Notes


Matches 39,801 to 39,900 of 42,623

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   Notes   Linked to 
39801 Texas Marriages, 1837-1973 Source (S37569)
 
39802 Texas Marriages, 1837-1973 for Benton Hill Source (S44349)
 
39803 Texas Marriages, 1837-1973 for S. J. Keltner Source (S44572)
 
39804 Texas or Oklahoma Family F9943
 
39805 Texas, Deaths, 1890-1976," index and images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/JDB9-1X5 : accessed 17 Nov 2012), Jesse Milton Byars, 09 Aug 1972; citing reference cn 58226, State Registrar Office, Austin, Texas. Source (S46528)
 
39806 Text of speech given by Nita Hennessee Shepard during the Hennessee Reunion held in McMinnville,TN, July of 1991:

Hello-o-o Tennessee Hennessees! And my Hennessee cousins from the various States of the Union. It's nice to see you! It's nice to be with you! I am Nita Raye Hennessee Shepard.

I've been asked to speak on John Hennessee, Sr., son of our elder Patrick, and brother to your James.

When brother James decided to leave western North Carolina for Tennessee, John decided to stay on, buying James' land on the Catawba River.

John was my great-great grandfather - born about 1775. If John's birth date is reasonably accurate, John was 9 years younger than brother James. This makes me wonder about the accuracy of the date of John's birth or if there were other brothers or sisters born in those intervening 9 years. However, I was told today that there were other children between James and John, so we will leave the year of his birth as about 1775.

It is thought John's mother was Ailsey McDowell, possibly a sister to Generals Charles and Joseph McDowell. It is said the McDowells came from Virgina with the Hennessees.

I became especially interested in John Hennessee because of two articles in the Burke Co., N.C. Historical Society volumes. One article said John had 4 children and his wife's name was Elizabeth. The other article said Elizabeth Wilson, born Feb.13, 1782 married John Hennessee and had an only child.

Senator Sam Erwin of Morganton,N.C., who had written the second article, said his information came from his mother and her information from a friend. Both were long deceased.

We know from John's will dated, June 7, 1844, that his wife then was an Elizabeth. He mentions sons Patrick and David, daughter Elmira's children (Elmira was already deceased, having been struck by lightning), and he mentioned daughter Ailsey Johnson. As a codicil 10 days later - June 17, 1884 - he disinherits Elizabeth Spencer by leaving her the sum of $1.00.

In trying to conciliate the two Burke Co. articles, I have come the conclusion, rightly or wrongly, that John may have been married 3 times. I think his first wife was possibly Elizabeth Sumpter from Kentucky. I believe she was the mother of my great-grandfather, Patrick, Jr., who was born about 1793, and Ailsey, born 1795.

Since son David was not born until 11 years later and David's sister, Elmira, until 13 years later, I believe David and Elmira's mother was not Elizabeth Sumpter - unless of course there had been other children in those 11 years that did not live to maturity.

We do know when John died his wife was an Elizabeth - Elizabeth Wilson Hennessee - and their 1 child was the Elizabeth Spencer disinherited in the will. I can only speculate that Elizabeth Spencer married against her father's wishes and was left with $1.00.

Of interest, you might like to know that Elizabeth Wilson Hennessee was a descendant of John Howland and wife Elizabeth Tilley who came to what is now America on the Mayflower in 1620. Of further interest, while on board ship, John Howland was washed overboard, nearly drowned, but was miraculously saved. John Howland is described as being young and strong who was able to survive in the waters unitl he could be rescued.

John Hennessee evidently died soon after his June, 1844, will because John's last will and testament was proved July 11, 1844, with his wife "Eliza" appearing in court to admit his will for probate.

John was buried in the Fairfield Cemetery at Lenoir, N.C. His headstone has not been seen for many, many years so the exact location of his grave is not known. My husband and I, along with a Sudderth-cousin and her husband, went to the cemetery a few years ago and made a valiant effort to find the grave - but if his headstone was there somewhere, it had fallen is buried deeply.

The Fairfield Cemetery, once the former cemetery of the 1st Methodist Church, goes back to the late 1700's and is said to hold the remains of 70 slaves and about 100 white people. We were told it is believed that John's father, the elder Patrick, is buried there too.

When my husband and I tried to locate John's grave, we found the cemetery to be a small jungle, located at the back yards of a nice development of homes. A number of hours later, bent, sometimes on our hands and knees, with clothes snagged, hot and dirty, and many insect bites, we gave up trying to locate John (and Patrick too).

Upon coming back home to Arlington, VA, I was hopeful that Fairfield would be cleared of underbrush and fallen stones. We pinned our hopes on the fact that the cemetery was to be turned over to the Caldwell County Genealogical Society. But, alas, in 1989, through what was charitably said to be a misunderstanding, a company brought heavy equipment into the cemetery, cut trees, and pulled the trees out across graves. There were, of course, many complaints.

Since then, we have not heard of any further developments at the cemetery but perhaps good will come from this unhappy event.

I wish I know more about John. I don't have a physical description nor a picture. I don't know whether he was kind and good. I must assume that John was industrious and brave. One had to be in what was a dangerous, undeveloped area of western North Carolina. He had to be industrious because he had land, slaves and obviously a standing in the community. I wish we had letters written by John. Then we could know him better. But,nevertheless, we are grateful to you, John, for being!

Thank you very much for your time!

end of biography 
Hennessee, John (I16)
 
39807 Text: Last Will and Testament of Absolom Clark

I Absolom Clark do to make and publish this as my last will and testament hereby revoking and making void all other wills by me at any time made.

First I direct that my funeral expenses and all my debts as soon after my death as possible out of any money that I may die disposed of or may first come into the hands of my executor.

2nd I give and bequeth to my beloved son Absolum Clark this tract of land I now live on containing about one hundred and fifty acres more or less to have and to hold the same to himself his heirs and assigns forever and this is all I intend my said son Absolum to have out of my estate.

3rd my will is that all the personal property I may die disposed of may be sold as soon after my death as practicable and the proceeds thereof divided equally between my children to wit: the children of Isaac Clark, deceased, Elizabeth, wife of John Barnes, Ellender, wife of Cyrus Miller and her heirs, the children of Polly Ware deceased, Nancy Overton, Wife of William Overton and her heirs, Gillum Clark and his heirs, Joseph Clark and his heirs, William C. Clark and his heirs.

4th Lastly I do hereby nominate and appoint my son Absolum Clark, my executor hereby giving him full power to execute this my last will and testament to its full intent and meaning. In witness thereof, I do to this my last will set my hand and seal this 16th day of February 1848. 
Clark, Absolom Sr. (I14941)
 
39808 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Gray, Gary Jerome (I40519)
 
39809 Thank you for the great site. I have visited your site many times, and decided I needed to register. We connect with many lines. My main families from Warren County, TN are MITCHELL, MCGREGOR, SHELL, FOSTER, COOK. Trudell, Patricia H. (I40042)
 
39810 Thank you Lela Parris Koch for creating this memorial, your hard work on Find a Grave, and your dedication to genealogy.

Enoch was the son of Isaac & Mary (Linder) Cantrell. He moved, with his parents, to South Carolina when just a child.

He married Nancy Dempsey about 1812 in Spartanburg County. They were recorded there on the 1820, 1830 & 1840 census.

He died in 1844 and William Parris was appointed executor of the estate.

After the death of Nancy, son John was still trying to clear titles to some of the land. Daughter Margaret had married John Parris. She had died but they had two living children when this deed was made;

SPARTANBURG COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA
Deed book GG page 504, 8 Oct 1852

John Parris Sr to John Cantrell all my right and claim etc 220 acres in the estate of Enoch Cantrell deceased. Bounded by R. Berry, John Kimbrell, John Cooly, James Horton. My intrest in land being 2 shares. Wit: Henry H. Turner John Parris Jr. 
Cantrell, Enoch (I5343)
 
39811 Thanks Bettie, for your reply. I appreciate your efforts.

Reason Reeder had two families. He first married "Vina" Green, dau. of
Joseph Green and Sarah Mooney, and had four children...Rosanna, b.
abt.1839 - Edwin Parker, b. 1841 - Joseph, b. abt. 1843 - and Sarah Melvina,
b. Apr. 17, 1844. "Vina" died aft. 1845 and the children went to live with
their Green grandparents......
1850 Warren Co., TN Census, 14th Dist., HH #715:
Joseph Green 53 Farmer $150 NC
Sarah 54 NC
Rosanna Reader 11 School TN
Edwin Reader 9 School TN
Joseph Reader 7 TN
Sarah L. Reader 5 TN

By 1850 Reason is married to Rachel Keith/Kief/Keef, and has started another
family (their first child, Thomas J., being born abt. 1846). The first two
girls (Mary J., age 14 and Ann E., age 11) listed in this household in 1850
census (DeKalb Co., TN, Dist. #3), I believe, are Rachel's from her marriage
to the Keith/Kief/Keef....
"The Goodwin Families in American (Dinwiddle Co, VA and
Orangeburg/Richland District, SC." By Judge John S. Goodwin...
" William Adolphus Goodwin b 1835 in White Co, TN was
married 1858 at
Warren Co, TN, by Rev. Clemas Sullivan, to Elizabeth
Keep, born in 1838
in Warren Co, TN, daughter of ____ and Rachel (____)
Keef and
stepdaughter of Reson Reeder, by whose name she was
known."
I believe that this "Elizabeth Keep" is the Ann E. (Elizabeth?) listed in
1850 census.

1840 United States Federal Census for Warren County Tennessee From NARA
microfilm, RG 704, Roll 357....
Reason Reader 00001 10001
(One male age 20 to 30 - Reason, b. abt. 1818; two females...one age under
5 - Rosanna, b. abt. 1839 and one age 20 to 30 - Vina, b. abt. 1818)
This could not be Reason & Rachel's family. If it were, there should be a
total of 3 females... 2 under age 5; i.e. Mary J. and Ann E.

My line comes from Reason's first marriage to "Vina" Green. Hoping to
compile as much info as possible on all of Reason's children, that's why I'm
trying to confirm that John Berry Reeder who married Mattie Tompkins is the
John Reeder listed as son of Reason and Rachel Keith Reeder. No one seems to
know who John Berry Reeder's parents are.

----- Original Message -----
From: "Bettie Purcell"
To:
Sent: Tuesday, June 01, 2004 11:09 PM
Subject: RE: [TNDEKALB] John Berry Reeder/Mattie Tompkins m. 1882 in DeKalb
Co., TN


> 1860 USC Warren Co TN, McMinnville PO, page 441-b/70
> HH 523/523
(SNIP)
> --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
> 1870 USC, Coffee Co TN, 6th Civil Dist., Manchester PO, page 73A
> HH 243/246
(SNIP)
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
Green, Vina (I15346)
 
39812 Thanks David,

I need to touch up the pedigree before sending it. Meanwhile I am sending you one of my sources that may be of some help.

*Prewitt, Richard A. [ "The Collins Book"], page 20-22, retrieved 17 October, 2016 from google drive

"The Collins Book"

On Sun, Oct 16, 2016 at 4:42 PM, > wrote:

Hello George.

Please send your pedigree to Nicholas Gillentine and I'll upload & publish
for you. Please include full dates & locations for each event, i.e., birth,
death, marriage, et. al.


David Alden Hennessee
626 Biscayne Drive
West Palm Beach, FL 33401

800.327.3380 (8-11 Am EST)
561.352.1052 Cell
561.832.6612 Home
866.746.3813 Fax
www.TheHennesseeFamily.com





-----Original Message-----
From: George Bussberg [mailto:info@classroomfurniture.com ]
Sent: Sunday, October 16, 2016 11:46 AM
To: info@classroomfurniture.com
Subject: SPAM LOW: Proposed Change: Nicholas Gillentine, The Immigrant
(I20049)

Proposed Change: Nicholas Gillentine, The Immigrant (I20049)
Tree: The Hennessee Family
Link:

Description: In collecting information concerning surname Collins I find an Elizabeth, daughter of Nicholas Gillentine, who married James Collins Jr. around 1743.

As a new member I am not sure how to insert this information.

Thanks much,

George

George Bussberg
daytrivia@gmail.com
User: George S. Bussberg (daytrivia) 
Bussberg, George Stephen (I46441)
 
39813 Thanks for getting back to me, David. I'll give you the short of it for now. As mentioned, I need to do a lot of typing. My great aunt, Allie Cunningham Hynds, was a marvel. She lived well into her 90's, years after my grandmother/her sister passed, and was energetic and smart as a whip until her last breath. She was the family archive, so to speak, and recorded everything. Thank goodness my Mother had the wisdom to get everything she could from her in regards to the Cunningham family.

My father:

Lawrence Carlton Nollner Cummings - Born July 23, 1924 (still living) in Nashville, TN

His parents:

William Carlton Cummings - Born February 19, 1882 in Mitchelllville, Sumner County, TN
- Died June 11, 1961 in Nashville, TN - Woodlawn Cem.

Ethel Ann Cunningham - Born June 18, 1887 - McMinnville, Warren Co., TN
- Died November 16, 1972 in Nashville, TN - Woodlawn Cem.

Ethel Cunningham's parents:

Greenberry A. Cunningham - Born October, 1849 (?) in McMinnville
- Died July 9, 1924 in Nashville, buried Riverside Cem.,
McMinnville

Jane "Jennie" Lane - Born September, 1854 (?) in McMinnville
- Died January 9, 1918 in Nashville, buried in Riverside in McMinnville

Green's parents: (I have tons more info, but it's scattered and needs to be collated and typed, etc.)

Jesse R. Cunningham - Birth - 1827/1828 ?
- Death

1st wife and Green's mother, Mary "Jane" Miller - Birth - 1827/1828 ?
- Death -

Mary is the daughter of John Miller & Catherine Carson.

I'm sure you know where I fit in the line-up now, but I can give more if you would like. Jesse, as mentioned before, is the son of Thomas Cunningham & Talitha Dodson. Sure wish I had all of this typed in so that I could just send it all in an attachment. Seems like I have a little info on most of my Cunninghams, but none on some and many holes to fill. I have siblings, marriages, children, all needing to be typed. Sorry that I can't send it all to you at this time.

Jenny

 
Cummings, Jenny (I27550)
 
39814 Thanks for the conversation. I am going to send you a screenshot of my brother's Y DNA results.
You have the most impressive web page I have ever seen in genealogy!
Thanks
Barbara

Sent from my iPhone

> On Sep 23, 2017, at 12:46 PM, David Hennessee > wrote:
>
> Hello Barbara.
>
> Please telephone 561.352.1052. Happy to share whatever I have..
>
> Sent from my iPad
>
> David Hennessee
> 800.327.3380
>
>
>> On Sep 23, 2017, at 10:35 AM, Barbara Warman > wrote:
>>
>> Hello David,
>> I found your information on FamilyTree DNA. I manage my brothers accounts, William Tegart and Joseph Tegart. Several siblings and myself have DNA and a tree on Ancestry. Our ancestry is approximately 58% Irish and 27% English. The rest is Western European.
>> Please contact me if you wish to share information.
>> Thanks
>> Barbara Tegart Warman
>>
>> Sent from my iPad
>
Tegart, Barbara (I49611)
 
39815 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Hennessee, Aidan Patrick (I27868)
 
39816 Thanks for the information…

David Hennessee

Customer Service

ClassroomFurniture.com

800.327.3380 Voice

866.746.3813 Fax

info@classroomfurniture.com

www.classroomfurniture.com


"We make it easy..."

-----Original Message-----
From: JAMES HILL [mailto:ultimatepa@yahoo.com]
Sent: Wednesday, August 15, 2007 2:57 AM
To: ClassroomFurniture.com
Subject: Re: William Carrol GRIBBLE b. 1835



Sorry it took me so long to find my ROUND TUIT.



Reed & Polly married on 8 November 1874 in Warren Co., TN.



Here is all the Census material I have been able to locate on him:



1860 United States Federal Census



Name: Sam Gribble

Age in 1860: 30

Birth Year: abt 1830

Birthplace: Tennessee

Home in 1860: Warren, Tennessee

Gender: Male

Post Office: McMinnville

Value of real estate: View image

Household Members: Name Age

Sam Gribble 30

Jane Gribble 28

Campbell Gribble 10

William Gribble 8

James Gribble 6

Abraham Gribble 3

Millegan Gribble 6.12



1870 United States Federal Census > Tennessee > Warren > District 3



Gribble, Sam 41

, Mary J. 39

, John 20

, Wm R. 18

, James K. 15

, Abram 14

, Millegan 12

, Samantha 5

, George 1



1880 United States Federal Census > Tennessee > Warren > McMinnville



Name: W.R. Gribble

Home in 1880: McMinnville, Warren, Tennessee

Age: 29

Estimated birth year: abt 1851

Birthplace: Tennessee

Relation to head-of-household: Self (Head)

Spouse's name: M.H.

Father's birthplace: Tennessee

Mother's birthplace: Tennessee

Neighbors: View others on page

Occupation: Day Laborer

Marital Status: Married

Race: White

Gender: Male

Cannot read/write:

Blind:

Deaf and dumb:

Otherwise disabled:

Idiotic or insane: View image

Household Members: Name Age

W.R. Gribble 29

M.H. Gribble 32

S.B. Gribble 4

E.M. Gribble 3

Florence Gribble 2M



1900 United States Federal Census



Name: Reed Gribble

Home in 1900: McMinnville, Warren, Tennessee

Age: 48

Estimated birth year: abt 1852

Birthplace: Tennessee

Relationship to head-of-house: Head

Spouse's name: Mary N

Race: White

Occupation: View image

Neighbors: View others on page

Household Members: Name Age

Reed Gribble 48

Mary N Gribble 52

Burnis S Gribble 24

Mary E Gribble 23

Florence E Gribble 20



1910 United States Federal Census



Name: William R Gribble

Age in 1910: 56 [51]

Estimated birth year: abt 1854 [abt 1859]

Birthplace: Tennessee

Relation to Head of House: Head

Father's Birth Place: Tennessee

Mother's Birth Place: Tennessee

Spouse's name: Mary H

Home in 1910: McMinnville, Warren, Tennessee

Marital Status: Married

Race: White

Gender: Male

Neighbors: View others on page

Household Members: Name Age

William R Gribble 56

Mary H Gribble 63

Bernice Gribble 30

Lizzie Morris 29 (Daughter)

Sidney B Gribble 4 (Grandson) (transcribed as Gribble - should be Morris)

Florence Gribble 26 (Daughter)





Happy hunting - Jim Hill

"ClassroomFurniture.com" wrote:

His name was William Reed Gribble, called ‘Reed’, b. circa 1850-1852. Married Mary ‘Polly’ Hillis, 1874, in Warren county…





David Hennessee

Senior Sales Staff

ClassroomFurniture.com

800.327.3380 Voice

866.746.3813 Fax

info@classroomfurniture.com

www.classroomfurniture.com

 
Gribble, William Reed "Reed" (I22193)
 
39817 Thanks for your answer, Angell. I am looking for decendents with family history on the Goodsons and the Cantrells. John and Nancy's two daughters were part of my family. Elizabeth Goodson was married to John Z. Brown and they were my great-grandparents thru my grandfather. Martha Goodson was the first wife of Richard M. Brown and had a son named Melvin Gilbert Brown. She died and Richard married Mary Jane Tucker and they were my great-grandparents thru my grandmother.

Two brothers married two sisters. I am just looking for family history etc.
 
Goodson, Elizabeth "Lizzie" (I5130)
 
39818 Thanks for your answer, Angell. I am looking for decendents with family history on the Goodsons and the Cantrells. John and Nancy's two daughters were part of my family. Elizabeth Goodson was married to John Z. Brown and they were my great-grandparents thru my grandfather. Martha Goodson was the first wife of Richard M. Brown and had a son named Melvin Gilbert Brown. She died and Richard married Mary Jane Tucker and they were my great-grandparents thru my grandmother.
Two brothers married two sisters. I am just looking for family history etc. 
Goodson, Martha (I5129)
 
39819 Thanks to Stefani Hennessee...

Christopher Michael Davis, 26, of Elizabethton, passed away on Friday, June 28, 2013 in Hampton. He was preceded in death by a son, Josh “Booger” Holston; and his grandmother, Diane Perry.

Christopher was a native of Carter County and was a general laborer. He was of the Christian faith, loved building things with his hands, and liked bicycles.

Survivors include his daughter, Kylie Marie Davis, Elizabethton; his mother, Sandra Meyers Davis, Elizabethton; his father and stepmother, Sherrill and Samantha Pickering, Elizabethton; two half-sisters, Taylor Brook Pickering and Stacy Nave and husband, Keith, both of Elizabethton; one half-brother, Chad Davis, Bristol, Va.; his grandmother, Carolyn Sue Peters, Elizabethton; step-grandmother, Janie Carr, Elizabethton; step-grandfather, Tim Carr, Bluff City; great-grandmother, Goldie Perry, Elizabethton; a very close friend, James Ward, Elizabethton; his uncle Mikie and his aunt Mary Ann Williams, Elizabethton; and his close friend, Chris “Redneck.” Several aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews and cousins also survive.

A gathering of remembrance for Christopher will be conducted at 2 p.m. on Monday, July 1, 2013 in the Riverside Chapel of Tetrick Funeral Home, Elizabethton, with Mr. James Ward, friend, officiating. The family will receive friends from 1 to 2 p.m. in the funeral home chapel prior to the service on Monday. 
Davis, Christopher Michael (I31030)
 
39820 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Osburn, Ryan McKinley (I48978)
 
39821 Thanks. I've just checked the Warren County Cemetery Book 2. Almetia Cunningham, author of the cemetery books, was a very good friend and a tremendous help to me in my research. She lists A.P. Wilcher as being buried at Liberty Cemetery with no dates on his stone. She also lists Elizabeth and gives that she died Dec 1896. Gibbs, Elizabeth (I27697)
 
39822 Thanksgiving of 1752 had a special meaning for Reverend Thomas DODSON and his wife Elizabeth ROSE, for on November 22nd they welcomed a new child into their Virginia family, Jesse DODSON. Not much is known about Jesse DODSON as a youth...one of at least 10 children in his family....but plenty is known about his adult life. Unknown to his father, a Virginia Baptist minister, Jesse would follow in his footsteps and change the lives of many settlers in the early days of America.

At the time of the American Revolution, the dominant religious force in the colonies was the Church of England, the mother country for so many of its settlers. To be a minister of any church that had broken ties with England was difficult in many social settings, but by the time Jesse DODSON was 23 years old, he was living on land given to him by his father in what is now Pittsylvania County in Virginia, and starting his life as a Baptist preacher, . Jesse and his wife Ruth were married in 1774, one year before the gunfire at Lexington and Concord would start the colonies on a path of thier own, and in 1777, Jesse's name is on the list of those taking an Oath of Allegiance to the State of Virginia. While there is no evidence of military service for Jesse DODSON during the War, we can feel confident that he served in some capacity, for at the end of the War he received a Land Grant in North Carolina, which would become Tennessee.

We know Jesse was still in Pittsylvania County, Virginia when the Revolutionary War ended in 1781, for he obtained property on Birch Creek, or Burches' Creek in some records. The following year he sold that land on "Jeremiah's Fork of Birches Creek" to relatives, and headed for Tennessee, leaving behind his brother William, also a Baptist minister.

Rev. Jesse DODSON is listed as a member of the County Line Baptist Church, also known as the North on Holston River Baptist Church, in 1785 Hawkins County, Tennessee. Rev. Jesse DODSON joined the Big Springs Primitive Baptist Church in what is now Springdale, Tennessee in 1801, and became the Pastor of the congregation from November 1801 until November of 1805.

In 1803, Jesse DODSON was listed in the tax records of what is now Claiborne County, in the northeast part of Tennessee, which includes part of Cumberland Gap National Park. The path from Virginia to Tennessee through Cumberland Gap had been widened by none other than Daniel Boone, and opened to wagon traffic after Rev. Jesse DODSON and his family passed through. The Big Springs Primitive Baptist Church that Jesse led was constructed in the winter of 1795-96 from hand-hewn logs, and is still standing today near Springdale, over two centuries later. It is one of the oldest churches still standing in the State of Tennessee.

Jesse and Ruth DODSON left Claiborne County in 1806 and moved to Warren County, Tennessee, where they are listed on the 1812 Tax List, and the 1820 Census. While in Warren County, they were involved with the Collins Creek Baptist Church and several others in the area.

Reverend Jesse DODSON was described by his peers as "earnest and fervent in exhortation", and "successful in Revivals". He was also said to have had the "Welsh fever" in describing his ancestrial traits and style of preaching, and is mentioned in the 1919 Baptist historical sketches as a Tennessee Pioneer Baptist Preacher.

Around 1820, Rev. Jesse DODSON was called to lead the Big Springs Baptist Church on Mouse Creek, near Niota in McMinn County, Tennessee...only a year after the Hiwassee Purchase Treaty with the Cherokee Indians had opened that land to settlement. Jesse was a founder of the Eastanallee Baptist Church, and his son Elisha donated the land for the structure. Over the years Rev. Jesse DODSON would be involved in the early McMinn County churches of Salem, Hiwassee, Friendship, and New Hopewell. Owning 300 acres of land in the Eastanallee Valley, his wife Ruth had obtained ten slaves from her father's Will, and when Ruth died in 1828 Jesse set the slaves free stating that "a Bill of Sale of Negroes in my pocket would be a bad passport at the Gates of Heaven"....another brave act in a Southern State over 30 years before the Civil War. After more than 60 years of preaching from the pulpit, and inspiring many pioneer churches, Jesse DODSON died on his 91st birthday in 1843. He is buried in the Eastanalle Church Cemetery in McMinn County, Tennessee.

The cemetery photo used at the top of this page in the header is the Eastanallee Cemetery, with the two broken headstones on the left side being those of Ruth and Jesse DODSON...and the Eastanallee Church is planning to replace them. Pioneer and Frontier Preacher, another good story in the ancestral book. Jesse is the 5th great grandfather of Anthony Martini, on his mother's side. 
Dodson, Elder Jesse Buford Sr. (I310)
 
39823 The "Annals of Cambria" record the date of Owain's death as 1116. As Gerald de Windsor makes no further appearance to that date in the "Annals" or in the "Chronicles of the Princes", the presumption is that he did not long survive his enemy, Owain ab Cadwgan, and that the Earl of Kildare's Addenda is erroneous in putting his death as late as 1135.[13] FitzWalter, Gerald (I47935)
 
39824 the "Battle of Franklin" Cantrell, Howard J. (I8037)
 
39825 The "Rushing" Brothers

We find a family in England's records of a William Rushen with several sons, three of which are named William, John and Mathew. They are in parish registers of Clare, Suffolk County, England. The records show slightly different surname spellings among the brothers and sisters from two different sources. The Rushen, Rushin and Rushing surname spellings occur in this family from both sources, the Mormon Church's transcripts and the Anglican Church's transcripts of the Clare church's parish registers. As we know these given names also appear in abundance on the American side of the ocean while others common names of the period that should, do not appear in this family. It would be great to finally prove the kinship of our Virginia William, John and Mathew, could these brothers be the American John and Mathew Rushing? The timeline, ages, migration pattern, spelling variations, and the way the names flow through the family on both sides of the ocean are the same.

William, Mathew and John Rushen were militiamen for Clare in the Hundred of Risbridge in the year 1638. Sources note that "In 1648 Colchester was put under siege by the Roundheads. On August 28th the Royalists surrendered and the prisoners were marched to the south coast ports, put on boats and sent as slaves to the West Indies. Although history books say the prisoners were allowed to return home on the 29th after taking an oath to support the parliament, deportation of loyalists continued till 1657, the leaders of the loyalists were executed the next day at Colchester (29 Aug. 1648).

Genetic genealogy (DNA) testing has shown that Peter Rushen of England and several varied United States Rushing family lines share a recent common ancestor (99.96% within 24 generations). Except for obvious non-paternal events all Rushings in the U.S. share a common ancestor and also the genetic "Viking gene" haplogroup I1A.

A search of P. W. Coldham's extensive works on ship and emigration records did not turn up these names however variations of our surname appear in the various Barbados records long before the first documented arrival of Rushing surname variation appears.

Rushen, Russin, Rushem, Rushin, Ruskin and Rushlin of Barbados "International Records: English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800 Marriages, Wills and Administrations, Baptisms. 6 volumes" English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800 Barbados' surviving parish registers were copied during the mid-19th century and are now housed in the Barbados Department of Archives. William or Matthew are not found in the Barbados archive but James is clearly found there with some others.

Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company. Copyright 1979. "Barbados Records, Wills and Administrations Volume I", SANDERS, Joanne McRee

"Barbados Marriages Volume I, 1643-1800." ST. MICHAEL PARISH MAY 6 1721 Benja: Ruskin & Kathan: Edwards [Marriage Record]

There is a James Rushen listed as a white British settler in Christ Church Parish, Barbados [James arrived from London, England between 1639 - 1654]. He and his wife Ursala (Maiden name Wathmoll from transcripts of the Barbados marriage records, Volume 1, Jan. 30, 1654) and children Francis and Prudence Rushen disappear from Barbados after 1659. A James Rushin appears in 1667 New Kent County, Virginia with a debt.

Sanders Publishing Company. Copyright 1982. "Barbados Records, Wills and Administrations Volume II", SANDERS, Joanne McRee

HOWARD, Henry 3 Apr 1658, RB6/13, p. 238
Wf Mary Howard* - Xtrx & land in Christ Church Parish bounding Maj. Robert Haccett, Merris Eavrns, Robert Watkins, Thomas Vinton, & Capt. William Balston; mentions Irish servant Mathew Flennaugh; friends henry Strowd & Lt. Stephen Brown - Overseers. signed Henry (x) Howard
Wit: John Bradshaw, James Ruskin, [This is James Rushen] Will (x) Ashburner
Proved 20 July 1658

Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company. Copyright 1979. "Barbados Records, Wills and Administrations Volume I", SANDERS, Joanne McRee:

MAKERNES, William of London 17 Dec 1689, RB6/41, p. 465

Cousin Peter Makernes, his dau; the 3 sons of uncle John Baslee; sis Mary Page; Richard Hands shoemaker at Northhampton; Mr. Withorne of the same place; cousin & God dau Ann Makernes & her sis Mary Makernes; uncle Chaplin; John Ruslin and his wf and dau Prude Ruslin*[sp?] [This is James Rushen & wife and daughter]; negro Judith - freedom; negro Henry - his freedom at 21; bro Robert Makernes - Xtr.

signed William Makerness

Wit: Abraham Whood, John Potter, Nathaniel Enderby sworn by Jno: Rocke notary public

Memo, page 466, Power of Atty 26 Aug 1700: Robert Monk* of Farnham, Co. Surry apothecary & surgeon & Mary Monk* his wf Admx of the will of William Makernes heretofore of Bdos merchant or planter, late of London merchant decd. Appoint Thomas Pilgrim of Bdos merchant or planter our Atty to sue for recovery from William Griffith of Bdos merchant or planter surviving Xtr of the will of Thomas Page late of Bdos merchant or planter decd & of the front ____ Coates of Bdos widow & Xtrx of James Coates Esq of Bdos decd. Wit: Stephen Smither, John Smither, Mary Dare Dep, Stephen Smither of Farcham, Co. Surry carryer age 29

Proved 27 Aug 1700 London, 1 Dec 1701 Bdos

Haviland, Ann, widow 18 Nov 1692, RB6/3, p. 45
Aunt Alice Burdrix, the wf of Rosswell Burdrix of Southwark in London; neice Catherine Farchason; kinsman Thomas Farchason; cousin John Farcheason; Xtrs - Thomas Quantine Esq and Richard Turner of Bdos. signed Ann Haviland
Wit: Tho: Hogan, Jasper Bullard, John Leagan, Thomas Rushell [This is Thomas Rushing a Barbados land owner]
Proved 26 Nov 1692
Haviland, Ann, widow
18 Nov 1692, RB6/3, p. 69
Aunt Alice Burdrix, the wf of Roswell Burdrix of Southwark in London; neice Katherine Fercharson; cousin Thomas Fercharson; cousin John Fercharson; Xtrs - Thomas Quintyne Esq and Richard Turner of Bdos. signed Ann (x) Haviland
Wit: Thomas Hogan, Jasper Bullard, John Legay, Thomas Rushee [This is also Thomas Rushing]
Cod, 18 Nov 1692, Elizabeth Hagen, dau of Thomas Hagen.
Proved 26 Nov 1692

Barbados , settled by the British in 1627, served as a point of origin for many settlers who eventually settled in Virginia, Georgia, the Carolinas. As a result, many early American families can trace their origins in the New World first to Barbados. Most of the more than 40,000 original white British settlers left Barbados for the American colonies after the 'Sugar Revolution' of the 1650's.

A few extremely rich sugar 'Barons' had taken the farmland away from the small cotton and tobacco farmers to plant the more profitable sugar. Cotton and tobacco did not do well in the climate and soil of the island while sugar did. James' surname is spelled Rushen, Rushem and Rushkin in the Barbados records. Could this James also be one of the progenitors of the Rushins, Rushens or Rushings in American Virginia? There is evidence for a James Rushing in 1667 in New Kent County Virginia.

William and Mathew Rushing of Virginia

When searching the Virginia archives for variation of the Rushing surname you find the documents on this page. As with any documents some interpretation is necessary. They are presented here so that the reader can find the meanings for themselves. The author's comments are included so another researcher can see how these conclusions were reached. It is twice stated that Mathew is the son of William Russhin and twice stated that he is the orphan of Mathew Russhin.

Both William and Mathew died abt. 1678, in 1679 the courts order John Galloes, who married the widow of Mathew Rushing, the administrator for Mathew Rushing's estate in 1679 and, separately James Munford is ordered to hold William Russhin's estate away from Sara Wallis who has "unjustly detained" William's son, another Mathew [last names are spelled Russhin] the same year. The confusion comes about in 1685 when the Orphan of Mathew Rushing also petitions the court for a change in guardianship to John Wallis and is put out of the home of John Galloes who is Mathew Rushing's Administrator and Husband of Mathew Rushing's natural mother. So why are they calling him an orphan if his mother is still alive? The 1685 Charles City County, a Virginia record entry answers this, and confuses the kinship. Here he is the orphan of Mathew Rushing, Mathew being the more widely accepted name for Mathew's father [Mrs. Rushing Galloes is deceased by 1685].

In 1679, Wm Russhin's estate held in escrow by James Munford, Sara Wallis being unable to post a security bond for Wm.'s estate. By 1790 James Munford has died and Wm. Russhin's estate is in the hands of James Munford's widow Sara Munford.

Matthew Russhin first gains his liberty from Sara Wallis in June, 1690. Then in a separate court action "on motion of Mathew Russhin" Wm Russhin's estate is "set aside and secured" in Mathew Russhin's name in Sept. 1690, from the widow Sara Munford and (James Munford's) children's property. There are two separate Saras and two separate estates established by the court, William and Mathew were contemporary and William's son is also named Mathew? This is unlikely and it is fair to combine the two parents of young Mathew as one Mathew Rushing with a second son named William. The records of ensuing generations in Anson County, NC will then make sense, and the earlier Virginia records do not show a William but there is a Mathew Rushing.
Charles City County, VA Court Transcripts.1679 Page 114 transcribed: "Page 406 cont. - Admin, Granted JNO. Galloes on the estate of Matthew Rushing as marrying the Relict." 4 August 1679 Page 205

1679,

Widow of Jon. Wallis, Dec'd to procure security for what estate she has in her hands belonging to the orphan of Wm. Russhin, dec'd. or else James Munford to be possessed of that estate. Page 263,

The orphan of Wm. Russhin, petitions court that he is unjustly detained in service of Sarah, relict and adm'x of Jno Wallis, dec'd, prays order for his freedom; and said Sarah, disclaiming and right to said orphan, and said orphan's estate being secured in hands of James Munford, Court therefore sets orphan at liberty.

1685

Page 359, Page 3 [Modern Numbering] December 1685
Abstract: "Jno. Galloes hath turned Mathew Russhin out of doores the Orph'n of Mathew Russhin dec'ed and otherwise evilly entreated him". At orphans request John Wallis app'd gaurdian. Page 285,

3 June, 1690

At Westopher at Charles City Co., Court. On motion of Mathew Russhin, an orphan, the widow of James Munford, dec'd, is to be summoned to next court to answer what said orphan shall exhibit against her.

Page 300,

Ordered that widow of Ja. Munford, dec'd give good security at next orphan's court for what she has belonging to Mathew Russhin.

Page 303,

Charles City Co., VA. At orphans court held at Westopher, 15 Sept., 1690
Sept. 15 1690 ... [List of Justices Presiding.]...

On 23rd. this month Mr. Jn. Hardiman, Mr. Richard Bland and Mr. Jon. Woodleife to divide the goods and chattels of Ja. Munford. dec'd. between Sarah the relict, and children of dec'd; but before dividing, what estate was in Munford's hands belonging to Mathew Russhin, an orphan, to be set aside and secured.
End of Transcript Series 1678 - 1690

Earlier Records of Mathew in Charles City County, VA

In other Virginia records we find Mathew Rushing in documents dated 1661 and 1662 in, and James Rushen in 1667 New Kent County when an indenture is ordered. "Charles City County Court Orders 1661-1664"

Page 326

At Westopher, 4 January1661, Morgan Jones ord to deliver to Mathew Rushing 3 bbl corn left in his custody.

Page 383

At Chaplins, A jury of inquest impaneled the 16th of M'ch 1662 upon the death of a serv't man ... jury members included Math. Rushing.

"VIRGINIA COLONIAL ABSTRACTS Vol. XII" by Beverly Fleet, © 1961

These documents help establish the time frame of the arrival of the first Rushings in America. Again I must thank Peter Rushen of England and John Thomas Rushing of San Diego, CA for helping me find where to look next. The emigration project continues, if you have any information that might help please write us.

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Rushing, Matthew The Immigrant (I27682)
 
39826 the "Ticonderoga" during WWI Cantrell, John Evans "Evans" (I7596)
 
39827 The 120 acre cemetery was established in December 1863 as a military cemetery. Chattanooga is the largest national cemetery in the state of Tennessee. Chattanooga is considered to be one of the few national cemeteries, if not the only one, where three civil war battle sites can be viewed. They are Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga. Hennessee, Laura Ruth (I2912)
 
39828 The 120 acre cemetery was established in December 1863 as a military cemetery. Chattanooga is the largest national cemetery in the state of Tennessee. Chattanooga is considered to be one of the few national cemeteries, if not the only one, where three civil war battle sites can be viewed. They are Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga. Hennessee, Minnie Lee "Mimi" (I2915)
 
39829 The 120 acre cemetery was established in December 1863 as a military cemetery. Chattanooga is the largest national cemetery in the state of Tennessee. Chattanooga is considered to be one of the few national cemeteries, if not the only one, where three civil war battle sites can be viewed. They are Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga. Pyle, Wilfred M. (I2917)
 
39830 The 120 acre cemetery was established in December 1863 as a military cemetery. Chattanooga is the largest national cemetery in the state of Tennessee. Chattanooga is considered to be one of the few national cemeteries, if not the only one, where three civil war battle sites can be viewed. They are Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga. Bowman, Frank Cash (I2920)
 
39831 The 120 acre cemetery was established in December 1863 as a military cemetery. Chattanooga is the largest national cemetery in the state of Tennessee. Chattanooga is considered to be one of the few national cemeteries, if not the only one, where three civil war battle sites can be viewed. They are Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga. Hennessee, Patsy Ann (I3467)
 
39832 The 120 acre cemetery was established in December 1863 as a military cemetery. Chattanooga is the largest national cemetery in the state of Tennessee. Chattanooga is considered to be one of the few national cemeteries, if not the only one, where three civil war battle sites can be viewed. They are Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga. Cantrell, Virginia (I27450)
 
39833 The 120 acre cemetery was established in December 1863 as a military cemetery. Chattanooga is the largest national cemetery in the state of Tennessee. Chattanooga is considered to be one of the few national cemeteries, if not the only one, where three civil war battle sites can be viewed. They are Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga. Kimbro, William Vestal "Billy" (I33700)
 
39834 The 120 acre cemetery was established in December 1863 as a military cemetery. Chattanooga is the largest national cemetery in the state of Tennessee. Chattanooga is considered to be one of the few national cemeteries, if not the only one, where three civil war battle sites can be viewed. They are Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga. Byars, Alton Berman (I33897)
 
39835 The 120 acre cemetery was established in December 1863 as a military cemetery. Chattanooga is the largest national cemetery in the state of Tennessee. Chattanooga is considered to be one of the few national cemeteries, if not the only one, where three civil war battle sites can be viewed. They are Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga. Merriman, Oscar (I34411)
 
39836 The 14th century was important for these manorial lords, in receiving acclaim from the Crown. Henry Trafford died in 1395, holding the manors of Trafford and Stretford, together with part of the manor of Edgeworth, and leaving a son and heir Henry, six years of age. This son died in 1408, the manors going to his brother Edmund, known as the Alchemist, from his having procured a licence from the king in 1446 authorizing him to transmute metals. Sir Edmund, at Eccles in 1411, married Alice daughter and co-heir of Sir William Venables of Bollin, and thus acquired a considerable estate in Cheshire, which descended in the Trafford family for many generations. Trafford, Edmond (I43182)
 
39837 The 1880 McMinn County census cites this family as all being born in Tennessee... Hennessee, John David (I1895)
 
39838 The 4th baron was emotionally unstable in later life.[citation needed ] In the summer of 1553, he was sent to Fleet Prison on charges of violence done to a servant. He was arrested for attempted rape and assault in 1557, and in 1563 he killed a man. Of the situation in 1553, Thomas Edwards wrote to the Earl of Rutland describing the violence which had taken place with the servant quoting "too great a villainy for a noble man, my thought." That this public violence occurred after the death of his step-mother, Catherine, might suggest that at least she had some sort of control over Neville while she was alive.[7]

The 4th Baron died without male issue in 1577, at which time the title was wrongfully assumed by Richard Neville (died 27 May 1590) of Penwyn and Wyke Sapie, Worcestershire , only son of William Neville (15 July 1497 – c. 1545), second son of Richard Neville, 2nd Baron Latimer .

However according to modern doctrine, the barony fell into abeyance among the 4th Baron's four daughters until 1913, when it was determined in favour of Francis Money-Coutts, 5th Baron Latymer , a descendant of the 4th Baron's daughter Lucy.[8] 
Neville, John 4th Baron Latimer (I43438)
 
39839 The 6th Duke of Marlborough became the title of their son, George Spencer Churchill, born 1793 and died 1857. He too married three times. His first wife, Lady Jane Stewart, daughter of the Earl of Galloway, was mother to his son, John Winston Spencer Churchill, 7th Duke; but he later married Charlotte Flower, daughter of Viscount Ashbrook; and then Jane, daughter of the Hon. Edward Stewart.
 
Spencer-Churchill, Sir George 6th Duke of Marlborough (I37030)
 
39840 The Abbey of Bury St Edmunds was once among the richest Benedictine monasteries in England, until the Dissolution of the monasteries in 1539. It is in the town that grew up around it, Bury St Edmunds in the county of Suffolk, England. It was a centre of pilgrimage as the burial place of the Anglo-Saxon martyr-king Saint Edmund, killed by the Great Heathen Army of Danes in 869. The ruins of the abbey church and most other buildings are merely rubble cores, but two very large medieval gatehouses survive, as well as two secondary medieval churches built within the abbey complex.

images ... https://www.google.com/search?q=Bury+St+Edmunds+Abbey&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=815&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwilxIr28sLKAhUC_R4KHekVA9MQsAQILg&dpr=1 
Brotherton, Sir Thomas of Knight, 1st Earl of Norfolk (I43821)
 
39841 The Abbey of Bury St Edmunds was once among the richest Benedictine monasteries in England, until the Dissolution of the monasteries in 1539. It is in the town that grew up around it, Bury St Edmunds in the county of Suffolk, England. It was a centre of pilgrimage as the burial place of the Anglo-Saxon martyr-king Saint Edmund, killed by the Great Heathen Army of Danes in 869. The ruins of the abbey church and most other buildings are merely rubble cores, but two very large medieval gatehouses survive, as well as two secondary medieval churches built within the abbey complex.

images ... https://www.google.com/search?q=Bury+St+Edmunds+Abbey&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=815&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwilxIr28sLKAhUC_R4KHekVA9MQsAQILg&dpr=1 
Hales, Lady Alice Countess of Norfolk (I43822)
 
39842 The Abbey of Our Lady and of St. Bridget (Latin: Monasterium sanctarum Mariµ Virgáinis et Brigidµ in Vatzstena), more commonly referred to as Vadstena Abbey, situated on Lake Vèattern, in the Diocese of Linkèoping, Sweden, was the motherhouse of the Bridgettine Order. The abbey started on one of the farms donated to it by the king, but the town of Vadstena grew up around it. It was active from 1346 until 1595. FitzHugh, Sir Henry IV, Knight, 3rd Baron FitzHugh (I43872)
 
39843 The Abbey of Saint-âEtienne, also known as Abbaye aux Hommes ("Men's Abbey"), is a former Benedictine monastery in the French city of Caen, Normandy, dedicated to Saint Stephen. It was founded in 1063[1] by William the Conqueror and is one of the most important Romanesque buildings in Normandy.

Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbey_of_Saint-%C3%89tienne,_Caen 
Conqueror, William the King of England, Duke of Normandy (I37353)
 
39844 The abbey was originally the site of the graves of King Henry II of England, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, their son King Richard I of England, their daughter Joan, their grandson Raymond VII of Toulouse, and Isabella of Angoulãeme, wife of Henry and Eleanor's son King John. However, there is no remaining corporal presence of Henry, Eleanor, Richard, or the others on the site. Their remains were possibly destroyed during the French Revolution.

Click on this link to view images of Fontevraud Abbey ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fontevraud_Abbey 
de Aquitaine, Eleanore Queen of England (I37228)
 
39845 THE ANCESTORS AND DESCENDANTS OF JOHN ROLFE WITH NOTICES OF SOME CONNECTED FAMILIES

The following material was provided by Donna Eldridge. It is hoped that this information will make some connection to the Bolling Family of Butler County a little clearer. It is broken down into two parts.

[This is part of an unpublished and unfinished section of a projected book which was to treat of "The Colonial Councillors of Virginia and Their Descendants." The biographical portion was nearly completed; but the account of the descendants of John Rolfe, the earliest councillor whose descendants can be traced, showed, even though this is not complete, that the preparation of the genealogies would be a work which would require more time than the compilers could possible spare. It was not proposed to reprint the later geneations treated of in well-known and reliable works, such, for instance, as those in Robertson's Descendents of Pocahontas; but to give references to them. The plan also was that where one branch of a family was descended, through female lines, from one councillor, while another branch could trace, also through females, to another, to give the whole family under the earliest councillor who appeared. This explains some of the Flemings and their descendants, the Webbs, appearing here. Some of the Flemings descended from John Rolfe, while others traced through the Randolphs to the Pages, who were councillors. In addition there were to be notes and addenda in regard to connected families not directly descended from any member of the Council]


ROLFE OF HEACHAM

The family of Rolfe was resident from an early date in the County of Norfolk, England. The immediate ancestors of John Rolfe lived at Hecahm near King's Lynn in that County, and the earliest record of the direct line is of two brothers, Robert and Eustace Rolfe, who were born at Heacham about 1539. Robert married Margaret Crowe and was ancestor of a prominent family at Lynn, and Eustace Rolfe married at Heacham, May 27, 1560, Joanna Jenner. Eustace and Joanna had a son John Rolfe, of Heacham, who was born October 17, 1562, married Dorothea Mason, Sept. 24, 1582, died in 1594, and was buried at Heacham Church, December 1st of that year.

In the Church is a brass with a Latin inscription to this John Rolfe. The following is a translation which has been furnished us:

"John Rolfe, gentleman, of Hitcham died on the twenty-nineth day of November, in the year of our Lord, 1594, in the thirty-second year of his age. While he lived he was of much service to his fellows; his wish to enrich all his neighbors and kinsfolk by assisting the poor with his wealth; nothing could be kinder than he was; he bore the insults of many men quietly without offence; by exporting and importing such things as England abounded in or needed, he was of the greatest service, inasmuch as he spent both pains and labor upon it. Thus he seemed to die as the force of fire is quenched by excess of water. For his strength was unimpaired, nor had he completed many years when he died. His death brought grief to many, but he had done nobly upon the consciousness of a well spent life, and the record of many benefits not allowed to die utterly:"

John Rolfe had, no doubt, been a successful merchant at Lynn. Rolfe had, with other issue,

1. Eustace, and
2. John (twins) baptized May 6, 1585;
3. Edward, baptized Feb, 22, 1591.

There was another son, Henry, afterwards a merchant in London and a member of the Virginia Company, who is included in a manuscript pedigree mentioned by Mrs. Jones in her Old Sandringham.

The Rolfes of Heacham Hall long remained among the gentry of Norfolk. One of them was sheriff of the county about 1760. In 1837 to the property. The well-known portrait of Pocahontas descended to the present time through the Rolfes and their relations in Norfolk.

Heacham Hall has been in part rebuilt and enlarged, but a considerable portion of the old house remains and is shown in the accompanying illustration.

Go to this link to view a panorama of Heacham Hall ... http://bit.ly/16XBVRS

Two English books Old Sandringham, by Mrs. Herbert Jones and The King's Homeland contain interesting notices of Heacham and the Rolfes.

[Since this account was prepared the compiler has been informed that Mr. Wilson Miles Cary of Baltimore, the distinguished genealogist, who spent some time in England, thinks that he has discovered that John Rolfe, of Virginia, was not a son of John and Dorothea Rolfe, but belonged to another branch of the same family. The proof is not yet positive, but Mr. Cary is still having the matter investigated and has promised to give this Magazine the result of his researches] 
Rolfe, John Eustace Sr. (I40742)
 
39846 The Ancestral File, Mormon Church of the Latter-day Saints Source (S39411)
 
39847 The ancient history of the Tindale family can be traced certainly as far back as Huctred Tynedale (born 1096) and Bethoe Bane of Tynedale. Their daughter, Hextilda Tynedale, was born in or about 1122. de Tindale, Adam (I45456)
 
39848 the ancient Manor of Shelvock, near Ruyton-XI-Towns , Shropshire , England originally pronounced "shelf'ac", "shelv'ak" or ... Thornes, John (I43894)
 
39849 The Ancient Parish of BRACEWELL

[Transcribed information mainly from the early 1820s]

"BRACEWELL, a parish-town, in the east-division of Staincliffe, liberty of Clifford's-Fee; 2 miles E. of Gisburn, 5 miles from Colne, (Lanc.) 9 from Skipton, 11 from Burnley, (Lanc.) 50 from York. Pop. 176. The Church is a vicarage, dedicated to St. Michael, in the deanry of Craven, value, ~¹2. 9s. 9½d. p.r. ¹60. Patron, Lord Grantham.
"The Vicarage House," Dr. Whitaker observes, and very justly, "is a disgrace to the parish and Church of England, a miserable thatched cottage of two rooms only, floored with clay, and open to the roof. --History of Craven.

Here is the ruin of an old Hall, built of brick, probably about the time of Henry VII. or VIII. and was formerly the residence of the ancient family of the Tempests. North of this are the remains of a still older house of stone, in which is an apartment called "King Henry's Parlour"; undoubtedly one of the retreats of Henry VI.

... http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/WRY/Bracewell/ 
Tempest, Isabel (I35711)
 
39850 The Ancient Parish of BRACEWELL

[Transcribed information mainly from the early 1820s]

"BRACEWELL, a parish-town, in the east-division of Staincliffe, liberty of Clifford's-Fee; 2 miles E. of Gisburn, 5 miles from Colne, (Lanc.) 9 from Skipton, 11 from Burnley, (Lanc.) 50 from York. Pop. 176. The Church is a vicarage, dedicated to St. Michael, in the deanry of Craven, value, ~¹2. 9s. 9½d. p.r. ¹60. Patron, Lord Grantham.
"The Vicarage House," Dr. Whitaker observes, and very justly, "is a disgrace to the parish and Church of England, a miserable thatched cottage of two rooms only, floored with clay, and open to the roof. --History of Craven.

Here is the ruin of an old Hall, built of brick, probably about the time of Henry VII. or VIII. and was formerly the residence of the ancient family of the Tempests. North of this are the remains of a still older house of stone, in which is an apartment called "King Henry's Parlour"; undoubtedly one of the retreats of Henry VI. --Whitaker's Craven."

"CROOKS HOUSE, a farm-house in the township of Stock, and parish of Bracewell; 10 miles from Skipton."
"STOCK, in the township and parish of Bracewell, east-division of Staincliffe, liberty of Clifford's-Fee; 2½ miles E. of Gisburn, 5½ miles from Colne, (Lanc.) 9½ from Skipton."

Source: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/WRY/Bracewell/ 
Tempest, Sir Richard MP, Knight (I35734)
 
39851 The Arden family is, according to an article by James Lees-Milne in the 18th edition of Burke's Peerage/Burke's Landed Gentry, volume 1, one of only three families in England that can trace its lineage in the male line back to Anglo-Saxon times (the other two being the Berkeley family and the Swinton family). The Arden family takes its name from the Forest of Arden in Warwickshire.

History[edit]Alwin (¥thelwine), nephew of Leofric, Earl of Mercia, was Sheriff of Warwickshire at the time of the Norman Conquest.[1][2] He was succeeded by his son, Thorkell of Arden (variously spelt Thorkill, Turchil etc.), whose own son and principal heir, Siward de Arden, subsequently married Cecilia, granddaughter of Aldgyth, daughter of ¥lfgar, Earl of Mercia, and from this union the Ardens descend (Siward was Thorkell's son by his first wife, whose name is not recorded; his second wife, Leofrun, was another daughter of ¥lfgar).[3] Subsequent generations of the family remained prominent in Warwickshire affairs and on many occasions held the shrievalty. From the time of Sir Henry de Arden in the 14th century the Ardens had their primary estate at Park Hall, Castle Bromwich.[4]

The descent from Alwin is as follows:[5]

Alwin (d. c.1083)
Thorkell of Arden (d. c.1100)
Siward de Arden, m. Cecilia
Henry de Arden (d. aft. 1166)
William de Arden, m. Galiena
William de Arden, m. Avice
Sir Thomas de Arden, m. Riese
Ralph de Arden (d. aft. 1290)
Ralph de Arden, m. Isabel de Bromwich
Sir Henry de Arden (d. c.1400), m. Ellen
Sir Ralph Arden (d. 1420), m. Sybil
Robert Arden (executed 12 Aug 1452), m. Elizabeth Clodshall
Walter Arden (d. 5 Aug 1502), m. Eleanor Hampden
Sir John Arden (d. 1526), m. Alice Bracebridge
Thomas Arden (d. 1563), m. Mary Andrewes
William Arden (d. 1546), m. Elizabeth Conway
Edward Arden (executed 20 Dec 1583), m. Mary Throckmorton
Robert Arden (d. 27 Feb 1635), m. Elizabeth Corbet
Sir Henry Arden (d. 1616), m. Dorothy Feilding
Robert Arden (d. 1643)
Robert Arden was executed in 1452 for supporting the uprising of Richard, Duke of York.
The same fate befell Edward Arden in 1583, who came under suspicion for being head of a family that had remained loyal to the Catholic Church, and was sentenced for allegedly plotting against Elizabeth I.[6] His father William was second cousin to Mary Arden, mother of William Shakespeare (Mary Arden was the daughter of Robert, son of Thomas, younger son of Walter in the above list).[7]
Edward's great-grandson Robert died unmarried and without issue in 1643, bringing the Park Hall male line to an end (his sister Goditha married (Sir) Herbert Price, who took up residence).[8]
The Arden family survives to this day in many branches descended from younger sons in earlier generations. 
Arden, Thomas (I37441)
 
39852 The area that would become Charles City County was first established as "Charles Cittie" by the Virginia Company in 1619. It was one of the first four "boroughs" of Virginia, and was named in honor of Prince Charles, who would later become King Charles I of England. After Virginia became a royal colony, the borough was changed to "Charles City Shire" in 1634, as one of the five original Shires of Virginia. It was subsequently changed to the present name of Charles City County in 1643.

Charles City County is part of the Greater Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 7,256, making it one of smaller counties in Virginia by population.[1] Its county seat is the town of Charles City.[2] 
Family F10029
 
39853 The attachment is Evan Watkins' Last Will and Testament recorded 09 Nov 1840. I attempted to transcribe the will. A couple of things don't make much sense, but it's the best I can do for now. For some reason the spacing for the bottom part will not cooperate with me. I'm sure you can retype it to suit your needs. I have been able to figure out a good way to send you my connection to Mary Ann "Polly" Dill Watkins. If I don't get that to you today, I will send it soon.

Margaret

I, Evan Watkins, of St. Clair County State of Alabama, contious (maybe meant to be conscious) of the uncertainty of human life, and not willing to die intestate do now in the full possession of my faculties make this my last Will and Testament. I do hereby will and bequeath to my loving wife, Polly Watkins, all my real estate during of her natural life consisting of land and house where I now live, also one horse and two cows and all the house hold furniture and at her death to be divided between my five sons John Watkins, Philip Watkins, Evan Watkins, Jr., Bennet Watkins, and Green Berry Watkins viz the land at her death to be divided between my said sons as they may agree on and at the death of said wife, John Watkins, Philip Watkins, Evan Watkins, Jr., Bennett Watkins and Green Berry Watkins is to pay my son Willis Watkins each one severally of them the sum of twenty dollars which is to be his part of said land. I do further will and bequeath to my four daughters Rebecca Philips, Patsy Wesson, Frances Wesson, and Susannah Humphrey all my personal property and moveable effects to be sold and the money equally divided among my said daughters, at my death it is further my will and desire that my said wife, at or before her death, to give or dispose of all house hold and perishable property as she may think proper.

I do hereby nominate and appoint my two sons my executors viz Philips Watkins and Evan Watkins, Jr. of this my last will and testament. I testamony (unsure if "testamony" is correct ) of the a will and testament I have set my hand and affix my seal this the 17 day of May 1834.

(signed) Evan Watkins (seal)

In the presence of

John F. Dill (nephew of Mary Ann "Polly" Dill)
Lorenzo Dow Whisenant (s/o Henry Whisenant, and brother of William Jenkins Whisenant)
Nanny Dill (wife of John F. Dill)
The State of Alabama Personally appeared before me, James Rogan, Judge of the County Court for said county, John F. Dill and of the subscribing witnesses to the forgoing
St. Clair County forgoing will who being duly sworn sayeth that he did see Evan Watkins, whose name appears to said will, sign, seal and deliver the same on the
day and date therein mentioned and that he did also see the other two witnesses attestand sign their names as such sworn to before me this 21st
day of Sept 1840.
James Rogan John F. Dill
Judge of CC
Recorded November 9th 1840 Joshua W. Hooper 
Watkins, Evan "Jack" (I19448)
 
39854 The baptism of Benjamin Doggett is recorded in the Register of St. Mary-le-Tower Church in Ipswich, Suffolk, as follows: "Beniamine, sonne of William Doggett was Baptised the 28th of October 1636." Benjamin was the youngest of six children of William and Anne Doggett whose baptisms are recorded in the Register, and his father William signed the Register as churchwarden in the year of Benjamin’s birth.

Benjamin’s father was a merchant in Ipswich, Suffolk, engaged in the selling of woolen and other common fabrics, and his mother was the daughter of Geoffrey Langley, a grocer and alderman of Colchester, Essex, a city not far from Ipswich, and his wife, Ann Carter, of Walton-on-the Naze, a nearby Essex seacoast town.

From records of St. John’s College and the University of Cambridge, we know that Benjamin attended a private school in Westminster (now a part of London) with a Mr. Crouch as headmaster. He was admitted to St. John’s College, University of Cambridge, on 27 Jan 1654/5, and matriculated at the University on 7 April 1655. His name is recorded as "Benj. Dodggett" which may indicate the pronunciation of the Doggett surname used by him, although later documents use the spelling "Doggett" or "Dogget," except in one instance where the name is spelled "Daggott." He was admitted to the college as a sizar, which meant that he did not pay full tuition for his education, but served as a servant to an upperclassman who, in turn, acted as tutor and surety for the behavior of the sizar. Benjamin’s tutor was William Twyne, son of Anthony Twyne of Walton, Surrey, who was a candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Divinity, which he received in 1660. Rev. Twyne undoubtedly played an important part in the early education of Benjamin as an Anglican minister.
On 3 November 1657, Benjamin was admitted as a "Scholar," being one of two such rerpresenting Suffolk County, as the county of his birth. A Scholar was a junior member of the college corporate society, ranking below the Headmaster and the Fellows. A Scholar received what is now called a "scholarship" which paid all his tuition and expenses. The records of St. John's College show that his scholarship was from the main College foundation. It seems then that his sizarship terminated after two years. It may well be that he had a sizar of his own to help with his household duties in exchange for tutoring the sizar, although we do not have any evidence to support such a conclusion.
In December 1658, Benjamin received the degree of Bachelor of Arts from the University. Benjamin continued his studies for the ministry at St. John’s and received the degree of Master of Arts on 16 Mar 1661/62. Benjamin affixed his signature to the oath required by the University, which may be the only actual signature of Benjamin presently in existence. This signature clearly spells his surname as "Doggett." The Registers of Seniority recorded in University records show that Benjamin was an average student, ranking slightly below the middle of the graduates for both the Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees. Benjamin’s uncles, Thomas and Richard, had attended St. John’s and Emmanuel Colleges, respectively, as pensioners (full tuition payers) and his cousin William, son of Thomas Doggett, had attended Queen’s College at Cambridge as sizar, but it does not appear that his father or any of his brothers attended college, but rather pursued careers as merchants. Benjamin’s mother’s brother, Geoffrey Langley, had received his Master of Arts degree at Christ’s College at Cambridge in 1623, and was rector of the church of Stoke St. Mary, in Ipswich, from 1623 to 1626.

Following receipt of his Master of Arts degree, Benjamin was ordained as an Anglican minister, and was appointed as curate of a church in the small village of Stoke-by-Clare in west Suffolk. Benjamin’s cousin, William Doggett, had been appointed as vicar of that church in 1661, and was therefore entitled to receive the "living" from the parish, but apparently did not desire to act as the resident minister. William then apparently arranged for Benjamin to act as curate in his stead. Benjamin did not stay long in Stoke-by-Clare, and by 1664 was acting as curate and schoomaster of the much larger church in Hadleigh, Suffolk, where he continued as minister until emigrating to Virginia in 1669.

On 21 Sep 1664, the Rev. Benjamin was married in Hadleigh to a young widow, Jane Garrard. The identity of Jane’s first husband and parents are uncertain, although the death of a Charles Garrard is recorded in the Hadleigh parish register as occurring 10 Apr 1664. Benjamin’s first child, his son Benjamin, was born in Hadleigh the following year, in 1665. Three more children were born in Hadleigh, according to entries in the parish register. These were his daughter Jane, born in 1667, his son William, baptised 19 Nov 1668, and his son John, baptised 3 Mar 1669/70. Of these four children, William died as an infant, as his burial is recorded in the parish register on 24 Nov 1668.

Sometime before January 1669/70, Benjamin left Hadleigh and emigrated to the colony of Virginia. He had received the appointment of the Bishop of London to be the minister of Trinity parish in Lancaster County. We do not know the reason for his decision to emigrate, but things were not easy for the clergy in England at that time, following the rule of Cromwell and the restoration of the monarchy. Benjamin did not have permanent tenure at Hadleigh, but was only a curate for the Dean of Bocking, who had the living as rector of the parish. From a power of attorney recorded in Lancaster County records, we know that Benjamin’s brother, Richard, an Ipswich merchant, traded with Lancaster County merchants, and had perhaps learned from them that there was an opening for a minister in that county, and made Benjamin aware of the opportunity. In any event, the decision was made. It appears that Benjamin’s wife Jane did not accompany him to America, but came later, as she was expecting son John who was born in England in March 1669/70. We do know from Benjamin’s will that for reasons unknown his daughter Jane was left behind in England, perhaps for medical reasons. Although his son John predeceased the Rev. Benjamin, it seems probable that he died in Virginia, as his death is not recorded in the Hadleigh parish register. We are certain only that his wife and son Benjamin emigrated to Virginia.

Soon after his arrival in Lancaster County and commencement of his ministry at Christ Church, the Rev. Benjamin founded a second church in the western part of the county which was named St. Mary’s White Chapel Church, and he served as minister of both churches. We assume that he preached in the two churches on alternate weeks and that vestrymen acted as lay readers in his absence. Because the churches in Virginia were under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, the episcopal authority was not as strong as in England, and the vestries exercised more power and control over the clergy. As a minister only obtained permanent tenure by recommendation of the vestry and appointment of the governor, the vestry could retain control by failing to present the minister for appointment. However, Benjamin apparently made a good impression on the vestry and the congregations, as in 1670 he was presented to the governor of the colony for appointment as minister of the two churches of Trinity Parish. Soon thereafter the parish was divided into two separate parishes of Christ Church and St. Mary’s Whitechapel, with Benjamin as minister of both parishes. Some time after Benjamin’s death, the two original wooden churches were torn down and new brick churches were erected. Much of the cost of the new Christ Church building was contributed by the very wealthy Carter family, and the Ball family, including George Washington’s grandfather, were the leading members of the St. Mary’s Whitechapel congregation.

Three more children were born to Benjamin and Jane in Virginia. The parish register of Christ Church has been lost, so we do not know the exact dates of the births of the children. We believe that their son Richard was born about 1672 and that their daughter Anne was born about 1674. The youngest child, William, was born about 1676. As mentioned, the son John, born in England, predeceased Benjamin, but as his death is not recorded in the Hadleigh parish register, he may have accompanied his parents to Virginia and died there.

In 1680, Benjamin purchased a 350 acre plantation from George Flowers, with a mortgage to Robert Griggs. In addition to his income, paid in tobacco, from the two parishes, Benjamin farmed this land and other land in Christ Church parish, using hired or indentured servants, raising tobacco and corn, along with cattle and pigs.

Benjamin died in Lancaster County in 1682 or 1683, leaving a will of record dated 14 Mar 1681/2. The will was probated in Lancaster County in January 1682/3. See transcript of will.

The will divides the 350 acre plantation between his three sons, Benjamin, Richard and William, with Benjamin receiving 150 acres and the two younger sons receiving 100 acres each. His wife Jane was given the use of the land until remarriage. His daughter Anne was given personal property, to be given in two equal annual installments, provided she did not marry before reaching age 18. As she had to be nearly 18 at the time the will was drawn, this would not seem to have been a serious problem for her.

The reference in the will to Benjamin’s daughter Jane is intriguing. "I give unto my daughter Jane Doggett in England twenty shillings and no more because she hath been detained from me and is surely provided for." We can speculate from this that Benjamin was not happy with the fact that Jane had not come to America with the family. Perhaps she had physical or mental infirmities that made it unwise for her to attempt to make the arduous trip to America, and she may have been kept by Benjamin’s wife’s family or may have been institutionalized.

Benjamin also provided in his will for payment of his debts to George Flowers and to Robert Griggs, primarily out of tobacco, but also out of the sale of planks sawed out of timber on the plantation, and of the sale of pipe staves. Pipe staves were used to make pipes or casks of wood in which tobacco was shipped to England, and may have been hewn from timber on Benjamin’s plantation.

Benjamin had accumulated a library for use in performing his ministerial duties, and otherwise. Apparently there was not a good market for these books in Virginia, and Benjamin directed that the books be appraised, that a "great chest" be bought, and the books be packed up and sent to England to be sold. The money realized from the sale was to be used to help pay the debt to Robert Griggs, and if there was any surplus, the money was to be used by his widow to buy a mourning ring with the inscription "Follow Me." The purchase of mourning rings bearing memorial inscriptions was a popular custom at the time, and the rings could be quite valuable. The two executors were given 20 shillings to purchase mourning rings also.

Benjamin directed that he be buried beneath the chancel in St. Mary’s Whitechapel church. As it is believed that the present church was built a hundred yards or so from the original location, we do not know whether his remains were reinterred when the new church was built, but we would hope that this was the case.

An inventory and appraisal of the Rev. Benjamin’s estate was made the following September and recorded in Lancaster County records. It is interesting that the appraisal was not made by the appraisers named in the will but by four neighbors and substantial citizens: Nicholas George, Stephen Chilton, Thomas Tomson, and John Davis. The inventory of the personal property had an appraised value of 11,610 pounds of tobacco (not including the cattle, which for some unexplained reason were not appraised), and consisted primarily of household goods of little value. The most valuable items listed were "one Trunck of Bookes," appraised at 2000 pounds of tobacco, and three horses, appraised at 2700 pounds of tobacco. The inventory does not reflect ownership of any slaves, but does include two indentured servants, a man having 27 days to serve and a woman having two months to serve. See transcript of inventory.

County records of Lancaster County and adjoining Northumberland County contain numerous documents pertaining to the Rev. Benjamin. The earliest document, a power of attorney witnessed by Benjamin, is dated 28 Jan 1669/70 and was recorded in Lancaster County on 1 February. This document places Benjamin's emigration to Virginia at some time prior to 28 January. Many of the other recorded documents involve suits on notes, usually payable in tobacco, on behalf or or against Benjamin. Some of the suits were decided in favor of him and some against him. One suit raises an interesting question for which we do not have an answer. In November 1677, an action was commenced by Capt. Richard Taylor, attorney of Richard Doggett, against Benjamin Doggett. We must assume that the Richard Doggett in question was the brother of Benjamin in England. We do not know whether this was a "friendly" suit or whether real differences existed between the brothers.

In many of the documents of record, Benjamin is referred to by the honorific title of "Mr." The use of that title was restricted to members of the gentry who did not use their military ranks, who were not members of the knighthood, or who were entitled to bear coats of arms and used the designation "Esq." or "Armiger." It was essentially equivalent to the designation "gentleman." Free citizens of somewhat lesser social standing were usually referred to by their occupations, such as "planter," "merchant," "carpenter," and the like. Although Benjamin's very modest economic circumstances would not place him in the gentry class, his profession and education entitled him to be called "Mr. Doggett." The use of that honorific title was not used by the person himself, but by third persons. In documents executed by Benjamin, such as his will, he refers to himself simply as "minister."

One type of offense which frequently came to the attention of the justices of the County Court, acting in their capacities as criminal magistrates, was the matter of verbal or physical abuse of a citizen, and particularly abuse of a member of the gentry by a person of lesser social standing. Rev. Benjamin was the victim in three cases of record in Lancaster County. The first, in September 1672, is somewhat unusual. In that case, a man named William Hughs, who seems to have been an indentured servant of Mr. Edward Carter, took a "servant maid" belonging to Benjamin from Benjamin's house. It does not appear that the lady involved objected to being "taken," and it would seem that she became part of Carter's household, probably as the wife of Hughs. In any event, Benjamin sued Hughs and, perhaps as the result of a settlement with Carter, he was awarded judgment for 2800 lbs. of tobacco, to be paid by Carter and Hughs. This would indicate that Carter probably took over the indenture for the "servant maid" and paid Benjamin the value of the contract. In the same proceeding, Hughs was found guilty of abusing Benjamin "by words." According to the court order, Hughes apologized to Benjamin and asked his forgiveness. Benjamin accepted the apology and withdrew his complaint but Hughes was ordered to pay costs.

The second case was in September 1674, when the court found that one Stephen Wills "did abuse Benjamin Doggett, minister." Wills was sentenced to be placed in the stocks until he was sober and then to receive 30 lashes.

The third case, in 1682, involved one Thomas Herbert, an indentured servant of Benjamin. Herbert was convicted of "lifting up his hande against his saide Master," and was ordered "for his contempt forthwith to receive twenty Lashes on his bare backe well laide on, the Sheriff to see the same executed." Offenses by indentured servants against their gentlemen masters were not tolerated and were punished severely by the justices. Whether Herbert was the "manservant having 27 days to serve" listed in the inventory of Benjamin's probate estate is uncertain, but it may well be the case.

Lancaster County records also include two petitions by Benjamin, one in 1672/3 and the other in 1680, for permission to bring a Indian into his household. Permission was granted in each case, on condition that a bond be posted guaranteeing the behavior of the native. We do not know the circumstances involved, but we can assume that furnishing labor for the plantation was involved, and perhaps the Rev. Benjamin had found natives interested in being taught the Christian faith.

Soon after the death of the Rev. Benjamin, his widow, Jane, married for the third time. Her new husband was John Boatman. John was apparently not popular with his stepchildren, and when young Benjamin became of age he sued Boatman in county court for taking advantage of Richard by putting him to work in the fields and not providing adequate support for him. The court ordered an accounting to be made by Boatman and restitution to be made to him. We can imagine that relations continued to be strained, as county court records 
Doggett, Benjamin The Immigrant (I29015)
 
39855 The Barnes family reports her maider name as "McGregor" in their anotations to
the 1860 Warren Co.,TN census, page 119 
McGregor, Nancy (I28933)
 
39856 The Barnes identify her mother as Elizabeth Sanders...DAH. Smith, Adeline (I5320)
 
39857 The Bartlett Tribune and News
Bartlett, Tex
Vol. 29, No. 3, Ed. 1
Friday, August 14, 1914

Geo. Morrison Dead.

Monday night of this week Mr. George Morrison died at his home two miles south of Tulia.

Mr. Morrison had been in bad health for a number of years and for the past two or three years had been confined to his bed almost continuously. He was a patient sufferer and bore his afflictions without murmuring.

He was 61 years, 9 months and 23 days old. He came to Texas from Tennessee in 1856, and was married in 1875. He moved to Bartlett, Texas, in 1877 and from there to Swisher county in 1909.

Mr. Morrison was a member of the Methodist church, being converted in 1880. He died with the hope of a Christian to comfort him through the dark valley of the shadow of death.

He was a devoted husband, a kind father, a true friend and he leaves a wife and five children, three boys and two girls. Rev. M.S. Leveridge, former pastor of the Methodist church preached the funeral sermon with great feeling and tenderness.

Kind friends brought flowers and all heads were bowed in sorrow and sympathy during the funeral service.

After the sermon a large concourse of friends followed the body to the Tulia cemetery where it was laid to rest. This paper extends sympathies to the bereaved relatives and their friends.--Tulia Herald. 
Morrison, George W. (I29763)
 
39858 the Battle of Cantrell, Milton L. (I8036)
 
39859 The Battle of Agincourt (Azincourt in French) was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War.[a] The battle took place on Friday, 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin's Day), near Azincourt, in northern France.[5][b] Henry V's victory at Agincourt, against a numerically superior French army, crippled France and started a new period in the war during which Henry V married the French king's daughter, and their son, later Henry VI of England and Henry II of France, was made heir to the throne of France as well as of England. English speakers found it easier to pronounce "Agincourt" with a "g" instead of the original "z". For all historians in the non-English speaking world, the battle is referred to with the toponymy of Azincourt, whereas English-only speaking historians kept the modified spelling of Agincourt.

Henry V led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. The French king of the time, Charles VI, did not command the French army himself as he suffered from severe psychotic illnesses with moderate mental incapacitation. Instead, the French were commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party.

This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, with English and Welsh archers forming most of Henry's army. The battle is the centrepiece of the play Henry V by William Shakespeare.

more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Agincourt 
Clifford, Sir John Knight, 7th Baron Clifford (I41377)
 
39860 The Battle of Agincourt (Azincourt in French) was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War.[a] The battle took place on Friday, 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin's Day), near Azincourt, in northern France.[5][b] Henry V's victory at Agincourt, against a numerically superior French army, crippled France and started a new period in the war during which Henry V married the French king's daughter, and their son, later Henry VI of England and Henry II of France, was made heir to the throne of France as well as of England. English speakers found it easier to pronounce "Agincourt" with a "g" instead of the original "z". For all historians in the non-English speaking world, the battle is referred to with the toponymy of Azincourt, whereas English-only speaking historians kept the modified spelling of Agincourt.

Henry V led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. The French king of the time, Charles VI, did not command the French army himself as he suffered from severe psychotic illnesses with moderate mental incapacitation. Instead, the French were commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party.

This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, with English and Welsh archers forming most of Henry's army. The battle is the centrepiece of the play Henry V by William Shakespeare.

more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Agincourt 
FitzHugh, Sir Henry IV, Knight, 3rd Baron FitzHugh (I43872)
 
39861 The Battle of Bannockburn (Bláar Allt nam Báanag, often mistakenly called Bláar Allt a' Bhonnaich in Scottish Gaelic) (24 June 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the First War of Scottish Independence, and a landmark in Scottish history.

Stirling Castle, a Scots royal fortress, occupied by the English, was under siege by the Scottish army. The English king, Edward II, assembled a formidable force to relieve it. This attempt failed, and his army was defeated in a pitched battle by a smaller army commanded by the King of Scots, Robert the Bruce.

More ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn 
de Bohun, Sir Humphrey VII, 4th Earl of Hereford (I43570)
 
39862 The Battle of Boroughbridge was a battle fought on 16 March 1322 between a group of rebellious barons and King Edward II of England, near Boroughbridge, north-west of York. The culmination of a long period of antagonism between the King and Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, his most powerful subject, it resulted in Lancaster's defeat and execution. This allowed Edward to re-establish royal authority, and hold on to power for another five years.

Not in itself a part of the Wars of Scottish Independence, the battle is significant for its employment of tactics learned in the Scottish wars in a domestic, English conflict. Both the extensive use of foot soldiers rather than cavalry, and the heavy impact caused by the longbow, represented significant steps in military developments.

More ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Boroughbridge 
de Bohun, Sir Humphrey VII, 4th Earl of Hereford (I43570)
 
39863 The Battle of Homildon Hill was a conflict between English and Scottish armies on 14 September 1402 in Northumberland, England. The battle was recounted in Shakespeare’s Henry IV, part 1. Although Humbleton Hill is the modern name of the site, over the centuries it has been variously named Homildon, Hameldun, Holmedon, and Homilheugh.

more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Homildon_Hill 
FitzHugh, Sir Henry IV, Knight, 3rd Baron FitzHugh (I43872)
 
39864 The Battle of Morlaix was a battle fought in Morlaix on 30 September 1342 between England and France. The English besieged the town, but a French relief force arrived. The English constructed a strong defensive position. After repeated attacks, the French forced the English to retreat into the woods. The French force then withdrew. Notably it was the first use of a tactical withdrawal by the English in medieval warfare.

Outcome of the battle

Whatever the details of the fighting, the final result was that 50 French knights were killed and 150 French captured including Geoffrey de Charny and a number of ‘populari’ which seems to indicate that at least some of the infantry were involved in the melee. The English force now made apprehensive by the remaining French forces withdrew into the wood at their back where they were safe from a full blooded cavalry charge. What was left of de Blois’ force then evidently relieved Morlaix and the besieging English, now trapped in the wood, themselves became the object of a siege for several days. 
de Bohun, Sir William Knight, 1st Earl of Northampton (I43568)
 
39865 The Battle of Neville's Cross took place to the west of Durham, England, on 17 October 1346. The culmination of a Scottish invasion of northern England, the battle ended with the rout of the Scots and the capture of their king, David II of Scotland. Mowbray, Sir John de Knight, 3rd Baron Mowbray (I43831)
 
39866 The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, took place on 10 September 1547 on the banks of the River Esk near Musselburgh, Scotland. The last pitched battle between Scottish and English armies, it was part of the conflict known as the Rough Wooing, and is considered to be the first modern battle in the British Isles.

It was a catastrophic defeat for Scotland, where it became known as Black Saturday.

soursce: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Pinkie_Cleugh 
Hawksworth, Walter Esquire (I37391)
 
39867 The Battle of Point Pleasant — known as the Battle of Kanawha in some older accounts — was the only major action of Dunmore's War. It was fought on October 10, 1774, primarily between Virginia militia and Indians from the Shawnee and Mingo tribes. Along the Ohio River near modern Point Pleasant, West Virginia, Indians under the Shawnee Chief Cornstalk attacked Virginia militia under Colonel Andrew Lewis, hoping to halt Lewis's advance into the Ohio Valley. After a long and furious battle, Cornstalk retreated. After the battle, the Virginians, along with a second force led by Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor of Virginia, marched into the Ohio Valley and compelled Cornstalk to agree to a treaty, ending the war.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Point_Pleasant 
Hennessee, Patrick (I14)
 
39868 The Battle of Shiloh - History... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Shiloh Shook, William Jr. (I2268)
 
39869 The Battle of the Great Meadows, also known as the Battle of Fort Necessity was a battle of the French and Indian War fought on July 3, 1754 in present-day Fayette County, Pennsylvania. It, along with the Battle of Jumonville Glen, are considered the opening shots of the French and Indian War which would spread to the Old World and become the Seven Years War. It was the only time George Washington ever surrendered on the battlefield.

source: http://www.patriotfiles.com/index.php?name=Sections&req=viewarticle&artid=8988&page=1 
Hennessee, Patrick (I14)
 
39870 The beautiful and now tranquil setting of Augustinian Lanercost Priory belies an often troubled history. Standing close to Hadrian's Wall, it suffered frequent attacks during the long Anglo-Scottish wars, once by Robert Bruce in person. The mortally sick King Edward I rested here for five months in 1306-7, shortly before his death on his final campaign. Yet there is still much to see in this best-preserved of Cumbrian monasteries. The east end of the noble 13th century church survives to its full height, housing within its dramatic triple tier of arches some fine monuments. Dacre, Sir Thomas 6th Baron Dacre of Gilsland (I41359)
 
39871 The best-documented example of Bowbearers in England is to be found in the Forest of Bowland in north-eastern Lancashire.[1]
In the late twelfth century, Oughtred de Bolton, son of Edwin de Bolton ("Edwinus Comes de Boelton" in the Domesday Book ) is described as an early Bowbearer in the royal forests of Bowland and Gilsland , at the time of Henry II . However, this account is flawed as the possibility of Oughtred being the son of Edwin is fanciful and cannot be substantiated. It would have been impossible for Oughtred to have been Bowbearer of Gilsland before the 1170s when the barony was first brought into the Norman realm. Prior to that, it had formed part of the kingdom of the Scots 
Bolton, Oughtred de Lord of Bolton (I35797)
 
39872 The births of the following children are recorded in North Farnham Parish:

Mary born 3 Apr 1724;
Isaac, son of Lambert and Sarah b. 11 Sep 1730;
Nanny daughter b. 20 Jul 1734.

Lambeth seems to have left Richmond before 1739 and his wherabouts are unknown for several years. In Nov 1747 there is a plat for 190 acres on Falling Creek in the old Halifax Co VA Plat Book 1, and another on Sandy Creek in Feb of 1755. These locations are probably in present Henry and Patrick Counties. Lambeth appears on a tax roll in Halifax in 1753. In 1765, Lambeth patented 400 acres on the Mayo River in Pittsylvania Co but transferred this to George Gibson a year later, Gibson possibly a son-in-law? He also patented land in Guilford Co NC in 1779, some of which was sold by Lambeth Dodson of Henry Co VA to Zachariah King in 1784; another part of this land was sold by Dodson heirs in 1814, Lambeth Jr. may have had possession of part.

His place and date of death is unknown. Probable children other than Mary, Isaac, and Nancy were

John,
Charles,
Lambeth Jr.,
Daniel.

end 
Dodson, Lambeth (I5664)
 
39873 The Braddock expedition, also called Braddock's campaign or, more commonly, Braddock's Defeat, was a failed British military expedition which attempted to capture the French Fort Duquesne (modern-day downtown Pittsburgh) in the summer of 1755 during the French and Indian War. It was defeated at the Battle of the Monongahela on July 9, and the survivors retreated. The expedition takes its name from General Edward Braddock, who led the British forces and died in the effort. Braddock's defeat was a major setback for the British in the early stages of the war with France and has been described as one of the most disastrous defeats for the British in the 18th century.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Braddock_Expedition 
Hennessee, Patrick (I14)
 
39874 The British Colony of North America... Family F12365
 
39875 The brothers, James & Elsworth, are cited as "wards" living in the household of Robert E Chitwood. Note: their mother died in 1934 and their father was incarcerated... Hennessee, Ellsworth E. "Bud" (I30609)
 
39876 The brothers, James & Elsworth, are cited as "wards" living in the household of Robert E Chitwood. Note: their mother died in 1934 and their father was incarcerated... Hennessee, James (I43623)
 
39877 The Burkett Family Web Site

For and By the Heirs of Henry Burkett Sr. & Mary ‘Polly’ Epley Burkett"

John Burkett

Born about 1826 in Warren County, Tennessee and Died after 1870 in Tennessee ... http://www.burkettfamily.org/John.htm 
Burkett, Elizabeth Love "Lizzie" (I36212)
 
39878 The castle is supposed to have been built for Robert Despenser in the years following the Norman Conquest. After his death (post 1098) it descended to his heirs, the powerful Beauchamp family.

It remained their chief seat until William de Beauchamp inherited the earldom and castle of Warwick from his maternal uncle, William Maudit, 8th Earl of Warwick, in 1268.

Thereafter, Elmley Castle remained a secondary property of the Earls of Warwick until it was surrendered to the Crown in 1487.

... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elmley_Castle 
Despencer, Lady Isabel le Countess of Worcester (I42618)
 
39879 The castle is thought to have late 13th-century origins, in the form of a square keep and bailey. It was first mentioned in 1323, and in 1335 a licence to crenellate was granted to Ralph Dacre. Residential quarters were added in the early 16th century by Thomas, Lord Dacre, and there were further additions in 1602, for his successor Lord William Howard. It is likely that an 18th-century walled garden lies within the boundaries of the original moat. Dacre, Sir Thomas 6th Baron Dacre of Gilsland (I41359)
 
39880 The castle was first built by a Norman baron in c.1100 on a cliff above the River Nidd. There is documentary evidence dating from 1130 referring to works carried out at the castle by Henry I.[1] In the 1170s Hugh de Moreville and his followers took refuge there after assassinating Thomas Becket.

In 1205 King John took control of Knareborough Castle.[2] He regarded Knaresborough as an important northern fortress and spent ¹1,290 on improvements to the castle.[citation needed] The castle was later rebuilt at a cost of ¹2,174 between 1307 and 1312 by Edward I and later completed by Edward II, including the great keep.[3] John of Gaunt acquired the castle in 1372, adding it to the vast holdings of the Duchy of Lancaster.

The castle was taken by Parliamentarian troops in 1644 during the Civil War, and largely destroyed in 1648 not as the result of warfare, but because of an order from Parliament to dismantle all Royalist castles. Indeed, many town centre buildings are built of 'castle stone'.

The remains are open to the public and there is a charge for entry to the interior remains. The grounds are used as a public leisure space, with a bowling green and putting green open during summer. It is also used as a performing space, with bands playing most afternoons through the summer. It plays host to frequent events, such as FEVA.[4] The property is owned by the monarch as part of the Duchy of Lancaster holdings, but is administered by Harrogate Borough Council.

The castle, now much ruined, comprised two walled baileys set one behind the other, with the outer bailey on the town side and the inner bailey on the cliff side. The enclosure wall was punctuated by solid towers along its length, and a pair, visible today, formed the main gate. At the junction between the inner and outer baileys, on the north side of the castle stood a tall five-sided keep, the eastern parts of which has been pulled down. The keep had a vaulted basement, at least three upper stories, and served as a residence for the lord of the castle throughout the castle's history. The castle baileys contained residential buildings, and some foundations have survived.

The upper storey of the Courthouse features a museum that includes furniture from the original Tudor Court, as well as exhibits about the castle and the town.

Map & Picture ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knaresborough_Castle 
de Bohun, Lady Eleanor Countess of Ormonde (I44763)
 
39881 The castle was originally the home of the Etton family, who appeared there at the end of the 12th century. It was Thomas de Etton who built the fortified manor house in the 14th century – a large tower almost square, whose basement still forms the core of the present building.

In 1349 his father had settled the manor of Gilling on his wife's family, the Fairfaxes, in the event of the failure of the Ettons to produce a male heir. Thus, Thomas Fairfax was able to claim the property in 1489, and it was his great grandson, Sir William Fairfax, who succeeded in 1571, and undertook the rebuilding of the old 14th-century house. Building on top of the medieval walls and leaving the ground floor intact, he rebuilt the first and second floors, adding at the back (east) a staircase turret and an oriel window . The Great Chamber was also built at this time. 
Fairfax, Sir Thomas Knight (I35871)
 
39882 The cathedral has the tallest church spire in the United Kingdom (123m/404 ft).

The tomb of William Longespâee was opened in 1791, inside his skull was found the remains of a rat which carried traces of arsenic. The rat is now on display at the Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum.

More history and images for Salisbury Cathedral ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salisbury_Cathedral 
Longespee, Sir William (Plantagenet) 3rd Earl of Salisbury (I37358)
 
39883 The Chada Family cites her name as, "Royalston"...DAH Ralston, Myrtle V. (I3103)
 
39884 The chapel stands on the site of the chapel of Durham College, consecrated on 27 January 1410, which then became Trinity’s first chapel. Hutton, John Esquire (I35787)
 
39885 The Chattanooga Times
Tuesday, Septemper 14,1937

John Milton Pearson, 84, of Rock Island, Tennessee, died early yesterday morning while visiting his grandson, Hershel Luna Cantrell in Chickamauga, Georgia.

He is survived by six daughters; Mrs. Perry Windfield Lewis, of Taft Tennessee; Mrs. Margaret Higbee, of New Orleans; Mrs. D.W. Brandon, of Mobile, Alabama, and Mrs. G.M.Lott, of Mobile; a brother, Frank Pearson, of Belton, Kentucky; twenty-five grandchildren and twenty-five great-grandchildren.

Funeral services will be held from the Church of Christ in Chickamauga at 8:30 o'clock Wednesday morning, the Rev. R.H.Rogers officiating. Interment will be in the Fisher cemetery, near Rock Island. Pallbearers will be the following grandsons: Monroe Cantrell, Hershel Cantrell, George Cantrell, Ed Lewis, Jesse Baker and Clarence Carrell.

In charge J.Avery Bryan company. 
Pearson, John Milton (I25688)
 
39886 The Cherokee (/'t??r?ki?/; Cherokee: ?????, translit. Aniyvwiya?i or Cherokee: ???, translit. Tsalagi) are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, and the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia.[6] The Cherokee language is a Southern Iroquoian language and part of the Iroquoian language family.[7] Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, and the Cherokee Nation, also in Oklahoma.[8]

By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes," because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers. The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U.S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States.[9]

The Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States.[10] In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, and some of these are state-recognized. A total of 819,000-plus people claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe.[2]

Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation (CN) and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians (UKB) have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. The UKB are mostly descendants of "Old Settlers," Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were later forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina; their ancestors resisted or avoided relocation, remaining in the area.


Name

A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiya?i (?????), translating as "Principal People."

Many theories—though none proven—abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee". It may have originally been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country".[12] The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei.[13] Another theory is that "Cherokee" derives from a Lower Creek word, Cvlakke ("chuh-log-gee").[14] The Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have historically called the Cherokee Oyata’ge'ronoän ("inhabitants of the cave country").[citation needed]

Tsalagi is the Cherokee (???) word for Cherokee.[15]

Origins

Great Smoky Mountains
Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples. Another theory is that the Cherokee had been in the Southeast for thousands of years.

Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people's migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times.[16] They may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds.

Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the later Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500.[17] Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars[who?] contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.[18] During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Indians in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, lambsquarters, pigweed, sunflowers, and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, and developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies.

During the Mississippian Culture-period (800 to 1500 CE), local women developed a new variety of maize (corn) called eastern flint corn. It closely resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies, especially the Green Corn Ceremony.

Early cultures

Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions. The earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to later tribes in the Southeast such as the Muscogee (Creek) and Catawba. Specifically in 1540-41, a Spanish expedition led by Hernando de Soto passed through what was later characterized as Cherokee country by English colonists based on their historical encounter. De Soto's expedition visited villages in present-day western Georgia and eastern Tennessee, recording them as ruled by the Coosa chiefdom. It is now considered to be a chiefdom ancestral to the Muscogee Creek people, who are from a different language and cultural group. The Spanish recorded a Chalaque nation as living around the Keowee River where North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia meet.[19] As some of this work was not translated into English until the 20th century, alternative views had developed among English-speaking historians, related to the limited understanding by English colonists of historic Native American cultures in the Southeast. In addition, the dominance of English colonists in the Southeast led to a discounting of Spanish sources for some time in their construction of history of the area.

The American writer John Howard Payne wrote about pre-19th-century Cherokee culture and society. The Payne papers describe the account by Cherokee elders of a traditional two-part societal structure. A "white" organization of elders represented the seven clans. As Payne recounted, this group, which was hereditary and priestly, was responsible for religious activities, such as healing, purification, and prayer. A second group of younger men, the "red" organization, was responsible for warfare. The Cherokee considered warfare a polluting activity. After warfare, the warriors required purification by the priestly class before participants could reintegrate into normal village life. This hierarchy had disappeared long before the 18th century.

Researchers have debated the reasons for the change. Some historians believe the decline in priestly power originated with a revolt by the Cherokee against the abuses of the priestly class known as the Ani-kutani.[20] Ethnographer James Mooney, who studied the Cherokee in the late 1880s, was the first to trace the decline of the former hierarchy to this revolt.[21] By the time that Mooney was studying the people, the structure of Cherokee religious practitioners was more informal, based more on individual knowledge and ability than upon heredity.[20]

Another major source of early cultural history comes from materials written in the 19th century by the didanvwisgi (??????), Cherokee medicine men, after Sequoyah's creation of the Cherokee syllabary in the 1820s. Initially only the didanvwisgi learned to write and read such materials, which were considered extremely powerful in a spiritual sense.[20] Later, the syllabary and writings were widely adopted by the Cherokee people.

Unlike most other Indians in the American Southeast at the start of the historic era, the Cherokee spoke an Iroquoian language, an indication of their migration from another area. Since the Great Lakes region was the territory of most Iroquoian-language speakers, scholars have theorized that the Cherokee migrated south from that region. This view is supported by the Cherokee oral history tradition. According to the scholars' theory, the Tuscarora, another Iroquoian-speaking people who inhabited the Southeast in historic times, and the Cherokee broke off from the major group during its northern migration.

Other historians hold that, judging from linguistic and cultural data, the Tuscarora people migrated South from other Iroquoian-speaking people in the Great Lakes region in ancient times. After extended harsh warfare in the Southeast, in the 1700s, the Tuscarora left the area and "returned" to the New York area, counting their tribal migration complete by 1722. The Iroquois Five Nations accepted the Tuscarora as the Sixth Nation of their political confederacy, known as the Haudenosaunee.[22]

Linguistic analysis shows a relatively large difference between Cherokee and the northern Iroquoian languages, suggesting they had migrated long ago. Scholars posit a split between the groups in the distant past, perhaps 3500–3800 years ago.[23] Glottochronology studies suggest the split occurred between about 1,500 and 1,800 BCE.[24] The Cherokee have claimed the ancient settlement of Kituwa on the Tuckasegee River as the original Cherokee settlement in the Southeast. It was formerly adjacent to and is now part of Qualla Boundary (the reserve of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians) in North Carolina. [23]

History

Main article: Cherokee history
17th century: English contact

In 1657, there was a disturbance in Virginia Colony as the Rechahecrians or Rickahockans, as well as the Siouan Manahoac and Nahyssan, broke through the frontier and settled near the Falls of the James, near present-day Richmond, Virginia. The following year, a combined force of English and Pamunkey drove the newcomers away. The identity of the Rechahecrians has been much debated. Historians noted the name closely resembled that recorded for the Eriechronon or Erielhonan, commonly known as the Erie tribe, another Iroquoian-speaking people based near the Great Lakes.[25] This Iroquoian people had been driven away from the southern shore of Lake Erie in 1654 by the powerful Iroquois Five Nations, who were seeking more hunting grounds. The anthropologist Martin Smith theorized some remnants of the tribe migrated to Virginia after the wars (1986:131–32), later becoming known as the Westo to English in the Carolina colony. A few historians suggest this tribe was Cherokee.[26]

Virginian traders developed a small-scale trading system with the Cherokee in the Piedmont before the end of the 17th century; the earliest recorded Virginia trader to live among the Cherokee was Cornelius Dougherty or Dority, in 1690.[27][28] The Cherokee were among the Native American peoples who sold the traders Indian slaves for use as laborers in Virginia and further north. They took them as captives in raids on enemy tribes.[29]

18th century

A c.?1724 English copy of a deerskin Catawba map of the tribes between Charleston (left) and Virginia (right) following the displacements of a century of disease and enslavement and the 1715–7 Yamasee War. The Cherokee are labelled as "Cherrikies".
Further information: Cherokee military history
The Cherokee gave sanctuary to a band of Shawnee in the 1660s, but from 1710 to 1715 the Cherokee and Chickasaw allied with the British, and fought the Shawnee, who were allied with the French, and forced them to move northward.[30] The Cherokee fought with the Yamasee, Catawba, and British in late 1712 and early 1713 against the Tuscarora in the Second Tuscarora War. The Tuscarora War marked the beginning of a British-Cherokee relationship that, despite breaking down on occasion, remained strong for much of the 18th century. With the growth of the deerskin trade, the Cherokee were considered valuable trading partners, since deer-skins from the cooler country of their mountain hunting-grounds were of a better quality than those supplied by the lowland tribes who were neighbors of the English colonists.

In January 1716, Cherokee murdered a delegation of Muscogee Creek leaders at the town of Tugaloo, marking their entry into the Yamasee War. It ended in 1717 with peace treaties between the colony of South Carolina and the Creek. Hostility and sporadic raids between the Cherokee and Creek continued for decades.[31] These raids came to a head at the Battle of Taliwa in 1755, present-day Ball Ground, Georgia, with the defeat of the Muscogee.

In 1721, the Cherokee ceded lands in South Carolina. In 1730, at Nikwasi, a former Mississippian culture site, a Scots adventurer, Sir Alexander Cumming, crowned Moytoy of Tellico as "Emperor" of the Cherokee. Moytoy agreed to recognize King George II of Great Britain as the Cherokee protector. Cumming arranged to take seven prominent Cherokee, including Attakullakulla, to London, England. There the Cherokee delegation signed the Treaty of Whitehall with the British. Moytoy's son, Amo-sgasite (Dreadful Water), attempted to succeed him as "Emperor" in 1741, but the Cherokee elected their own leader, Cunne Shote (Standing Turkey) of Chota.[32]

Political power among the Cherokee remained decentralized, and towns acted autonomously. In 1735 the Cherokee were estimated to have sixty-four towns and villages, and 6,000 fighting men. In 1738 and 1739 smallpox epidemics broke out among the Cherokee, who had no natural immunity to the new infectious disease. Nearly half their population died within a year. Hundreds of other Cherokee committed suicide due to their losses and disfigurement from the disease.


After the Anglo-Cherokee War, bitterness remained between the two groups. In 1765, Henry Timberlake took three of the former Cherokee adversaries to London to help cement the newly declared friendship.
American colonist Henry Timberlake described the Cherokee people as he saw them in 1761:

The Cherokees are of a middle stature, of an olive colour, tho' generally painted, and their skins stained with gun-powder, pricked into it in very pretty figures. The hair of their head is shaved, tho' many of the old people have it plucked out by the roots, except a patch on the hinder part of the head, about twice the bigness of a crown-piece, which is ornamented with beads, feathers, wampum, stained deers hair, and such like baubles. The ears are slit and stretched to an enormous size, putting the person who undergoes the operation to incredible pain, being unable to lie on either side for nearly forty days. To remedy this, they generally slit but one at a time; so soon as the patient can bear it, they wound round with wire to expand them, and are adorned with silver pendants and rings, which they likewise wear at the nose. This custom does not belong originally to the Cherokees, but taken by them from the Shawnese, or other northern nations.

They that can afford it wear a collar of wampum, which are beads cut out of clam-shells, a silver breast-plate, and bracelets on their arms and wrists of the same metal, a bit of cloth over their private parts, a shirt of the English make, a sort of cloth-boots, and mockasons (sic), which are shoes of a make peculiar to the Americans, ornamented with porcupine-quills; a large mantle or match-coat thrown over all complete their dress at home...[33]


From 1753 to 1755, battles broke out between the Cherokee and Muscogee over disputed hunting grounds in North Georgia. The Cherokee were victorious in the Battle of Taliwa. British soldiers built forts in Cherokee country to defend against the French in the Seven Years' War, which was fought across Europe and was called the French and Indian War on the North American front. These included Fort Loudoun near Chota. In 1756 the Cherokee were allies of the British in the French and Indian War. Serious misunderstandings arose quickly between the two allies, resulting in the 1760 Anglo-Cherokee War. [34]

King George III's Royal Proclamation of 1763 forbade British settlements west of the Appalachian crest, as his government tried to afford some protection from colonial encroachment to the Cherokee and other tribes. The Crown found the ruling difficult to enforce with colonists.[35]

In 1771–1772, North Carolinian settlers squatted on Cherokee lands in Tennessee, forming the Watauga Association.[36] Daniel Boone and his party tried to settle in Kentucky, but the Shawnee, Delaware, Mingo, and some Cherokee attacked a scouting and forage party that included Boone's son. The American Indians used this territory as a hunting ground by right of conquest; it had hardly been inhabited for years. The conflict in Kentucky sparked the beginning of what was known as Dunmore's War (1773–1774).

In 1776, allied with the Shawnee led by Cornstalk, Cherokee attacked settlers in South Carolina, Georgia, Virginia, and North Carolina in the Second Cherokee War. Overhill Cherokee Nancy Ward, Dragging Canoe's cousin, warned settlers of impending attacks. Provincial militias retaliated, destroying more than 50 Cherokee towns. North Carolina militia in 1776 and 1780 invaded and destroyed the Overhill towns. In 1777, surviving Cherokee town leaders signed treaties with the new states.

Dragging Canoe and his band settled along Chickamauga Creek near present-day Chattanooga, Tennessee, where they established 11 new towns. Chickamauga Town was his headquarters and the colonists tended to call his entire band the Chickamauga to distinguish them from other Cherokee. From here he fought a guerrilla war against settlers, which lasted from 1776 to 1794. These are known informally as the Cherokee–American wars, but this is not an historians' term. The first Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse, signed November 7, 1794, finally brought peace between the Cherokee and Americans, who had achieved independence from the British Crown. In 1805, the Cherokee ceded their lands between the Cumberland and Duck rivers (i.e. the Cumberland Plateau) to Tennessee.

Scots (and other Europeans) among the Cherokee in the 18th century[edit]
The traders and British government agents dealing with the southern tribes in general, and the Cherokee in particular, were nearly all of Scottish ancestry, with many documented as being from the Highlands. A few were Scots-Irish, English, French, and German (see Scottish Indian trade). Many of these men married women from their host peoples and remained after the fighting had ended. Some had mixed-race children who would later become significant leaders among the Five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast.[37]

Notable traders, agents, and refugee Tories among the Cherokee included John Stuart, Henry Stuart, Alexander Cameron, John McDonald, John Joseph Vann (father of James Vann), Daniel Ross (father of John Ross), John Walker Sr., John McLemore (father of Bob), William Buchanan, John Watts (father of John Watts Jr.), John D. Chisholm, John Benge (father of Bob Benge), Thomas Brown, John Rogers (Welsh), John Gunter (German, founder of Gunter's Landing), James Adair (Irish), William Thorpe (English), and Peter Hildebrand (German), among many others. Some attained the honorary status of minor chiefs and/or members of significant delegations.

By contrast, a large portion of the settlers encroaching on the Native American territories were Scots-Irish, Irish from Ulster who were of Scottish descent and had been part of the English plantation of northern Ireland. They also tended to support the Revolution. But in the back country, there were also Scots-Irish who were Loyalists, such as Simon Girty.

19th century

Acculturation

The Cherokee lands between the Tennessee and Chattahoochee rivers were remote enough from white settlers to remain independent after the Cherokee–American wars. The deerskin trade was no longer feasible on their greatly reduced lands, and over the next several decades, the people of the fledgling Cherokee Nation began to build a new society modeled on the white Southern United States.


Portrait of Major Ridge in 1834, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America.
George Washington sought to 'civilize' Southeastern American Indians, through programs overseen by the Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins. He encouraged the Cherokee to abandon their communal land-tenure and settle on individual farmsteads, which was facilitated by the destruction of many American Indian towns during the American Revolutionary War. The deerskin trade brought white-tailed deer to the brink of extinction, and as pigs and cattle were introduced, they became the principal sources of meat. The government supplied the tribes with spinning wheels and cotton-seed, and men were taught to fence and plow the land, in contrast to their traditional division in which crop cultivation was woman's labor. Americans instructed the women in weaving. Eventually Hawkins helped them set up smithys, gristmills and cotton plantations.

The Cherokee organized a national government under Principal Chiefs Little Turkey (1788–1801), Black Fox (1801–1811), and Pathkiller (1811–1827), all former warriors of Dragging Canoe. The 'Cherokee triumvirate' of James Vann and his protâegâes The Ridge and Charles R. Hicks advocated acculturation, formal education, and modern methods of farming. In 1801 they invited Moravian missionaries from North Carolina to teach Christianity and the 'arts of civilized life.' The Moravians and later Congregationalist missionaries ran boarding schools, and a select few students were educated at the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions school in Connecticut.

In 1806 a Federal Road from Savannah, Georgia to Knoxville, Tennessee was built through Cherokee land. Chief James Vann opened a tavern, inn and ferry across the Chattahoochee and built a cotton-plantation on a spur of the road from Athens, Georgia to Nashville. His son 'Rich Joe' Vann developed the plantation to 800 acres (3.2 km2), cultivated by 150 slaves. He exported cotton to England, and owned a steamboat on the Tennessee River.[38]

The Cherokee allied with the U.S. against the nativist and pro-British Red Stick faction of the Upper Creek in the Creek War during the War of 1812. Cherokee warriors led by Major Ridge played a major role in General Andrew Jackson's victory at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Major Ridge moved his family to Rome, Georgia, where he built a substantial house, developed a large plantation and ran a ferry on the Oostanaula River. Although he never learned English, he sent his son and nephews to New England to be educated in mission schools. His interpreter and protâegâe Chief John Ross, the descendant of several generations of Cherokee women and Scots fur-traders, built a plantation and operated a trading firm and a ferry at Ross' Landing (Chattanooga, Tennessee). During this period, divisions arose between the acculturated elite and the great majority of Cherokee, who clung to traditional ways of life.

Around 1809 Sequoyah began developing a written form of the Cherokee language. He spoke no English, but his experiences as a silversmith dealing regularly with white settlers, and as a warrior at Horseshoe Bend, convinced him the Cherokee needed to develop writing. In 1821, he introduced Cherokee syllabary, the first written syllabic form of an American Indian language outside of Central America. Initially his innovation was opposed by both Cherokee traditionalists and white missionaries, who sought to encourage the use of English. When Sequoyah taught children to read and write with the syllabary, he reached the adults. By the 1820s, the Cherokee had a higher rate of literacy than the whites around them in Georgia.


Cherokee National Council building, New Echota
In 1819, the Cherokee began holding council meetings at New Town, at the headwaters of the Oostanaula (near present-day Calhoun, Georgia). In November 1825, New Town became the capital of the Cherokee Nation, and was renamed New Echota, after the Overhill Cherokee principal town of Chota.[39] Sequoyah's syllabary was adopted. They had developed a police force, a judicial system, and a National Committee.

In 1827, the Cherokee Nation drafted a Constitution modeled on the United States, with executive, legislative and judicial branches and a system of checks and balances. The two-tiered legislature was led by Major Ridge and his son John Ridge. Convinced the tribe's survival required English-speaking leaders who could negotiate with the U.S., the legislature appointed John Ross as Principal Chief. A printing press was established at New Echota by the Vermont missionary Samuel Worcester and Major Ridge's nephew Elias Boudinot, who had taken the name of his white benefactor, a leader of the Continental Congress and New Jersey Congressman. They translated the Bible into Cherokee syllabary. Boudinot published the first edition of the bilingual 'Cherokee Phoenix,' the first American Indian newspaper, in February 1828.[40]

Removal era
See also: Thomas Jefferson and Indian Removal

Tah-Chee (Dutch), A Cherokee Chief, 1837
Before the final removal to present-day Oklahoma, many Cherokees relocated to present-day Arkansas, Missouri and Texas.[41] Between 1775 and 1786 the Cherokee, along with people of other nations such as the Choctaw and Chickasaw, began voluntarily settling along the Arkansas and Red Rivers.[42]

In 1802, the federal government promised to extinguish Indian titles to lands claimed by Georgia in return for Georgia's cession of the western lands that became Alabama and Mississippi. To convince the Cherokee to move voluntarily in 1815, the US government established a Cherokee Reservation in Arkansas.[43] The reservation boundaries extended from north of the Arkansas River to the southern bank of the White River. Di'wali (The Bowl), Sequoyah, Spring Frog and Tatsi (Dutch) and their bands settled there. These Cherokees became known as "Old settlers."

The Cherokee, eventually, migrated as far north as the Missouri Bootheel by 1816. They lived interspersed among the Delawares and Shawnees of that area.[44] The Cherokee in Missouri Territory increased rapidly in population, from 1,000 to 6,000 over the next year (1816–1817), according to reports by Governor William Clark.[45] Increased conflicts with the Osage Nation led to the Battle of Claremore Mound and the eventual establishment of Fort Smith between Cherokee and Osage communities.[46] In the Treaty of St. Louis (1825), the Osage were made to "cede and relinquish to the United States, all their right, title, interest, and claim, to lands lying within the State of Missouri and Territory of Arkansas..." to make room for the Cherokee and the Mashcoux, Muscogee Creeks.[47] As late as the winter of 1838, Cherokee and Creek living in the Missouri and Arkansas areas petitioned the War Department to remove the Osage from the area.[48]

A group of Cherokee traditionalists led by Di'wali moved to Spanish Texas in 1819. Settling near Nacogdoches, they were welcomed by Mexican authorities as potential allies against Anglo-American colonists. The Texas Cherokees were mostly neutral during the Texas War of Independence. In 1836, they signed a treaty with Texas President Sam Houston, an adopted member of the Cherokee tribe. His successor Mirabeau Lamar sent militia to evict them in 1839.

Trail of Tears

Main articles: Trail of Tears and Cherokee Removal

Chief John Ross, ca. 1840
During the first decades of the 19th century, Georgia focused on removing the Cherokee's neighbors, the Lower Creek. The Georgia Governor George Troup and his cousin William McIntosh, chief of the Lower Creek, signed the Treaty of Indian Springs (1825), ceding the last Muscogee (Creek) lands claimed by Georgia. The state's northwestern border reached the Chattahoochee, the border of the Cherokee Nation. In 1829, gold was discovered at Dahlonega, on Cherokee land claimed by Georgia. The Georgia Gold Rush was the first in U.S. history, and state officials demanded that the federal government expel the Cherokee. When Andrew Jackson was inaugurated as President in 1829, Georgia gained a strong ally in Washington. In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, authorizing the forcible relocation of American Indians east of the Mississippi to a new Indian Territory.

Andrew Jackson said the removal policy was an effort to prevent the Cherokee from facing extinction as a people, which he considered the fate that "the Mohegan, the Narragansett, and the Delaware" had suffered.[49] But, there is ample evidence that the Cherokee were adapting modern farming techniques. A modern analysis shows that the area was in general in a state of economic surplus and could have accommodated both the Cherokee and new settlers.[50]

The Cherokee brought their grievances to a US judicial review that set a precedent in Indian Country. John Ross traveled to Washington, D.C., and won support from National Republican Party leaders Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. Samuel Worcester campaigned on behalf of the Cherokee in New England, where their cause was taken up by Ralph Waldo Emerson (see Emerson's 1838 letter to Martin Van Buren). In June 1830, a delegation led by Chief Ross defended Cherokee rights before the U.S. Supreme Court in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia.

In 1831 Georgia militia arrested Samuel Worcester for residing on Indian lands without a state permit, imprisoning him in Milledgeville. In Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the US Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that American Indian nations were "distinct, independent political communities retaining their original natural rights," and entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments that infringed on their sovereignty.[51] Worcester v. Georgia is considered one of the most important dicta in law dealing with Native Americans.

Jackson ignored the Supreme Court's ruling, as he needed to conciliate Southern sectionalism during the era of the Nullification Crisis. His landslide reelection in 1832 emboldened calls for Cherokee removal. Georgia sold Cherokee lands to its citizens in a Land Lottery, and the state militia occupied New Echota. The Cherokee National Council, led by John Ross, fled to Red Clay, a remote valley north of Georgia's land claim. Ross had the support of Cherokee traditionalists, who could not imagine removal from their ancestral lands.


Cherokee beadwork sampler, made at Dwight Mission, Indian Territory, 19th century, collection of the Oklahoma History Center.
A small group known as the "Ridge Party" or the "Treaty Party" saw relocation as inevitable and believed the Cherokee Nation needed to make the best deal to preserve their rights in Indian Territory. Led by Major Ridge, John Ridge and Elias Boudinot, they represented the Cherokee elite, whose homes, plantations and businesses were confiscated, or under threat of being taken by white squatters with Georgia land-titles. With capital to acquire new lands, they were more inclined to accept relocation. On December 29, 1835, the "Ridge Party" signed the Treaty of New Echota, stipulating terms and conditions for the removal of the Cherokee Nation. In return for their lands, the Cherokee were promised a large tract in the Indian Territory, $5 million, and $300,000 for improvements on their new lands.[52]

John Ross gathered over 15,000 signatures for a petition to the U.S. Senate, insisting that the treaty was invalid because it did not have the support of the majority of the Cherokee people. The Senate passed the Treaty of New Echota by a one-vote margin. It was enacted into law in May 1836.[53]

Two years later President Martin Van Buren ordered 7,000 Federal troops and state militia under General Winfield Scott into Cherokee lands to evict the tribe. Over 16,000 Cherokee were forcibly relocated westward to Indian Territory in 1838–1839, a migration known as the Trail of Tears or in Cherokee ?? ??? ?? or Nvna Daula Tsvyi (The Trail Where They Cried), although it is described by another word Tlo-va-sa (The Removal). Marched over 800 miles (1,300 km) across Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri and Arkansas, the people suffered from disease, exposure and starvation, and as many as 4,000 died.[54] As some Cherokees were slaveholders, they took enslaved African Americans with them west of the Mississippi. Intermarried European Americans and missionaries also walked the Trail of Tears. Ross preserved a vestige of independence by negotiating for the Cherokee to conduct their own removal under U.S. supervision.[55]

In keeping with the tribe's "blood law" that prescribed the death penalty for Cherokee who sold lands, Ross's son arranged the murder of the leaders of the "Treaty Party". On June 22, 1839, a party of twenty-five Ross supporters assassinated Major Ridge, John Ridge and Elias Boudinot. The party included Daniel Colston, John Vann, Archibald, James and Joseph Spear. Boudinot's brother Stand Watie fought and survived that day, escaping to Arkansas.

In 1827, Sequoyah had led a delegation of Old Settlers to Washington, D.C. to negotiate for the exchange of Arkansas land for land in Indian Territory. After the Trail of Tears, he helped mediate divisions between the Old Settlers and the rival factions of the more recent arrivals. In 1839, as President of the Western Cherokee, Sequoyah signed an Act of Union with John Ross that reunited the two groups of the Cherokee Nation.

Eastern Band

Câol-lee, a Band Chief, painted by George Catlin, 1834
The Oconaluftee Cherokee of the Great Smoky Mountains were the most conservative and isolated from European-American settlements. They rejected the reforms of the Cherokee Nation. When the Cherokee government ceded all territory east of the Little Tennessee River to North Carolina in 1819, they withdrew from the Nation.[56] William Holland Thomas, a white store owner and state legislator from Jackson County, North Carolina, helped over 600 Cherokee from Qualla Town obtain North Carolina citizenship, which exempted them from forced removal. Over 400 Cherokee either hid from Federal troops in the remote Snowbird Mountains, under the leadership of Tsali (??),[57] or belonged to the former Valley Towns area around the Cheoah River who negotiated with the state government to stay in North Carolina. An additional 400 Cherokee stayed on reserves in Southeast Tennessee, North Georgia, and Northeast Alabama, as citizens of their respective states. They were mostly mixed-race and Cherokee women married to white men. Together, these groups were the ancestors of the federally recognized Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, and some of the state-recognized tribes in surrounding states.

Civil War

Cherokee confederates reunion in New Orleans, 1903.
Further information: Cherokee in the American Civil War and Native Americans in the Civil War
The American Civil War was devastating for both East and Western Cherokee. The Eastern Band, aided by William Thomas, became the Thomas Legion of Cherokee Indians and Highlanders, fighting for the Confederacy in the American Civil War.[58] Cherokee in Indian Territory divided into Union and Confederate factions, with most supporting the Confederacy.

Stand Watie, the leader of the Ridge Party, raised a regiment for Confederate service in 1861. John Ross, who had reluctantly agreed to ally with the Confederacy, was captured by Federal troops in 1862. He lived in self-imposed exile in Philadelphia, supporting the Union. In Indian Territory, the national council of those who supported the Union voted to abolish slavery in the Cherokee Nation in 1863, but they were not the majority slaveholders and the vote had little effect on those supporting the Confederacy.

Watie was elected Principal Chief of the pro-Confederacy majority. A master of hit-and-run cavalry tactics, Watie fought those Cherokee loyal to John Ross and Federal troops in Indian Territory and Arkansas, capturing Union supply trains and steamboats, and saving a Confederate army by covering their retreat after the Battle of Pea Ridge in March 1862. He became a Brigadier General of the Confederate States; the only other American Indian to hold the rank in the American Civil War was Ely S. Parker with the Union Army. On June 25, 1865, two months after Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox, Stand Watie became the last Confederate General to stand down.

Reconstruction and late 19th century

William Penn (Cherokee), His Shield (Yanktonai), Levi Big Eagle (Yanktonai), Bear Ghost (Yanktonai) and Black Moustache (Sisseton).
After the Civil War, the US government required the Cherokee Nation to sign a new treaty, because of its alliance with the Confederacy. The US required the 1866 Treaty to provide for the emancipation of all Cherokee slaves, and full citizenship to all Cherokee freedmen and all African Americans who chose to continue to reside within tribal lands, so that they "shall have all the rights of native Cherokees."[59] Both before and after the Civil War, some Cherokee intermarried or had relationships with African Americans, just as they had with whites. Many Cherokee Freedmen have been active politically within the tribe.

The US government also acquired easement rights to the western part of the territory, which became the Oklahoma Territory, for the construction of railroads. Development and settlers followed the railroads. By the late 19th century, the government believed that Native Americans would be better off if each family owned its own land. The Dawes Act of 1887 provided for the breakup of commonly held tribal land into individual household allotments. Native Americans were registered on the Dawes Rolls and allotted land from the common reserve. The US government counted the remainder of tribal land as "surplus" and sold it to non-Cherokee individuals.

The Curtis Act of 1898 dismantled tribal governments, courts, schools, and other civic institutions. For Indian Territory, this meant abolition of the Cherokee courts and governmental systems. This was seen as necessary before the Oklahoma and Indian territories could be admitted as a combined state. In 1905, the Five Civilized Tribes of the Indian Territory proposed the creation of the State of Sequoyah as one to be exclusively Native American, but failed to gain support in Washington, D.C.. In 1907, the Oklahoma and Indian Territories entered the union as the state of Oklahoma.


Map of present-day Cherokee Nation Tribal Jurisdiction Area (dark blue)
By the late 19th century, the Eastern Band of Cherokee were laboring under the constraints of a segregated society. In the aftermath of Reconstruction, conservative white Democrats regained power in North Carolina and other southern states. They proceeded to effectively disfranchise all blacks and many poor whites by new constitutions and laws related to voter registration and elections. They passed Jim Crow laws that divided society into "white" and "colored", mostly to control freedmen. Cherokee and other Native Americans were classified on the colored side and suffered the same racial segregation and disfranchisement as former slaves. They also often lost their historical documentation for identification as Indians, when the Southern states classified them as colored. Blacks and Native Americans would not have their constitutional rights as US citizens enforced until after the Civil Rights Movement secured passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s, and the federal government began to monitor voter registration and elections, as well as other programs.

Culture

Cultural institutions

The Qualla Arts and Crafts Mutual, Inc., of Cherokee, North Carolina is the oldest continuing Native American art co-operative. They were founded in 1946 to provide a venue for traditional Eastern Band Cherokee artists.[60] The Museum of the Cherokee Indian, also in Cherokee, displays permanent and changing exhibits, houses archives and collections important to Cherokee history, and sponsors cultural groups, such as the Warriors of the AniKituhwa dance group.[61]

In 2007, the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians entered into a partnership with Southwestern Community College and Western Carolina University to create the Oconaluftee Institute for Cultural Arts (OICA), to emphasize native art and culture in traditional fine arts education, thus preserving traditional art forms and encouraging exploration of contemporary ideas. Located in Cherokee, OICA offered an associate's degree program.[62] In August 2010, OICA acquired a letterpress and had the Cherokee syllabary recast to begin printing one-of-a-kind fine art books and prints in the Cherokee language.[63] In 2012, the Fine Art degree program at OICA was incorporated into Southwestern Community College and moved to the SCC Swain Center, where it continues to operate.[64]

The Cherokee Heritage Center, of Park Hill, Oklahoma hosts a reproduction of an ancient Cherokee Village, Adams Rural Village (including 19th-century buildings), Nofire Farms, and the Cherokee Family Research Center for genealogy.[65] The Cherokee Heritage Center also houses the Cherokee National Archives. Both the Cherokee Nation (of Oklahoma) and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee, as well as other tribes, contribute funding to the CHC.

Marriage

Before the 19th century, polygamy was common among the Cherokee, especially by elite men.[66] The matrilineal culture meant that women controlled property, such as their dwellings, and their children were considered born into their mother's clan, where they gained hereditary status. Advancement to leadership positions was generally subject to approval by the women elders. In addition, the society was matrifocal; customarily, a married couple lived with or near the woman's family, so she could be aided by her female relatives. Her oldest brother was a more important mentor to her sons than was their father, who belonged to another clan. Traditionally, couples, particularly women, can divorce freely.[67]

It was unusual for a Cherokee man to marry a European-American woman. The children of such a union were disadvantaged, as they would not belong to the nation. They would be born outside the clans and traditionally were not considered Cherokee citizens. This is because of the matrilineal aspect of Cherokee culture.[66] As the Cherokee began to adopt some elements of European-American culture in the early 19th century, they sent elite young men, such as John Ridge and Elias Boudinot to American schools for education. After Ridge had married a European-American woman from Connecticut and Boudinot was engaged to another, the Cherokee Council in 1825 passed a law making children of such unions full citizens of the tribe, as if their mothers were Cherokee. This was a way to protect the families of men expected to be leaders of the tribe.[68]

In the late nineteenth century, the US government put new restrictions on marriage between a Cherokee and non-Cherokee, although it was still relatively common. A European-American man could legally marry a Cherokee woman by petitioning the federal court, after gaining approval of ten of her blood relatives. Once married, the man had status as an "Intermarried White," a member of the Cherokee tribe with restricted rights; for instance, he could not hold any tribal office. He remained a citizen of and under the laws of the United States. Common law marriages were more popular. Such "Intermarried Whites" were listed in a separate category on the registers of the Dawes Rolls, prepared for allotment of plots of land to individual households of members of the tribe, in the early twentieth-century federal policy for assimilation of the Native Americans. 
Eughioote a Cherokee woman (I48789)
 
39887 The Cherry DNA Project: Patriarchs (This may offer clues down the road ... DAH

Patriarch Page


By correlating test results and paternal pedigrees, each family can identify their genetic heritage and related families.
Click here to find out how to use the Patriarchs Page, how to add your pedigree or how to contact a pedigree provider.

Cherry
Pedigrees for Project Members--Kit numbers are in red at the end of each pedigree
To contact provider of the pedigree, change the AT to @ and remove space

Jean de Chery b 1390 Chery, Cher, Centre, France d c1450 Northamptonshire, England - Carolyn Janice Cherry [cj AT cherryh.com]
John Cherrie b 1448 Northamptonshire, England d Maidenhead, Berks, England
Richard Cherrie b 1474 Bray, Berkshire, England d Cassington, Oxfordshire, England m Mary
Thomas Cherrie b 1549 Ticehurst, Sussex, England d 6 Oct 1588 m Elizabeth Bright
John I Cherry b 1525 North Kilworth, Leicestershire, England d 26 Jul 1615 North Kilworth, Leicestershire, England m Agnes Pratt
Thomas Richard Cherry b 20 May 1569 North Kilworth, Leicestershire, England d 1639 m Margaret Watkins
Thomas II Cherry b 1 Jan 1596 Bray, Berkshire, England d 14 Sep 1657 Bray, Berkshire, England m Ellen Pownee
Thomas III Cherry b 1629 Bray, Berkshire, England d 4 Dec 1701 Antrim, Ireland m Frances Tuberville
John II Cherry b 1650 Cowden, Kent, England d 1735 Belfast, Ireland
David Cherry b 1681 Antrim, Ireland m Margaret (Heffernan)
Robert Cherry b 1710 Antrim, Ireland d 15 Jul 1796 Richburg, SC m Mary Riley
Maj. John Riley Cherry b 1773 Antrim, Ireland d 1832 Chester, SC m Anne Jamieson
David Cherry b 1801 Kershaw, SC d 6 Dec 1870 Bells, Grayson, TX m Susannah Carpenter
William Pinkney Cherry b 14 Feb 1840 San Augustine, TX d 3 Jan 1892 Indian City, Payne, OK m Louisiana Carolina Boone
Robert Edward Cherry b 1890 Indian City, Payne, OK d 10 Feb 1968 Anadarko, OK m Georgia Gertrude Scanlan
Basil Lafayette Cherry b 23 Mar 1912 Caddo Co., OK d 12 Sep 2001 Collin Co., TX m Lois Ruth Vandeventer N112675, 275772

Thomas Cherry b 1676 VA d 1748 VA m Sarah Wilson - bcherry168 [bcherry168 AT aol.com]
Jeremiah Cherry b 1706 VA d 1775 NC m Mary Ferbee
Job (Joab) Cherry b 1736 VA d1811 TN m Abbe Vintner
Joshua W. Cherry b 1769 New Bern, NC d1855,Sumter Co, AL m Martha R. Keene
Jared (Jarrad) W. Cherry b 1791TN d1871,Sumter Co, AL m Sarah Sally Holland
Ezekiel Cherry b 1818 Caldwell, KY d1900, Navarro Co., TX m Martha K. Cherry
John Holland Cherry b 1846, AL d1906 Navarro Co., TX m Ann Ely Wall Johnson
Frank Starr Cherry b 1875 TX d1927 Kaufman Co., TX m Mozelle Carroll
Johnson Blair Cherry b 1901 Navarro Co.,TX d 1966 Lubbock Co., TX m Florence C-6 N50501

William Cherry b 1805 Pitt Co., NC d aft 1860 Beaufort Co., NC m Talitha - Mary C. Shuman [elefank AT aol.com]
Josephus Cherry b 1832 Pitt Co., NC d bef 1900 LA m Julia Ann Danily (Sirmon)
John Marshall Cherry b 1872 MS d 1935 AR m Margaret Lucetta Bell N83026

John Cherry b 1805 Armagh, Ireland d 1851 m Margaret WIlson b 1806 d 1852 - Pam Hillman [phillman AT uw.edu]
?Jane Cherry b 1831
Thomas Cherry 1833
Robert Cherry 1835
David Cherry b 1836 d 1903 m Anna Maria unkown b 1846 d 1901
?Harry David b 1871 d 1935
Robert William b 1876
?Martha Cherry b 1939 d 1925
Margaret Letitia Cherry b 17 April 1842 d 20 Jun 1928 Ramsey MN m Thomas Scott b 1840 d 1915
?Walter C. b 1872
David E. b 1881
Margaret Maggie P. b 1883
Jennie M. b 1885
?Sarah Cherry b 1844
Johnathan Wesley Wilson "Wes" Cherry b 1848 d 1911
Joseph Cherry b 1851 Armagh, Ireland d 1934 m Martha Jane (Jennie) Keeney
?George William Cherry b Washington Territory m Ruth Crandall
?Joseph Sidney Cherry b 1915 d 2007 m Agneta Granquist 99785

Robert Cherry b c1815 m Manerva Brewer - Linda Stockdale [linda.w.stockdale AT gmail.com]
John S. Cherry b 6 Mar 1840 Panola Co., MS m Anna Elizabeth Floyd
William Jasper Cherry b 8 Jun 1859 Benton Co., TN m Drucilla Angeline Alsup 280662

William Anderson Cherry b 1817 d 1880 m Elizabeth Tucker - John Cherry [JCherry AT aol.com] C-1 31286

John Cherry b 1820 m Mary Wilson Armagh Ireland/Dublin emmigr to Canada 1851 - pamhillman [pamhillman AT hotmail.com]
Joseph Cherry age 2 months 1851 (9th child) Bowmanville Ontario CAN to WA State c1875
George Cherry b 1887 WA C-7 99785

Frank Star Cherry b 1875 TX - Lawrence Hooser [lehoo1954 AT mac.com]
Eugene Elwood Cherry (Hooser) b 20 Dec 1908 OK d 1959 OH 200860


Pedigrees submitted prior to Nov. 2012 that have no Kit Number as yet.

Thomas de Che’rie (1365 – 1412), Picardy, France,- Dr. Mark E. Young Sr. [MarkEYoungSr AT aol.com]
Jean De Che'rie (1390 - ), of Chery, Cher, Centre, France, Ellen Kerry
John De Che'rie (1435 - 1480), Leicestershire, North Killworth, England
Richard Cherry (1465 - ), Bray, Berkshire, England, Mary ___
Thomas Cherry (1480 - ), Leicestershire, North, Killworth, England, Elizabeth Bright
John Cherry (1548 - 1615), Leicestershire, North Killworth, England, Agnes Pratt
Thomas Cherry (1569 - 1639), Leicestershire, Killworth, England, Margaret Watkins
Thomas Cherry (1596 - 1657), Maidenhead, Berkshire, England, Ellen Powney
John Cherry (1619 - 1670), Berksire Bay, England (maybe Ireland), Elizabeth Faithful

John De Che Rei b 1421 d North Kilworth, England - Shelly K. Eitniear-Cherry [shellykcherry63 AT gmail.com]
Thomas Cherrie b 1470 d North Kilworth, England m Elizabeth Bright
John Cherrie b 1525 d 26 Feb 1558 North Kilworth, England m Agnes Pratt
Thomas Cherry b 1551 d 20 May 1639 North Kilworth, England m Margaret Watkins
Thomas b 1596 Maidenhead, England d 14 Sep 1657 Bray, England m Ellen Powney
John b 1619 Bray, England d 18 Jan 1699 Upper Norfolk, VA m Elizabeth Faithful
John b 1641 d 1699 Norfolk Co., VA m Rebecca Maund
Samuel Maund b 1663 d 16 May 1734 VA m Frances Ballentine
Samuel Lemuel b 1685 d c1775 m Mary Courtney
John b 1724 d 1766 Tyrell Co., NC m Mary Jordan
Jesse b 4 Jul 1740 Halifax Co. d 28 Jul 1807 m Elizabeth Gainer
Isham b 1778 Martin Co., NC d 1843 m Silvah Harrell
Noel b 13 Mar 1802 Martin Co., NC d bef 21 Sep 1835 Hardin Co., TN m Margaret Lilley
Isham Barnett b 1830 Savannah, Hardin Co., TN m Elizabeth Margaret Lousisa Johnson
Temple Johnson b 28 May 1858 Savannah, Hardin Co., TN d 6 Mar 1945 Mitchell, Titus Co., TX m Mary Clementine
Temple Johnson (TJ) b 4 Feb 1898 TX d 11 Jan 1981 Hedley, Donley Co., TX m Etta Mae Kidd

James Cherry born between 1735-1740 PA m. Elizabeth Burris- Mary Lou Clegg [marylouclegg AT comcast.net]
Jesse Cherry b. 8 jul 1778 Berks Co. PA m. Catherine Mertz
?Mariah Cherry b 14 Oct 1806 Northumberland Co., PA m Samuel F. Treece
?Peter Treece b. 14 jul 1833 Hancock Co., OH m. Sarah French
?Franklin Entrican Treece b. 11 Oct 1861 Hancock Co., OH m. Anna Elizabeth Place
?Peter Wixon Treece b. 19 Mar 1895 Putnam Co. OH m. Ruth Hicks

Edward Chary b 1760 Co. of Kent, England - Janb
William Cherry/Chary b 1788 Co. of Kent, England
John Cherry b 1815 Co. of Kent, England
Edward Cherry b 1846 Co. of Kent, England
Louis Edgar Cherry b 1879 Co. of Kent, England

Hannah Cherry b TN Dec 1863 - nakia armstrong [nakiaarmstrong AT @cs.com]

end of pedigrees 
Cherry, Isham (I49524)
 
39888 The chief governor was the senior official in the Dublin Castle administration, which maintained English and British rule in Ireland from the 1170s to 1922. The chief governor was the viceroy of the English monarch (and later the British monarch) and presided over the Privy Council of Ireland. In some periods he was in effective charge of the administration, subject only to the monarch in England; in others he was a figurehead and power was wielded by others. de Burgh, Sir Richard Mor 1st Baron of Connaught (I48108)
 
39889 The children listed are not necessarily siblings but are related according to DNA testing...Martha Byars Antecedents, Earlier Byars (I39323)
 
39890 The children of John Rupert & Eula James Hansard are his 12th great-grandchildren.

Walter is the the 12th great-grandson of William the Conqueror (1024-1087) and his lineage includes many kings & queens of England, France, Austria, Spain, Portugal and Italy. Ergo, they are the 24th great-grandchildren of William I, King of England

View Sir Walter's pedigree...

http://www.ourfamilyhistories.org/ahnentafel.php?personID=I145233&tree=00&parentset=0&generations=12 
Calverley, Sir Walter III (I32865)
 
39891 The children of William Martin Earls and Tabitha Holder include the following:

1) Alexander P. Earls, born Feb 1848 at Warren County, Tennessee.
2) Thomas R. Earls, born 12 Nov 1848 at Warren County, Tennessee.
3) Sarah E. Earls, born 1851 at Warren County, Tennessee.
4) Cynthia A. Earls, born 1853 at Warren County, Tennessee.
5) John H. Earls, born 1855 at Warren County, Tennessee.
6) Lucy V. Earls, born 1857 at Warren County, Tennessee.
7) Martin V. Earls, born 07 May 1859 at Warren County, Tennessee.
8) Spencer Earls, born 1862 at Warren County, Tennessee.
9) James Rosencrantz Earles, born 31 Aug 1863 at Warren County, Tennessee.
10) Benjamin H. Earls, born 1866 at Warren County, Tennessee.
11) Walter Norman Earls, born 1870 at Warren County, Tennessee.
12) Willie Elisabeth Earles, born 1873 at Warren County, Tennessee.
13) Walter Earls, born 1875 at Warren County, Tennessee. 
Earles, William Martin (I36213)
 
39892 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "Ancestral File," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/2:1:9MB3-3BL : accessed 2015-08-03), entry for William Riley Merriman. Source (S7302)
 
39893 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "Ancestral File," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/2:1:M46N-5YY : accessed 2015-11-21), entry for Alexander FRASIER. Source (S8546)
 
39894 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "Ancestral File," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/2:1:MB2X-RV7 : accessed 2015-10-03), entry for Russell Price. Source (S8020)
 
39895 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "Ancestral File," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/2:1:MCCN-FBX : accessed 2017-01-10), entry for John Thomas PARIS., abstracted, recorded & published Tuesday, January 10th, 2017 by David A. Hennessee, info@classroomfurniture.com Source (S10234)
 
39896 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "Ancestral File," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/2:1:MWC6-XXZ : accessed 2015-11-21), entry for Alfred WILSON. Source (S8545)
 
39897 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "Ancestral File," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/2:1:MWD1-TJ1 : accessed 2015-12-17), entry for Alfred HENNESSEE. Source (S8745)
 
39898 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "Ancestral File," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/2:1:MWN2-GC9 : accessed 2015-10-25), entry for Joseph Arthur GILLENTINE. Source (S8261)
 
39899 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "International Genealogical Index (IGI)," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/2:1:MTX3-TXZ : accessed 2015-12-23), entry for Charles Wilcher. Source (S47487)
 
39900 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "Pedigree Resource File," database, FamilySearch
http://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.2.1/39LT-MW5 : accessed 2013-04-28), entry for Josiah /Hennessee 
Source (S49084)
 

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