Matilda of England, Queen of England

Matilda of England, Queen of England

Female 1102 - 1167  (65 years)

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  • Name Matilda of England 
    Suffix Queen of England 
    Born 7 Feb 1102  London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Christened 7 Apr 1141  [1, 2
    Gender Female 
    Also Known As Empress Matilda  [3
    Also Known As Empress Maude  [3
    Also Known As Empress of Germany  [3
    Also Known As Queen of Italy  [3
    Died 10 Sep 1167  Notre Dame, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Buried 10 Sep 1169  Bec Abbey, Le Bec-Hellouin, Eure, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Person ID I37350  The Hennessee Family
    Last Modified 17 Nov 2016 

    Father Henry I, King of England,   b. 1068-1070, Selby, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1 Dec 1135, Saint-Denis-en-Lyons, Normandy, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 65 years) 
    Mother Matilda of Scotland, Queen of England,   b. 0___ 1080, Dumfermline, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1 May 1118, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 38 years) 
    Married 11 Nov 1100  Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom Find all individuals with events at this location  [4, 5, 6
    Family ID F13812  Group Sheet

    Family Geoffrey "Le Bon" Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy,   b. 24 Sep 1113, Anjou, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Sep 1151, Chateau-Du-Loir, Eure-Et-Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 37 years) 
    Married 3 Apr 1127  Le Massachusetts, Sarthe, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [7
    • The marriage was meant to seal a peace between England/Normandy and Anjou. She was eleven years older than Geoffrey, and very proud of her status as an Empress (as opposed to being a mere Countess). Their marriage was a stormy one with frequent long separations, but she bore him three sons and survived him.
    Children 
     1. Henry II, King of England,   b. 5 Mar 1133, Le Mans, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Jul 1189, Chinon Castle, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 56 years)
    Last Modified 23 Apr 2018 
    Family ID F13811  Group Sheet

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 7 Feb 1102 - London, Middlesex, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 3 Apr 1127 - Le Massachusetts, Sarthe, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 10 Sep 1167 - Notre Dame, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - 10 Sep 1169 - Bec Abbey, Le Bec-Hellouin, Eure, France Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Maps 
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photos
    15th-century depiction of the Empress
    15th-century depiction of the Empress

  • Notes 
    • Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 1102 10 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude,[nb 1] was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy. The daughter of King Henry I of England, she moved to Germany as a child when she married the future Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. She travelled with her husband into Italy in 1116, was controversially crowned in St. Peter's Basilica, and acted as the imperial regent in Italy. Matilda and Henry had no children, and when Henry died in 1125, the crown was claimed by Lothair II, one of his political enemies.

      Meanwhile, Matilda's younger brother, William Adelin, died in the White Ship disaster of 1120, leaving England facing a potential succession crisis. On Henry V's death, Matilda was recalled to Normandy by her father, who arranged for her to marry Geoffrey of Anjou to form an alliance to protect his southern borders. Henry I had no further legitimate children and nominated Matilda as his heir, making his court swear an oath of loyalty to her and her successors, but the decision was not popular in the Anglo-Norman court. Henry died in 1135 but Matilda and Geoffrey faced opposition from the Norman barons and were unable to pursue their claims. The throne was instead taken by Matilda's cousin Stephen of Blois, who enjoyed the backing of the English Church. Stephen took steps to solidify his new regime, but faced threats both from neighbouring powers and from opponents within his kingdom.

      In 1139 Matilda crossed to England to take the kingdom by force, supported by her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester, and her uncle, King David I of Scotland, while Geoffrey focused on conquering Normandy. Matilda's forces captured Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln in 1141, but the Empress's attempt to be crowned at Westminster collapsed in the face of bitter opposition from the London crowds. As a result of this retreat, Matilda was never formally declared Queen of England, and was instead titled the Lady of the English. Robert was captured following the Rout of Winchester in 1141, and Matilda agreed to exchange him for Stephen. Matilda became trapped in Oxford Castle by Stephen's forces that winter, and was forced to escape across the frozen River Isis at night to avoid capture. The war degenerated into a stalemate, with Matilda controlling much of the south-west of England, and Stephen the south-east and the Midlands. Large parts of the rest of the country were in the hands of local, independent barons.

      Matilda returned to Normandy, now in the hands of her husband, in 1148, leaving her eldest son to continue the campaign in England; he eventually succeeded to the throne as Henry II in 1154. She settled her court near Rouen and for the rest of her life concerned herself with the administration of Normandy, acting on Henry's behalf when necessary. Particularly in the early years of her son's reign, she provided political advice and attempted to mediate during the Becket controversy. She worked extensively with the Church, founding Cistercian monasteries, and was known for her piety. She was buried under the high altar at Bec Abbey after her death in 1167. [3]

  • Sources 
    1. [S51584] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empress_Matilda.

    2. [S51590] http://www.ourfamilyhistories.org/ahnentafel.php?personID=I192534&tree=00&parentset=0&generations=5.

    3. [S9965] "Empress Matilda" biography, accessed & downloaded Thurssday, November 17th, 2016 by David A. Hennessee, http://en.wikip.

    4. [S965] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_I_of_England.

    5. [S12317] "William I of England (1027-1087)", Biography, http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/William_I,_King_of_England_(1027-1087),.

    6. [S12332] "Malcolm III of Scotland" biography, abstracted, downloaded & published Saturday, December 24th, 2016 by David A. Hennes.

    7. [S51583] http://bit.ly/1i49b9d.