Edward II, King of England

Edward II, King of England

Male 1284 - 1327  (43 years)

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  • Name Edward II  
    Suffix King of England 
    Born 25 Apr 1284  Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2
    Gender Male 
    Also Known As Edward of Caernarfon  [1, 2
    Died 21 Sep 1327  Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2
    • One night in August 1323, a captive rebel baron, Sir Roger Mortimer, drugged his guards and escaped from the Tower of London. With the king's men-at-arms in pursuit he fled to the south coast and sailed to France. There he was joined by Isabella, the Queen of England, who threw herself into his arms. A year later, as lovers, they returned with an invading army: King Edward II's forces crumbled before them and Mortimer took power. He removed Edward II in the first deposition of a monarch in British history. Then the ex-king was apparently murdered, some said with a red-hot poker, in Berkeley Castle.

      Images of Berkeley Castle ... http://bit.ly/1yHywy3
    Person ID I37451  The Hennessee Family
    Last Modified 7 Dec 2016 

    Father Edward I, King of England,   b. 17 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Jul 1307, Burgh by Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 68 years) 
    Mother Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England,   b. 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 49 years) 
    Married 18 Oct 1254  Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location  [3, 4, 5
    Family ID F13822  Group Sheet

    Family Isabella of France, Queen of England,   b. Abt 1279, Paris, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 22 Aug 1358, Castle Rising, Norfolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 79 years) 
    Married 0___ 1308  [2, 6
    Children 
     1. Edward III, King of England,   b. 13 Nov 1312, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 21 Jun 1377, Richmond Palace, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 64 years)
     2. Joan of the Tower, Queen of Scotland,   b. 5 Jul 1321, Tower Hill, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Sep 1362, Hertford, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 41 years)
    Last Modified 22 May 2017 
    Family ID F13862  Group Sheet

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 25 Apr 1284 - Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 21 Sep 1327 - Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Maps 
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photos
    Edward II of England (1284-1327)
    Edward II of England (1284-1327)
    Edward II shown receiving the English crown in a contemporary illustration
    King Edward II (1384-1327)
    King Edward II (1384-1327)

    Coat of Arms

  • Notes 
    • Edward II who reigned as King of England from 1307-1327 was widely held as a weak and ineffective king, losing disastrously to the Scots at Bannockburn in 1314. His tendency to ignore his nobility, in favour of low-born favourites, led to constant political unrest and eventually to his deposition. His father, a notable military leader, made a point of training young Edward in warfare and statecraft starting in his childhood. Edward preferred less noble pursuits and although impressive physically, he was a bit of a wimp. Edward I attributed his sonís problems to Piers Gaveston, a Gascon Knight who some believe to have been the prince's lover.

      Edward II is today perhaps best remembered for a story about his alleged murder with a red-hot poker plunged anally into his entrails, which has been seen by some as evidence of his homosexuality. Although pictured in the film Braveheart as highly effeminate, this portrayal is inaccurate as Edward II's robust physical appearance was similar to his father's, right down to the drooping eyelid.

      The King was captured and condemned by Parliament in 1327 as 'incorrigible and without hope of amendment'. He was forced to abdicate in favour of his teenage son Edward III, and he died in Berkeley Castle later that year.

      Braveheart's ridiculous depiction of William Wallace being Edward III's father is impossible. Wallace was executed in 1305, seven years before Edward III was born.

      During Richard II's reign, the Peasants Revolt of 1381 was sparked off by the Poll Tax of one shilling a head on the whole population, regardless of the individual's means to pay it. A large part of society consisted of villeins, men and women tied to the land on which they were born and worked. The sum, small enough to the better-off, represented an unacceptable impost upon their slender resources, and when they refused to pay, or were unable to do so, they were pursued with the full rigour of the law. They retaliated by murdering the Royal Officials who attempted to collect the tax, and this invited further retribution from the Government.

      * [7]
    • Edward II (25 April 1284 Ė 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir to the throne following the death of his older brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland, and in 1306 he was knighted in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Edward succeeded to the throne in 1307, following his father's death. In 1308, he married Isabella of France, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV, as part of a long-running effort to resolve the tensions between the English and French crowns.

      Edward had a close and controversial relationship with Piers Gaveston, who had joined his household in 1300. The precise nature of Edward and Gaveston's relationship is uncertain; they may have been friends, lovers or sworn brothers. Gaveston's arrogance and power as Edward's favourite provoked discontent both among the barons and the French royal family, and Edward was forced to exile him. On Gaveston's return, the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms called the Ordinances of 1311. The newly empowered barons banished Gaveston, to which Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite. Led by Edward's cousin, the Earl of Lancaster, a group of the barons seized and executed Gaveston in 1312, beginning several years of armed confrontation. English forces were pushed back in Scotland, where Edward was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Widespread famine followed, and criticism of the King's reign mounted.

      The Despenser family, in particular Hugh Despenser the Younger, became close friends and advisers to Edward, but in 1321 Lancaster and many of the barons seized the Despensers' lands and forced the King to exile them. In response, Edward led a short military campaign, capturing and executing Lancaster. Edward and the Despensers strengthened their grip on power, revoking the 1311 reforms, executing their enemies and confiscating estates. Unable to make progress in Scotland, Edward finally signed a truce with Robert. Opposition to the regime grew, and when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty in 1325, she turned against Edward and refused to return. Isabella allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and invaded England with a small army in 1326. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, where he was captured in November. Edward was forced to relinquish his crown in January 1327 in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III, and he died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September, probably murdered on the orders of the new regime.

      Edward's relationship with Gaveston inspired Christopher Marlowe's 1592 play Edward II, along with other plays, films, novels and media. Many of these have focused on the possible sexual relationship between the two men. Edward's contemporaries criticised his performance as a king, noting his failures in Scotland and the oppressive regime of his later years, although 19th-century academics later argued that the growth of parliamentary institutions during his reign was a positive development for England over the longer term. Debate has continued into the 21st century as to whether Edward was a lazy and incompetent king, or simply a reluctant and ultimately unsuccessful ruler. [2]

  • Sources 
    1. [S51613] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_II_of_England.

    2. [S9844] "Edward II of England" biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_II_of_England, accessed & downloaded from Wikiped.

    3. [S51609] http://www.ourfamilyhistories.org/ahnentafel.php?personID=I7340&tree=00&parentset=0&generations=5.

    4. [S7809] "Edward I of England (1239-1307)" biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England.

    5. [S7975] "Ferdinand III King of Castile and Leon" biography, http://www.britannica.com/biography/Ferdinand-III-king-of-Castile-a.

    6. [S51611] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_of_France.

    7. [S9184] http://www.ossett.net/14-15th.html, downloaded March 10, 2016 by David A. Hennessee.