Yaroslav managed to conclude the war with a favourable treaty and prestigious marriage of his son Vsevolod I of Kiev to the emperor's daughter. It has been suggested that the peace was so advantageous because the Kievans had succeeded in taking a key Byzantine possession in Crimea, Chersonesus.

      Protecting the inhabitants of the Dniper from the Pechenegs
      To defend his state from the Pechenegs and other nomadic tribes threatening it from the south he constructed a line of forts, composed of Yuriev, Bohuslav, Kaniv, Korsun-Shevchenkivskyi, and Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi. To celebrate his decisive victory over the Pechenegs in 1036 (who thereupon never were a threat to Kiev) he sponsored the construction of the Saint Sophia Cathedral in 1037. That same year there were built monasteries of Saint George and Saint Irene. Some mentioned and other celebrated monuments of his reign such as the Golden Gate of Kiev perished during the Mongol invasion of Rus', but later restored.

      Establishment of law
      Yaroslav was a notable patron of book culture and learning. In 1051, he had a Slavic monk, Hilarion of Kiev, proclaimed the metropolitan bishop of Kiev, thus challenging the Byzantine tradition of placing Greeks on the episcopal sees. Hilarion's discourse on Yaroslav and his father Vladimir is frequently cited as the first work of Old East Slavic literature.

      Family life and posterity

      Eleventh-century fresco of Saint Sophia's Cathedral, Kiev, representing the daughters of Yaroslav I, with Anne probably being the youngest. Other daughters were Anastasia, wife of Andrew I of Hungary; Elizabeth, wife of Harald Harºrâaºi; and possibly Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile.
      In 1019, Yaroslav married Ingegerd Olofsdotter, daughter of the king of Sweden,[9] and gave Staraya Ladoga to her as a marriage gift.

      Saint Sophia's Cathedral in Kiev houses a fresco representing the whole family: Yaroslav, Irene (as Ingegerd was known in Rus), their four daughters and six sons.[10] Yaroslav had three of his daughters married to foreign princes who lived in exile at his court:

      Elisiv of Kiev to Harald Harºrâaºi[9] (who attained her hand by his military exploits in the Byzantine Empire);
      Anastasia of Kiev to the future Andrew I of Hungary;[9]
      Anne of Kiev married Henry I of France[9] and was the regent of France during their son's minority; (she was Yaroslav the Wise's most beloved daughter).
      (possibly) Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile, of the royal family of England, the mother of Edgar the ¥theling and Saint Margaret of Scotland.

      Anne of Kiev.
      Yaroslav had one son from the first marriage (his Christian name being Ilya (?-1020)), and six sons from the second marriage. Apprehending the danger that could ensue from divisions between brothers, he exhorted them to live in peace with each other. The eldest of these, Vladimir of Novgorod, best remembered for building the Cathedral of St. Sophia, Novgorod, predeceased his father. Three other sons—Iziaslav I, Sviatoslav II, and Vsevolod I—reigned in Kiev one after another. The youngest children of Yaroslav were Igor Yaroslavich (1036–1060) of Volhynia and Vyacheslav Yaroslavich (1036–1057) of the Principality of Smolensk. About Vyacheslav, there is almost no information. Some documents point out the fact of him having a son, Boris Vyacheslavich, who challenged Vsevolod I sometime in 1077-1078.


      Sarcophagus of Yaroslav the Wise.
      Following his death, the body of Yaroslav the Wise was entombed in a white marble sarcophagus within Saint Sophia's Cathedral. In 1936, the sarcophagus was opened and found to contain the skeletal remains of two individuals, one male and one female. The male was determined to be Yaroslav, however the identity of the female was never established. The sarcophagus was again opened in 1939 and the remains removed for research, not being documented as returned until 1964. Then, in 2009, the sarcophagus was opened and surprisingly found to contain only one skeleton, that of a female. It seems the documents detailing the 1964 reinterment of the remains were falsified to hide the fact that Yaroslav's remains had been lost. Subsequent questioning of individuals involved in the research and reinterment of the remains seems to point to the idea that Yaroslav's remains were purposely hidden prior to the German occupation of Ukraine and then either lost completely or stolen and transported to the United States where many ancient religious artifacts were placed to avoid "mistreatment" by the communists.[11]


      Yaroslav the Wise's consolidation of Kiev and Novgorod as depicted at Zoloti Vorota mosaics https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/Yaroslav1.jpg/220px-Yaroslav1.jpg
      Four different towns in four different countries were founded by and named after Yaroslav: Yaroslavl (in today's Russia), Yuryev (now Tartu, Estonia) and another Yuryev (now Bila Tserkva, Ukraine), and Jaroslaw in Poland. Following the Russian custom of naming military objects such as tanks and planes after historical figures, the helmet worn by many Russian soldiers during the Crimean War was called the "Helmet of Yaroslav the Wise". It was the first pointed helmet to be used by any army, even before German troops wore pointed helmets.

      In 2008 Yaroslav was placed first (with 40% of the votes) in their ranking of "our greatest compatriots" by the viewers of the TV show Velyki Ukraèintsi.[12] Afterwards one of the producers of The Greatest Ukrainians claimed that Yaroslav had only won because of vote manipulation and that (if that had been prevented) the real first place would have been awarded to Stepan Bandera.[13]

      Monument to Yaroslav the Wise in Kiev https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/Monument_to_Yaroslav_the_Wise.jpg/220px-Monument_to_Yaroslav_the_Wise.jpg

      Iron Lord was a 2010 film based on his early life as a regional prince on the frontier.

      end of biography [3]
    • *Yaroslav I "The Wise" Grand Duke of Kiev
      born 0980 Kiev, Ukraine
      died 20 February 1054 Kiev, Ukraine
      buried 1054 Russia

      *Vladimir I "The Great" Grand Duke of Kiev
      born 0960 Kiev, Ukraine
      died 15 Jul 1015 Berestovo, Kiev, Ukraine
      buried Church Of The Tithes, Kiev, Ukraine

      *Rogneda Princess of Polotsk
      born about 0962 Polotsk, Byelorussia
      died 1002
      married Abt 0977 Of Polotsk, Byelorussia

      Vsevolod Vladimirovich Prince of Vladimir Volynsk
      born Abt 0983 Of, Vladimir Volynskij, Volyn, Ukraine died 1015
      Iszyaslav Vladimirovich born Abt 0978 Of Kiev, Ukraine died 1001
      Mstislav Vladimirovich Duke of Chernigov & Tmutorakan
      born Abt 0988 Of Chernigov, Ukraine died 1035/1036
      Premislava Vladimirovna Princess of Kiev born Abt 0980 Of Kiev, Ukraine
      Predslava Vladimirovna Princess of Kiev born Abt 0984 Of Kiev, Ukraine
      died Aft 1018

      *Ingrid (Ingegerda) Olafsdotter Princess of Sweden
      born about 1001 Uppsala, Sweden
      died 10 February 1050 Kiev, Ukraine
      married 1019 Uppsala, Sweden

      *Anna Agnesa Yaroslavna Grand Duchess of Kiev born 1036 Kiev, Ukraine
      died 1076/89 France buried Abbaye de Villiers, La-Ferte-Alais, France
      *Anastasiya Agmunda Yaroslavna Princess of Kiev born about 1035 Ukraine died after 1074
      *Vsevolod I Yaroslavich Prince of Kiev born 1030 Pereyaslavl, Russia died 13 April 1093
      Igor Yaroslavich born about 1036 Vladimir Volynskiy, Volyn, Ukraine
      died 1059/60 Vladimir Volunsky, Volyn, Ukraine
      Vladimir Yaroslavich Duke of Novgorod born 1020 Novgorod, Russia died 4 October 1052
      *Izyaslav I Dmitrij Yaroslavich born 1025 Turov, Polesye, Byelorussia died 3 October 1078
      Svyatopolk I Yaroslavich Grand Duke of Kiev born 1027 Vladimir-Volynsk, Volyn, Ukraine
      died 27 December 1076
      *Elizaveta Yaroslavna of Kiev Queen of Norway born about 1032 Kiev, Ukraine

      biographical and/or anecdotal:

      notes or source:

      end of profile [2]

  • Sources 
    1. [S12422] "Vladimir the Great", Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_the_Great, revisited or retrieved, recorded & up.

    2. [S12429] Yaroslav I "The Wise" Grand Duke of Kiev, Profile, http://www.mathematical.com/kievyaroslav1.html, revisited or retrieve.

    3. [S12430] "Yaroslav the Wise", Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaroslav_the_Wise, revisited or retrieved, recorded & uplo.

    4. [S12434] "Rogneda of Polotsk", Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rogneda_of_Polotsk, revisited or retrieved, recorded & up.

    5. [S12420] "Robert (Brus) de Brus", Ancestors, Descendants & Biography, https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Brus-141, revisited or retrie.

    6. [S12514] "List of rape victims from ancient history and mythology", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_rape_victims_from_ancie.

    7. [S12490] "Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden", Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ingegerd_Olofsdotter_of_Sweden, abstracted by.

    8. [S12745] "Gundreda (Warenne) de Lancaster (abt. 1120 - 1170)", Biography, Pedigree & Registry, https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Ware.