Bethoc

Female 0984 - 1045  (~ 60 years)


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Generation: 1

  1. 1.  Bethoc was born 0984, Scotland (daughter of Malcolm II of Scotland, High King of Scotland and Aefgifu); died 1045.

    Notes:

    Beth‚oc ingen Ma‚il Coluim meic Cin‚aeda was the elder daughter of M‚ael Coluim mac Cin‚aeda, King of Scots, and the mother of his successor, Duncan I.

    Biography

    Beth‚oc was the eldest daughter of the Malcolm II of Scotland, who had no known surviving sons. She married Cr‚in‚an, Abbot of Dunkeld. Their older son, Donnchad I, ascended to the throne of Scotland around 1034. Malcolm's youngest daughter married Sigurd Hlodvirsson, Earl of Orkney.[1] Early writers have asserted that M‚ael Coluim also designated Donnchad as his successor under the rules of tanistry because there were other possible claimants to the throne.

    In this period, the Scottish throne still passed in Picto-Gaelic matrilineal fashion, from brother to brother, uncle to nephew, and cousin to cousin.

    Beth‚oc
    Spouse Cr‚in‚an, Abbot of Dunkeld
    Issue Duncan I, King of Alba
    Maldred of Allerdale
    House House of Alpin
    Father Malcolm II, King of Alba

    end of biography

    Bethoc married Crinan of Dunkeld, Abbot of Dunkeld Scotland. Crinan was born ~0976; died 1045. [Group Sheet]

    Children:
    1. Duncan I of Scotland, King of Alba was born ~1001, (Dunkeld, Scotland); died 14 Aug 1040, Elgin, Scotland.
    2. Maldred, King of Cumbria

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  Malcolm II of Scotland, High King of ScotlandMalcolm II of Scotland, High King of Scotland was born ~0954, Scotland (son of Kenneth II of Scotland, King of Alba and a Princess of Leinster); died 25 Nov 1034, Glamis, Scotland; was buried Isle of Iona, Scotland.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: King of Alba

    Notes:

    Malcolm (Gaelic: M‚ael Coluim; c. 954 - 25 November 1034)[1] was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.[2] He was a son of King Kenneth II; the Prophecy of Berch‚an says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Forranach, "the Destroyer".[3]

    To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Malcolm was ard r‚i Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian B‚oruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Malcolm was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings on the western coast and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the Kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the southeast.[4]

    Early years

    Malcolm II was born to Kenneth II of Scotland. He was grandson of Malcolm I of Scotland. In 997, the killer of Constantine is credited as being Kenneth, son of Malcolm. Since there is no known and relevant Kenneth alive at that time (King Kenneth having died in 995), it is considered an error for either Kenneth III, who succeeded Constantine, or, possibly, Malcolm himself, the son of Kenneth II.[5] Whether Malcolm killed Constantine or not, there is no doubt that in 1005 he killed Constantine's successor Kenneth III in battle at Monzievaird in Strathearn.[6]

    John of Fordun writes that Malcolm defeated a Norwegian army "in almost the first days after his coronation", but this is not reported elsewhere. Fordun says that the Bishopric of Mortlach (later moved to Aberdeen) was founded in thanks for this victory over the Norwegians.[7]
    Children

    Malcolm demonstrated a rare ability to survive among early Scottish kings by reigning for twenty-nine years. He was a clever and ambitious man. Brehon tradition provided that the successor to Malcolm was to be selected by him from among the descendants of King Aedh, with the consent of Malcolm's ministers and of the church. Ostensibly in an attempt to end the devastating feuds in the north of Scotland, but obviously influenced by the Norman feudal model, Malcolm ignored tradition and determined to retain the succession within his own line. But since Malcolm had no son of his own, he undertook to negotiate a series of dynastic marriages of his three daughters to men who might otherwise be his rivals, while securing the loyalty of the principal chiefs, their relatives. First he married his daughter Bethoc to Crinan, Thane of The Isles, head of the house of Atholl and secular Abbot of Dunkeld; then his youngest daughter, Olith, to Sigurd, Earl of Orkney. His middle daughter, Donada, was married to Finlay, Earl of Moray, Thane of Ross and Cromarty and a descendant of Loarn of Dalriada. This was risky business under the rules of succession of the Gael, but he thereby secured his rear and, taking advantage of the renewal of Viking attacks on England, marched south to fight the English. He defeated the Angles at Carham in 1018 and installed his grandson, Duncan, son of the Abbot of Dunkeld and his choice as Tanist, in Carlisle as King of Cumbria that same year.[8]
    Bernicia

    The first reliable report of Malcolm II's reign is of an invasion of Bernicia in 1006, perhaps the customary crech r‚ig (literally royal prey, a raid by a new king made to demonstrate prowess in war), which involved a siege of Durham. This appears to have resulted in a heavy defeat by the Northumbrians, led by Uhtred of Bamburgh, later Earl of Bernicia, which is reported by the Annals of Ulster.[9]

    A second war in Bernicia, probably in 1018, was more successful. The Battle of Carham, by the River Tweed, was a victory for the Scots led by Malcolm II and the men of Strathclyde led by their king, Owen the Bald. By this time Earl Uchtred may have been dead, and Eir‚ikr H‚akonarson was appointed Earl of Northumbria by his brother-in-law Cnut the Great, although his authority seems to have been limited to the south, the former kingdom of Deira, and he took no action against the Scots so far as is known.[10] The work De obsessione Dunelmi (The siege of Durham, associated with Symeon of Durham) claims that Uchtred's brother Eadwulf Cudel surrendered Lothian to Malcolm II, presumably in the aftermath of the defeat at Carham. This is likely to have been the lands between Dunbar and the Tweed as other parts of Lothian had been under Scots control before this time. It has been suggested that Cnut received tribute from the Scots for Lothian, but as he had likely received none from the Bernician Earls this is not very probable.[11]
    Cnut

    Cnut, reports the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, led an army into Scotland on his return from pilgrimage to Rome. The Chronicle dates this to 1031, but there are reasons to suppose that it should be dated to 1027.[12] Burgundian chronicler Rodulfus Glaber recounts the expedition soon afterwards, describing Malcolm as "powerful in resources and arms Ö very Christian in faith and deed."[13] Ralph claims that peace was made between Malcolm and Cnut through the intervention of Richard, Duke of Normandy, brother of Cnut's wife Emma. Richard died in about 1027 and Rodulfus wrote close in time to the events.[14]

    It has been suggested that the root of the quarrel between Cnut and Malcolm lies in Cnut's pilgrimage to Rome, and the coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II, where Cnut and Rudolph III, King of Burgundy had the place of honour. If Malcolm were present, and the repeated mentions of his piety in the annals make it quite possible that he made a pilgrimage to Rome, as did Mac Bethad mac Findl‚aich ("Macbeth") in later times, then the coronation would have allowed Malcolm to publicly snub Cnut's claims to overlordship.[15]

    Cnut obtained rather less than previous English kings, a promise of peace and friendship rather than the promise of aid on land and sea that Edgar and others had obtained. The sources say that Malcolm was accompanied by one or two other kings, certainly Mac Bethad, and perhaps Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, King of Mann and the Isles, and of Galloway.[16] The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle remarks of the submission "but he [Malcolm] adhered to that for only a little while".[17] Cnut was soon occupied in Norway against Olaf Haraldsson and appears to have had no further involvement with Scotland.
    Orkney and Moray

    Olith a daughter of Malcolm, married Sigurd Hlodvisson, Earl of Orkney.[18] Their son Thorfinn Sigurdsson was said to be five years old when Sigurd was killed on 23 April 1014 in the Battle of Clontarf. The Orkneyinga Saga says that Thorfinn was raised at Malcolm's court and was given the Mormaerdom of Caithness by his grandfather. Thorfinn says in the Heimskringla that he was the ally of the king of Scots, and counted on Malcolm's support to resist the "tyranny" of Norwegian King Olaf Haraldsson.[19] (Thorfinn's older step brother had died while a hostage to King Olaf.) The chronology of Thorfinn's life is problematic, and he may have had a share in the Earldom of Orkney while still a child, if he was indeed only five in 1014.[20] Whatever the exact chronology, before Malcolm's death a client of the king of Scots was in control of Caithness and Orkney, although, as with all such relationships, it is unlikely to have lasted beyond his death.

    If Malcolm exercised control over Moray, which is far from being generally accepted, then the annals record a number of events pointing to a struggle for power in the north. In 1020, Mac Bethad's father Findl‚aech mac Ruaidr‚i was killed by the sons of his brother M‚ael Brigte.[21] It seems that M‚ael Coluim mac M‚ail Brigti took control of Moray, for his death is reported in 1029.[22]

    Despite the accounts of the Irish annals, English and Scandinavian writers appear to see Mac Bethad as the rightful king of Moray: this is clear from their descriptions of the meeting with Cnut in 1027, before the death of Malcolm mac M‚ail Brigti. Malcolm was followed as king or earl by his brother Gillecomgan, husband of Gruoch, a granddaughter of King Kenneth III. It has been supposed that Mac Bethad was responsible for the killing of Gille Coemg‚ain in 1032, but if Mac Bethad had a cause for feud in the killing of his father in 1020, Malcolm too had reason to see Gille Coemg‚ain dead. Not only had Gillecomgan's ancestors killed many of Malcolm's kin, but Gillecomgan and his son Lulach might be rivals for the throne. Malcolm had no living sons, and the threat to his plans for the succession was obvious. As a result, the following year Gruoch's brother or nephew, who might have eventually become king, was killed by Malcolm.[23]
    Strathclyde and the succession

    It has traditionally been supposed that King Owen the Bald of Strathclyde died at the Battle of Carham and that the kingdom passed into the hands of the Scots afterwards. This rests on some very weak evidence. It is far from certain that Owen died at Carham, and it is reasonably certain that there were kings of Strathclyde as late as 1054, when Edward the Confessor sent Earl Siward to install "Malcolm son of the king of the Cumbrians". The confusion is old, probably inspired by William of Malmesbury and embellished by John of Fordun, but there is no firm evidence that the kingdom of Strathclyde was a part of the kingdom of the Scots, rather than a loosely subjected kingdom, before the time of Malcolm II of Scotland's great-grandson Malcolm Canmore.[24]

    By the 1030s Malcolm's sons, if he had any, were dead. The only evidence that he did have a son or sons is in Rodulfus Glaber's chronicle where Cnut is said to have stood as godfather to a son of Malcolm.[25] His grandson Thorfinn would have been unlikely to be accepted as king by the Scots, and he chose the sons of his other daughter, Beth‚oc, who was married to Cr‚in‚an, lay abbot of Dunkeld, and perhaps Mormaer of Atholl. It may be no more than coincidence, but in 1027 the Irish annals had reported the burning of Dunkeld, although no mention is made of the circumstances.[26] Malcolm's chosen heir, and the first t‚anaise r‚ig certainly known in Scotland, was Duncan.

    It is possible that a third daughter of Malcolm married Findl‚aech mac Ruaidr‚i and that Mac Bethad was thus his grandson, but this rests on relatively weak evidence.[27]
    Death and posterity
    19th-century engraving of "King Malcolm's grave stone" (Glamis no. 2) at Glamis

    Malcolm died in 1034, Marianus Scotus giving the date as 25 November 1034. The king lists say that he died at Glamis, variously describing him as a "most glorious" or "most victorious" king. The Annals of Tigernach report that "Malcolm mac Cin‚aeda, king of Scotland, the honour of all the west of Europe, died." The Prophecy of Berch‚an, perhaps the inspiration for John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun's accounts where Malcolm is killed fighting bandits, says that he died by violence, fighting "the parricides", suggested to be the sons of M‚ael Brigte of Moray.[28]

    Perhaps the most notable feature of Malcolm's death is the account of Marianus, matched by the silence of the Irish annals, which tells us that Duncan I became king and ruled for five years and nine months. Given that his death in 1040 is described as being "at an immature age" in the Annals of Tigernach, he must have been a young man in 1034. The absence of any opposition suggests that Malcolm had dealt thoroughly with any likely opposition in his own lifetime.[29]

    Tradition, dating from Fordun's time if not earlier, knew the Pictish stone now called "Glamis 2" as "King Malcolm's grave stone". The stone is a Class II stone, apparently formed by re-using a Bronze Age standing stone. Its dating is uncertain, with dates from the 8th century onwards having been proposed. While an earlier date is favoured, an association with accounts of Malcolm's has been proposed on the basis of the iconography of the carvings.[30]

    On the question of Malcolm's putative pilgrimage, pilgrimages to Rome, or other long-distance journeys, were far from unusual. Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Cnut and Mac Bethad have already been mentioned. Rognvald Kali Kolsson is known to have gone crusading in the Mediterranean in the 12th century. Nearer in time, Dyfnwal of Strathclyde died on pilgrimage to Rome in 975 as did M‚ael Ruanaid u‚a M‚aele Doraid, King of the Cen‚el Conaill, in 1025.

    Not a great deal is known of Malcolm's activities beyond the wars and killings. The Book of Deer records that Malcolm "gave a king's dues in Biffie and in Pett Meic-Gobraig, and two davochs" to the monastery of Old Deer.[31] He was also probably not the founder of the Bishopric of Mortlach-Aberdeen. John of Fordun has a peculiar tale to tell, related to the supposed "Laws of Malcolm MacKenneth", saying that Malcolm gave away all of Scotland, except for the Moot Hill at Scone, which is unlikely to have any basis in fact.[32]

    end of biography

    Malcolm II (a.k.a. M‚ael Coluim mac Cin‚aeda) lived from 954 to 25 November 1034 and was King of Alba from 25 March 1005 to 25 November 1034. The wider picture in Scotland at the time is set out in our Historical Timeline.

    Until Malcolm's rule, the Crown of Alba had passed backwards and forwards between different strands of the House of Alpin under the law of tanistry, under which the extended family elected the successor from candidates across the family.

    Malcolm changed this by the simple expedient of wiping out all competition to his own line anywhere in the family (or so he thought at the time). He succeeded to the throne by killing his predecessor Kenneth III (and Kenneth's son Giric) at the Battle of Monzievaird on 25 March 1005. This took place just north of Crieff, close to the location of today's Glenturret Distillery. He later had Kenneth's grandson killed.

    Malcolm's reasons for killing the competiton was straightforward. He himself had three daughters, and while they had all married well, his grandsons could not compete the more direct claims to the Crown of Alba of those he eliminated.

    Malcolm II's rule started badly, with a loss in battle against the English near Durham in 1006. He put this right with an alliance with Strathclyde and a victory over the English at the Battle of Carham, on the River Tweed, in 1018. This greatly strengthened his grip on Lothian: in effect the east side of Scotland from the Forth to the Tweed. Scottish soverignty over Lothian seems to have been subsequently acknowledged by King Canute during a visit to Scotland in 1031.

    In the north, Malcolm II formed an alliance with the Vikings which included the marriage of one of his daughters to the Norse Earl Sigurd of Orkney. The situation in Strathclyde was more troublesome. Malcolm's ally, King Owen, died without an heir, and Malcolm tried to place his grandson Duncan (later Duncan I of Alba) on the throne of Strathclyde. This displeased the Britons and led to Malcolm's assassination at Glamis on 25 November 1034. He was buried in the graveyard at Saint Oran's Chapel on the Isle of Iona.

    Malcolm's three daughters had between them produced three notable sons. One married Earl Sigurd of Orkney, and their son Earl Thorfinn went on to bring much of Caithness and Sutherland into Scotland. One married Cr‚in‚an, the Abbot of Dunkeld, and their son Duncan went on to succeed Malcom II as Duncan I. And the third married FindlŠaech, the sub-king of Moray, and their son Macbeth went on to kill Duncan (with Thorfinn's help) and become King Macbeth.

    end of biography

    Buried:
    in the graveyard at Saint Oran's Chapel...

    View images and more history of St Oran's; https://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/iona/storanschapel/index.html

    Malcolm — Aefgifu. Aefgifu was born Ossory, Ireland; died (Scotland). [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Aefgifu was born Ossory, Ireland; died (Scotland).
    Children:
    1. 1. Bethoc was born 0984, Scotland; died 1045.
    2. Donalda was born Scotland.
    3. a daughter of Malcolm, II was born (Scotland).


Generation: 3

  1. 4.  Kenneth II of Scotland, King of AlbaKenneth II of Scotland, King of Alba was born 0932, (Scotland) (son of Malcolm I of Scotland, King of Alba and unnamed spouse); died 0995, Fettercairn, Scotland; was buried Isle of Iona, Scotland.

    Notes:

    Kenneth II (a.k.a. Cin‚aed mac Ma‚il Choluim) lived from 932 to 995 and was King of Alba from 971 to 995. The wider picture in Scotland at the time is set out in our Historical Timeline. Kenneth was the son of Malcolm I and brother to King Duff, who had ruled until 966. He became King of Alba on the killing of his predecessor, King Culen, by the Britons of Strathclyde, though it was no until he killed Culen's brother Amlaib in 977 that he was able to rule unchallenged.

    Kenneth II spent much of his reign in conflict. He first fought the Britons of Strathclyde, before turning his attention to Northumbria, where he further secured Alba's hold on the lands between the River Forth and the River Tweed against the ever present threat of King Edgar's English forces.

    In the north, Scottish claims were being constantly challenged by Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, and much of Caithness, Easter Ross and Inverness-Shire were under Viking control. Kenneth strengthened his ties with the Irish nobility by marrying a Princess of Leinster. They had at least one son, who went on to become Malcolm II.

    After a reign of 24 years Kenneth was killed in Fettercairn. According to the chronciles of John of Fordun, this was as a result of a plot mounted by Lady Finella, the daughter of the Earl of Angus. After the murder Finella fled to St Cyrus before being caught and executed. Kenneth II was buried in the graveyard at Saint Oran's Chapel on the Isle of Iona. Kenneth II was succeeded by his third cousin Constantine III, son of King Culen.

    end of biography

    Cin‚aed mac Ma‚il Coluim (Modern Gaelic: Coinneach mac Mhaoil Chaluim[1] anglicised as Kenneth II, and nicknamed An Fionnghalach, "The Fratricide";[2] died 995) was King of Scots (Alba). The son of Malcolm I (M‚ael Coluim mac Domnaill), he succeeded King Cuil‚en (Cuil‚en mac Iduilb) on the latter's death at the hands of Rhydderch ap Dyfnwal in 971.

    Primary sources

    The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba was compiled in Kenneth's reign, but many of the place names mentioned are entirely corrupt, if not fictitious.[3] Whatever the reality, the Chronicle states that "[h]e immediately plundered [Strathclyde] in part. Kenneth's infantry were slain with very great slaughter in Moin Uacoruar." The Chronicle further states that Kenneth plundered Northumbria three times, first as far as Stainmore, then to Cluiam and lastly to the River Dee by Chester. These raids may belong to around 980, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records attacks on Cheshire.[4]

    In 973, the Chronicle of Melrose reports that Kenneth, with M‚ael Coluim I (M‚ael Coluim mac Domnaill), the King of Strathclyde, "Maccus, king of very many islands" (i.e. Magnus Haraldsson (Maccus mac Arailt), King of Mann and the Isles) and other kings, Welsh and Norse, came to Chester to acknowledge the overlordship of the English king Edgar the Peaceable[5] at a council in Chester. It may be that Edgar here regulated the frontier between the southern lands of the kingdom of Alba and the northern lands of his English kingdom. Cumbria was English, the western frontier lay on the Solway. In the east, the frontier lay somewhere in later Lothian, south of Edinburgh.[6]

    The Annals of Tigernach, in an aside, name three of the Mormaers of Alba in Kenneth's reign in entry in 976: Cellach mac F‚indgaine, Cellach mac Baireda and Donnchad mac Morga‚ind. The third of these, if not an error for Domnall mac Morga‚ind, is very likely a brother of Domnall, and thus the Mormaer of Moray. The Mormaerdoms or kingdoms ruled by the two Cellachs cannot be identified.

    The feud which had persisted since the death of King Indulf (Idulb mac Causant‚in) between his descendants and Kenneth's family persisted. In 977 the Annals of Ulster report that "Amla‚ib mac Iduilb [Amla‚ib, son of Indulf], King of Scotland, was killed by Cin‚aed mac Domnaill." The Annals of Tigernach give the correct name of Amla‚ib's killer: Cin‚aed mac Ma‚il Coluim, or Kenneth II. Thus, even if only for a short time, Kenneth had been overthrown by the brother of the previous king.[7]

    Adam of Bremen tells that Sweyn Forkbeard found exile in Scotland at this time, but whether this was with Kenneth, or one of the other kings in Scotland, is unknown. Also at this time, Njal's Saga, the Orkneyinga Saga and other sources recount wars between "the Scots" and the Northmen, but these are more probably wars between Sigurd Hlodvisson, Earl of Orkney, and the Mormaers, or Kings, of Moray.[8]

    The Chronicle says that Kenneth founded a great monastery at Brechin.

    Kenneth was killed in 995, the Annals of Ulster say "by deceit" and the Annals of Tigernach say "by his subjects". Some later sources, such as the Chronicle of Melrose, John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun provide more details, accurately or not. The simplest account is that he was killed by his own men in Fettercairn, through the treachery of Finnguala (also called Fimberhele or Fenella), daughter of Cuncar, Mormaer of Angus, in revenge for the killing of her only son.[9]

    The Prophecy of Berch‚an adds little to our knowledge, except that it names Kenneth "the kinslayer", and states he died in Strathmore.[10]

    Children

    Kenneth's son Malcolm II (M‚ael Coluim mac Cin‚aeda) was later king of Alba. Kenneth may have had a second son, named either D‚ungal or Gille Coemg‚ain.[11] Sources differ as to whether Boite mac Cin‚aeda should be counted a son of Kenneth II or of Kenneth III (Cin‚aed mac Duib).[12] Another son of Kenneth may have been Suibne mac Cin‚aeda, a king of the Gall Gaidheil who died in 1034.
    Interpretation

    Kenneth's rival Amla‚ib, King of Scotland is omitted by the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba and later Scottish king-lists. The Irish Annals of Tigernach appear to better reflect contemporary events. Amla‚ib could be a direct predecessor of Kenneth who suffered damnatio memoriae, or the rival king recognized in parts of Scotland. A period of divided kingship appears likely.[13]

    Amla‚ib was the heir of his brother Cuil‚en, who was killed in a hall-burning. He might have served as a regent north of the River Forth, during the absence of his brother. Kenneth was brother to the deceased Dub, King of Scotland and was most likely an exile. He could claim the throne due to the support of friends and maternal kin. He was likely older and more experienced than his rival king.[13] Amla‚ib is the Gaelic form of ”l‚afr, suggesting maternal descent from Norsemen. He could possibly claim descent from the U‚i Õmair dynasty. Alex Woolf suggests he was a grandson of Amla‚ib Cuar‚an, King of Dublin or his cousin Olaf Guthfrithson, which suggests his own group of supporters.[13]

    Death

    According to John of Fordun (14th century), Kenneth II of Scotland (reigned 971-995) attempted to change the succession rules, allowing "the nearest survivor in blood to the deceased king to succeed", thus securing the throne for his own descendants. He reportedly did so to specifically exclude Constantine (III) and Kenneth (III), called Gryme in this source. The two men then jointly conspired against him, convincing Lady Finella, daughter of Cuncar, Mormaer of Angus, to kill the king. She reportedly did so to achieve personal revenge, as Kenneth II had killed her own son. Entries in the Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, collected by William Forbes Skene, provide the account of Finnela killing Kenneth II in revenge, but not her affiliation to Constantine or his cousins. These entries date to the 12th and 13th centuries.[14][15] The Annals of Ulster simply record "Cinaed son of Mael Coluim [Kenneth, son of Malcolm], king of Scotland, was deceitfully killed", with no indication of who killed him.[16][17]

    In the account of John of Fordun, Constantine the Bald, son of King Cullen and Gryme were "plotting unceasingly the death of the king and his son". One day, Kenneth II and his companions went hunting into the woods, "at no great distance from his own abode". The hunt took him to Fettercairn, where Finella resided. She approached him to proclaim her loyalty and invited him to visit her residence, whispering into his ear that she had information about a conspiracy plot. She managed to lure him to "an out-of-the-way little cottage", where a booby trap was hidden. Inside the cottage was a statue, connected by strings to a number of crossbows. If anyone touched or moved the statue, he would trigger the crossbows and fall victim to their arrows. Kenneth II gently touched the statue and "was shot though by arrows sped from all sides, and fell without uttering another word." Finella escaped through the woods and managed to join her abettors, Constantine III and Gryme. The hunting companions soon discovered the bloody king. They were unable to locate Finella, but burned Fettercairn to the ground.[18] Smyth dismisses the elaborate plotting and the mechanical contraption as mere fables, but accepts the basic details of the story, that the succession plans of Kenneth II caused his assassination.[19] Alan Orr Anderson raised his own doubts concerning the story of Finella, which he considered "semi-mythical". He noted that the feminine name Finnguala or Findguala means "white shoulders", but suggested it derived from "find-ela" (white swan). The name figures in toponyms such as Finella Hill (near Fordoun) and Finella Den (near St Cyrus), while local tradition in The Mearns (Kincardineshire) has Finella walking atop the treetops from one location to the other. Anderson thus theorized that Finella could be a mythical figure, suggesting she was a local stream-goddess.[20] A later passage of John of Fordun mentions Finele as mother of Macbeth, King of Scotland (reigned 1040Ė1057), but this is probably an error based on the similarity of names. Macbeth was son of Findl‚aech of Moray, not of a woman called Finella.[20][21]

    end of biography

    Buried:
    in the graveyard at Saint Oran's Chapel... https://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/iona/storanschapel/index.html

    View images and more history of St Oran's; https://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/iona/storanschapel/index.html, (images: https://www.google.com/search?q=Saint+Oran%27s+Chapel+image&client=firefox-b-1-ab&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjcxPKjgIraAhUL71MKHcCmCYoQ7AkIQA&biw=1224&bih=826)

    Kenneth — a Princess of Leinster. a was born (Leinster, Ireland); died (Scotland). [Group Sheet]


  2. 5.  a Princess of Leinster was born (Leinster, Ireland); died (Scotland).
    Children:
    1. 2. Malcolm II of Scotland, High King of Scotland was born ~0954, Scotland; died 25 Nov 1034, Glamis, Scotland; was buried Isle of Iona, Scotland.


Generation: 4

  1. 8.  Malcolm I of Scotland, King of AlbaMalcolm I of Scotland, King of Alba was born 0897, Scotland (son of Donald II of Scotland, King of Alba and unnamed spouse); died 0954, Auldearn, Scotland; was buried Isle of Iona, Scotland.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: King of Scots
    • Also Known As: M‚ael Coluim mac Domnaill

    Notes:

    M‚ael Coluim mac Domnaill (anglicised Malcolm I) (died 954) was king of Scots (before 943 Ė 954), becoming king when his cousin Causant‚in mac Ńeda abdicated to become a monk. He was the son of Domnall mac Causant‚in.

    M‚ael Coluim was probably born during his father's reign (889Ė900).[1] By the 940s, he was no longer a young man, and may have become impatient in awaiting the throne. Willingly or notóthe 11th-century Prophecy of Berch‚an, a verse history in the form of a supposed prophecy, states that it was not a voluntary decision that Constantine II abdicated in 943 and entered a monastery, leaving the kingdom to M‚ael Coluim.[2]

    Seven years later, the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says:

    [Malcolm I] plundered the English as far as the River Tees, and he seized a multitude of people and many herds of cattle: and the Scots called this the raid of Albidosorum, that is, Nainndisi. But others say that Constantine made this raid, asking of the king, Malcolm, that the kingship should be given to him for a week's time, so that he could visit the English. In fact, it was Malcolm who made the raid, but Constantine incited him, as I have said.[3]

    Woolf suggests that the association of Constantine with the raid is a late addition, one derived from a now-lost saga or poem.[4]

    He died in the shield wall next to his men.[citation needed] M‚ael Coluim would be the third in his immediate family to die violently, his father Donald II and grandfather Constantine I both having met similar fates 54 years earlier in 900 and 77 years earlier in 877 respectively.

    In 945, Edmund I of England, having expelled Amla‚ib Cuaran (Olaf Sihtricsson) from Northumbria, devastated Cumbria and blinded two sons of Domnall mac E‚ogain, king of Strathclyde. It is said that he then "let" or "commended" Strathclyde to M‚ael Coluim in return for an alliance.[5] What is to be understood by "let" or "commended" is unclear, but it may well mean that M‚ael Coluim had been the overlord of Strathclyde and that Edmund recognised this while taking lands in southern Cumbria for himself.[6]

    The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says that M‚ael Coluim took an army into Moray "and slew Cellach". Cellach is not named in the surviving genealogies of the rulers of Moray, and his identity is unknown.[7]

    M‚ael Coluim appears to have kept his agreement with the late English king, which may have been renewed with the new king, Edmund having been murdered in 946 and succeeded by his brother Edred. Eric Bloodaxe took York in 948, before being driven out by Edred, and when Amla‚ib Cuaran again took York in 949Ė950, M‚ael Coluim raided Northumbria as far south as the Tees taking "a multitude of people and many herds of cattle" according to the Chronicle.[8] The Annals of Ulster for 952 report a battle between "the men of Alba and the Britons [of Strathclyde] and the English" against the foreigners, i.e. the Northmen or the Norse-Gaels. This battle is not reported by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and it is unclear whether it should be related to the expulsion of Amla‚ib Cuaran from York or the return of Eric Bloodaxe.[9]

    The Annals of Ulster report that M‚ael Coluim was killed in 954. Other sources place this most probably in the Mearns, either at Fetteresso following the Chronicle, or at Dunnottar following the Prophecy of Berch‚an. He was buried on Iona.[10] M‚ael Coluim's sons Dub and Cin‚aed were later kings.

    end of biography

    Malcolm I (a.k.a. M‚ael Coluim mac Domnaill) lived from 897 to 954 and was King of Alba from 943 to 954. The wider picture in Scotland at the time is set out in our Historical Timeline.

    Malcolm I was the son of Donald II of Alba, and succeeded to he throne on the abdication of his father's cousin, King Constantine II.

    Malcolm gained a reputation for his wisdom and Edmund I of England sought him out as an ally against the Vikings, giving Malcolm the province of Cumbria in return for an alliance. The alliance was invoked by Edmund's successor, who wanted Malcolm's support against King Anlaf of Northumberland which at that time still included the Lothians.

    In 954 Malcolm I was faced with a revolt by the men of Moray led by their maormor (or earl), Cellach. The revolt was suppressed, and Cellach was killed. But shortly afterwards Malcolm I was himself killed by one of Cellach's supporters at Auldearn. He was buried, as was now traditional for Scottish Kings, in the graveyard at Saint Oran's Chapel on the Isle of Iona.

    Malcolm I was succeeded by King Indulf, his second cousin and son of King Constantine II.

    end of biography

    Buried:
    in the graveyard at Saint Oran's Chapel...

    View images and more history of St Oran's; https://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/iona/storanschapel/index.html, (images: https://www.google.com/search?q=Saint+Oran%27s+Chapel+image&client=firefox-b-1-ab&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjcxPKjgIraAhUL71MKHcCmCYoQ7AkIQA&biw=1224&bih=826)

    Malcolm — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  2. 9.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 4. Kenneth II of Scotland, King of Alba was born 0932, (Scotland); died 0995, Fettercairn, Scotland; was buried Isle of Iona, Scotland.


Generation: 5

  1. 16.  Donald II of Scotland, King of AlbaDonald II of Scotland, King of Alba was born (0850-0860), (Scotland); died 0900, Forres, Scotland; was buried Isle of Iona, Scotland.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: King of the Picts

    Notes:

    Donald II (a.k.a. Domnall mac Causant‚in and Domnall II) lived from 862 to 900 and was King of Alba from 889 to 900. The wider picture in Scotland at the time is set out in our Historical Timeline.

    Donald II was the son of King Constantine I of the Picts and Scots, and it is arguable that he should have succeeded to the throne on the death of his uncle, King Aedh. However, Aedh's murder in 878 was followed by the joint rule of Eochaid and Giric. In 889 Eochaid tried to gain sole control of the crown by commissioning Donald to kill Giric. This Donald did, at Dundurn near St Fillans at the eastern end of Loch Earn. He then went on to exile Eochaid, before taking the crown for himself.

    However dubious Eochaid's claims to the Crown of the Picts and Scots had been, he claim to be King of Strathclyde was much stronger. When Eochaid was exiled by Donald II to Gwynedd in Wales most of the nobility of Strathclyde left with him, and Donald II combined the Crowns of the Picts and Scots and the Crown of Strathclyde, becoming the first person to be referred to in his own time as King of Alba. Alba had been an entity since the merging of the Crowns of the Picts and the Scots by Kenneth I in 843; but until Donald, Kings had taken the title King of Picts or King of the Picts and Scots.

    Donald II's reign was a turbulent one. During it, much of northern Scotland fell under the control of the Vikings under Sigurd the Mighty. He was also the first Scottish King (though not the last) to be recorded as fighting against Highlanders.

    Donald was killed in battle by the Danes at Dunnottar, in 900 and was buried in the graveyard at Saint Oran's Chapel on the Isle of Iona. His successor was his cousin, King Constantine II. Donald's son, Malcolm, later became King Malcolm I.

    end of biography

    Domnall mac Causant‚in (Modern Gaelic: DŠomhnall mac ChŠoiseim),[1] anglicised as Donald II (died 900) was King of the Picts or King of Scotland (Alba) in the late 9th century. He was the son of Constantine I (Causant‚in mac Cin‚aeda). Donald is given the epithet D‚asachtach, "the Madman", by The Prophecy of Berch‚an.[2]

    Life

    Donald became king on the death or deposition of Giric (Giric mac D‚ungail), the date of which is not certainly known but usually placed in 889. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba reports:

    Doniualdus son of Constantini held the kingdom for 11 years [889Ė900]. The Northmen wasted Pictland at this time. In his reign a battle occurred between Danes and Scots at Innisibsolian where the Scots had victory. He was killed at Opidum Fother [modern Dunnottar] by the Gentiles.[3]

    It has been suggested that the attack on Dunnottar, rather than being a small raid by a handful of pirates, may be associated with the ravaging of Scotland attributed to Harald Fairhair in the Heimskringla.[4] The Prophecy of Berch‚an places Donald's death at Dunnottar, but appears to attribute it to Gaels rather than Norsemen; other sources report he died at Forres.[5] Donald's death is dated to 900 by the Annals of Ulster and the Chronicon Scotorum, where he is called king of Alba, rather than king of the Picts. He was buried on Iona. Like his father, Constantine, he died a violent death at a premature age.

    The change from king of the Picts to king of Alba is seen as indicating a step towards the kingdom of the Scots, but historians, while divided as to when this change should be placed, do not generally attribute it to Donald in view of his epithet.[6] The consensus view is that the key changes occurred in the reign of Constantine II (Causant‚in mac Ńeda),[7] but the reign of Giric has also been proposed.[8]

    The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba has Donald succeeded by his cousin Constantine II. Donald's son Malcolm (M‚ael Coluim mac Domnall) was later king as Malcolm I. The Prophecy of Berch‚an appears to suggest that another king reigned for a short while between Donald II and Constantine II, saying "half a day will he take sovereignty". Possible confirmation of this exists in the Chronicon Scotorum, where the death of "Ead, king of the Picts" in battle against the U‚i Õmair is reported in 904. This, however, is thought to be an error, referring perhaps to •dwulf, the ruler of Bernicia, whose death is reported in 913 by the other Irish annals.[9]

    end of biography

    Timeline: Prehistory to 1000

    8500 BC: The date of the oldest human settlement yet found in Scotland, at Cramond, near Edinburgh.

    3000 BC: Maeshowe chambered tomb is built on Orkney.

    3000 BC: Alleged date of origin of the Fortingall Yew, probably the world's oldest living thing.

    3000 BC: Occupation of what may be the first Crannog or artificial islet residence, on the islet Eilean Domhnuill on Loch Olabhat in North Uist.

    2500 BC to 2000 BC: Stone village of Skara Brae on Orkney in occupation.

    1400 BC: The era of Scota, the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh, who features in the foundation myth of Ireland an Scotland, and who Scotland is named after.

    500 BC: Crannogs, houses built on stilts or artificial islets, begin to appear widely on Scottish lochs.

    200 BC: According to Irish legend, the "School for Heroes" is run by the warrior queen Sc‚athach, or Sgathach, at her fortress D‚un Sc‚aith, near Tarskavaig on Skye.

    200 BC to AD 200: Building and occupation of Brochs, circular stone defensive towers.

    20 BC: Pontius Pilate, later to become the Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, is born at Fortingall.

    AD 80: Julius Agricola Roman Governor of Britain, invades Scotland, reaching a line between the Rivers Clyde and Forth by AD 82.

    AD 83: Julius Agricola invades northern Scotland.

    AD 84: The Battle of Mons Graupius takes place at a location still uncertain. The Romans under Julius Agricola convincingly defeat the Caledonians under Calgacus. They fail to press home their advantage, however, and instead establish a defensive line of forts extending north east from Loch Lomond to Stonehaven to guard the exits from the main highland glens.

    AD 105: The Romans withdraw from Scotland to a defensive line between the Rivers Solway and Tyne. This is fortified as Hadrian's Wall from AD 121.

    AD 139: The Romans advance again, to a line between the Forth and Clyde and build the Antonine Wall.

    AD 170: The Romans withdraw to Hadrian's Wall once more.

    AD 208: Roman Emperor Septimius Severus launches the last campaign intended to conquer Scotland, establishing a major base at Cramond, on the site of a fort built in AD 142.

    AD 211: Septimius Severus dies in York. His successor Caracalla abandons territory north of Hadrians Wall and in 212 the Romans withdraw from what will later become Scotland for the final time.

    AD 250: The first raids take place in western Scotland by the strong Irish tribe, the Scots.

    AD 367: The Picti, or the Picts, push the Romans back from Hadrian's Wall. "Picti" is the Romans' disparaging slang for their northern neighbours, meaning the painted (or tattooed) ones.

    AD 397: Saint Ninian dedicates the first Christian church in Scotland, the Candida Casa at Whithorn, to St Martin.

    AD 500: Increased migration of Scoti or Scots from Ireland to Scotland leads to the establishment of the kingdom of Dalriada in what is now Argyll, with its capital at Dunadd in Kilmartin Glen.

    AD 500: King of the Scots of Dalriada, Fergus Mor fights both the Picts to the east and the Britons of Strathclyde to the south for land.

    10 March 520: St Kessog, the original patron saint of Scotland, is killed at Bandry, on the western shore of Loch Lomond.

    7 December 521: The birth in County Donegal in Ireland of the man who would go on to become Saint Columba.

    AD 550: The Angles establish Bernicia, later called Northumbria, with boundaries extending south to Yorkshire.

    AD 552: St Mungo or St Kentigern founds a church on part of the site that later became Glasgow Cathedral.

    AD 562: St Moluag founds a settlement on the Isle of Lismore in the mouth of Loch Linnhe.

    12 May 563: Saint Columba and twelve companions land on the island of Iona to establish a monastery.

    25 June 592: St Moluag dies in Rosemarkie.

    9 June 597: St Columba dies in his monastery at Iona.

    13 January 614: St Mungo or St Kentigern dies, and is buried at his church in Clas-gu which later becomes Glasgow.

    17 April 617: Saint Donan and 52 of his followers are murdered during a raid on their monastery on the Island of Eigg.

    AD 638: Edinburgh - Din Eidyn - is overrun by the Angles of the Kingdom of Northumbria.

    3 January 642: The birth in Ireland of Saint Maelrubha, a monk who founded a monastery at what is now Applecross.

    5 August 642: The death at the Battle of Maserfield (near modern Oswestry) of King Oswald of Northumbria, later known as St Oswald.

    31 August 651: The death in what is now St Aidan's Church in Bamburgh of St Aidan of Lindisfarne, the Apostle of Northumbria.

    AD 672: A Pictish uprising against the Kingdom of Northumbria is suppressed.

    AD 678: St Nathalan dies on Deeside.


    Clickable Index Map


    8500 BC: The date of the oldest human settlement yet found in Scotland, at Cramond, near Edinburgh.

    3000 BC: Maeshowe chambered tomb is built on Orkney.

    3000 BC: Alleged date of origin of the Fortingall Yew, probably the world's oldest living thing.

    3000 BC: Occupation of what may be the first Crannog or artificial islet residence, on the islet Eilean Domhnuill on Loch Olabhat in North Uist.

    2500 BC to 2000 BC: Stone village of Skara Brae on Orkney in occupation.

    1400 BC: The era of Scota, the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh, who features in the foundation myth of Ireland an Scotland, and who Scotland is named after.

    500 BC: Crannogs, houses built on stilts or artificial islets, begin to appear widely on Scottish lochs.

    200 BC: According to Irish legend, the "School for Heroes" is run by the warrior queen Sc‚athach, or Sgathach, at her fortress D‚un Sc‚aith, near Tarskavaig on Skye.

    200 BC to AD 200: Building and occupation of Brochs, circular stone defensive towers.

    20 BC: Pontius Pilate, later to become the Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, is born at Fortingall.

    AD 80: Julius Agricola Roman Governor of Britain, invades Scotland, reaching a line between the Rivers Clyde and Forth by AD 82.

    AD 83: Julius Agricola invades northern Scotland.

    AD 84: The Battle of Mons Graupius takes place at a location still uncertain. The Romans under Julius Agricola convincingly defeat the Caledonians under Calgacus. They fail to press home their advantage, however, and instead establish a defensive line of forts extending north east from Loch Lomond to Stonehaven to guard the exits from the main highland glens.

    AD 105: The Romans withdraw from Scotland to a defensive line between the Rivers Solway and Tyne. This is fortified as Hadrian's Wall from AD 121.

    AD 139: The Romans advance again, to a line between the Forth and Clyde and build the Antonine Wall.

    AD 170: The Romans withdraw to Hadrian's Wall once more.

    AD 208: Roman Emperor Septimius Severus launches the last campaign intended to conquer Scotland, establishing a major base at Cramond, on the site of a fort built in AD 142.

    AD 211: Septimius Severus dies in York. His successor Caracalla abandons territory north of Hadrians Wall and in 212 the Romans withdraw from what will later become Scotland for the final time.

    AD 250: The first raids take place in western Scotland by the strong Irish tribe, the Scots.

    AD 367: The Picti, or the Picts, push the Romans back from Hadrian's Wall. "Picti" is the Romans' disparaging slang for their northern neighbours, meaning the painted (or tattooed) ones.

    AD 397: Saint Ninian dedicates the first Christian church in Scotland, the Candida Casa at Whithorn, to St Martin.

    AD 500: Increased migration of Scoti or Scots from Ireland to Scotland leads to the establishment of the kingdom of Dalriada in what is now Argyll, with its capital at Dunadd in Kilmartin Glen.

    AD 500: King of the Scots of Dalriada, Fergus Mor fights both the Picts to the east and the Britons of Strathclyde to the south for land.

    10 March 520: St Kessog, the original patron saint of Scotland, is killed at Bandry, on the western shore of Loch Lomond.

    7 December 521: The birth in County Donegal in Ireland of the man who would go on to become Saint Columba.

    AD 550: The Angles establish Bernicia, later called Northumbria, with boundaries extending south to Yorkshire.

    AD 552: St Mungo or St Kentigern founds a church on part of the site that later became Glasgow Cathedral.

    AD 562: St Moluag founds a settlement on the Isle of Lismore in the mouth of Loch Linnhe.

    12 May 563: Saint Columba and twelve companions land on the island of Iona to establish a monastery.

    25 June 592: St Moluag dies in Rosemarkie.

    9 June 597: St Columba dies in his monastery at Iona.

    13 January 614: St Mungo or St Kentigern dies, and is buried at his church in Clas-gu which later becomes Glasgow.

    17 April 617: Saint Donan and 52 of his followers are murdered during a raid on their monastery on the Island of Eigg.

    AD 638: Edinburgh - Din Eidyn - is overrun by the Angles of the Kingdom of Northumbria.

    3 January 642: The birth in Ireland of Saint Maelrubha, a monk who founded a monastery at what is now Applecross.

    5 August 642: The death at the Battle of Maserfield (near modern Oswestry) of King Oswald of Northumbria, later known as St Oswald.

    31 August 651: The death in what is now St Aidan's Church in Bamburgh of St Aidan of Lindisfarne, the Apostle of Northumbria.

    AD 672: A Pictish uprising against the Kingdom of Northumbria is suppressed.

    AD 678: St Nathalan dies on Deeside.

    20 May 685: The Battle of Dunnichen or Nechtansmere, near Forfar. King Ecgfrith of Northumbria is decisively defeated by the Picts, paving the way for the development of a separate Scottish nation. The battle is later depicted on a cross slab at Aberlemno Kirk.

    20 March 687: The death on Inner Farne Island of St Cuthbert, the a monk, bishop and hermit regarded as the patron saint of northern England.

    23 September 704: The death of Adomn‚an of Iona, also known as Saint Adomn‚an. He was Abbot of Iona, the author of the Life of Columba and the promoter of the hugely influential Law of Adomn‚an.

    6 March 757: The death on Bass Rock of Saint Baldred of Tyninghame.

    8 June 793: The monastery at Lindisfarne suffers its first raid by Vikings. Others will follow, leading to the abandonment of the monastery in 875.

    795: First recorded Viking raid (probably from Orkney), on Iona, which is raided twice more in the following decade.

    839: The Picts, who have controlled all of Scotland north of the Forth and Clyde except for Argyll, suffer a heavy defeat at the hands of the Vikings. Most of the Pictish nobility is wiped out in the defeat, including King Bridei VI.

    843: Kenneth Mac Alpin becomes King of the Scots of Dalriada; and later becomes King of the Picts of Pictland as well, unifying the main groups in Scotland north of the Forth-Clyde line for the first time within the Kingdom of Alba.

    850: Viking pressure leads to the relocation of the capital of Alba from Argyll to Scone, near Perth. The religious centre, and the relics of St Columba, moves from Iona to Dunkeld.

    850: Kenneth Mac Alpin, also known as Kenneth I, raids Northumbria six times in the 850s.

    858: Kenneth Mac Alpin is succeeded by Donald I.

    863: Donald I is succeeded by Constantine I.

    870: Following a 15 week siege the Vikings capture the fortress at Dumbarton Rock guarding the entrance to the Clyde and the British Kingdom of Strathclyde.

    872: Constantine I arranges the death of the King of Strathclyde in 872. He replaces him with his own brother in law, Rhun: effectively making Strathclyde a subordinate kingdom to Alba.

    877: Constantine I is succeeded by King Aedh.

    878: King Aedh is succeeded by the joint rule of Kings Eochaid and Giric.

    889: Kings Eochaid and Giric are succeeded by Donald II.

    890: The Vikings capture the Pictish fortress at Dunnottar, near Stonehaven.

    900: Constantine II succeeds Donald II and helps incorporate Viking settlers into the emerging Kingdom of Scotland.

    937: A joint army comprising Constantine II's Scots and Olaf III Guthfrithson's Vikings is defeated at the Battle of Brunanburh by King Athelstan of England in 937: largely securing the future of what is to become England.

    943: Constantine II is succeeded by Malcolm I.

    945: Edmund, a Danish King ruling Northumbria, gives Cumbria to Malcolm I of Scotland in return for military support.

    954: Malcolm I is succeeded by King Indulf.

    962: King Indulf is succeeded by King Duff.

    967: King Duff is succeeded by King Culen.

    971: King Culen is succeeded by Kenneth II.

    995: Kenneth II is succeeded by Constantine III.

    997: Constantine III is succeeded by Kenneth III.

    end of timeline


    Buried:
    was buried in the graveyard at Saint Oran's Chapel... https://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/iona/storanschapel/index.html

    View images and more history of St Oran's; https://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/iona/storanschapel/index.html, (images: https://www.google.com/search?q=Saint+Oran%27s+Chapel+image&client=firefox-b-1-ab&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjcxPKjgIraAhUL71MKHcCmCYoQ7AkIQA&biw=1224&bih=826)

    Died:
    A brief history and overview of Forres; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forres

    The earliest written reference to Forres may be the ????a? e?s??s?? (Ou‚arar e‚ischysis, 'Varar Estuary') mentioned in the second century Geography of Claudius Ptolemy. A royal castle was present in the area from at least 900 AD, and around 1140 AD Forres became a royal burgh. Royal burghs were founded by the Kings of Scots of the 12th century to encourage trade and economic improvement. The local abbey was plundered by the Wolf of Badenoch.

    On 23 June 1496 King James IV of Scotland issued a Royal Charter laying down the rights and privileges that the town's people are believed to have held by an earlier charter since the reign of King David I some 300 years earlier.

    Donald — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  2. 17.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 8. Malcolm I of Scotland, King of Alba was born 0897, Scotland; died 0954, Auldearn, Scotland; was buried Isle of Iona, Scotland.