William III, King of England, Ireland and Scotland

Male 1650 - 1702  (51 years)

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  • Name William III  
    Suffix King of England, Ireland and Scotland 
    Born 4 Nov 1650  Binnenhof, The Hague, Holland Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2
    Gender Male 
    Religion Calvinism  [2
    Also Known As "King Billy" by the Northern Irish  [2
    Also Known As William II, King of Scotland  [2
    Also Known As William of Orange  [2
    Died 8 Mar 1702  Kensington Palace, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    • of pneumonia...
    Buried 12 Apr 1702  Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Person ID I45587  The Hennessee Family
    Last Modified 17 Feb 2018 

    Father William II, Prince of Orange,   d. 1650 
    Mother Mary Henrietta Stuart,   b. 4 Nov 1631, St James's Palace, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 Dec 1660, Whitehall Palace, Westminster, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 29 years) 
    Married 1641  [1
    Family ID F16638  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Mary Stuart, II, Queen of England and Ireland,   b. 30 Apr 1662, St James's Palace, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Dec 1694, Kensington Palace, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 32 years) 
    Married 1677  [2
    Last Modified 19 Aug 2020 
    Family ID F16639  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 4 Nov 1650 - Binnenhof, The Hague, Holland Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 8 Mar 1702 - Kensington Palace, London, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - 12 Apr 1702 - Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Notes 
    • William III (Dutch: Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702),[2] also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II.[3] He is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy".[4]

      William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II, who died a week before William's birth. His mother, Mary, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, he married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, Mary, the daughter of his maternal uncle James, Duke of York.

      A Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. In 1685, his Catholic father-in-law, James, Duke of York, became king of England, Ireland and Scotland. James's reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain. William, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the "Glorious Revolution". On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham. James was deposed and William and Mary became joint sovereigns in his place. They reigned together until her death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch.

      William's reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him to take power in Britain when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. William's victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by loyalists in Northern Ireland and Scotland. His reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover.

      end of this biography [2]
    • The so-called ‘Immortal Seven’ – seven of the most powerful men in the kingdom – invited William of Orange to invade England. Why? William had royal blood connections (his mother was a Stuart) and he was married to James’s eldest daughter, Mary. William landed in Torbay in November 1688 (pictured below), James II fled, and in early 1689, William and Mary became the first diarchy [a form of government in which two individuals – diarchs – are joint heads of state] in British history.

      end of comment

      THE IMMORTAL SEVEN (https://braceofpistols.wordpress.com/2016/02/22/the-immortal-seven/)

      The Immortal Seven were the seven individuals who put their name to the formal letter of invitation sent on the 30th of June, 1688, to William of Orange requesting that he make the necessary preparations to depose James II. Together they represented a broad selection of the highest level of English society, sufficient to convince William of Orange that he would enjoy a suitably wide degree of support from across the country.

      On the afternoon of the 30th June 1688 seven men sat down to put their names to a formal letter of invitation to William of Orange.

      “…the people are so generally dissatisfied with the present conduct of the government in relation to their religion, liberties and properties (all which have been greatly invaded), and they are in such expectation of their prospects being daily worse, that Your Highness may be assured there are nineteen parts of twenty of the people throughout the kingdom who are desirous of a change.”

      None of the seven were so foolish as to actually sign their names to the invitation itself, but rather identified themselves by a secret code, a two digit number (that follows their names below). The letter was duly carried to the Netherlands by Arthur Herbert, the Earl of Torrington (discreetly referred to as Mr H within the letter) and had the desired effect as William of Orange ordered the necessary military and naval preparations for his invasion of Britain.

      All seven of these gentlemen received their due rewards when William of Orange and his wife Mary became settled in as William and Mary.

      These seven men were thereafter known as the Immortal Seven:

      The Earl of Devonshire, William Cavendish (24)
      Whig; House of Commons from 1661 to 1684
      leader of the anti-court and anti-Catholic party
      Age: 50
      son of William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire
      inherited his father’s peerage as Earl of Devonshire
      one of the wealthiest landowners in the country
      After the revolution, Cavendish is a leading Whig, serving as William’s Lord Steward
      The Lord Lumley, Richard Lumley (29)
      Age: 40
      The Lumleys were an ancient family from the north of England
      son of John Lumley; grandson of Richard Lumley, 1st Viscount Lumley
      played a prominent part in the suppression of the rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth
      personally responsible (according to John Evelyn) for Monmouth’s arrest
      wife: Frances Jones, daughter of Sir Henry Jones of Oxford
      Secured Newcastle for William in December 1688
      appointed by William in rapid succession (1689-90) as a Gentleman of the Bedchamber, a member of the Privy Council, Colonel of the 1st Troop of Horse Guards, Viscount Lumley of Lumley Castle, Lord Lieutenant of Northumberland and Lord Lieutenant of Durham
      Lumley is created Earl of Scarbrough on 15 April 1690
      The Earl of Danby, Thomas Osborne (27)
      Age: 58
      Impeached and disgraced member of Parliament with nearly no supporters he could rely on
      Spent nearly five years in the Tower of London following his impeachment
      A number of pamphlets asserting his complicity in the Popish Plot, and even accusing him of the murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, were published in 1679 and 1680
      following his imprisonment and release, returned to the House of Lords as a leader in the Tory party
      Driven to opposition by King James’ attacks on Protestantism
      Thought that William would not claim the crown
      Supported the succession of Mary
      This met with little support
      rejected both by William and by Mary herself
      voted against the regency and joined with Halifax and the Commons in declaring the prince and princess joint sovereigns.
      April 1689 created Marquess of Carmarthen
      made lord-lieutenant of the three ridings of Yorkshire
      greatly disliked by the Whigs
      given the nickname the “White” marquess in allusion to his sickly appearance
      February 1689: appointed to the post of Lord President of the Council
      could not conceal his vexation and disappointment
      increased by the appointment of Halifax as Lord Privy Seal (Treasurer Position that he had held before his disgrace).
      The antagonism between the “black” and the “white” marquess revived in all its bitterness.
      retired to the country and was seldom present at the council.
      In June and July, motions were made in Parliament for his removal
      In 1690: Halifax’s retires in 1690
      Once again again acquired the post of Lord Treasurer
      In 1690, appointed Mary’s chief advisor
      The Earl of Shrewsbury, Charles Talbot (25)
      Age: 30
      crossed to Holland to join William
      contributed towards defraying the expenses of the projected invasion
      landed with him in England in November 1688 during the Glorious Revolution
      appointed Secretary of State for the Southern Department
      1690: resigned from office when the Tories gained control of Parliament
      There is evidence that he had made overtures to the Jacobites after his resignation
      in correspondence with James at his court in exile at Saint Germains
      some evidence that these relations were entered upon with William’s full connivance
      Others claim Shrewsbury was unaware of the King’s knowledge and toleration which would explain the terrified letters he was in the habit of penning to him.
      Regardless, although often presented with evidence against him, William affected to have no suspicion of Shrewsbury’s loyalty
      The Bishop of London, Henry Compton (31)
      Age: 58
      important figure about London
      a successful botanist
      several theological works
      the Life of Donna Olympia Maladichini (1667)
      translated from Italian
      governed the Church during the time of Pope Innocent X (1644 to 1655)
      the Jesuits’ Intrigues (1669)
      translated from French
      A book on the Invisible World and the supernatural
      published under a pseudonym
      liberal in his views about Protestants; strong bias against Catholics
      February 1685: Lost his seat in the council and position as Dean of the Chapel Royal on the accession of James II
      suspended by James’s Court of High Commission in mid-1686.
      for his firmness in refusing to suspend John Sharp
      rector of St Giles’s-in-the-Fields
      anti-papal preaching had rendered him obnoxious to the king
      The suspension was lifted in September 1688, two days before the High Commission was abolished
      embraced the cause of William and Mary,
      performed the ceremony of their coronation
      his old position was restored to him
      Appointed to the Privy Council; serves as an advisor to the King and Queen of England, an office that he has had before
      chosen as one of the commissioners for revising the liturgy

      end of comment [3]

  • Sources 
    1. [S9254] "Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange" biography, retrieved March 18, 2016 by David A. Hennessee, https://en.wiki.

    2. [S9255] "William III of England", biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_III_of_England, retrieved March 18, 2016 by D.

    3. [S13210] "12 facts about the Stuarts", from "History Extra", by Andrea Zuvich, https://www.historyextra.com/period/stuart/facts-a.