Dorothy Neville

Dorothy Neville

Female 1548 - 1608  (60 years)

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  1. 1.  Dorothy NevilleDorothy Neville was born 1548, Snape Castle, Snape, North Yorkshire, England (daughter of John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer and Lucy Somerset, Baroness Latimer); died 23 Mar 1608, London, Middlesex, England.

    Notes:

    Dorothy Cecil (Neville)
    Birthdate: 1548 (60)
    Birthplace: Snape Hall, Snape, Yorkshire, England
    Death: March 23, 1608 (60)
    London, Middlesex, England
    Place of Burial: City of Westminster, Greater London, England, United Kingdom
    Immediate Family:

    Daughter of John Neville, 4th Baron Latymer and Lucy Neville, Lady
    Wife of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter
    Mother of William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter, PC, KG; Lady Lucy Cecil; Cathrine Cecil; Lady Mildred Cecil; Sir Richard Cecil, Earl of Wakerley and 13 others
    Sister of Elizabeth Danvers; Katherine Percy, Countess, Baroness, Lady; Margaret Neville and Lucy Cornwallis (Neville)
    Occupation: Countess of Exeter
    Managed by: Private User
    Last Updated: September 5, 2015

    Immediate Family

    Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter
    husband
    William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exete...
    son
    Lady Lucy Cecil
    daughter
    Cathrine Cecil
    daughter
    Lady Mildred Cecil
    daughter
    Sir Richard Cecil, Earl of Wakerley
    son
    Edward Cecil, 1st Viscount of Wi...
    son
    Mary Denny
    daughter
    Susan Cecil
    daughter
    Lady Elizabeth Hatton (Cecil)
    daughter
    Christopher Cecil
    son
    Dorothy Cecil
    daughter

    About Dorothy Cecil

    Dorothy Neville1
    F, #52369, b. circa 1548, d. 23 March 1609
    Father Sir John Neville, 4th Lord Latimer b. c 1520, d. 23 Apr 1577
    Mother Lucy Somerset2 b. c 1524, d. 23 Feb 1583
    Dorothy Neville was born circa 1548 at of Latimer, Yorkshire, England; Age 29 in 1577.1 She married Sir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, 2nd Baron Burghley, son of Sir William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and Mary Cheke, on 27 November 1564 at Yorkshire, England.3 Dorothy Neville died on 23 March 1609 at London, Middlesex, England; Buried at Westminster Abbey.1,4
    Family Sir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, 2nd Baron Burghley b. 5 May 1542, d. 8 Feb 1623
    Children
    William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter, Lord Burghley+5 b. Jan 1566, d. 6 Jul 1640
    Dorothy Cecil+2 b. 11 Aug 1577, d. 10 Nov 1613
    Citations
    [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. VII, p. 485.
    [S61] Unknown author, Family Group Sheets, Family History Archives, SLC.
    [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. V, p. 216-218.
    [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. V, p. 217.
    [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. V, p. 218.
    From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p1743.htm#i52369

    _________________

    Dorothy Neville1
    F, #16340, b. circa 1546, d. 23 March 1608
    Last Edited=12 Nov 2013
    Consanguinity Index=0.28%
    Dorothy Neville was born circa 1546.3 She was the daughter of John Neville, 4th Lord Latymer and Lady Lucy Somerset.1,4 She married Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, son of William Cecil, 1st Baron of Burghley and Mary Cheke, on 27 November 1564.1 She died on 23 March 1608.1
    Her married name became Cecil.
    Children of Dorothy Neville and Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter
    Lady Lucy Cecil+1 d. Oct 1614
    Lady Mildred Cecil1
    Lady Dorothy Cecil+1
    unknown son Cecil1
    unknown daughter Cecil1
    unknown daughter Cecil1
    William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter+1 b. Jan 1565/66, d. 6 Jul 1640
    Sir Richard Cecil+1 b. 1570, d. 4 Sep 1633
    Edward Cecil, 1st Viscount Wimbledon+1 b. 27 Feb 1571/72, d. 16 Nov 1638
    Lady Mary Cecil+ b. 1573
    Thomas Cecil1 b. 1578, d. 3 Dec 1662
    Lady Elizabeth Cecil+1 b. 1578, d. 3 Jan 1646
    Lady Frances Cecil+1 b. 28 Feb 1580/81, d. 12 Jun 1653
    Citations
    [S37] BP2003 volume 1, page 1363. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
    [S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family."
    [S18] Matthew H.C.G., editor, Dictionary of National Biography on CD-ROM (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995). Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.
    [S37] BP2003. [S37]
    From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p1634.htm#i16340

    ___________________

    Dorothy NEVILLE (C. Exeter)
    Born: 1548
    Died: 23 Mar 1608, London, England
    Buried: Westminster Abbey, London, England
    Father: John NEVILLE (4° B. Latimer)
    Mother: Lucy SOMERSET (B. Latimer)
    Married: Thomas CECIL (1° E. Exeter) 27 Nov 1564, Yorkshire, England
    Children:
    1. William CECIL (2° E. Exeter)
    2. Richard CECIL (Sir M.P.)
    3. David CECIL
    4. Edward CECIL (1º V. Wimbledon)
    5. Thomas CECIL
    6. Dorothy CECIL
    7. Lucy CECIL (M. Winchester)
    8. Elizabeth CECIL
    9. Mildred CECIL
    10. Frances CECIL
    11. Mary CECIL
    From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/NEVILLE3.htm#Dorothy NEVILLE (C. Exeter)

    _________________

    Dorothy Neville Cecil
    Birth: unknown
    Death: May 22, 1608
    Wife of Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter. (bio by: David Conway)
    Family links:
    Parents:
    John Neville (1520 - 1577)
    Lucy Somerset Neville (1524 - 1583)
    Spouse:
    Thomas Cecil (1542 - 1623)
    Children:
    Lucy Cecil Paulet (____ - 1614)*
    Dorothy Cecil Alington (____ - 1613)*
    William Cecil (1566 - 1640)*
    Mary Cecil Denny (1573 - 1638)*
    Thomas Cecil (1578 - 1662)*
    Siblings:
    Dorothy Neville Cecil (____ - 1608)
    Elizabeth Neville Carey (____ - 1630)*
    Katherine Neville Percy (1546 - 1596)*
    Burial: Westminster Abbey, Westminster, City of Westminster, Greater London, England
    Plot: Chapel of St. John the Baptist
    Find A Grave Memorial# 20618
    From: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=20618

    ___________________

    John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer (1520 – 22 April 1577) was an English peer, and the stepson of Katherine Parr, later the sixth wife of King Henry VIII.
    John Neville, born about 1520, was the only son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Latimer, by his first wife, Dorothy de Vere, daughter of Sir George Vere (died 1503) by Margaret, daughter and heiress of Sir William Stafford of Bishop's Frome, Herefordshire. Dorothy de Vere was the sister and co-heiress of John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford.[1] She died 7 February 1527, and was buried at Well, North Yorkshire. After her death the 3rd Baron married secondly, on 20 July 1528, Elizabeth Musgrave, the daughter of Sir Edward Musgrave, by whom he had no issue. A few years after her death in 1530[citation needed] he contracted a third marriage in 1533 with Katherine Parr, the widow of Sir Edward Borough, by whom he also had no issue.[2]
    Katherine is said to have been a kind stepmother to the 3rd Baron's two children,[3] John and Margaret. In her will, dated 23 March 1545, Margaret stated was unable to render Katherine sufficient thanks 'for the godly education and tender love and bountiful goodness which I have evermore found in her Highness'.[4]
    There is some indication that Margaret was the 3rd Baron's father's favourite child, which, if true, might explain the turbulence which followed as John got older.[citation needed] As a teenager, John proved to be a confident sulking, lying, and over-sensitive boy.[citation needed] The 3rd Baron did not name his son as heir to his properties, and ensured that his son could not meddle with his inheritance or father's legacy.[citation needed] In the 3rd Baron's will, his wife Katherine was named guardian of his daughter, and was put in charge of the 4th Baron's affairs, which were to be given over to his daughter when she reached the age of majority.
    In January 1537, Neville, his sister Margaret, and step-mother Katherine were held hostage at Snape Castle during the Pilgrimage of Grace. The rebels ransacked the house and sent word to the 3rd Baron, who was returning from London, that if he did not return immediately they would kill his family. When the returned to the castle he somehow talked the rebels into releasing his family and leaving, but the aftermath to follow with Latimer would prove to be taxing on the whole family.[5]
    John Neville became 4th Baron Latimer at his father's death on 2 March 1543. Katherine remained close to her former stepchildren, and made the 4th Baron's wife, Lucy Somerset, a lady-in-waiting when she became queen consort to King Henry VIII.[6]
    In May 1544 the 4th Baron was involved with the siege of Edinburgh in Scotland and he was there knighted at Butterdean near Coldingham. He then went to war in France where he took part in the siege of Abbeville.
    The 4th baron was emotionally unstable in later life.[citation needed] In the summer of 1553, he was sent to Fleet Prison on charges of violence done to a servant. He was arrested for attempted rape and assault in 1557, and in 1563 he killed a man. Of the situation in 1553, Thomas Edwards wrote to the Earl of Rutland describing the violence which had taken place with the servant quoting "too great a villainy for a noble man, my thought." That this public violence occurred after the death of his step-mother, Catherine, might suggest that at least she had some sort of control over Neville while she was alive.[7]
    The 4th Baron died without male issue in 1577, at which time the title was wrongfully assumed by Richard Neville (died 27 May 1590) of Penwyn and Wyke Sapie, Worcestershire, only son of William Neville (15 July 1497 – c. 1545), second son of Richard Neville, 2nd Baron Latimer. However according to modern doctrine, the barony fell into abeyance among the 4th Baron's four daughters until 1913, when it was determined in favour of Francis Money-Coutts, 5th Baron Latymer, a descendant of the 4th Baron's daughter Lucy.[8]
    In 1545, Latimer married Lucy Somerset, the daughter of Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester, by his second wife, Elizabeth Browne, the daughter of Sir Anthony Browne, who became a lady-in-waiting to her husband's former step-mother, Queen Catherine Parr. They had four daughters:[9]
    Katherine (1545-46 – 28 October 1596), who married firstly, Henry Percy, 8th Earl of Northumberland, and secondly, Francis Fitton of Binfield.
    Dorothy (1548–1609), who married Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter.
    Lucy (c. 1549 – April 1608), who married Sir William Cornwallis (c. 1551 – 1611) of Brome, Suffolk.
    Elizabeth (c. 1550 – 1630), who married firstly Sir John Danvers (1540–1594) of Dauntsey, and secondly, Sir Edmund Carey. Her eldest son, Sir Charles Danvers (c. 1568 – 1601), was attainted and executed in 1601 for his part in the Essex rebellion.
    All of their daughters' first marriages above produced children.
    From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Neville,_4th_Baron_Latimer

    ____________

    Sir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, KG (5 May 1542 – 8 February 1623), known as Lord Burghley from 1598 to 1605, was an English politician and soldier.
    Thomas Cecil was the elder son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, by his first wife, Mary Cheke (died February 1543). He was the half-brother of Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, Anne Cecil, and Elizabeth Cecil.
    His father, although fond of both his sons, recognised that only Robert had inherited his political gifts: Thomas, he said sadly, was hardly fit to govern a tennis court. He did however inherit Burghley House.
    .... etc.
    Thomas Cecil married, firstly, Dorothy Neville, the daughter of John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer, by his wife, Lucy Somerset, daughter of Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester; and, secondly, Frances Brydges, the daughter of William Brydges, 4th Baron Chandos, of Sudeley Castle, Gloucestershire, and widow of the Master of Requests, Thomas Smith, of Abingdon, Berkshire (now Oxfordshire), and Parson's Green, Middlesex.
    By his first wife, Thomas Cecil had eleven children:
    William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter.
    Catherine Cecil.
    Lucy Cecil, who married William Paulet, 4th Marquess of Winchester.
    Mildred Cecil.
    Sir Richard Cecil of Wakerley.
    Edward Cecil, 1st Viscount Wimbledon.
    Mary Cecil, who married Edward Denny, 1st Earl of Norwich.
    Dorothy Cecil, who married Sir Giles Alington.
    Elizabeth Cecil, who married firstly Sir William Newport alias Hatton, and secondly, Sir Edward Coke.
    Thomas Cecil, esquire.
    Frances Cecil, who married Nicholas Tufton, 1st Earl of Thanet.[3]
    Lord Exeter is buried in the chapel of St John the Baptist, Westminster Abbey.
    From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Cecil,_1st_Earl_of_Exeter

    _______________

    CECIL, Thomas (1542-1623), of Burghley House, Lincs. and Wimbledon, Surr.
    b. 5 May 1542, 1st s. of Sir William Cecil by his 1st w. Mary, da. of Peter Cheke of Pirgo, Essex; half-bro. of Robert Cecil. educ. privately; Trinity Coll. Camb. 1558; G. Inn 1559; travelled abroad 1561-3. m. (1) 27 Nov. 1564, Dorothy (d. Mar. 1609), da. and coh. of John Nevill, 4th Lord Latimer, 5s. inc. William, Richard and Sir Edward 8da.; (a) 1610, Frances, da. of William Brydges, 4th Baron Chandos, wid. of Thomas Smith, 1da. (d. inf.). Kntd. 1575; suc. fa. as 2nd Baron Burghley 1598; KG 1601; cr. Earl of Exeter 1605.
    .... etc.
    From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1558-1603/member/cecil-thomas-1542-1623

    _________________

    Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 09
    Cecil, Thomas (1542-1622) by Augustus Jessopp
    CECIL, THOMAS, first Earl of Exeter, second Lord Burghley (1542–1622), eldest son of William Cecil, lord Burghley, by Mary Cheke [see Cecil, William], was born on 5 May 1542. He seems to have been brought up under tutors at his father's house, and never to have received a university education; he gave no signs of more than average ability, and it was probably because his father knew him to be deficient in capacity that he felt compelled to keep him in the background during his own lifetime. In June 1561 he was sent with Sir Thomas Windebank to travel on the continent, but he had hardly got to Paris before he began to exhibit a taste for dissipation, and he seems to have indulged that taste with much freedom. His father was greatly distressed by the reports he received, and in one of his letters expresses a fear that his son ‘will return home like a spending sot, meet only to keep a tennis court.’
    Windebank, when he had been in Paris for more than a year, wrote home in despair, saying there was no doing anything with the young man, whose idle and dissolute habits had quite got beyond his control, and recommended his being recalled. To this, however, his father did not agree, and we hear that in August 1562 they left Paris ‘secretly,’ and slipped away to Antwerp and thence made their way to Spires, Heidelberg, and Frankfort. Young Cecil's conduct showed no improvement, and though his father wished him to visit Italy and Switzerland he had no desire himself to prolong his stay abroad, and returned in the spring of 1563. In 1563 he was M.P. for Stamford, and again in 1571 and 1572. In 1564 he married Dorothy, second daughter and coheiress of John, lord Latimer, negotiations for the marriage having, it appears, been begun two years before. During the next five years we hear little of him, but during the rebellion of the northern earls in 1569 he showed a commendable activity, and did not forget to claim his reward. In 1570 the Earl of Sussex, under whom he had served, recommended him to the queen as deserving some recognition, and he wrote a letter of thanks, which has been preserved. If it be a fair specimen of his style of composition, he must indeed have been a man of but small ‘parts.’ Next year, on the occasion of the French ambassador visiting Cambridge, accompanied by Lord Burghley as chancellor of the university, and other notables, Cecil was admitted M.A. by a special grace of the senate. At a magnificent tournament held at Westminster during this year he took a prominent part, and received a prize at the hands of the queen for his prowess at the barriers. He had always had a desire for a military life, which his father would never allow him to gratify; but in 1573 he volunteered for the Scotch war without asking leave, and was present at the storming of Edinburgh on 28 May. In July 1575 he received the honour of knighthood on the occasion of the queen's visit to Kenilworth. When Leicester went in command of the English contingent to the Low Countries, Cecil accompanied him and distinguished himself by his valour in the campaign. In November 1585 he was made governor of the Brille, one of the cautionary towns. There was little cordiality between him and Leicester, for whom he entertained a scarcely disguised contempt; on the other hand, he was one of those who showed a loyal admiration for Sir John Norris.
    In August 1587 we find him among the mourners at the funeral ceremonies of Mary Queen of Scots, which were celebrated at Peterborough. In 1588 he was among the volunteers who served on the fleet equipped to resist the Spanish Armada. In 1584 and 1586 he was M.P. for Lincolnshire, and in 1592 for Northamptonshire. At his father's funeral in 1598 the queen gave order that he, as chief mourner, should ‘mourn as an earl.’ It was not until the summer of 1599 that he received his first preferment. He was made president of the council of the north. The instructions addressed to him by the queen give a most curious account of the condition of Yorkshire at this time, and of the widespread discontent that prevailed. Lord Burghley is charged to resort to strong measures to reduce the recusant gentry to obedience, and to hunt down the papists and the priests. He showed no reluctance to obey his orders, and before he had been in office two months he writes to his brother, Sir Robert Cecil, boasting, ‘Since my coming I have filled a little study with copes and mass-books.’ In October 1600 he had leave of absence, and being in London during the so-called rebellion of Robert, earl of Essex, in the following February, he took a leading part in suppressing the foolish riot and in proclaiming Essex a traitor with due formalities. In recognition of his service he was made a knight of the Garter, and installed at Windsor 20 May 1601. On the accession of James I (1603) he was sworn of the privy council, and on 4 May 1605 he was created Earl of Exeter. In April 1609 his wife, Lady Dorothy, died, and about the same time Sir Thomas Smith, master of requests to James I, being carried off by a fever, Lord Exeter consoled himself for his own loss by marrying Sir Thomas Smith's widow, though she was thirty-eight years his junior; she was daughter of William, fourth lord Chandos.
    He appeared but little at court after this—indeed, he was nearly seventy at the time of his second marriage. He had suffered a great deal from the gout for many years before, and he spent most of his time at Wimbledon House in comparative retirement, though his name occurs now and then upon commissions, upon all of which he certainly did not serve. The last years of his life were embittered by the scandalous lawsuits in which he found himself entangled through the quarrels that arose between his grandson and heir, Lord Roos, and the violent and wicked woman to whom that son was married. The story of the hateful business may be read in Mr. Gardiner's ‘History of Prince Charles and the Spanish Marriage.’ Lord Exeter died 7 Feb. 1622, in his eightieth year, and was buried in Westminster Abbey three days after, in the chapel of St. John the Baptist, where a splendid monument to his memory still exists.
    It is clear that the first Lord Exeter was a person of very ordinary abilities, and that if he had been born of other parentage we should have heard nothing of him. By his first wife, Lady Dorothy, he had a family of five sons and eight daughters. His eldest son, William, who succeeded to the earldom, was the father of the despicable Lord Roos who died before him, in 1618, and as he had no other son the earldom passed to Sir Richard Cecil, the first earl's second son, from whom the present Marquis of Exeter is lineally descended. The third son, Sir Edward Cecil, was created Viscount Wimbledon 25 July 1626, but dying in 1638 without male heirs the title became extinct [see Cecil, Sir Edward, Viscount Wimbledon]. Of his daughters, Elizabeth married, first, Sir William Hatton, and secondly Sir Edward Coke. The violent quarrel between this lady and her second husband was a cause câeláebre before the law courts in 1617. Lord Exeter imitated his illustrious father in founding a hospital for twelve poor men and two women at Liddington in Rutlandshire, and was a liberal benefactor to Clare College, Cambridge. By his second wife he had a daughter, who died in infancy. His widow survived him more than forty years. She died in 1663 and was buried in Winchester Cathedral.
    [Many of the authorities for the life of Thomas Cecil are given under Cecil, William, Lord Burghley. To them must be added: Calendars, Domestic, covering all the period of his life, passim; Birch's Court and Times of James I; Nichols's Progresses of Eliz. and Jas. I; Strype's Annals, II. i. 36, and elsewhere through his works; Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, ii. 278; Gardiner's Hist. of James I, vol. iii. chap. iii.; Spedding's Bacon's Life and Letters, vi. et seq.; Collins's Peerage, ‘Marquis of Exeter,’ ii.; Life and Times of Sir Edward Cecil, lord Wimbledon, by C. Dalton, 2 vols. 8vo, 1885; Froude's Hist. of England, vol. ix.; Motley's United Netherlands, i. and ii.; Col. Chester's Westminster Abbey Registers, p. 21, n. 5. There is a curious document quoted in the fourth report of the Hist. MSS. Commissioners, p. 125, which appears to throw some doubt upon the marriage of Thomas Cecil to Dorothy Nevill. The fact of that marriage is so certain that it is not worth while to discuss the matter here.]
    From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Cecil,_Thomas_(1542-1622)_(DNB00)

    __________________

    CECIL, Sir Edward (1572-1638), of Wimbledon House, Surr.
    b. 29 Feb. 1572, 3rd s. of Thomas Cecil, afterwards 1st Earl of Exeter, by his 1st w. Dorothy, da. and coh. of John Nevill, 4th Lord Latimer; bro. Richard and William. educ. G. Inn 1591; travelled abroad 1594. m. (1) 10 July 1601, Theodosia (d.1616), da. of Andrew Noel, sis. of Edward Noel, 2nd Visct. Campden, 4da.; (2) 27 Feb. 1617, Diana (d.1631), 3rd da. of Sir William Drury of Hawstead, Suff., 1da. (d. inf.); (3) Sept. or Oct. 1635, Sophia (d.1691), da. of Sir Edward Zouche of Woking, Surr., 1s. (d.inf.). Kntd. 1601; cr. Visct. Wimbledon 1625.
    .... etc.
    From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1558-1603/member/cecil-sir-edward-1572-1638

    _________________

    Links
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucy_Somerset
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Cecil,_2nd_Earl_of_Exeter
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Paulet,_4th_Marquess_of_Winchester
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Cecil_(died_1633)
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Cecil,_1st_Viscount_Wimbledon
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Hatton

    _________________________

    Notes from fourth cousin- Carol Argebright Sidders

    "I have Bryan Shelby Cecil/Sarah Cain Cecil as Edmund R. Cecil's parents. They are buried in Oran Ohio. But they have Edmund down as Edwin M. Cecil. Bryan's parents are William Wirt Cecil/Anna C. Wygal. William and Anna were born in Pulaski County, Virginia.William Wirt Cecil's parents were Thomas & Nancy Gratson. Thomas Cecil's parents were Samuel W. Cecil & Rebecca White. Samuel Cecil's parents were John Sesell Cecil & Elizabeth Sollers. Not sure but I found a Thomas William Cecil & Mary Katherine Joyner as John Sesell Cecil's parents. And for Thomas William Cecil's parents I have John Baptiste Cecil & Mary Calvert. Now we are talking about the mid 1600's for John & Mary. I found a note saying that maybe John Baptiste Cecil was born in England 1634. His parents were Thomas Cecil & Susan Oxenbridge. Now I don't know if this is Thomas the engraver. There was a Thomas Cecil that came over and drew a land map for the state of Maryland. He went back to England but sent a son over to claim some land for drawing up the map. But can't find his name on any boat or ship. Well I have his parents as Thomas Cecil & Dorothy Nevill. Thomas Cecil's parents William Cecil 1520 & Mary Cheke 1502-1528. Richard Cecil 1495 & Jane Heckington. David Syssell Cecil 1473 & Alice Dickens (Dicons) were Richard's parents. Philip Cecil 1447 & Maud Vaughn were David's parents. Not sure if all is correct! I have a big family. My mother and father had 11 children. David Wayne Argabright you have listed is my baby brother. He passed away at about six weeks old back in 1960. I will give you their names later. Thanks Carol."

    end of biography

    Dorothy — Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter. Thomas (son of William Cecil, KG, 1st Baron of Burghley and Mary Cheke) was born 5 Mar 1542, St. Mary The Great, Cambridgeshire, England; died 8 Feb 1623, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. [Group Sheet]

    Children:
    1. William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter was born 0Jan 1565, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England; died 6 Jul 1640, Exeter House, St. James, Clerkenwell, England.
    2. Richard Cecil
    3. Edward Cecil was born 29 Feb 1572.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer was born 0___ 1520, Snape, North Yorkshire, England (son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Latimer and Dorothy de Vere); died 22 Apr 1577, (Yorkshire) England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: John Nevill
    • Military: Siege of Edinburgh
    • Death: 2 Mar 1543, (Snape, North Yorkshire, England)

    Notes:

    The 4th baron was emotionally unstable in later life.[citation needed ] In the summer of 1553, he was sent to Fleet Prison on charges of violence done to a servant. He was arrested for attempted rape and assault in 1557, and in 1563 he killed a man. Of the situation in 1553, Thomas Edwards wrote to the Earl of Rutland describing the violence which had taken place with the servant quoting "too great a villainy for a noble man, my thought." That this public violence occurred after the death of his step-mother, Catherine, might suggest that at least she had some sort of control over Neville while she was alive.[7]

    The 4th Baron died without male issue in 1577, at which time the title was wrongfully assumed by Richard Neville (died 27 May 1590) of Penwyn and Wyke Sapie, Worcestershire , only son of William Neville (15 July 1497 – c. 1545), second son of Richard Neville, 2nd Baron Latimer .

    However according to modern doctrine, the barony fell into abeyance among the 4th Baron's four daughters until 1913, when it was determined in favour of Francis Money-Coutts, 5th Baron Latymer , a descendant of the 4th Baron's daughter Lucy.[8]

    John married Lucy Somerset, Baroness Latimer 0___ 1545. Lucy (daughter of Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester and Elizabeth Browne, Countess of Worcester) was born ~ 1524; died 23 Feb 1583; was buried London, Middlesex, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Lucy Somerset, Baroness Latimer was born ~ 1524 (daughter of Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester and Elizabeth Browne, Countess of Worcester); died 23 Feb 1583; was buried London, Middlesex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Will: 16 Nov 1582

    Notes:

    Marriage and issue

    In 1545, she married Queen Catherine Parr's stepson, John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer (c. 1520- 22 April 1577), making her the new Baroness Latimer. After her marriage, Lucy was invited to become lady-in-waiting to Queen Catherine. Lucy became part of the close knit circle around the queen.

    Together they had four daughters who became co-heiresses to John and the barony of Latimer:

    Hon. Catherine Neville (1546- 28 October 1596), married Henry Percy, 8th Earl of Northumberland , by whom she had issue.
    Hon. Dorothy Neville (1547- 23 March 1609), married Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter , by whom she had issue.
    Hon. Lucy Neville (Died April 1608), married Sir William Cornwallis of Brome Hall, by whom she had issue.
    Hon. Elizabeth Neville (c.1550- 1630), married firstly Sir John Danvers of Dauntsey, by whom she had issue, she married secondly Sir Edmund Carey.

    All of the their daughter's first marriages above produced children.

    Lord Latimer died without sons in 1577; his four daughters became his joint heiresses. The barony became abeyant until 1913, when its abeyance was terminated in favour of Latimer's distant descendant Francis Money-Coutts, 5th Baron Latymer .

    Buried:
    in Hackney Borough...

    Children:
    1. Katherine Neville was born 0___ 1547, Snape, North Yorkshire, England; died 28 Oct 1596; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. 1. Dorothy Neville was born 1548, Snape Castle, Snape, North Yorkshire, England; died 23 Mar 1608, London, Middlesex, England.


Generation: 3

  1. 4.  John Neville, 3rd Baron Latimer was born 17 Nov 1493, (Snape, North Yorkshire, England) (son of Richard Neville, 2nd Lord Latimer and Anne Stafford, Baroness of Latimer); died 2 Mar 1543.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: John Nevill

    John married Dorothy de Vere England. Dorothy (daughter of George de Vere, Knight and Margaret Stafford) was born England; died 7 Feb 1527, England; was buried Well, North Yorkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 5.  Dorothy de Vere was born England (daughter of George de Vere, Knight and Margaret Stafford); died 7 Feb 1527, England; was buried Well, North Yorkshire, England.
    Children:
    1. 2. John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer was born 0___ 1520, Snape, North Yorkshire, England; died 22 Apr 1577, (Yorkshire) England.

  3. 6.  Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester was born ~ 1496, (England) (son of Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worchester and Elizabeth Herbert, 3rd Baroness Herbert); died 26 Nov 1549, (England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Baron Herbert

    Notes:

    Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester (c. 1496 – 26 November 1549) was an English nobleman, son of Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester and Elizabeth Herbert, 3rd Baroness Herbert. On his father's death on 15 April 1526, he succeeded as the second Earl of Worcester. From his mother, he inherited the title of Baron Herbert.[1]

    Born c.?1496
    Died 26 November 1549 (aged 52–53)
    Noble family Beaufort
    Spouse(s) Margaret Courtenay, Baroness Herbert
    Elizabeth Browne
    Issue
    William Somerset, 3rd Earl of Worcester
    Francis Somerset
    Charles Somerset
    Thomas Somerset
    Anne Somerset
    Lucy Somerset
    Eleanor Somerset
    Joan Somerset
    Father Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester
    Mother Elizabeth Herbert, 3rd Baroness Herbert


    He married twice:

    Firstly, by papal dispensation dated 15 June 1514, to Lady Margaret Courtenay, daughter of William Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon, by Catherine of York, daughter of Edward IV, King of England. Margaret died before 15 April 1526. Although many sources say union produced no children[2][3][4] she was probably the mother of Lady Lucy Somerset (1524- 23 February 1583).

    Secondly, before 1527, to Elizabeth Browne, daughter of Anthony Browne,[5] Knt., by Lucy, daughter of John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu. Somerset died on 26 November 1549. The children of Henry Somerset and Elizabeth Browne were:

    William Somerset, 3rd Earl of Worcester (d. 21 February 1589). Heir and successor of his father.
    Lady Lucy Somerset (1524- 23 February 1583), who married John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer.
    Francis Somerset (By 1532-22 July 1563), often said to have died at the battle of Pinkie in 1547, but fought at the siege of Leith in 1560, and was Member of Parliament for Monmouthshire, 1558.[6] He was killed in an attack on Le Havre in 1563[7]
    Charles Somerset
    Thomas Somerset.
    Lady Anne Somerset (d. 17 October 1596), married Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland. Her husband was beheaded on 22 August 1572. They had four daughters and one son (died young).
    Lady Eleanor Somerset, married Henry Johns
    Lady Joan or "Jane" Somerset married Sir Edward Mansel.

    Henry married Elizabeth Browne, Countess of Worcester Bef 1527, (England). Elizabeth (daughter of Anthony Browne, Knight and Lucy Neville) was born 0___ 1502, Bechworth, Surrey, England; died 0___ 1565, (England); was buried Chepstow, Monmouthshire, Wales. [Group Sheet]


  4. 7.  Elizabeth Browne, Countess of Worcester was born 0___ 1502, Bechworth, Surrey, England (daughter of Anthony Browne, Knight and Lucy Neville); died 0___ 1565, (England); was buried Chepstow, Monmouthshire, Wales.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Bechworth, Surrey, England

    Notes:

    Elizabeth (nâee Browne) Somerset, countess of Worcester (died 1565) was a lady-in-waiting to Anne Boleyn and the main informant against her. She may have been a mistress of King Henry VIII.[1]

    Early Life[edit]
    Elizabeth was born approximately in 1502 and lived in Bechworth, Surrey, England.[2] She was the daughter of Sir Anthony Browne, a trusted courtier at the court of Henry VIII, and his wife Lady Lucy Neville, a daughter of John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu and Isobel Ingaldesthorpe. She was also the stepsister of Sir William Fitzwilliam, 1st Earl of Southampton, treasurer of the household and a man who later became very active in the Boleyn inquiries led by her accusations against Queen Anne.[3] In her mother’s will, dated 1531, Elizabeth was left a pair of “bedys of gold with tenne gawdies.” [4]

    About 1508, Elizabeth's sister, Anne Browne, married Sir Charles Brandon, later Duke of Suffolk. By that union, Elizabeth was aunt to Lady Anne Brandon, and her younger sister, Lady Mary Brandon.

    She was the second wife of Henry Somerset, 2nd earl of Worcester, the son of Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester, the first Earl of Worcester and Elizabeth Somerset, Baroness Herbert.[5] Henry's first wife, Lady Margaret, had died without issue.[6] Elizabeth married Henry before 1527 and was officially deemed the Countess of Worcester on 15 April 1526.[7]

    Connection to the Anne Boleyn Investigation

    Elizabeth served as one of Anne Boleyn’s ladies in her privy chamber and was close to her. After Anne’s coronation, a large feast was held. To the queen’s right stood the countess of Oxford and to her left, Elizabeth Somerset. As her lady-in-waiting, Elizabeth’s “duties included on several occasions during the dinner holding a fine cloth before the queen’s face when she wanted to spit.” [8] There is documentation that Elizabeth secretly borrowed ¹100 from Anne, suggesting the two were close.[9] She did not repay that debt by the time Anne was imprisoned in the Tower.[10] There is also record of a payment made on 4 February 1530 by the king’s personal purse to a midwife for the countess of Worcester, most likely Anne’s doing. This closeness lent credibility to her accusations against the queen. G.W. Bernard, author of Anne Boleyn: Fatal Attractions explains that as Anne’s lady in waiting, “she would have been aware of it, indeed might have been complicit” with any adulterous acts.[11]

    In 1536, she testified against Anne Boleyn, claiming she engaged in numerous adulterous acts with a handful of men including Henry Norris (courtier), Mark Smeaton, and George Boleyn, 2nd Viscount Rochford, the viscount Rochford and the queen’s brother. Her accusations are described in Lancelot de Carle's poem A letter containing the criminal charges laid against Queen Anne Boleyn of England. It exposes conflict between one of the king’s privy councilors and his sister whom he observes engaging in adulterous behavior and “the sister of one of the most strait-laced of the king’s counselors” [12] whom he observes engaging in adulterous behavior.[13] Once her brother warns her against appearing promiscuous, the sister of the councilor announced she is not the worst sinner in regards to promiscuous behavior. “But you see a small fault in me, while overlooking a much higher fault that is much more damaging,” the translated poem reads. She accuses Queen Anne of adultery and tells her brother to look to Mark Smeaton and the queen’s own brother, George Boleyn. She claims, “I must not forget to tell you what seems to me to be the worst thing, which is that often her brother has carnal knowledge of her in bed.” [14] This accusation formed the basis of charges leading to Anne’s demise, although many historical accounts concur that the charges involving incest between Anne and George are trumped-up.[15] Elizabeth Somerset was identified as the privy councilor’s sister referenced in the poem after John Hussee, agent of the Lord Deputy of Calais and factotum of Lord Lisle declared “as to the queen’s accusers, my lady of Worcester is said to be the principal.” He acknowledged there were a few other accusers—“Nan Cobham, with one maid more”—but referred to Elizabeth as “the first ground” when it came to raising charges against Anne.[16]

    Elizabeth was expecting another child in the spring of 1536 during the events of Anne’s investigation. Queen Anne became concerned about her former lady-in-waiting’s difficulties during pregnancy even as she remained locked up in the Tower. She “much lamented my lady of Worcester… because that her child did not stir in her body.” [17] Elizabeth birthed a daughter that year as Anne Boleyn languished in captivity and named it Anne, perhaps in memory of her queen.[18]

    Personal Life

    Elizabeth died in 1565, between 20 April when her will was dated and 23 October when her will was probated.[19] She is buried in Chepstow, Monmouthshire, Wales. Elizabeth and Henry left behind four sons and four daughters on record who grew to adulthood, although it is rumored they had two more children who survived past infancy, bringing the total to ten:[20]

    Lady Anne Somerset, married Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland (1536 - 1591/1596)
    William Somerset, 3rd Earl of Worcester (1527 - 21 February 1589)
    Lady Lucy Somerset, married John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer (died 23 February 1583)
    Lady Eleanor Somerset, married 1) Sir Roger Vaughan and 2) Henry Johns [21] (died 1584) [22]
    Thomas Somerset (died 1586) [23]
    Charles Somerset
    Francis Somerset (died 10 September 1547, in battle)
    Lady Joan or "Jane" Somerset, married Sir Edward Mansel (1535-October 16, 1597) [24]
    Mary Somerset (died approximately 1578) [25]

    Children:
    1. 3. Lucy Somerset, Baroness Latimer was born ~ 1524; died 23 Feb 1583; was buried London, Middlesex, England.


Generation: 4

  1. 8.  Richard Neville, 2nd Lord Latimer was born Abt 1466, Thorpe Latimer, Lincoln, England (son of Henry Neville, of Latimer and Joan Bourchier); died 0Dec 1530, Snape Castle, Snape, North Yorkshire, England; was buried Well, North Riding, Yorkshire, England.

    Notes:

    Five Sons & Six Daughters:

    William Neville (15 July 1497 – c.1545), author of The Castell of Pleasure, who married, before 1 April 1529, Elizabeth Greville, the daughter of Sir Giles Greville, by whom he had a son, Richard Neville of Penwyn and Wyke Sapie, Worcestershire, and two daughters, Mary and Susan.[2] After the death without male issue of John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer, William's son, Richard Neville (d. 27 May 1590), wrongfully assumed the title of Baron Latimer.[3]

    Sir Thomas Neville of Piggotts Hall in Ardleigh, Essex, who married Mary Teye, the daughter and coheir of Sir Thomas Teye, by whom he had a son, Thomas.[4]

    Marmaduke Neville of Marks Tey, who married Elizabeth Teye, the daughter and coheir of Sir Thomas Teye, by whom he had a son, Christopher, who died young, and a daughter, Alianore, who married Thomas Teye, esquire, of Layer de la Haye, Essex.[4]

    George Neville, Archdeacon of Carlisle, (born 29 July 1509, buried 6 September 1567 at Well, North Yorkshire).[5]

    Christopher Neville.[4]

    Margaret Neville (born 9 March 1495), who married, by papal dispensation dated 22 November 1505, Edward Willoughby (d. November 1517) of Alcester, Warwickshire, son of Robert Willoughby, 2nd Baron Willoughby de Broke (d. 10 or 11 November 1521), by his first wife, Elizabeth Beauchamp, by whom she had three daughters, Elizabeth (buried 15 November 1562), who married Sir Fulke Greville (d. 10 November 1559), Anne (d. 1528) and Blanche (d. before 1543), who married Francis Dawtrey.[6] Elizabeth Willoughby and Sir Fulke Greville (d. 10 November 1559) were the grandparents of the courtier and author, Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke.[7]

    Dorothy Neville (1496–1532), who married Sir John Dawney, High Sheriff of Yorkshire, 1543.[4]

    Elizabeth Neville (born 28 April 1500), who married, before 1531, Sir Christopher Danby (c.1505 – 14 June 1571), of Farnley, North Yorkshire, only son of Sir Christopher Danby (d. 17 March 1518) and Margaret Scrope, daughter of Thomas Scrope, 5th Baron Scrope of Masham (d.1475). They had six sons, Sir Thomas Danby, Christopher Danby, John Danby, James Danby, Marmaduke Danby and William Danby, and eight daughters, Dorothy, who married Sir John Neville; Mary; Joan, who married Roger Meynell, esquire; Margaret, who married Christopher Hopton, esquire; Anne, who married Sir Walter Calverley; Elizabeth, who married Thomas Wentworth, esquire; Magdalen, who married Marmaduke Wyvill; and Margery, who married Christopher Mallory, esquire.[8] Anne Danby and Sir Walter Calverley were the grandparents of Walter Calverley (d.1605), whose murder of his children is dramatized in A Yorkshire Tragedy, attributed on the title page to William Shakespeare.[9] It seems likely that Anne's brother, William Danby, was the William Danby who served as coroner at the inquest into the death of Christopher Marlowe in 1593.

    Katherine Neville.[4]

    Susan Neville (1501 – c.1560), who married the rebel Richard Norton (d. 9 April 1585), esquire, the eldest son of John Norton (d. 1557) by Anne Radcliffe (d. before 1557).[10]

    Joan Neville.[4]

    Richard married Anne Stafford, Baroness of Latimer 0___ 1490, Grafton Manor, Bromsgrove, Worcester, England. Anne (daughter of Humphrey Stafford, III and Katherine Fray) was born Abt 1471, Grafton Manor, Bromsgrove, Worcester, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 9.  Anne Stafford, Baroness of Latimer was born Abt 1471, Grafton Manor, Bromsgrove, Worcester, England (daughter of Humphrey Stafford, III and Katherine Fray).
    Children:
    1. 4. John Neville, 3rd Baron Latimer was born 17 Nov 1493, (Snape, North Yorkshire, England); died 2 Mar 1543.

  3. 10.  George de Vere, Knight was born 0___ 1443, Essex, England (son of John de Vere and Elizabeth Howard); died 3 Apr 1503, (Essex) England.

    Other Events:

    • Will: 21 Aug 1500

    Notes:

    Sir George de Vere formerly De Vere
    Born 1443 in Essex,England
    ANCESTORS ancestors
    Son of John de Vere and Elizabeth Howard
    Brother of Joan (de Vere) Norris and John de Vere
    Husband of Margaret (Stafford) de Vere — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
    DESCENDANTS descendants
    Father of Elizabeth (De Vere) Wingfield, Dorothy (De Vere) Neville, John de Vere and Ursula (Vere) Knightley
    Died about 3 Apr 1503 in England

    Biography

    Birth

    Born: About 1443.
    Age 16 in 1459.
    Death

    Died: Between 21 August 1500 and 3 April 1503.
    Dates his will was made and proved.
    Marriage and Children

    m.1 Margaret Talbot
    m.2 Margaret Stafford.
    Issue:

    George de Vere. Died without issue in 1498.
    John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford[1]
    Ursula de Vere. Co-heir to her brother in 1526.
    Elizabeth de Vere. Co-heir to her brother in 1526.
    Dorothy de Vere. Co-heir to her brother in 1526. She died 7 February 1526/7.
    Occupation

    Chief Steward of St. Osyth's Priory, Essex[2]
    Sources

    ? Wikipedia: John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford
    ? The Descendants of King Edward I, King of England, and Eleanora of Castile: http://goose.ycp.edu/~tgibson/RoyalAncestors/Edward.html

    end of biography

    George — Margaret Stafford. Margaret (daughter of William Stafford and unnamed spouse) was born (Herefordshire) England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 11.  Margaret Stafford was born (Herefordshire) England (daughter of William Stafford and unnamed spouse).
    Children:
    1. 5. Dorothy de Vere was born England; died 7 Feb 1527, England; was buried Well, North Yorkshire, England.
    2. John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford was born 14 Aug 1499, Essex, England; died 14 Jul 1526, Essex, England.

  5. 12.  Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worchester

    Charles — Elizabeth Herbert, 3rd Baroness Herbert. Elizabeth (daughter of William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke and Mary Woodville, Countess of Pembroke) was born ~ 1476; died 27 Aug 1507; was buried St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 13.  Elizabeth Herbert, 3rd Baroness Herbert was born ~ 1476 (daughter of William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke and Mary Woodville, Countess of Pembroke); died 27 Aug 1507; was buried St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England.

    Notes:

    Elizabeth Herbert, 3rd Baroness Herbert (c. 1476 – 27 August 1507) was the sole heir and daughter of William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, and his first wife, Mary Woodville.

    Her father died in 1490, and she inherited extensive lands in Wales. As her father had no sons, she succeeded to his barony, but could not succeed to the earldom, which was restricted to the male line. She was made a ward of King Henry VII of England, and married Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester on 2 June 1492. Their only son, Henry, was born in around 1496. In 1504, Somerset was created Baron Herbert.

    Elizabeth died on 27 August 1507, and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. The following month, further estates, including the lease of Caldicot Castle, devolved on Elizabeth's husband on the death of her uncle, Sir Walter Herbert. The addition of Herbert's estate made Somerset the most powerful landowner in South Wales. He had married for a second time by 1511, and was made Earl of Worcester in 1514.

    Born c. 1476
    Died 27 August 1507
    Spouse(s) Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester
    Issue
    Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester
    Elizabeth Somerset
    Father William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
    Mother Mary Woodville

    Children:
    1. 6. Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester was born ~ 1496, (England); died 26 Nov 1549, (England).
    2. Elizabeth Somerset

  7. 14.  Anthony Browne, Knight was born 29 Jun 1443, Betchworth Castle, Brockham, Surrey, England; died 17 Nov 1506, Calais, France.

    Notes:

    Sir Anthony Browne (29 June 1443[1] – c. 17 November 1506) was the son of Sir Thomas Browne and Eleanor FitzAlan. He served as standard-bearer to Henry VII, and Lieutenant of Calais.

    Anthony Browne, born at Betchworth Castle,[1] was a younger son of Sir Thomas Browne and Eleanor Arundel, daughter of Sir Thomas Arundel, third son of John de Arundel, 2nd Baron Arundel (d. 14 August 1390), and Elizabeth le Despenser (d. 10 or 11 April 1408). He was a younger brother of Sir George Browne.[2][3]

    During the reign of Henry VII, he was Standard Bearer of England,[4] Governor of Queenborough Castle, and Constable of Calais.

    He died at Calais.

    Wife's political activity

    His second wife, Lucy, was an unswerving supporter of the House of York and in the reign of Henry VII was noted as one who "loves not the King" and was actively promoting the rival claim of her cousin Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk.[5] This, combined with her husband's possession of a crucial fortress, was a constant worry to supporters of Henry VII: John Flamanck's report of a secret conversation between several officials in Calais in 1504, on the likely sequel if the King should die, referred to the risk that she would seize Calais and hold it in Suffolk's name.[6] The heavy fine imposed on her in 1507, although the pretext was her late husband's neglect of duty, was very likely a warning by the Crown not to meddle in politics.[7] She appears to have heeded the warning and lived peacefully until 1534.

    Marriages and issue[

    Sir Anthony Browne married firstly Eleanor Ughtred, daughter of Sir Robert Ughtred (c.1428-c.1487)[8][9] of Kexby, North Yorkshire, and Katherine Eure, daughter of Sir William Eure, by whom he had an only daughter, Anne Browne, who married Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk.[10][9]

    He married secondly Lucy Neville, widow of Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam of Aldwark, North Yorkshire, Yorkshire, and daughter of John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu, and Isabel Ingaldesthorpe, by whom he had two sons and two daughters:[11][4]

    Sir Anthony Browne (1500-1548); a courtier to Henry VIII.
    Henry Browne.
    Elizabeth Browne, Countess of Worcester, who married, as his second wife, Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester.[12] She was the principal witness against Anne Boleyn, and there were rumours that she had been a mistress of Henry VIII.[13]
    Lucy Browne, who married firstly John Cutts, and secondly Thomas Clifford.

    Anthony married Lucy Neville Aft 1497, (England). Lucy (daughter of John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu and Isabel Ingoldesthorpe) was born 0___ 1468, (Yorkshire) England; died 25 Mar 1534, (England). [Group Sheet]


  8. 15.  Lucy Neville was born 0___ 1468, (Yorkshire) England (daughter of John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu and Isabel Ingoldesthorpe); died 25 Mar 1534, (England).

    Notes:

    Lucy Neville was the daughter of John Neville, marquess Montagu (1428-April 14, 1471) and Isabel Ingoldsthorpe (d. May 20, 1476). In about 1473,

    She married Sir Thomas FitzWilliam of Aldwark, West Riding, Yorkshire (1448-May 29, 1495) and had Thomas (c.1474-September 9, 1513), Richard, Anthony, John, (c.1488-September 9, 1513), William (c.1490-October 15, 1542), Elizabeth, Edmund, and Margaret.

    In 1483, she was coheiress to her brother, George Neville. Her second husband, married after April 27, 1497, was Sir Anthony Browne (1443-November 1506), by whom she had Sir Anthony (1500-1548), Lucy (1501-November 26, 1557), William (1503-1542), Henry (b.1506), and Elizabeth (d.1565).

    The date of Lucy’s first husband's death makes it impossible for her to have been the mother of Sir Anthony’s daughter, Anne Browne (d.1510), maid of honor to Elizabeth of York and wife of Charles Brandon.

    She may be the "Lady Lucy" to whom a messenger was sent from court in June 1509. She is almost certainly the "Dame Lucy" whose lands provided collateral for a royal loan of ¹200 to her son William in February 1513. She was a legatee in the 1514 will of her sister, Elizabeth Neville, Lady Scrope. In 1530, she was granted the dissolved abbey of Bayham and priory of Calceto and their manors in exchange for her 1/5 share of a annuity of fifty marks. she died at Bagshot, Surrey. In her will, written on August 20, 1531 and proved June 30, 1534, she asks to be buried at Bisham Abbey with her father. Portrait: effigy on FitzWilliam tomb, Tickhill, Yorkshire.

    Children:
    1. 7. Elizabeth Browne, Countess of Worcester was born 0___ 1502, Bechworth, Surrey, England; died 0___ 1565, (England); was buried Chepstow, Monmouthshire, Wales.


Generation: 5

  1. 16.  Henry Neville, of Latimer was born Abt 1437, Thorpe Latimer, Lincoln, England (son of George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer and Elizabeth Beauchamp, Baroness Latimer of Snape); died 26 Jul 1469, Edgecote, Banbury, Oxford, England; was buried Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England.

    Notes:

    Died:
    on the Battlefield...

    Henry — Joan Bourchier. Joan (daughter of John Bourchier, Knight, 1st Baron Berners and Margery Berners) was born Abt 1442, Essex, England; died 7 Oct 1470; was buried Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 17.  Joan Bourchier was born Abt 1442, Essex, England (daughter of John Bourchier, Knight, 1st Baron Berners and Margery Berners); died 7 Oct 1470; was buried Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England.
    Children:
    1. 8. Richard Neville, 2nd Lord Latimer was born Abt 1466, Thorpe Latimer, Lincoln, England; died 0Dec 1530, Snape Castle, Snape, North Yorkshire, England; was buried Well, North Riding, Yorkshire, England.

  3. 18.  Humphrey Stafford, III was born Grafton, Worcestershire, England; died (Grafton Manor, Bromsgrove, Worcester) England.

    Humphrey married Katherine Fray (England). Katherine (daughter of John Fray and Agnes Danvers) was born (England); died 12 May 1482, (England). [Group Sheet]


  4. 19.  Katherine Fray was born (England) (daughter of John Fray and Agnes Danvers); died 12 May 1482, (England).
    Children:
    1. 9. Anne Stafford, Baroness of Latimer was born Abt 1471, Grafton Manor, Bromsgrove, Worcester, England.

  5. 20.  John de Vere was born 23 Apr 1408, Hedingham Castle, Essex, England (son of Richard de Vere, Knight, 11th Earl of Oxford and Alice Sergeaux, Countess of Oxfor); died 26 Feb 1460, Tower Hill, London, England.

    Notes:

    John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford (23 April 1408 – 26 February 1462), was the son of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford (1385?–15 February 1417), and his second wife, Alice Sergeaux (1386–1452).[1] A Lancastrian loyalist during the latter part of his life, he was convicted of high treason and beheaded on Tower Hill on 26 February 1462.

    Earl of Oxford, was executed
    Born 23 April 1408
    Castle Hedingham, Essex
    Died 26 February 1462 (aged 53)
    Tower Hill, London
    Noble family De Vere
    Spouse(s) Elizabeth Howard
    Issue
    Sir Aubrey Vere
    John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford
    Sir George Vere
    Sir Richard Vere
    Thomas Vere
    Isabel Vere
    Joan Vere
    Mary Vere
    Father Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford
    Mother Alice Sergeaux

    Life

    John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, born 23 April 1408[2] at Hedingham Castle, was the elder son of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford, and his second wife, Alice, the widow of Guy de St Aubyn, and daughter of Sir Richard Sergeaux of Colquite, Cornwall by his second wife, Philippe (d. 18 May 1452), the daughter and co-heiress of Sir Edmund de Arundel. Through their second son, Sir Robert Vere, the 11th Earl and his wife, Philippe, were the great-grandparents of John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford.[3]

    The 12th Earl inherited his title as a minor at his father's death on 15 February 1417. Custody of his person and lands was granted firstly to the Duke of Exeter until his death in 1426, and later to the Duke of Bedford. In 1425, while still underage, Oxford married the heiress Elizabeth Howard (c.1410–1473/4), the daughter of Sir John Howard, 7th Lord Plaiz (c.1385/6–1409), a brother of Sir Robert Howard, father of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk. After the death of her grandfather, Sir John Howard of Wiggenhall (c. 1366 – 17 November 1436), Elizabeth inherited lands in Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex and Cambridgeshire.[4] Although Oxford claimed the marriage had been contracted on Exeter's advice, it had not been authorized by licence from the King, and Oxford was fined ¹2000. According to Castor, Oxford had difficulty making payment of this large fine since 'the earldom of Oxford was among the poorest of the comital titles', with Oxford stating in 1437 that his lands were worth only ¹500 per year.[5]

    Oxford was knighted at Leicester on 26 May 1426, together with 34 others including his brother, Robert, and the four-year-old King Henry VI. On 4 July 1429 he was granted livery of his lands. In 1431 he was appointed to the Privy Council. During the 1430s and 1440s Oxford was involved in local politics in East Anglia, being appointed to various commissions in Essex and serving as a Justice of the Peace in Suffolk and Cambridgeshire. In February 1435 he was licensed to travel to the Holy Land, although there is no evidence that he actually did so.[6]

    In July 1436 Oxford mustered his retainers at Sandwich, Kent for an expedition to relieve the Siege of Calais by the Duke of Burgundy. On 23 July 1437 he was summoned to attend the funeral of Queen Joan at Canterbury. In June 1439, with Cardinal Henry Beaufort and other envoys, he was appointed a commissioner to treat of peace with France. On 16 May 1441 he sailed from Portsmouth to France with Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, who had been appointed Lieutenant-General and Governor of France and Normandy. In June 1450 Oxford was among the noblemen appointed to act against Jack Cade's Kentish rebels.[7]

    In the late 1440s Oxford extended his political influence in East Anglia to Norfolk. He was regularly appointed a Justice of the Peace there, and in 1450, after the fall from power of William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, Oxford, together with John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, and Sir John Fastolf, challenged the influence of Suffolk's supporters in that county. By the spring of 1451, however, Suffolk's associates had regrouped under the leadership of Thomas, Lord Scales and the widowed Duchess of Suffolk, and by 1452 leading members of Suffolk's affinity such as Sir Thomas Tuddenham and John Heydon were again being appointed to office.[8]

    As national politics became increasingly divided during the 1450s, Oxford did not immediately take sides, although he was a member of the Council while the Duke of York was Lord Protector in 1453–54 during Henry VI's period of mental breakdown,[9] and on 28 May 1454, together with 6 other peers and his brother, Sir Robert Vere, undertook to keep the seas for three years.[10] In May 1455 he and the Duke of Norfolk both arrived a day too late to take part in the Battle of St Albans. It was not until 1459 that Oxford committed himself to Margaret of Anjou against the Duke of York. In December of that year and in April 1460 he was appointed to lead anti-Yorkist commissions of array in Essex, and by May 1460 his eldest son, Sir Aubrey Vere, who had recently married Anne, the daughter of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, was reported to be ‘great with the Queen’.[11]


    Site of the scaffold on Tower Hill
    After the Yorkist victory at the Battle of Northampton in July 1460, Oxford appears to have suffered from ill health. In November of that year he was exempted, ‘in consideration of his infirmities’, from appearing in person before the King or in Council or Parliament.[12] If he was feigning illness in order to maintain a low profile in the face of the new Yorkist regime under King Edward IV, the ploy was unsuccessful. In February 1462 Oxford was arrested, together with his son Aubrey and Sir Thomas Tuddenham, his former opponent in Norfolk and now a fellow Lancastrian loyalist, and convicted of high treason before the Constable of England, John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester. On 26 February 1462 Oxford at on Tower Hill he was reputedly tightly bound, had his stomach cut open and his entrails cast into a fire. He was then castrated and thrown, still living into the fire. Then he was buried in the church of the Austin Friars, London. His eldest son, Aubrey, had been executed six days earlier, and Oxford was therefore succeeded by his second son, John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford.

    Marriage and issue

    Oxford married, between 22 May and 31 August 1425, Elizabeth Howard (c.1410–1475), the only child and heiress of Sir John Howard, 7th Lord Plaiz (c.1385/6 – c.1409), and his wife Joan Walton, the daughter of John Walton of Wivenhoe, Essex and Margery Sutton,[13] by whom he had five sons and three daughters:[14][15]

    Sir Aubrey Vere,[16] who married Anne Stafford, daughter of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham
    John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford.[16]
    Sir George Vere, who married Margaret Stafford, daughter and heiress of Sir William Stafford of Bishop's Frome, Herefordshire, by whom he had two sons, George Vere and John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford, and four daughters, Elizabeth, who married Sir Anthony Wingfield of Letheringham, Suffolk; Margaret; Dorothy, who married John Neville, 3rd Baron Latimer; and Ursula, who married firstly George Windsor (d.1520), eldest son and heir of Andrew Windsor, 1st Baron Windsor, who predeceased his father, and secondly Sir Edmund Knightley.[17]
    Sir Richard Vere, who married Margaret, daughter of Sir Henry Percy and widow of Henry, 3rd Baron Grey of Codnor.[16]
    Sir Thomas Vere.[16]
    Mary Vere, a nun at Barking Abbey.[15][16]
    Joan (or Jane) Vere, who married Sir William Norreys, [18][16] and was the maternal grandmother of Gertrude Tyrell.[citation needed]
    Elizabeth Vere, who married William Bourchier.[19][16]

    end of biography

    Confirmed executions at the Tower of London.

    Name Date Place Method Crime
    Sir Simon Burley 05/05/1388 Tower Hill Beheading Supporting the King's struggle for absolute power
    Sir John Beachamp 12/05/1388 Tower Hill Beheading Supporting the King's struggle for absolute power
    Sir John Berners 12/05/1388 Tower Hill Beheading Supporting the King's struggle for absolute power
    Sir John Salisbury 12/05/1388 Tower Hill or Tyburn Hanging Supporting the King's struggle for absolute power
    Richard Fitzalan Earl of Arundel 21/09/1397 Tower Hill Beheading Serving on a commission against the King's favourites
    Richard Wyche 16/06/1440 Tower Hill Burned at the stake Converting to Lollardism
    Lord Aubrey de Vere 20/02/1462 Tower Hill Beheading Corresponding with a Lancastrian conspiracy
    John Montgomery 23/02/1462 Tower Hill Beheading Corresponding with a Lancastrian conspiracy
    Sir William Tyrrel 23/02/1462 Tower Hill Beheading Corresponding with a Lancastrian conspiracy
    Sir Thomas Tudenham 23/02/1462 Tower Hill Beheading Corresponding with a Lancastrian conspiracy
    John de Vere 12th Earl of Oxford (father) 26/02/1462 Tower Hill see end notes Corresponding with a Lancastrian conspiracy
    John Tiptoft, 4th Earl of Worcester 18/10/1470 Tower Hill Beheading Extreme cruelty
    John Goose 1475 Tower Hill Burned at the stake Lollardism
    Baron William Hastings 13/06/1483 near Tower Chapel Beheading Supporting King Edward V in the Council Chamber
    Sir George Browne 04/12/1483 Tower Hill Beheading Supporting a proposed invasion by Henry Tudor
    John Smith 26/02/1484 Tower Hill Beheading Treason
    Stephen Ireland " " " "
    Robert Ruffe " " " "
    William Davey " " " "
    Sir Roger Clifford 1484 Tower Hill Beheading Favouring the cause of Henry Tudor
    William Collingbourne 12/1484 Tower Hill Hanged, drawn and quartered Favouring the cause of Henry Tudor
    John Ashley 1488/89 Tower Hill Beheading Treasonous involvement with Lambert Simnel's pretendership
    Unnamed man 1488/89 " " "
    Unnamed man 1488/89 " " "
    Sir Robert Chamberlain 12/03/1491 Tower Hill Beheading Plotting against Henry VII
    William Daubeny 03/02/1495 Tower Hill Beheading Supporting pretender Perkin Warbeck
    Sir William Stanley 16/02/1495 Tower Hill Beheading Suggested supporting pretender Perkin Warbeck
    Captain John Belt 07/09/1495 Tower Hill Beheading Supporting pretender Perkin Warbeck
    James Touchet (or Tuchet) Lord Audley 27/06/1497 Tower Hill Beheading Led protest against taxation. Beheaded wearing a paper suit of armour
    Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Warwick 28/11/1499 Tower Hill Beheading Treason
    Sir James Tyrrel 06/05/1502 Tower Hill Beheading Assisting Edmund de la Pole after his escape and offering to
    Sir John Wyndham " " " surrendered Guisnes Castle to the French
    Edmund Dudley 17/08/1510 Tower Hill Beheading Extortion
    Sir Richard Empson or Emson " " " "
    Edmund de la Pole 8th Earl of Suffolk 04/05/1513 Tower Hill Beheading Yorkist claimant to the throne
    Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham 17/05/1521 Tower Hill Beheading Claiming lineage from Edward III's firth son
    Sir Rhys ap Gryffydd 04/12/1531 Tower Hill Beheading Partiality, injustice and plotting an alliance with Scotland
    5 unnamed persons 15/06/1532 Tower Hill Hanged, drawn and quartered High treason -coining
    John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester 22/06/1535 Tower Hill Beheading Refused to take the Oath of Supremacy
    Sir Thomas Moore 06/07/1535 Tower Hill Beheading Refused to take the Oath of Supremacy
    George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford 17/05/1536 Tower Hill Beheading Incest and adultery with his sister Anne Boleyn
    Henry Norris 17/05/1536 Tower Hill Beheading Adulterous association with Anne Boleyn
    Sir Frances Weston " " " "
    William Brereton " " " "
    Mark Smeaton " " " "
    Queen Anne Boleyn 19/05/1536 Tower Green Beheading with sword Treason - incest and adultery
    Lord Thomas Darcy of Templehurst 30/06/1537 Tower Hill Beheading Treasonable correspondence with Robert Aske re Pilgrimage of Grace
    Sir Edward Neville 09/12/1538 Tower Hill Beheading Catholicism
    Sir Henry Pole Baron Montague 09/01/1539 Tower Hill Beheading Preaching Catholic sermons
    Henry Courtenay, Marquis of Exeter 09/01/1539 Tower Hill Beheading High treason - aspiring to the throne
    Sir Nicholas Carew 03/03/1539 Tower Hill Beheading Catholicism
    Sir Thomas Dingley ??/07/1539 Tower Hill Beheading Implicated in the Pilgrimage of Grace. Executed 9 or 10 July
    Sir Adrian Fortescue ??/07/1539 Tower Hill Beheading Sedition
    Thomas Cromwell, 17th Earl of Essex 28/06/1540 Tower Hill Beheading Treason by betraying the King's secrets.
    Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury 28/05/1541 Tower Green Beheading Implicated in the Pilgrimage of Grace
    Lord Leonard Grey, Viscount Grane 28/06/1541 Tower Hill Beheading High treason in Ireland
    Queen Katherine Howard 13/02/1542 Tower Green Beheading Treason - adultery
    Jane Boleyn, Viscountess Rochford 13/02/1542 Tower Green Beheading Treason - concealing the Queen's adultery
    Henry Howard, 15th Earl of Surrey 19/01/1547 Tower Hill Beheading High treason - aspiring to the throne
    Baron Thomas Seymour 20/03/1549 Tower Hill Beheading High treason - aspiring to the throne
    Edward Seymour, 9th Earl of Hertford 22/01/1552 Tower Hill Beheading Plotting to murder John Dudley
    Sir Miles Partridge 26/02/1552 Tower Hill Hanging Plotting against John Dudley Protector of Northumberland
    Sir Ralph Vane (Vayne or Fane) 26/02/1552 Tower Hill Hanging Treason against King and Council
    Sir Thomas Arundel 26/02/1552 Tower Hill Beheading Implicated in the Seymour treason
    John Dudley, 16th Earl of Northumberland 22/08/1553 Tower Hill Beheading Treason-proclaiming his daughter in law Lady Jane Grey as Queen
    Sir Thomas Palmer 22/08/1553 Tower Hill Beheading Treason-supporting Lady Jane Grey
    Lord Guildford Dudley 12/02/1554 Tower Hill Beheading Treason - assuming Royal authority
    Lady Jane Grey (Dudley) 12/02/1554 Tower Green Beheading Usurping the English throne
    Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk 24/02/1554 Tower Hill Beheading Treason - rebellion
    Sir Thomas Wyatt 11/04/1554 Tower Hill Beheading & quartering Treason - rebellion
    Lord Thomas Grey 27/04/1554 Tower Hill Beheading Treason - rebellion
    Henry Peckham & 07/07/1556 Tower Hill Hanging Plotted to rob the Exchequer
    John Daniel (or Daniell) " " " "
    Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk 02/06/1573 Tower Hill Beheading Treason - Ridolfi Plot
    Five unruly youths (unnamed) 24/07/1595 Tower Hill Hanged & bowelled Causing a disturbance on Tower Hill
    Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex 25/02/1601 Broad Walk in the Tower Beheading High treason
    Sir Christopher Blount 18/03/1601 Tower Hill Beheading Treason - conspiring against the Queen
    Sir Gervais Helwys 20/11/1615 Tower Hill Hanging Complicity in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury
    Mervin Touchet, Lord Audley 14/05/1631 Tower Hill Beheading Abetting one of his servants to rape Lady Audley
    Sir Thomas Wentworth Earl of Stafford 12/05/1641 Tower Hill Beheading High treason - supporting King Charles I
    Sir Alexander Carew 23/12/1644 Tower Hill Beheading Offering to surrender Plymouth to King Charles I
    Sir John Hotham 01/01/1645 Tower Hill Beheading Scandalous words against Parliament
    John Hotham (son of above) 01/01/1645 Tower Hill Beheading High treason - supporting King Charles I
    William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury 10/01/1645 Tower Hill Beheading High treason - supporting King Charles I
    Colonel Eusebius Andrews 22/04/1650 Tower Hill Beheading Involvement in bogus plot against the army
    Bown Bushell 29/03/1651 Tower Hill Beheading Offering to betray Scarborough Castle to King Charles I
    Christopher Love 22/08/1651 Tower Hill Beheading Plotting against the Commonwealth
    ??? Gibbon(s) 22/08/1651 " " "
    John Gerrard 10/07/1654 Tower Hill Beheading Plotting against the Protector
    Don de Pantaleon SA 19/07/1654 Tower Hill Beheading Accused of murder
    Sir Henry Slingsby 08/06/1658 Tower Hill Beheading Treason trying to raise an army for the King
    John Hewitt or Hewett " " " "
    Sir Henry Vane 14/06/1662 Tower Hill Beheading Treason
    William Howard, Viscount Stafford 29/12/1680 Tower Hill Beheading Treason - paymaster to a secret Catholic army planning to kill Charles II
    Algernon Sidney or Sydney 07/12/1683 Tower Hill Beheading Complicity in Popish Plot
    James Scott, Duke of Monmouth 15/05/1685 Tower Hill Beheading Monmouth Rebellion
    Richard Cane (a soldier) 15/04/1687 Tower Hill Hanging Desertion
    Sir William Parkyns or Perkins 13/04/1696 Tower Hill Beheading Plotting to assassinate William III
    Sir John Fenwick 28/01/1697 Tower Hill Beheading Privy to plot to assassinate William III
    Michael Van Bergen 19/07/1700 East Smithfield Hanging Murder of Mr. Oliver Norris
    Katherine Truerniet (also Bergen) " " " " This place is also referred to as Little Tower Hill
    Gerhardt Dromelius " " " "
    Sir James Radcliffe, Earl of Derwentwater 24/02/1716 Tower Hill Beheading High treason - Jacobite Rising
    William Gordon, Viscount Kenmure " " " "
    Corporal Samuel Macpherson 18/07/1743 S E wall of chapel Firing squad Desertion (Shot by 3rd Regiment of Guards)
    Corporal Malcolm Macpherson " " " "
    Private Farquhar Shaw 18/07/1743 " " "
    General William Boyd, Earl of Kilmarnock 18/08/1746 Tower Hill Beheading High treason - Colonel of the Jacobite Horse Grenadiers
    Arthur Elphinstone, Baron Balmerino 18/08/1746 Tower Hill Beheading High treason - Colonel of the 2nd troop of Jacobite Horse Guards
    Charles Radcliffe, Earl of Derwentwater 08/12/1746 Tower Hill Beheading High treason - supporting Prince Charles Edward
    Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat 09/04/1747 Tower Hill Beheading High treason - Jacobite
    William McDonald 11/07/1780 Tower Hill Hanging Gordon rioters
    Charlotte Gardiner " " " "
    Mary Roberts " " " "
    Total confirmed executions to 1388 - 1780 122
    Beheaded 93
    Hanged 12
    Firing squad 3
    Burned at the stake 2
    Hanged drawn & quartered 11
    Plus John de Vere who was reputedly tightly bound, had his stomach cut open and his entrails cast into a fire. He was then castrated and thrown, still living into the fire.
    20th century executions at the Tower of London. (11 in total)
    Carl Hans Lody 06/11/1914 East Casements rifle range Firing squad Spying, executed at 6.00 am
    Karl Friedrich Muller 23/06/1915 Tower rifle range Firing squad Spying
    Haike Marinus Petrus Jansson 30/07/1915 Tower Ditch Firing squad Spying, executed at 6.00 am
    Wilhelm J Roos 30/07/1915 Tower Ditch Firing squad Spying, executed at 6.10 am
    Ernst Waldemar Melin 10/09/1915 Tower rifle range Firing squad Spying
    Fernando Buschman 19/10/1915 Tower rifle range Firing squad Spying
    George Traugott Breekow 26/10/1915 Tower rifle range Firing squad Spying
    Irvin Guy Ries 27/10/1915 Tower rifle range Firing squad Spying
    Albert Meyer 02/12/1915 Tower rifle range Firing squad Spying
    Ludovico Zendery Hurwitz 11/04/1916 Tower rifle range Firing squad Spying
    Josef Jacobs 15/08/1941 East Casements rifle range Firing squad Spying

    Note. Prisoners held in the Tower of London were also executed at other sites, e.g. at Smithfield, then known as West Smithfield, by burning at the stake and probably by hanging.

    In some early cases the place of execution is not stated or cannot be confirmed. At least in the case of Earl Ferrers in 1760 he was imprisoned in the Tower but hanged at Tyburn.

    end of list

    Died:
    John de Vere who was reputedly tightly bound, had his stomach cut open and his entrails cast into a fire. He was then castrated and thrown, still living into the fire.

    Source, http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/tower.html, comment provided by Dawn Cline , February 6th, 2018

    John married Elizabeth Howard MID-SUMMER 1425. Elizabeth was born ~ 1410; died 25 Dec 1475, Wiggonholt, Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 21.  Elizabeth Howard was born ~ 1410; died 25 Dec 1475, Wiggonholt, Sussex, England.
    Children:
    1. 10. George de Vere, Knight was born 0___ 1443, Essex, England; died 3 Apr 1503, (Essex) England.

  7. 22.  William Stafford

    William — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  8. 23.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 11. Margaret Stafford was born (Herefordshire) England.

  9. 26.  William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke was born 5 Mar 1451 (son of William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Anne Devereux); died 0___ 1490.

    William married Mary Woodville, Countess of Pembroke 0Jan 1467, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. Mary (daughter of Richard Woodville, Knight, 1st Earl Rivers and Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Countess Rivers) was born ~ 1456; died 0___ 1481. [Group Sheet]


  10. 27.  Mary Woodville, Countess of Pembroke was born ~ 1456 (daughter of Richard Woodville, Knight, 1st Earl Rivers and Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Countess Rivers); died 0___ 1481.

    Notes:

    Mary Woodville, Countess of Pembroke (c. 1456–1481) was a sister of Edward IV's Queen consort, Elizabeth Woodville, and of Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers. She later became the first wife of William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, by whom she had one daughter.

    Countess of Pembroke
    Born 1456
    Died 1481 (aged 24-25)
    Spouse(s) William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
    Issue
    Elizabeth Herbert, 3rd Baroness Herbert
    Father Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers
    Mother Jacquetta of Luxembourg

    Biography

    She was born in about 1456 to Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers and his wife, Jacquetta of Luxembourg. After King Edward IV's public recognition of Elizabeth Woodville as his wife, the new queen sought to raise her family's standing by arranging a series of advantageous marriages for her five brothers and seven unwed sisters. In September 1466, Mary was betrothed to William Herbert, the eldest son and heir of the first Earl of Pembroke. Lord Herbert had been Henry VII's guardian. The young William was recognized as Lord Dunster in view of his approaching marriage (a grant of the lordship of Dunster and all the possessions of its attainted lord, James Luttrell, in Somerset, Devon and Suffolk, had been secured by his father in June 1463).

    In January 1467, Mary Woodville was married to Lord Dunster at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle "amid profuse magnificence."[citation needed] The bride was about ten or eleven years old; her groom, aged fifteen.

    Two years later, Lord Dunster's father, the first Earl of Pembroke, was executed on the orders of Richard Neville, the Earl of Warwick. Nothing seems to have aggravated Warwick more than the marriage of the Lady Mary, the Queen's sister, to Herbert's eldest son. Dunster became the second Earl of Pembroke following the death of his father in 1469 and henceforth Mary was styled Countess of Pembroke.

    Pembroke proved rather ineffectual in governing South Wales. Mary's death in 1481 considerably weakened her husband's links with the Prince of Wales's associates, and he was forced to give up the earldom of Pembroke for that of Huntingdon, and a less valuable endowment in Somerset and Dorset. In 1484, he took as his second wife, Katherine Plantagenet, the illegitimate daughter of King Richard III; however, this marriage failed to produce offspring.

    Ultimately, Herbert only had one child, a daughter by his first marriage, Elizabeth Herbert, 3rd Baroness Herbert, who later married Charles Somerset, later Earl of Worcester. Elizabeth was of great importance to the Somerset family, as she brought to them wealth and a legitimate relationship to royalty.[citation needed] The barony of Herbert was created by patent in favour of her husband, although during her lifetime she held the barony of Herbert in her own right.

    Children:
    1. 13. Elizabeth Herbert, 3rd Baroness Herbert was born ~ 1476; died 27 Aug 1507; was buried St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England.

  11. 30.  John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu was born ~ 1431, Middleham Castle, Wensleydale, North Yorkshire, England (son of Richard Neville, I, Knight, 5th Earl of Salisbury and Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury); died 14 Apr 1471, Battle of Barnet.

    Other Events:

    • Military: Knight of the Garter

    John married Isabel Ingoldesthorpe (Yorkshire) England. Isabel was born ~ 1441, (Yorkshire) England; died 20 May 1476, (Yorkshire) England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 31.  Isabel Ingoldesthorpe was born ~ 1441, (Yorkshire) England; died 20 May 1476, (Yorkshire) England.
    Children:
    1. 15. Lucy Neville was born 0___ 1468, (Yorkshire) England; died 25 Mar 1534, (England).


Generation: 6

  1. 32.  George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer was born 1407-1414, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England (son of Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland and Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland); died 30 Dec 1469; was buried 31 Dec 1469.

    Notes:

    George, summoned to parliament as Baron Latimer, 1432-69, his father having transferred to him that barony which he had bought from his childless half-brother John, who inherited it from his mother [see under Neville, John, d. 1388)]. George Neville's male descendants held the barony of Latimer till 1577, when it fell into abeyance [see Neville, John, third Baron Latimer].

    George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer or (Latymer) (c. 1407 – 30 December 1469) was an English peer.

    George Neville was the fifth son of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, by his second wife Lady Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster. He succeeded to the Latymer estates on the death of his half-uncle John Neville, 6th Baron Latimer, in 1430 (see Baron Latimer), and on 25 February 1432 he was summoned to Parliament as Baron Latimer.[1]

    Lord Latimer later fought in Scotland in 1436,[1] was a Justice of the Peace for Cumberland in 1437 and admitted to the Privy Council in 1439.

    In 1437, Lord Latimer married Lady Elizabeth (1417-1480), daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, by his first wife, Elizabeth Berkeley.[1] They had four children:

    Katherine Neville, who died childless.
    Sir Henry Neville (d. 26 July 1469), who married Joan Bourchier, daughter of John Bourchier, 1st Baron Berners, and Marjorie Berners, and had:
    Joan Neville, born ca 1464, Latimer, Buckinghamshire, England; she married Sir James Ratclyffe.[2]
    Richard Neville, 2nd Baron Latimer (Latimer, Buckinghamshire / Sinnington, North Riding of Yorkshire, ca. 1468 – Snape, North Yorkshire, December 1530, bur. Well, North Yorkshire), married in Grafton, Worcestershire, in 1490 to Anne Stafford (Grafton, Worcestershire, ca. 1471 – aft. 1513, bur. Well, North Yorkshire), daughter of Sir Humphrey Stafford of Grafton (Grafton, Worcestershire, ca. 1427 – executed by order of King Henry VII for siding with Richard III, Tyburn, 8 July 1486) and Catherine Fray (1437–1482), and had issue which included John Nevill, 3rd Baron Latimer.[3]
    Thomas Neville (1468–1546) (Esq.), born in Shenstone, Staffordshire, England. He was Lord of Mathom; married Letitia Harcourt (1494–1520), daughter of Sir Robert Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt and Agnes Lymbrake and had issue.[4]
    Thomas Neville, of Shenstone, Staffordshire.[1]
    Jane Neville, who married Oliver Dudley.[citation needed]

    George Neville appears to have suffered from some form of dementia in his later years, as he was described as an "idiot," and the guardianship of his lands was given to his nephew, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the Kingmaker.[1] George Neville, Lord Latimer, died on 30 December 1469 and was succeeded in the barony by his grandson Richard, his eldest son Sir Henry Neville having predeceased him by several months, dying at the Battle of Edgecote Moor, 26 July 1469.[1]

    George married Elizabeth Beauchamp, Baroness Latimer of Snape Bef 1437. Elizabeth (daughter of Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick) was born 16 Sep 1417, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died Bef 2 Oct 1480, Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England; was buried Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 33.  Elizabeth Beauchamp, Baroness Latimer of Snape was born 16 Sep 1417, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England (daughter of Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick); died Bef 2 Oct 1480, Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England; was buried Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England.
    Children:
    1. 16. Henry Neville, of Latimer was born Abt 1437, Thorpe Latimer, Lincoln, England; died 26 Jul 1469, Edgecote, Banbury, Oxford, England; was buried Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England.

  3. 34.  John Bourchier, Knight, 1st Baron Berners was born ~ 1415, Little Eaton, Essex, England (son of William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu and Anne of Gloucester); died 0May 1474.

    Notes:

    John Bourchier, 1st Baron Berners, KG (died May 1474) was an English peer.

    Bourchier was the fourth son of William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu, and his wife Anne of Woodstock, Countess of Buckingham, daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester. Henry Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex, and William Bourchier, 9th Baron FitzWarin jure uxoris, were his elder brothers. He was knighted in 1426 and in 1455 he was summoned to the House of Lords as John Bourchier de Berners, which created the title of Baron Berners. In 1459 he was further honoured when he was made a Knight of the Garter. He also served as Constable of Windsor Castle from 1461 to 1474.

    Lord Berners married Margery, daughter of Sir Richard Berners. He died in May 1474 and was succeeded in the barony by his grandson John Bourchier, 2nd Baron Berners, his son Sir Humphrey Bourchier having been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471. Margery, Lady Berners, died in 1475. His daughter Joan Bourchier married Sir Henry Neville (d. 26 July 1469), son of George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer and Elizabeth Beauchamp, and had issue which included Richard Neville, 2nd Baron Latimer, father of John Nevill, 3rd Baron Latimer.[3]

    *

    John married Margery Berners ~ 1441. Margery (daughter of Richard Berners and unnamed spouse) died 0___ 1475. [Group Sheet]


  4. 35.  Margery Berners (daughter of Richard Berners and unnamed spouse); died 0___ 1475.
    Children:
    1. 17. Joan Bourchier was born Abt 1442, Essex, England; died 7 Oct 1470; was buried Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England.
    2. Humphrey Bourchier
    3. Elizabeth Bourchier
    4. Thomas Bourchier

  5. 38.  John Fray died 0___ 1461.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Chief Baron of the Exchequer

    John married Agnes Danvers 1473-1474, (England). Agnes (daughter of John Danvers, of Epwell & Colthorpe and Alice de Verney) was born ~1416, Epwell, Banbury, Oxfordshire, England; died 0Jun 1478, (England). [Group Sheet]


  6. 39.  Agnes Danvers was born ~1416, Epwell, Banbury, Oxfordshire, England (daughter of John Danvers, of Epwell & Colthorpe and Alice de Verney); died 0Jun 1478, (England).
    Children:
    1. 19. Katherine Fray was born (England); died 12 May 1482, (England).

  7. 40.  Richard de Vere, Knight, 11th Earl of Oxford was born 15 Aug 1385, Hedingham Castle, Essex, England (son of Aubrey de Vere, Knight, 10th Earl of Oxford and Alice FitzWalter); died 15 Feb 1417; was buried Earl's Colne, Essex, England.

    Notes:

    Last Edited=6 Sep 2010
    Consanguinity Index=0.87%

    Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford was born circa 1385. He was the son of Aubrey de Vere, 10th Earl of Oxford and Alice FitzWalter.2 He married Alice de Holand, daughter of John de Holand, 1st Duke of Exeter and Elizabeth Plantagenet.3 He married Alice Sergeaux, daughter of Sir Richard Sergeaux and Philippe FitzAlan, circa 1405.1 He died on 15 February 1417.

    He gained the title of 11th Earl of Oxford.3

    Children of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford and Alice Sergeaux

    Sir Robert de Vere+
    John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford+ b. 23 Apr 1408, d. 26 Feb 1461/62

    Citations
    [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 244. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
    [S37] BP2003 volume 1, page 1442. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
    [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 100. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.

    *

    Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford KG (15 August 1385 – 15 February 1417) was the son and heir of Aubrey de Vere, 10th Earl of Oxford. He took part in the trial of Richard, Earl of Cambridge and Lord Scrope for their part in the Southampton Plot, and was one of the commanders at Agincourt in 1415.

    Career

    Richard de Vere, born 15 August 1385, was the eldest son of Aubrey de Vere, 10th Earl of Oxford, and his wife Alice Fitzwalter, daughter of John, 3rd Baron Fitzwalter, by Eleanor Percy, daughter of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy.[1] The 10th Earl died on 23 April 1400 while Richard was underage. His wardship was initially granted to his mother, but after her death on 29 April 1401, King Henry IV granted it to his mother-in-law, Joan de Bohun, Countess of Hereford.[2] Oxford had livery of his lands on 21 December 1406 without proof of age.[3]

    From 1410 onwards Oxford was appointed as a commissioner in Essex on various occasions, and in November 1411 was a Trier of Petitions from overseas in Parliament.

    In August 1412 Oxford was among those who sailed to Normandy under Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, to aid the Armagnac party against the Burgundians. According to Pugh, the members of the nobility who accompanied the Duke of Clarence on this expedition did so in hope of financial gain, Oxford's earldom in particular having suffered from forfeitures and attainders during the lives of his predecessors which had made him 'the poorest member of the English higher nobility'.[4] Another member of the Duke of Clarence's expedition was Richard, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, and three years later, on 5 August 1415, Oxford was among the peers at the trial, presided over by the Duke of Clarence, which condemned to death Cambridge and Lord Scrope for their part in the Southampton Plot on the eve of Henry V's invasion of France.[5] A few days later Oxford sailed to France with the King, and was one of the commanders at Agincourt on 25 October 1415.[6]

    In May 1416 Oxford was invested with the Order of the Garter, and in that year sailed with the fleet to relieve Harfleur, taking part in the naval battle at the mouth of the Seine on 15 August.[7]

    Oxford died 15 February 1417, aged 31, and was buried at Earls Colne, Essex. His widow, Alice, married Sir Nicholas Thorley, of London, Bobbingworth, Essex, and Sawtres (in Thundridge), Hertfordshire, Sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire, 1431–2. He served in the contingent of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. He and his wife, Countess Alice, presented to the churches of Badlesmere, Kent, 1421, Aston Sandford, Buckinghamshire, 1422, and St. Erme, Cornwall, 1432. In October 1421 he was brought before a court consisting of the Regent, Beaufort, the Chancellor, Treasurer, Privy Seal, Justices of either Bench, and others of the Council, and acknowledged that he had married the widowed Countess of Oxford without the king’s permission. The Chancellor took into the king’s hands all of the lands of the Countess until he made a fine for their recovery, and sent him to the Tower in irons, where he remained until February 1424, when the Countess had paid a full year’s value of her lands. Alice obtained a papal indult for plenary remission in 1426. In November 1426 he and his wife, Alice, were fully pardoned for having married without royal licence. In 1436 he and John Robessart, Knt. owed 110 marks to Lawrence Downe, Gent. In 1440 he and his wife, Alice, Countess of Oxford, John Passheley, and John Marny, Esq., sued John Balle, of Chepping Norton, Oxfordshire, yeoman, in the Court of Common Pleas regarding a debt. Sir Nicholas Thorley died 5 May 1442. His widow, Alice, Countess of Oxford, died 18 May 1452, and was buried at Earls Colne, Essex.[8]

    Marriages and issue

    Oxford married twice:

    Firstly at some time before 1399, to Alice Holland, daughter of John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter by his wife Princess Elizabeth, sister of King Henry IV and daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. Without progeny.[9]
    Secondly in about 1406 or 1407 he married Alice Sergeaux (c.1386 - 18 May 1452), widow of Guy St Aubyn of St Erme, Cornwall, and daughter of Sir Richard Sergeaux of Colquite, Cornwall by his second wife, Philippe de Arundel (d. 18 May 1452), a daughter and co-heiress of Sir Edmund de Arundel,[10] the bastardized son of Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel by his first wife Isabel Despenser, which marriage was annulled in 1344.[11] By Alice Sergeaux he had three sons:
    John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, eldest son and heir.
    Sir Robert Vere (1410-1461), of Haccombe, Devon, who married (as her second husband) Joan Courtenay (d. before 3 August 1465), a daughter of Sir Hugh Courtenay (d.1425) of Haccombe in Devon (by his second wife Philippa Archdekne, heiress of Haccombe) and widow of Sir Nicholas Carew (d. before 20 April 1448) of Mohuns Ottery in Devon, of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire and of Moulesford in Berkshire. By Joan Courtenay he had one son:
    John Vere (d. before 15 March 1488), who married Alice Colbroke, and by her was father of John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford.[12]
    Sir Richard Vere, who married Margaret Percy (d. 22 September 1464), widow of Henry Grey, 6th Baron Grey of Codnor (d. 17 July 1444), and daughter and co-heiress of Sir Henry Percy 'of Atholl' of Harthill, Yorkshire, by his wife Elizabeth Bardolf, daughter of William Bardolf, 4th Baron Bardolf by his wife Agnes Poynings.[13]

    Richard married Alice Sergeaux, Countess of Oxfor (England). Alice (daughter of Richard Sergeaux, Knight and Philippa Arundel) was born ~ 1386, Colquite Manor, St Mabyn, Cornwall, England; died 18 May 1452, (England); was buried Earl's Colne, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 41.  Alice Sergeaux, Countess of Oxfor was born ~ 1386, Colquite Manor, St Mabyn, Cornwall, England (daughter of Richard Sergeaux, Knight and Philippa Arundel); died 18 May 1452, (England); was buried Earl's Colne, Essex, England.
    Children:
    1. Robert de Vere, Knight was born 0___ 1407, Oxfordshire, England.
    2. 20. John de Vere was born 23 Apr 1408, Hedingham Castle, Essex, England; died 26 Feb 1460, Tower Hill, London, England.

  9. 52.  William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke was born ~ 1423, (Wales); died 27 Jul 1469.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Black William

    Notes:

    William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke KG (c. 1423 – 27 July 1469), known as "Black William", was a Welsh nobleman, politician, and courtier. He was the son of William ap Thomas, founder of Raglan Castle, and Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam, and grandson of Dafydd Gam, an adherent of King Henry V of England.

    His father had been an ally of Richard of York, and Herbert supported the Yorkist cause in the Wars of the Roses. In 1461 Herbert was rewarded by King Edward IV with the title Baron Herbert of Raglan (having assumed an English-style surname in place of the Welsh patronymic), and was invested as a Knight of the Garter.

    Soon after the decisive Yorkist victory at the Battle of Towton in 1461, Herbert replaced Jasper Tudor [Editor's Note: view Sir Jasper's page; http://thehennesseefamily.com/getperson.php?personID=I47779&tree=hennessee, as Earl of Pembroke which gave him control of Pembroke Castle. However, he fell out with Lord Warwick "the Kingmaker" in 1469, when Warwick turned against the King. William and his brother Richard were executed by the Lancastrians, now led by Warwick, after the Battle of Edgecote Moor, near Banbury.[1]

    Herbert was succeeded by his son, William, but the earldom was surrendered in 1479. It was later revived for a grandson, another William Herbert, the son of Black William's illegitimate son, Sir Richard Herbert of Ewyas.

    Marriage and children

    He married Anne Devereux, daughter of Walter Devereux, Lord Chancellor of Ireland and Elizabeth Merbury. They had at least ten children:

    William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (5 March 1451 – 16 July 1491).
    Sir Walter Herbert. (c. 1452 - d. 16 September 1507) Married Lady Anne Stafford, sister to the Duke of Buckingham.
    Sir George Herbert of St. Julians.
    Philip Herbert of Lanyhangel.
    Cecilie Herbert.
    Maud Herbert. Married Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland.
    Katherine Herbert. Married George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent.
    Anne Herbert. Married John Grey, 1st Baron Grey of Powis, 9th Lord of Powys (died 1497).
    Isabel Herbert. Married Sir Thomas Cokesey.
    Margaret Herbert. Married first Thomas Talbot, 2nd Viscount Lisle and secondly Sir Henry Bodringham.
    William had three illegitimate sons but the identities of their mothers are unconfirmed:

    Sir Richard Herbert of Ewyas. Father of William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (10th Creation). Probably son of Maud, daughter of Adam ap Howell Graunt (Gwynn).
    Sir George Herbert. The son of Frond verch Hoesgyn. Married Sybil Croft.[2]
    Sir William Herbert of Troye. Son of Frond verch Hoesgyn. Married, second, Blanche Whitney (nâee Milborne) see Blanche Milborne. They had two sons.[3]
    See also[edit]
    The White Queen (TV series)

    William married Anne Devereux Herefordshire, England. Anne (daughter of Walter Devereux and Elizabeth Merbury) was born ~ 1430, Bodenham, England; died > 25 June 1486. [Group Sheet]


  10. 53.  Anne Devereux was born ~ 1430, Bodenham, England (daughter of Walter Devereux and Elizabeth Merbury); died > 25 June 1486.

    Notes:

    Anne Devereux (c. 1430 in Bodenham – after 25 June 1486), was the daughter of Sir Walter Devereux, the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and his wife Elizabeth Merbury.[1] Anne's grandfather, Walter, was the son of Agnes Crophull. By Crophull's second marriage to Sir John Parr, Anne was a cousin to the Parr family which included Sir Thomas Parr; father of King Henry VIII's last queen consort, Catherine Parr.[2][3][4]

    Marriage

    About 1445, Anne married William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke, in Herefordshire, England. He was the second son of Sir William ap Thomas of Raglan, a member of the Welsh Gentry Family, and his second wife Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam.[1]

    William Herbert was a very ambitious man. During the War of the Roses, Wales heavily supported the Lancastrian cause. Jasper Tudor, 1st Earl of Pembroke and other Lancastrians remained in control of fortresses at Pembroke, Harlech, Carreg Cennen, and Denbigh. On 8 May 1461, as a loyal supporter of King Edward IV, Herbert was appointed Life Chamberlain of South Wales and steward of Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire. King Edward's appointment signaled his intention to replace Jasper Tudor with Herbert, who thus would become the premier nobleman in Wales. Herbert was created Lord Herbert on 26 July 1461. Herbert was then ordered to seize the county and title of Earl of Pembroke from Jasper Tudor. By the end of August, Herbert had taken back control of Wales with the well fortified Pembroke Castle capitulating on 30 September 1461. With this victory for the House of York came the inmate at Pembroke; the five-year-old nephew of Jasper Tudor, Henry, Earl of Richmond. Determined to enhance his power and arrange good marriages for his daughters, in March 1462 he paid 1,000 for the wardship of Henry Tudor. Herbert planned a marriage between Tudor and his eldest daughter, Maud. At the same time, Herbert secured the young Henry Percy who had just inherited the title of Earl of Northumberland. Herbert's court at Raglan Castle was where young Henry Tudor would spend his childhood, under the supervision of Herbert's wife, Anne Devereux. Anne insured that young Henry was well cared for.[5]

    Issue

    The Earl and Countess of Pembroke had three sons and seven daughters:[1]

    Sir William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, Earl of Huntingdon,[1] married firstly to Mary Woodville; daughter of Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers and thus sister to King Edward IV's queen consort Elizabeth Woodville. He married secondly to Lady Katherine Plantagenet, the illegitimate daughter of King Richard III.[1]
    Sir Walter Herbert,[1] husband of Lady Anne Stafford
    Sir George Herbert[1]
    Lady Maud Herbert, wife of Sir Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, 7th Lord Percy.[1]
    Lady Katherine Herbert, wife of Sir George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent.[1]
    Lady Anne Herbert, wife of Sir John Grey, 1st Baron Grey of Powis.[1]
    Lady Margaret Herbert, wife of Sir Thomas Talbot, 2nd Viscount Lisle, and of Sir Walter Bodrugan.[1]
    Lady Cecily Herbert, wife of John Greystoke.[1]
    Lady Elizabeth Herbert, wife of Sir Thomas Cokesey.[1]
    Lady Crisli Herbert, wife of Mr. Cornwall.[1]
    The Earl of Pembroke also fathered several children by various mistresses.[1]

    Children:
    1. 26. William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke was born 5 Mar 1451; died 0___ 1490.
    2. Maud Herbert, Countess of Northumberland was born ~ 1453, Llnfhngl Clcrnl, Abergavenny, Monmouth, Wales; died 0___ 1485; was buried Beverley Minster, East Riding, Yorkshire, England.

  11. 54.  Richard Woodville, Knight, 1st Earl RiversRichard Woodville, Knight, 1st Earl Rivers was born 0___ 1405, Maidstone, Kent, England (son of Richard Wydeville, Duke of Bedford and Joan Bittlesgate); died 12 Aug 1469, Kenilworth, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: France
    • Also Known As: Richard Wydeville

    Notes:

    Richard Woodville (or Wydeville), 1st Earl Rivers KG (1405 - 12 August 1469) was an English nobleman, best remembered as the father of Queen consort Elizabeth Woodville and the maternal grandfather of Edward V and the maternal great-grandfather of Henry VIII.

    Life

    Born at Maidstone in Kent, he was the son of Sir Richard Wydeville (Woodville), chamberlain to the Duke of Bedford, and Joan Bittlesgate (or Bedlisgate), the daughter of Thomas Bittlesgate of Knighteston, Devon.[1][2] He was also grandson to John Wydeville who was Sheriff of Northamptonshire (in 1380, 1385, 1390).[2]

    Following the duke's death, the younger Richard married the widowed duchess, Jacquetta of Luxembourg (1416–1472). This was initially a secret marriage, for which the couple were fined when it came to public notice.

    He was a captain in 1429, served in France in 1433 and was a knight of the regent Duke of Bedford in 1435. He was at Gerberoy in 1435 and served under William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, in 1435–6. He then fought under Somerset and Shrewsbury in 1439 and the Duke of York in 1441–2, when he was made captain of Alenðcon and knight banneret. He was appointed seneschal of Gascony in 1450 (but failed to reach it before its fall), lieutenant of Calais in 1454–5, and to defend Kent against invasion by the Yorkist earls in 1459–60 (but was captured at Sandwich). He was created Baron Rivers by Henry VI on 9 May 1448. Two years later, as Sir Richard, he was invested as a Knight of the Garter in 1450. He was appointed Warden of the Cinque Ports in 1459.

    In the Wars of the Roses, he was initially a Lancastrian, but he became a Yorkist when he thought that the Lancastrian cause was lost. He reconciled himself to the victorious Edward IV, his future son-in-law. On 1 May 1464, Edward married his daughter Elizabeth, widow of Sir John Grey of Groby. Richard was created Earl Rivers in 1466, appointed Lord Treasurer in March 1466 and Constable of England on 24 August 1467.

    The power of this new family was very distasteful to the old baronial party, and especially so to the Earl of Warwick. Rivers was regarded as a social upstart, and in an ironical episode, his future son-in-law in 1459, while accepting his submission, had rebuked him for daring, given his lowly birth, to fight against the House of York. The Privy Council, in its horrified response to the King's marriage, said bluntly that her father's low social standing in itself meant that the King must surely know "that Elizabeth was not the wife for him". Early in 1468, the Rivers estates were plundered by Warwick's partisans, and the open war of the following year was aimed at destroying the Woodvilles. After the Yorkist defeat at the Battle of Edgecote Moor on 26 July 1469, Rivers and his second son John were taken prisoners at Chepstow. Following a hasty show trial, they were beheaded at Kenilworth on 12 August 1469. His eldest son Anthony succeeded him in the earldom.

    Lord Rivers had a large family. His third son, Lionel (d. 1484) became the Bishop of Salisbury. All his daughters made great marriages: Catherine Woodville, his eighth daughter, was the wife of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham.

    It is worth noting that "Woodville" is the modern spelling of the name and was not so spelled at the time, even though uniform spelling was not established for almost two centuries. The spelling used at the time was "Wydeville" or "Wydville".

    Children of Richard Woodville and Jacquetta of Luxembourg

    They had at least 13 children:[3]

    Elizabeth Woodville (c. 1437–1492), married Edward IV of England.
    Lewis Woodwille (c.1438?), died in childhood.
    Anne Woodville (1439–1489). Married first William Bourchier, Viscount Bourchier, and second George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent.
    Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers (1442–1483), married Elizabeth Scales, 8th Baroness Scales.
    Mary Woodville (1443–1481), married William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke.
    Jacquetta Woodville (1444–1509), married John le Strange, 8th Baron Strange of Knockin.
    John Woodville (1445–1469), married Catherine Neville, Dowager Duchess of Norfolk.
    Lionel Woodville (1447–1484), Bishop of Salisbury.
    Eleanor Woodville (1452–1512), married Sir Anthony Grey.
    Richard Woodville, 3rd Earl Rivers (c. 1453–1491).
    Edward Woodville, Lord Scales (d. 1488), soldier and courtier.
    Margaret Woodville (1454–1490), married Thomas Fitzalan, 17th Earl of Arundel.
    Catherine Woodville (c.1458[4]-1497[5]), married first Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, second Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford.
    Robert Glover, Somerset Herald, noted another 'Richard' who would seem to have been born before Richard the 3rd Earl.[6] It should also be noted that a 'Richard Woodville, esquire for the body' was present at the christening of Prince Arthur (son of Elizabeth and Henry VII) on 24 September 1486 in Winchester Cathedral; Arthur's grandmother, Elizabeth Woodville, served as his Godmother, and her younger brother Edward was also present at the ceremony.

    end of biography

    Siblings of Elizabeth Woodville:

    Jacquetta of Luxembourg and Richard Woodville had the following children (Elizabeth Woodville and her sisters and brothers):

    Elizabeth Woodville was born about 1437. She died in 1492.

    Lewis Wydeville or Woodville. He died in childhood.

    Anne Woodville was born about 1439. She died in 1489. She married William Bourchier, son of Henry Bourchier and Isabel of Cambridge. She married Edward Wingfield. She married George Grey, son of Edmund Grey and Katherine Percy. He was born in 1454. He died on 25 Dec 1505.

    Anthony Woodville was born about 1440 - 1442. He died on 25 Jun 1483. He married Elizabeth de Scales, then he married Mary Fitz-Lewis. He was executed with his nephew Richard Grey by King Richard III.

    John Woodville was born about 1444/45. He died on 12 Aug 1469. He married as her fourth husband Katherine Neville, Dowager Duchess of Norfolk, daughter of Ralph Neville and Joan Beaufort, and sister of Cecily Neville, his sister Elizabeth Woodville’s mother-in-law. Katherine Neville was born about 1400. She died after 1483, outliving her much younger husband.

    Jacquetta Woodville was born about 1444/45. She died in 1509. She married John le Strange, son of Richard Le Strange and Elizabeth de Cobham. He died on 16 Oct 1479.

    Lionel Woodville was born about 1446. He died about 23 Jun 1484. He became the Bishop of Salisbury.

    Richard Woodville. He died on 06 Mar 1491.

    Martha Woodville was born about 1450. She died in 1500. She married John Bromley.

    Eleanor Woodville was born about 1452. She died about 1512. She married Anthony Grey.

    Margaret Woodville was born about 1455. She died in 1491. She married Thomas FitzAlan, son of William FitzAlan and Joan Neville. He was born in 1450. He died on 25 Oct 1524.

    Edward Woodville. He died in 1488.

    Mary Woodville was born about 1456. She married William Herbert, son of William Herbert and Anne Devereux. He was born on 05 Mar 1451. He died on 16 Jul 1491.

    Catherine Woodville was born in 1458. She died on 18 May 1497. She married Henry Stafford, son of Humphrey Stafford and Margaret Beaufort (a different Margaret Beaufort than the mother of Henry VII). Henry Stafford was born on 04 Sep 1455. He was executed for treason by Richard III on 02 Nov 1483. Catherine Woodville and Henry Stafford had four children, two sons and two daughters. Catherine Woodville then married Jasper Tudor, son of Owen Tudor and Catherine of Valois (and half-brother to Henry VI). She then married Richard Wingfield, son of John Wingfield and Elizabeth FitzLewis. He died on 22 Jul 1525.

    end of siblings

    Richard married Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Countess Rivers Bef 23 Mar 1437. Jacquetta (daughter of Peter I, Count of Saint-Pol and Margaret of Baux) was born 1415-1416, Palace of Westminster, London, England; died 30 May 1472. [Group Sheet]


  12. 55.  Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Countess RiversJacquetta of Luxembourg, Countess Rivers was born 1415-1416, Palace of Westminster, London, England (daughter of Peter I, Count of Saint-Pol and Margaret of Baux); died 30 May 1472.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Duchess of Bedford

    Notes:

    Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Countess Rivers (1415/1416 – 30 May 1472) was the eldest daughter of Peter I of Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, Conversano and Brienne and his wife Margaret of Baux (Margherita del Balzo of Andria). She was a prominent, though often overlooked, figure in the Wars of the Roses. Through her short-lived first marriage to the Duke of Bedford, brother of King Henry V, she was firmly allied to the House of Lancaster. However, following the emphatic Lancastrian defeat at the Battle of Towton, she and her second husband Richard Woodville sided closely with the House of York. Three years after the battle and the accession of Edward IV of England, Jacquetta's eldest daughter Elizabeth Woodville married him and became Queen consort of England. Jacquetta bore Woodville 14 children and stood trial on charges of witchcraft, for which she was exonerated.

    Family and ancestry

    Her father Peter of Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, was also the hereditary Count of Brienne from 1397 until his death in 1433.

    Peter had succeeded his father John of Luxembourg, Lord of Beauvoir, and mother Marguerite of Enghien. They had co-reigned as Count and Countess of Brienne from 1394 to her death in 1397. John had been a fourth-generation descendant of Waleran I of Luxembourg, Lord of Ligny, second son of Henry V of Luxembourg and Margaret of Bar. This cadet line of the House of Luxembourg reigned in Ligny-en-Barrois.

    Jacquetta's paternal great-grandmother, Mahaut of Chãatillon, was descended from Beatrice of England, daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence.[1] Jacquetta's mother, Margherita del Balzo, was a daughter of Francesco del Balzo, 1st Duke of Andria, and Sueva Orsini.[2] Sueva descended from Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and Eleanor of England, the youngest child of King John of England and Isabella of Angoulãeme.[2]

    The Luxembourgs claimed to be descended from the water deity Melusine through their ancestor Siegfried of Luxembourg (AD 922-998).[3] Jacquetta was a fourth cousin twice removed of Sigismund of Luxembourg, the reigning Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia and Hungary.

    Early life

    Most of Jacquetta's early life is a mystery. She was born as the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years War began. Her uncle, John II of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny, was the head of the military company that captured Joan of Arc. John held Joan prisoner at Beauvoir and later sold her to the English.

    First marriage

    On 22 April 1433 at age 17, Jacquetta married John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford at Therouenne. The Duke was the third son of King Henry IV of England and Mary de Bohun, and thus the grandson of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, himself the third son of Edward III. The marriage was childless and the Duke died on 15 September 1435 at Rouen. As was customary at the time, after her second marriage Jacquetta retained the title of her first husband and was always known as the Duchess of Bedford, this being a higher title than that of countess. Jacquetta inherited one-third of the Duke's main estates as her widow's share.[4]

    Second marriage

    Sir Richard Woodville, son of Sir Richard Wydevill, who had served as the late Duke's chamberlain, was commissioned by Henry VI of England to bring Bedford's young widow to England. During the journey, the couple fell in love and married in secret (before 23 March 1437), without seeking the king's permission. Jacquetta had been granted dower lands following her first husband's death on condition that she did not remarry without a royal licence. On learning of the marriage, Henry VI refused to see them, but was mollified by the payment of a fine of ¹1000. The marriage was long and very fruitful: Jacquetta and Richard had fourteen children, including the future Queen Consort Elizabeth Woodville. She lost her first-born son Lewis to a fever when he was 12 years old. A daughter also named Jacquetta (Woodville) married John le Strange, 8th Baron Strange.

    By the mid-1440s, the Woodvilles were in a powerful position. Jacquetta was related to both King Henry and Queen Margaret by marriage. Her sister, Isabelle de Saint Pol, married Margaret's uncle Charles du Maine while Jacquetta was the widow of Henry VI's uncle. She outranked all ladies at court with the exception of the queen. As a personal favourite, she also enjoyed special privileges and influence at court. Margaret influenced Henry to create Richard Woodville Baron Rivers in 1448, and he was a prominent partisan of the House of Lancaster as the Wars of the Roses began.[3]

    Wars of the Roses

    The Yorkists crushed the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton on 29 March 1461, and Edward IV, the first king from the House of York, took the throne. The husband of Jacquetta's oldest daughter Elizabeth (Sir John Grey) had been killed a month before at the Second Battle of St. Albans, a Lancastrian victory under the command of Margaret of Anjou. At Towton, however, the tables turned in favour of the Yorkists.

    Edward IV met and soon married the widowed Elizabeth Woodville in secret; though the date is not accepted as exactly accurate, it is traditionally said to have taken place (with only Jacquetta and two ladies in attendance) at the Woodvile family home in Northamptonshire on 1 May 1464.[5] Elizabeth was crowned queen on 26 May 1465, the Sunday after Ascension Day. The marriage, once revealed, ruined the plans of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, Edward's cousin, who had been negotiating a much-needed alliance with France via a political marriage for Edward.

    With Elizabeth now Queen of England, the Woodvilles rose to great prominence and power. Jacquetta's husband Richard was created Earl Rivers and appointed Lord High Treasurer in March 1466. Jacquetta found rich and influential spouses for her children and helped her grandchildren achieve high posts.[6] She arranged for her 20-year-old son, John, to marry the widowed and very rich Katherine Neville, Duchess of Norfolk, who was at least 45 years older than John. The rise of the Woodvilles created widespread hostility among the Yorkists, including Warwick and the king's brothers George and Richard, who were being displaced in the king's favour by the former Lancastrians.

    In 1469, Warwick openly broke with Edward IV and temporarily deposed him. Earl Rivers and his son John were captured and executed by Warwick on 12 August at Kenilworth. Jacquetta survived her husband by three years and died in 1472, at about 56 years of age.

    Witchcraft accusations

    Shortly after her husband's execution by Warwick, Thomas Wake, a follower of Warwick’s, accused Jacquetta of witchcraft. Wake brought to Warwick Castle a lead image “made like a man-of-arms . . . broken in the middle and made fast with a wire,“ and alleged that Jacquetta had fashioned it to use for witchcraft and sorcery. He claimed that John Daunger, a parish clerk in Northampton, could attest that Jacquetta had made two other images, one for the king and one for the queen. The case fell apart when Warwick released Edward IV from custody, and Jacquetta was cleared by the king’s great council of the charges on February 21, 1470.[7] In 1484 Richard III in the act known as Titulus Regius[8] revived the allegations of witchcraft against Jacquetta when he claimed that she and Elizabeth had procured Elizabeth's marriage to Edward IV through witchcraft; however, Richard never offered any proof to support his assertions.

    Heritage

    Through her daughter Elizabeth, Jacquetta was the maternal grandmother of Elizabeth of York, wife and queen of Henry VII, and therefore an ancestor of all subsequent English monarchs.

    Children

    Elizabeth Woodville, Queen consort of England (c. 1437 – 8 Jun. 1492), married first Sir John Grey, second Edward IV of England.
    Lewis Woodville (c. 1438), died in childhood.
    Anne Woodville (1438/9 – 30 Jul. 1489). Married first William Bourchier, Viscount Bourchier, second Sir Edward Wingfield, third George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent.
    Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers (c. 1440 – 25 Jun. 1483), married first Elizabeth Scales, 8th Baroness Scales, second Mary Fitzlewis; not married to Gwentlian Stradling, the mother of Margaret.
    John Woodville (c. 1444 – 12 Aug. 1469), married Catherine Neville, Dowager Duchess of Norfolk.
    Jacquetta Woodville (1445–1509), married John le Strange, 8th Baron Strange of Knockin.
    Lionel Woodville, Bishop of Salisbury (c. 1446 – Jun. 1484).
    Eleanor Woodville (d. c. 1512), married Sir Anthony Grey.
    Margaret Woodville (c. 1450 – 1490/1), married Thomas Fitzalan, 17th Earl of Arundel.
    Martha Woodville (d. c. 1500), married Sir John Bromley.
    Richard Woodville, 3rd Earl Rivers (1453 – Mar. 1491).
    Edward Woodville, Lord Scales (1454/8 – 28 Jul. 1488).
    Mary Woodville (c. 1456 – 1481), married William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke.
    Catherine Woodville (c. 1458 – 18 May 1497), married first Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, second Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford.[9]
    I
    end of biography

    Children:
    1. Elizabeth Lucy Wydeville, Queen of England was born ~ 1437, Grafton Regis, Northampton, England; died 8 Jun 1492, Bermondsey, London, England; was buried St. George's Chapel, Windsor, England.
    2. Anne Woodville, Viscountess Bourchier was born ~ 1438, Grafton Regis, Northampton, England; died 30 Jul 1489; was buried St. Leonard Churchyard, Warden, Bedfordshire, England.
    3. 27. Mary Woodville, Countess of Pembroke was born ~ 1456; died 0___ 1481.
    4. Katherine Woodville, Duchess of Buckingham was born ~ 1458, (Maidstone, Kent, England); died 18 May 1497.

  13. 60.  Richard Neville, I, Knight, 5th Earl of Salisbury was born Abt 1400, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England (son of Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland and Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland); died 30 Dec 1460, Wakefield, St. John, West Riding, Yorkshire, England; was buried 15 Jan 1461.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Salisbury

    Notes:

    Richard Neville, jure uxoris 5th Earl of Salisbury and 7th and 4th Baron Montacute KG PC (1400 – 31 December 1460) was a Yorkist leader during the early parts of the Wars of the Roses.[1]

    Background

    Richard Neville was born in 1400 at Raby Castle in County Durham. Although he was the third son (and tenth child) of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, Richard Neville was the first son to be born to Ralph's second wife, Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland. The Neville lands were primarily in Durham and Yorkshire, but both Richard II and Henry IV found the family useful to counterbalance the strength of the Percys on the Scottish Borders – hence Earl Ralph's title, granted in 1397, and his appointment as Warden of the West March in 1403. Ralph's marriage to Joan Beaufort, at a time when the distinction between royalty and nobility was becoming more important, can be seen as another reward; as a granddaughter of Edward III, she was a member of the royal family.

    The children of Earl Ralph's first wife had made good marriages to local nobility, but his Beaufort children married into even greater families. Three of Richard's sisters married dukes (the youngest Cecily, marrying Richard, Duke of York), and Richard himself married Alice Montacute, daughter and heiress of Thomas Montacute, the Earl of Salisbury.

    The date of Richard and Alice's marriage is not known, but it must have been before February 1421, when as a married couple they appeared at the coronation of Queen Catherine of Valois. At the time of the marriage, the Salisbury inheritance was not guaranteed, as not only was Earl Thomas still alive, but in 1424 he remarried (to Alice Chaucer, granddaughter of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer). However, this second marriage was without issue and when the Earl Thomas Montacute died in 1428, Richard Neville and Alice were confirmed as the Earl and Countess of Salisbury. From this point on, Richard Neville will be referred to as Salisbury.

    Salisbury came into possession of greater estates than, as a younger son, he could reasonably have expected. Strangely, his elder half-brother John apparently agreed to many of the rights to the Neville inheritance being transferred to Joan Beaufort – Salisbury would inherit these on her death in 1440. He also gained possession of the lands and grants made jointly to Ralph and Joan. Ralph's heir (his grandson, also called Ralph) disputed the loss of his inheritance, and although the younger Ralph agreed to a settlement in 1443, it was on unequal terms – Salisbury kept the great Neville possessions of Middleham and Sheriff Hutton, as well as the more recent grant of Penrith. Only Raby Castle returned to the senior branch. The Neville–Neville feud was later to become absorbed into the destructive Percy-Neville feud. Salisbury's marriage gained him his wife's quarter share of the Holland inheritance. Ironically, his Salisbury title came with comparatively little in terms of wealth, though he did gain a more southerly residence at Bisham Manor in Berkshire.

    end of biography

    The Warden of the West March

    The defence of the Scottish Border was carried out by two Wardens– that of the East March (based at Berwick-upon-Tweed) and that of the West March at Carlisle. Both offices had been held by the Percy family in the fourteenth century, and their support of King Henry IV seemed to have paid off in 1399, when Henry Percy was appointed Warden of the West March and his son Hotspur as Warden of the East March. But Hotspur rebelled, and his father was held to be complicit in his treason. After Hotspur was killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury, Ralph Neville was employed by King Henry V to capture the elder Percy. His reward was to succeed the Percys as Warden of both Marches. Under Henry V, the Percys were restored to their lands, and eventually, in 1417, to the East March. The West March, however, was to become an almost hereditary Neville appointment.

    Salisbury became Warden of the West March in 1420. It was one of the most valuable appointments in England, worth ¹1,500 in peacetime and four times that if war broke out with Scotland. Although, unlike Calais, it did not require a permanent garrison, the incessant raiding and border skirmishes meant that there would always be a ready supply of trained and experienced soldiers at the Warden's command. Salisbury must have been high in Henry V's estimation, as he was also appointed Justice of the Peace in Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Durham. In 1431 he accompanied the young King Henry VI to France for his coronation, and on his return was made Warden of the East March.

    In 1436 however, he resigned both posts, although this may have originally intended as a means of forcing the crown to make good its arrears of payment. When his resignation was accepted, he accompanied his brother-in-law Richard, Duke of York, to France, taking 1,300 men-at-arms and archers with him. He returned the following year, and in November became a member of the King's Council. He did not resume either of the Wardenships, as the Percy-Neville dispute took up most of his time, but when this was resolved in 1443 he resumed the Wardenship of the West March. Although this was at a reduced fee of just under ¹1,000, the money was secured on specific sources of Crown income, not on the frequently uncollectable tallies. This may reflect his experiences of 1436.

    Neville and Percy

    Main article: Percy-Neville feud
    At the end of 1443, from his principal seat at Middleham Castle in Wensleydale, Salisbury could look with some satisfaction at his position. He was a member of the King's Council and Warden of the West March. His brother Robert was the Bishop of Durham, and another of his brothers, William, had the custody of Roxburgh castle. He had seven children, four boys and three girls. In 1436 the two oldest children, Cicely and Richard, made excellent marriages to the son and daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick.

    However, it was becoming apparent that the rise of the Nevilles was coming to an end. The king, who during the late 1430s had started to exercise personal rule, was more concerned to promote the fortunes of his closest relatives – and Salisbury was only related by a junior, illegitimate and female line. In this context, the local rivalry between the Nevilles and the Percys in the north of England was likely to take on greater importance. A strong and capable ruler would be able to control such feuds, or even profit by them. A weak king could find the disputes spreading from local to regional or national conflict.

    The Percys had lands throughout northern England, while the Nevilles northern lands were concentrated in north Yorkshire and in Durham. However, as Warden of the West March, Salisbury was in a position to exert great power in the north-west, in spite of holding only Kendal and Penrith. The Percys resented the fact that their tenants in Cumberland and Westmorland were being recruited by Salisbury, who even with the reduced grant of 1443 still had great spending power in the region. The senior Neville line (now related by marriage to the Percys) still resented the inequitable settlement of their inheritance dispute.

    The fifteenth century could be regarded as the peak of "bastard feudalism" – when every subject needed a "good lord". In return for a commitment by the retained man to provide (usually) military support, the lord would give his retainer a small annual fee, a badge or item of clothing to mark his loyalty (livery) and provide help for him in his disputes with his neighbours (maintenance). Northern England was a long way from Westminster, and rapid legal redress for wrongs was impossible.[2] With his economic power as warden, Salisbury could provide better support for Percy tenants than Northumberland, unpaid for the East March for years, could hope to.

    In 1448, during the renewal of the war with Scotland, Northumberland took his forces through Salisbury's West March – a grave breach of etiquette. Northumberland was defeated at the Battle of Sark, and his son Lord Poynings was captured. The fact that Salisbury lost 2,000 horses trying to respond to this attack, and was then excluded (along with Northumberland) from the subsequent peace negotiations, can only have inflamed relations between the two families. Over time, the ill will might have receded, but Northumberland's second son, Lord Egremont, spent the next few years stirring up trouble in Yorkshire – particularly York, situated between the Percy estates of Spofforth and Healaugh, and Neville's castle at Sheriff Hutton.

    On 24 August 1453, Thomas Percy, Lord Egremont, assembled a force of men-at-arms and archers perhaps as large as 1,000 strong, intending to waylay Salisbury and his family at Heworth Moor, outside York, as he made for Sheriff Hutton. Salisbury had been attending the wedding of his son Thomas in Tatteshall Castle, Lincolnshire, and although his escort would have been smaller, it would have been better armed than Egremont's York craftsmen and tradesmen. Salisbury and his retinue fought them back, arriving unscathed at Sheriff Hutton, but the episode marked the beginning of what was virtually a private war. The bride, Maud Stanhope was the widow of Lord Willoughby of Eresby, his son would become a Yorkist. Another of the Yorkist party, John Neville, was later Lord Montagu. Maud was due to inherit the manors of Wressle and Burwell from her uncle, Lord Cromwell, who had obtained them from the Percys through litigation. Historian John Sadler argues this was the first incident in the Yorkist/Lancastrian affinities lawless squabble leading to civil war.[3]

    Neville and York

    However Salisbury turned to the cause of Richard, Duke of York, who made him Lord Chancellor in 1455. When King Henry tried to assert his independence and dismiss Richard as Protector, Salisbury joined him in fighting at the First Battle of St Albans, claiming that he was acting in self-defence. After the Battle of Blore Heath, in which he was notably successful, Salisbury escaped to Calais, having been specifically excluded from a royal pardon. He was slain on 30 December 1460, the day of the Battle of Wakefield.

    Death and Burial

    After the Yorkist defeat at the Battle of Wakefield, Salisbury himself escaped the battlefield but was captured during the night. Upon discover, the battle worn and now traitor to the realm was taken to the Lancastrian camp. Although the Lancastrian nobles might have been prepared to allow Salisbury to ransom himself, due to his large wealth, he was dragged out of Pontefract Castle and beheaded by local commoners, to whom he had been a harsh overlord.[4]An alabaster effigy is in Burghfield Church in Berkshire. He was buried first at Pontefract, but his sons transferred his body to the family mausoleum at Bisham Priory and erected this effigy. It was brought to Burghfield after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The effigy of a lady alongside him wears a headdress which is not thought to be of the right date to be his wife, but she may be one of the earlier Countesses of Salisbury buried at Bisham.

    Marriage and children

    He and his wife, Alice Montague, had twelve children:

    Cecily Neville (1424–1450), who married Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, had one daughter, Anne Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick. On her death, her title passed to her paternal aunt Lady Anne, wife of her maternal uncle, Richard Neville.[5]
    Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (1428–1471), known as the 'Kingmaker', married Lady Anne Beauchamp and had issue.
    Alice Neville (c.1430–1503), who married Henry FitzHugh, 5th Baron FitzHugh. Their daughter, Elizabeth, married William Parr, 1st Baron Parr of Kendal, thus making them great-grandparents of Catherine Parr, sixth wife of King Henry VIII.
    John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu (?1431–1471), married Isabel Ingaldesthorpe, had issue.
    George Neville (1432–1476), who became Archbishop of York and Chancellor of England
    Joan Neville (1434–1462), who married William FitzAlan, 16th Earl of Arundel, and had issue.
    Katherine Neville (1442–1503), who married first William Bonville, 6th Baron Harington, and second William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, had issue.
    Sir Thomas Neville (bf. 1431–1460),[6] who was knighted in 1449 and died at the Battle of Wakefield. He was the second husband of Maud Stanhope (30 August 1497, who married firstly Robert Willoughby, 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (d. 25 July 1452), and thirdly Sir Gervase Clifton, beheaded 6 May 1471 after the Battle of Tewkesbury.[7]
    Eleanor Neville (1447–<1471),[8] who married Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby, and had issue.
    Margaret Neville (c.1450–1506), who married John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford.
    Ralph Neville
    Robert Neville

    Ancestry

    See:[9]

    [show]Ancestors of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury

    Notes

    Jump up ^ "Neville, Richard (1400-1460)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
    Jump up ^ Robert Crackenthorpe murder case is given as an example of corrupt local justice
    Jump up ^ Sadler, John, "The Red Rose and the White", (Longman 2010), p.1-2.
    Jump up ^ Dockray, Keith. "Richard III.net" (PDF). p. 14. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
    Jump up ^ G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910–1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 428.
    Jump up ^ Hicks, M., Warwick the Kingmaker, (Oxford, 1998), 24.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1959, pp. 665–6; Richardson I 2011, pp. 512–13; Richardson IV 2011, p. 335; Harriss 2004; Harris 2002, p. 79.
    Jump up ^ http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/26279?docPos=2
    Jump up ^ see: G. E. Cokayne and Vicary Gibbs The Complete Peerage of Great Britain and Ireland op cit

    References

    Cokayne, G.E. (1959). The Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XII (Part II). St. Catherine Press.
    Harris, Barbara J. (2002). English Aristocratic Women 1450-1550. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195056205.
    Harriss, G.L. (2004). "Willoughby, Robert (III), sixth Baron Willoughby (1385–1452)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/50229. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. I (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. pp. 511–13. ISBN 1449966373.
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. IV (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1460992709.
    External links[edit]
    War of the Roses: Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460)
    Royal Berkshire History: Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460)
    Bibliography[edit]
    Gibson, J.P, 'A Defence of the proscription of the Yorkists in 1459', English Historical Review, XXVI, 512.
    Griffiths, R.A., The Reign of Henry VI (London 1981, 2nd ed. 2000).
    Griffiths, R.A., 'Local Rivalries and National Politics: The Percies, the Nevilles and the Duke of Exeter 1452-1455', Speculum, vol.43 (1968).
    Macfarlane, K.B., 'Bastard Feudalism', Bulletin of Institute of Historical Research, XX (1945), 161.
    Mowat, R.B., The Wars of the Roses (1914).
    Myers, A.R., English in the Later Middle Ages (1953).
    Oxford History of England 1399–1485 (1961; 1988).
    Sadler, D J, War in the North - The Wars of the Roses in the North East of England 1461-1464 (Bristol 2000).
    Storey, R.L, 'The Wardens of the Marches of England towards Scotland 1377-1489', English Historical Review vol.72 (1957)
    Storey, R.L, The End of the House of Lancaster 2nd ed. 1999.

    Richard married Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury Bef Feb 1420-1421, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England. Alice (daughter of Thomas Montacute, Knight, 4th Earl of Salisbury and Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury) was born 18 Oct 1405, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England; died Bef 9 Dec 1462, Bisham, Berkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  14. 61.  Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury was born 18 Oct 1405, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England (daughter of Thomas Montacute, Knight, 4th Earl of Salisbury and Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury); died Bef 9 Dec 1462, Bisham, Berkshire, England.
    Children:
    1. Richard Neville, II, Knight, 16th Earl of Warwick was born 22 Nov 1428, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England; died 14 Apr 1471, Barnet, Hertfordshire, England.
    2. Alice Neville, Baroness FitzHugh of Ravensworth was born ~ 1430, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England; died Aft 22 Nov 1503, Ravensworth, Yorkshire, England.
    3. 30. John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu was born ~ 1431, Middleham Castle, Wensleydale, North Yorkshire, England; died 14 Apr 1471, Battle of Barnet.
    4. Katherine Neville, 2nd Baroness Hastings was born 0___ 1442, (Salisbury, Wiltshire, England); died EARLY 1504, England; was buried Ashby de La Zouch, Leicester, England.


Generation: 7

  1. 64.  Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of WestmorlandRalph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland was born 0___ 1364, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England (son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby and Maud Percy); died 21 Oct 1425, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; was buried 0Oct 1425, St. Mary's Church, Staindrop, Durham, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 4th Lord Neville of Raby
    • Also Known As: Earl of Westmorland
    • Also Known As: Lord of Richmond

    Notes:

    Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, 4th Baron Neville de Raby,[a] Earl Marshal, KG, PC (c. 1364 – 21 October 1425), was an English nobleman of the House of Neville.

    Family

    Ralph Neville was born about 1364, the son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, and The Hon Maud Percy (d. before 18 February 1379), daughter of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick, Northumberland, by Idoine de Clifford, daughter of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford.[1] Neville had a younger brother, and five sisters:[2]

    Thomas Neville, 5th Baron Furnivall, who married Joan Furnival.
    Lady Alice Neville, who married Sir Thomas Gray.
    Lady Maud Neville
    Lady Idoine Neville
    Lady Eleanor Neville, who married Ralph de Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley.
    Lady Elizabeth Neville, who became a nun.
    Neville's father married secondly, before 9 October 1381, Elizabeth Latimer (d. 5 November 1395), daughter of William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer. By his father's second marriage Neville had a brother and sister of the half blood:[3]

    John Neville, 6th Baron Latimer (c.1382 – 10 December 1430), who married firstly, Maud Clifford (c. 26 August 1446), daughter of Thomas Clifford, 6th Baron Clifford, whom he divorced before 1413-17, and by whom he had no issue. She married secondly, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, beheaded 5 August 1415 for his part in the Southampton Plot.[4]
    Lady Elizabeth Neville, who married Sir Thomas Willoughby.
    Career[edit]
    Neville's first military service was in Brittany under King Richard II's uncle, Thomas of Woodstock, who knighted him at Saint-Omer in July 1380. On 14 November 1381 he and his cousin, Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, were commissioned to preside over a duel between an Englishman and a Scot, and on 1 December 1383 he and his father were commissioned to receive from the Scots 24,000 marks for the ransom of King David. On 26 October 1385 he was appointed joint governor of Carlisle with Sir Thomas Clifford, and on 27 March 1386 was appointed, together with Clifford, joint Warden of the West March.[5]

    Neville inherited the title at the age of 24 after his father's death on 17 October 1388, and was summoned to Parliament from 6 December 1389 to 30 November 1396 by writs directed to Radulpho de Nevyll de Raby. On 25 October 1388 he was appointed, with others, to survey the fortifications on the Scottish border, and on 24 May 1389 was made keeper for life of the royal forests north of the Trent. In 1393 and 1394 he was employed in peace negotiations with Scotland.[6]

    In 1397 Neville supported King Richard's proceedings against Thomas of Woodstock and the Lords Appellant, and by way of reward was created Earl of Westmorland on 29 September of that year. However his loyalty to the King was tested shortly thereafter. His first wife, Margaret Stafford, had died on 9 June 1396, and Neville's second marriage to Joan Beaufort before 29 November 1396 made him the son-in-law of King Richard's uncle, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster. Thus, when King Richard banished John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, on 16 September 1398, and confiscated Bolingbroke's estates after John of Gaunt's death on 3 February 1399, Westmorland was moved to support his brother-in-law. Bolingbroke landed with a small force at Ravenspur in July 1399. Westmorland and the Earl of Northumberland were in the deputation at the Tower which received King Richard's abdication, and Westmorland bore the small sceptre called the 'virge' at Bolingbroke's coronation as King Henry IV on 13 October 1399.[7]

    For his support of the new King, Westmorland was rewarded with a lifetime appointment as Earl Marshal on 30 September 1399 (although he resigned the office in 1412), a lifetime grant of the honour of Richmond on 20 October (although the grant was not accompanied by a grant of the title Earl of Richmond), and several wardships.[8] Before 4 December he was appointed to the King's council. In March 1401, Westmorland was one of the commissioners who conducted negotiations for a marriage between the King's eldest daughter, Blanche of England, and Louis, son of Rupert, King of the Romans, and in 1403 was made a Knight of the Garter, taking the place left vacant by the death of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York.[8]

    According to Tuck, Westmorland had little influence on the Scottish borders in the first years of Henry IV's reign, where the wardenships of the marches were monopolised by the Percys, leading to a growing rivalry between the two families. However in 1403 the Percys, spurred on by various grievances, took up arms against the King, and suffered defeat at the Battle of Shrewsbury on 21 July 1403. Northumberland's son, Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, was slain at Shrewsbury, and Northumberland's brother, the Earl of Worcester, was beheaded two days later. After Shrewsbury, King Henry ordered Westmorland to raise troops and prevent Northumberland's army, which was still in the north, from advancing south. On 6 August 1403,as a reward for his service in driving Northumberland back to Warkworth Castle, Westmorland was granted the wardenship of the West March which Northumberland had held since 1399, the wardenship of the East March, formerly held by Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, being granted to the King's 14-year-old son, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford.[8]

    Two years later Northumberland, joined by Lord Bardolf, again took up arms against the King. It had been Northumberland's plan to capture the earl by surprise at the outset, and in early May 1405, with 400 men, Northumberland made a surprise attack at the castle of Witton-le-Wear, where he had been staying. The attempt failed, as Westmorland had already fled. The earl speedily gathered an army, defeated a force of Percy allies at Topcliffe, and then marched towards York with Henry IV's son, John of Lancaster, to confront a force of some 8000 men gathered on Shipton Moor under the leadership of Archbishop Richard Scrope, Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk, and Scrope's nephew, Sir William Plumpton. Outnumbered by Scrope's forces, Westmorland resorted to trickery,[9] and led Scrope and his allies to believe that their demands would be accepted and their personal safety guaranteed. Once Scrope's army had been disbanded on 29 May, Scrope, Mowbray and Plumpton were arrested, summarily condemned to death for treason, and beheaded outside the walls of York on 8 June 1405. Although Westmorland handed Scrope and his allies over to the King at Pontefract, he played no role in their hasty and irregular trial and execution, having been sent north by the King on 4 June to seize Northumberland's castles. It is unclear whether Northumberland had initially planned to rebel openly in concert with Scrope, but in the event he gave Scrope no support, and fled to Scotland after his failed attempt to capture Westmorland. His estates were subsequently forfeited to the crown, and Ralph, earl of Westmorland, as a reward for his quelling of the 1405 rebellion without significant bloodshed, received a large grant of former Percy lands in Cumberland and Northumberland in June 1405.[10]

    After the death of Henry IV Westmorland was mainly engaged in the defence of the northern border in his capacity as Warden of the West March (1403–1414). In 1415 he decisively defeated an invading Scottish army at the Battle of Yeavering.[1] Westmorland played no part in King Henry V's French campaigns, and Tuck notes that his relationship with Henry V was not close, perhaps partly because of the involvement of Westmorland's son-in-law, Sir Thomas Grey of Heaton, in the Southampton Plot.[11] After Henry V's death, Westmorland was a member of the Council of Regency during the minority of King Henry VI.[12]

    According to Tait, Westmorland was 'no inconsiderable builder', citing his rebuilding of Sheriff Hutton Castle on a scale so magnificent that Leland saw 'no house in the north so like a princely lodging', his doubling of the entrance gateway of Raby Castle and the corresponding tower, and possibly his responsibility for the 'tall and striking tower' of Richmond parish church. On 1 November 1410 Westmorland was granted licence to found a college for a master, six clerks, six 'decayed gentlemen' and others at Staindrop, towards the completion of which he left a bequest in his will.[12] He was probably responsible for the building of Penrith castle in Cumberland c. 1412-13.[13]

    Marriages and issue

    Miniature of the Earl of Westmorland with twelve of his children by Pol de Limbourg. A second miniature (not pictured) features his second wife, Lady Joan, with the rest of his children.

    Effigy of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland and his two wives, Staindrop Church

    Neville married firstly, Margaret Stafford (d. 9 June 1396), the eldest daughter of Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, and Philippa Beauchamp, the daughter of Thomas Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, by Katherine Mortimer, the daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March.[14] They had two sons and six daughters:

    Sir John Neville (c.1387 – before 20 May 1420), who married Elizabeth Holland, fifth daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, and Alice FitzAlan, and by her had three sons, Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland, John Neville, Baron Neville, and Sir Thomas Neville, and a daughter, Margaret Neville.[15]
    Sir Ralph Neville (d. 25 Feb 1458), who married, before 1411, his stepsister, Mary Ferrers, daughter of Robert Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers, and Joan Beaufort.[16]
    Maud Neville (d. October 1438), who married Peter de Mauley, 5th Baron Mauley.[15]
    Alice Neville, who married firstly Sir Thomas Grey, beheaded 2 August 1415 for his part in the Southampton Plot, and secondly Sir Gilbert Lancaster.[17]
    Philippa Neville, who married, before 20 July 1399, Thomas Dacre, 6th Baron Dacre of Gilsland (d. 5 January 1458).[18]
    Elizabeth Neville, who became a nun.
    Anne Neville (b. circa 1384), who married, before 3 February 1413, Sir Gilbert Umfraville, son of Sir Thomas Umfreville (d. 12 February 1391) and Agnes Grey (d. 25 October 1420), daughter of Sir Thomas Grey of Heaton (d. before 22 October 1369). He was slain at the Battle of Baugâe in Anjou on 22 March 1421.[19]
    Margaret Neville (d. 1463/4), who married firstly, before 31 December 1413, Richard Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Bolton, and secondly, William Cressener, esquire.[20]
    Neville married secondly, before 29 November 1396, at Chãateau de Beaufort, Maine-et-Loire, Anjou, Joan Beaufort, the widow of Robert Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers.[21] Joan was the legitimated daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, by his mistress and later third wife, Katherine Swynford.

    They had nine sons and five daughters:[22]

    Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460), married Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury. Their son was Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (1428–1471), 'The Kingmaker'.
    Henry Neville.
    Thomas Neville.
    Cuthbert Neville.
    Robert Neville, Bishop of Salisbury and Durham.
    William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent.
    John Neville.
    George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer.
    Edward Neville, 3rd Baron Bergavenny.
    Joan Neville, who became a nun.
    Katherine Neville, married firstly, on 12 January 1411 to John Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, secondly to Sir Thomas Strangways, thirdly to John Beaumont, 1st Viscount Beaumont, fourthly to Sir John Woodville (d. 12 August 1469).
    Eleanor Neville (1398–1472), married firstly to Richard le Despencer, 4th Baron Burghersh, secondly to Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland.
    Anne Neville (1414–1480), married firstly to Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, secondly to Walter Blount, 1st Baron Mountjoy.
    Cecily Neville (1415–1495), married to Richard, 3rd Duke of York. She was the mother of King Edward IV and King Richard III.
    Death[edit]


    The two wives of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, from his monumental effigy, Staindrop Church. His first wife, left, on his right-hand side
    Westmorland died on 21 October 1425. He was buried in the choir of his collegiate church of St. Mary at Staindrop. The magnificent alabaster tomb with effigies of himself and his two wives there has been termed the finest sepulchral monument in the north of England.[1] Neither of his wives is buried with him. His first wife, Margaret Stafford, was buried at Brancepeth, Durham, while his second wife, Joan Beaufort, was buried with her mother under a carved stone canopy in the sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral.[23]

    Westmorland was predeceased by his eldest son, Sir John Neville, and was succeeded in the title by his grandson, Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland.[24]

    Westmorland is portrayed in Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1, Henry IV, Part 2, and Henry V.

    In the opening scene of Henry IV, Part 1, Westmorland is presented historically as an ally of King Henry IV against the Percys, and in the final scenes of the play as being dispatched to the north of England by the King after the Battle of Shrewsbury to intercept the Earl of Northumberland.[25]

    In Act IV of Henry IV, Part 2, Westmorland is portrayed historically as having been principally responsible for quelling the Percy rebellion in 1405 by Archbishop Scrope almost without bloodshed by successfully parleying with the rebels on 29 May 1405 at Shipton Moor.[25]

    However in Henry V Westmorland is unhistorically alleged to have resisted the arguments made in favour of war with France by Archbishop Chichele in the Parliament which began at Leicester on 30 April 1414. Following Hall and Holinshed, Shakespeare attributes these arguments to Chichele[26] at a time when Chichele was not yet formally Archbishop, although he had been appointed by the King immediately following the death of Archbishop Arundel on 14 February 1414. Moreover, it is said that the Parliamentary rolls do not record Chichele's presence, and according to Tait the question of war with France was not discussed. In addition, Westmorland's speech urging the advantages of war against Scotland rather than France is said to be adapted from a work by the Scottish historian, John Major, who was not born until half a century after the 1414 Parliament.[12]

    The First Folio text of Henry V also unhistorically gives these lines to Westmorland on the eve of Agincourt:

    O that we now had here
    But one ten thousand of those men in England
    That do no work today. (Henry V, IV.iii)

    Westmorland was not with King Henry V on the 1415 campaign in France. On 17 April 1415 he was appointed to the Council of Regency which was to govern England under the King's brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, during the King's absence in France, with special responsibility for the Scottish Marches.[27] In the first quarto text of the play, the foregoing lines are assigned to the Earl of Warwick.[25]

    It has been claimed by Brenda James and Professor William Rubinstein that Neville's great-great-grandson Sir Henry Neville wrote the works of William Shakespeare.

    *

    NEVILLE, RALPH, sixth Baron Neville of Raby and first Earl of Westmorland (1364-1425), was the eldest son of John de Neville, fifth baron Neville of Raby [q. v.], by his first wife, Maud, daughter of Henry, lord Percy (d. 1352) [q. v.], and aunt of the first earl of Northumberland (Swallow, De Nova Villa, p. 34; Dugdale, Baronage, i. 297).

    He first saw service in the French expedition of July 1380 under the king's uncle Thomas of Woodstock, earl of Buckingham, afterwards duke of Gloucester, who knighted him (Froissart, vii. 321, ed. Lettenhove). Doubtless spending the winter with the earl in Brittany, and returning with him in the spring of 1381, Ralph Neville, towards the close of the year, presided with his cousin Henry Percy, the famous Hotspur (whose mother was a Neville), over a duel between a Scot and an Englishman (Fœdera, xi. 334–5). In 1383 or 1384 he was associated with his father in receiving payment of the final instalments of David Bruce's ransom (Dugdale, i. 297). In the autumn of 1385 (26 Oct.), after the king's invasion of Scotland, he was appointed joint governor of Carlisle with the eldest son of his relative, Lord Clifford of Skipton in Craven, and on 27 March 1386 warden of the west march with the same colleague (Doyle, Official Baronage; Fœdera, vii. 538). On the death of his father (who made him one of his executors) at Newcastle, on 17 Oct. 1388, Ralph Neville at the age of twenty-four became Baron Neville of Raby, and was summoned to parliament under that title from 6 Dec. 1389 (Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc. i. 42; Nicolas, Historic Peerage).

    A few days afterwards the new baron was appointed, with others, to survey the border fortifications, and in the spring of the next year his command in the west march was renewed for a further term (Doyle). He was made warden for life of the royal forests north of Trent (24 May 1389), and got leave to empark his woods at Raskelf, close to York and his castle of Sheriff-Hutton. The king also gave him a charter for a weekly market at Middleham, and a yearly fair on the day of St. Alkelda, the patron saint of the church (Dugdale). In July 1389, and again in June 1390, he was employed in negotiations with Scotland (Doyle); Fœdera, vii. 672). In June 1391 he obtained a license, along with Sir Thomas Colville of the Dale and other northern gentlemen, to perform feats of arms with certain Scots (Fœdera, vii. 703). The Duke of Gloucester taking the cross in this year, commissioners, headed by Lord Neville, were appointed (4 Dec.) to perform the duties of constable of England (Doyle)). In the summers of 1393 and 1394 he was once more engaged in negotiations for peace with Scotland, and rather later (20 Richard II, 1396–1397) he got possession of the strong castle of Wark on Tweed by exchange with Sir John de Montacute [q. v.], afterwards third earl of Salisbury.

    Neville's power was great in the North country, where he, as lord of Raby and Brancepeth in the bishopric of Durham, and Middleham and Sheriff-Hutton in Yorkshire, was fully the equal, simple baron though he was, of his cousin the head of the Percies. His support was therefore worth securing by King Richard when, in 1397, he took his revenge upon the Duke of Gloucester and other lords appellant of nine years before. The lord of Raby was already closely connected with the crown and the court party by marriage alliances. He had secured for his eldest son, John, the hand of Elizabeth, daughter of the king's stepbrother, Thomas Holland, earl of Kent, who was deep in Richard's counsels, and he himself had taken for his second wife Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, the king's uncle (Dugdale, i. 297; Doyle). When the Earl of Arundel, one of the leading lords appellant, was put on his trial before parliament on Friday, 21 Sept. 1397, Neville, at the command of his father-in-law Lancaster, who presided as seneschal of England, removed the accused's belt and scarlet hood (Adam of Usk, p. 13; Ann. Ricardi II, p. 214). He was no doubt acting as constable, an office of Gloucester's. The Earl of Warwick was also in his custody (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 307). In the distribution of rewards among the king's supporters on 29 Sept., Neville was made Earl of Westmorland (Rot. Parl. iii. 355). He held no land in that county, but it was the nearest county to his estates not yet titularly appropriated, and the grant of the royal honour of Penrith gave him a footing on its borders (Dugdale). He took an oath before the shrine of Edward the Confessor in Westminster Abbey on Sunday, 30 Sept., to maintain what had been done in this ‘parliamentum ferale’ (Rot. Parl. iii. 355).

    But when Richard drove his brother-in-law Henry, earl of Derby, out of the realm, and refused him possession of the Lancaster estates on John of Gaunt's death, Westmorland took sides against the king, and was one of the first to join Henry when he landed in Yorkshire in July 1399 (Adam of Usk, p. 24). He and his relative Northumberland, who had joined Henry at the same time, represented the superior lords temporal in the parliamentary deputation which on 29 Sept. received in the Tower the unfortunate Richard's renunciation of the crown, and next day he was granted for life the office of marshal of England, which had been held by the banished Duke of Norfolk (Rot. Parl. iii. 416; Fœdera, viii. 89, 115). With Northumberland he conveyed Richard's message to convocation on 7 Oct. (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 289). At Henry IV's coronation (13 Oct.) Westmorland bore the small sceptre called the virge, or rod with the dove, his younger half-brother, John Neville, lord Latimer, who was still a minor, carrying the great sceptre royal (Adam of Usk, p. 33; Taylor, Glory of Regality, p. 66) [see under Neville, John, fifth Baron of Raby]. The grant a week later (20 Oct.) of the great honour and lordship of Richmond, forfeited in the late reign by John, duke of Brittany, united his Teesdale and his Wensleydale lands into a solid block of territory, and gave him besides a vast number of manors and fees scattered over great part of England (Doyle; Rot. Parl. iii. 427). The grant, however, was only made for his life, and clearly did not carry with it the title of Earl of Richmond, which was never borne by him, and was granted during his lifetime (1414) to John, duke of Bedford, with the reversion of the castle and lands on Westmorland's death (Third Report of the Lords on the Dignity of a Peer, pp. 96 et seq.). When the earl was in London he sat in the privy council, but as a great northern magnate he was chiefly employed upon the Scottish border (Ord. Privy Council, i. 100 et seq.; Fœdera, viii. 133). In March 1401, however, he was one of the royal commissioners who concluded with the ambassadors of Rupert, king of the Romans, a marriage between Henry's eldest daughter and Rupert's son Louis (ib. pp. 176, 178), and spent the summer in London (Ord. Privy Council, i. 144, 157). But in September he was employed on another Scottish mission, and in the March following was appointed captain of Roxburgh Castle (ib. p. 168; Fœdera, viii. 251; Doyle).

    The garter vacated by the death of Edmund, duke of York, in August 1402 was bestowed upon him. In July 1403 his relatives, the Percies, revolted, and Westmorland found an opportunity of weakening the great rival house in the north. One of Hotspur's grievances was the transference of his captaincy of Roxburgh Castle to Westmorland in the previous March (Rot. Scot. ii. 161). The day after the battle of Shrewsbury, in which Hotspur was slain, Henry wrote to Westmorland and other Yorkshire magnates charging them to levy troops and intercept the Earl of Northumberland, who was marching southward (Fœdera, viii. 319). Westmorland drove the old earl back to Warkworth, and sent an urgent message to Henry, advising him to come into the north, where reports of his death were being circulated by the Percies (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 371). The king arrived at Pontefract on 3 Aug., and three days later transferred the wardenship of the west marches, which Northumberland had held since 1399, to Westmorland (Doyle). Hotspur was replaced as warden of the east march by the king's second son, John, a lad of fourteen, who must necessarily have been much under the influence of the experienced earl. On his return south, Henry directed Westmorland and his brother Lord Furnival to secure the surrender of the Percy castles (Ord. Privy Council, i. 213). But the order was more easily given than executed, and in the parliament of the following February Northumberland was pardoned by the king and publicly reconciled to Westmorland (Rot. Parl. iii. 525). Westmorland and Somerset were the only earls in the council of twenty-two whom the king was induced by the urgency of the commons to designate in parliament (1 March 1404) as his regular advisers (ib. p. 530).

    Northumberland's reconciliation was a hollow one, and in the spring of 1405 he was again in revolt. Remembering how his plans had been foiled by Westmorland two years before, he began with an attempt to get his redoubtable cousin into his power by surprise. In April or May Westmorland happened to be staying in a castle which Mr. Wylie identifies with that of Witton-le-Wear, belonging to Sir Ralph Eure. It was suddenly beset one night by Northumberland at the head of four hundred men. But Westmorland had received timely warning, and was already flown (Ann. Hen. IV p. 400). Towards the close of May the flame of rebellion had broken out at three distinct points. Northumberland was moving southwards to effect a junction with Sir John Fauconberg, Sir John Colville of the Dale, and other Cleveland connections of the Percies and Mowbrays who were in arms near Thirsk, and with the youthful Thomas Mowbray, earl marshal [q. v.], and Archbishop Scrope, who raised a large force in York and advanced northwards. One of Mowbray's grievances was that the office of marshal of England had been given to Westmorland, leaving him only the barren title. Westmorland therefore had an additional spur to prompt action against this threatening combination. Taking with him the young prince John and the forces of the marches, he threw himself by a rapid march between the two main bodies of rebels, routed the Cleveland force at Topcliffe by Thirsk, capturing their leaders, and intercepted the archbishop and Mowbray at Shipton Moor, little more than five miles north of York (Rot. Parl. iii. 604; Eulogium, iii. 405; Ann. Hen. IV, p. 405). Westmorland, finding himself the weaker in numbers, had recourse to guile. Explanations were exchanged between the two camps, and Westmorland, professing approval of the articles of grievance submitted to him by Scrope, invited the archbishop and the earl marshal to a personal conference (ib. p. 406). They met, with equal retinues, between the two camps. Westmorland again declared their demands most reasonable, and promised to use his influence with the king. They then joyfully shook hands over the understanding, and, at Westmorland's suggestion, ratified it with a friendly cup of wine. The unsuspecting archbishop was now easily induced to send and dismiss his followers with the cheerful news. As soon as they had dispersed Westmorland laid hands upon Scrope and Mowbray, and carried them off to Pontefract Castle, where he handed them over to the king a few days later. Unless the consensus of contemporary writers does injustice to Westmorland, he was guilty of a very ugly piece of treachery (ib. p. 407; Chron. ed. Giles, p. 45; Eulogium, iii. 406). Their account is not indeed free from improbabilities, and Otterbourne (i. 256) maintained that Scrope and Mowbray voluntarily surrendered. Their forces were perhaps not wholly trustworthy, and they might have been discouraged by the fate of the Cleveland knights; but the authority of Otterbourne, who wrote under Henry V, can hardly be allowed to outweigh the agreement of more strictly contemporary writers. Westmorland, at all events, had no hand in the hasty and irregular execution of the two unhappy men, for he was despatched northwards from Pontefract on 4 June to seize Northumberland's castles and lands, and his brother-in-law, Thomas Beaufort, was appointed his deputy as marshal for the trial (Fœdera, viii. 399).

    This crisis over, Westmorland returned to his usual employments as warden of the march (in which his eldest son, John, was presently associated with him), and during the rest of the reign was pretty constantly occupied in negotiations with Scotland, whose sympathy with France and reception of Northumberland were counterbalanced by the capture of the heir to the throne (Fœdera, viii. 418, 514, 520, 678, 686, 737). He had made himself one of the great props of his brother-in-law's throne. Two of his brothers—Lord Furnival, who for a time was war treasurer, and Lord Latimer—were peers, and towards the close of the reign he began to make those fortunate marriages for his numerous family by his second wife which enabled the younger branch of Neville to play so decisive a part in after years. One of the earliest of these marriages was that of his daughter Catherine in 1412 to the young John Mowbray, brother and heir of the unfortunate earl marshal who had been entrusted to his guardianship by the king (Testamenta Eboracensia, iii. 321). Shortly after Henry V's accession Westmorland must have resigned the office of marshal of England into the hands of his son-in-law, in whose family it was hereditary (Fœdera, ix. 300).

    Thanks to Shakespeare, Westmorland is best known as the cautious old statesman who is alleged to have resisted the interested incitements of Archbishop Chichele and the clergy to war with France in the parliament at Leicester in April 1414, and was chidden by Henry for expressing a de- spondent wish the night before Agincourt that they had there

    But one ten thousand of those men in England

    That do no work to-day.

    But neither episode has any good historical warrant. They are first met with in Hall (d. 1547), from whom Shakespeare got them through Holinshed (Hall, Chronicle, p. 50). Chichele was not yet archbishop at the time of the Leicester parliament; the question of war was certainly not discussed there, and the speeches ascribed to Chichele and Westmorland are obviously of later composition. Westmorland, in urging the superior advantages of war upon Scotland, if war there must be, is made to quote from the Scottish historian John Major [q. v.], who was not born until 1469. The famous ejaculation before Agincourt was not made by Westmorland, for he did not go to France with the king. He was left behind to guard the Scottish marches and assist the regent Bedford as a member of his council (Ord. Privy Council, ii. 157). Henry had also appointed him one of the executors of the will which he made (24 July) before leaving England (Fœdera, ix. 289). The author of the ‘Gesta Henrici’ (p. 47), who was with the army in France, tells us that it was Sir Walter Hungerford [q. v.] who was moved by the smallness of their numbers to long openly for ten thousand English archers. The attitude imputed to Westmorland in these anecdotes is, however, sufficiently in keeping with his advancing age and absorption in the relations of England to Scotland, and may just possibly preserve a genuine tradition of opposition on his part to the French war. In any case, he never went to France, devoting himself to his duties on the borders, and leaving the hardships and the glory of foreign service to his sons. He was one of the executors of Henry's last will, and a member of the council of regency appointed to rule in the name of his infant son (Rot. Parl. iv. 175, 399). As late as February 1424 he was engaged in his unending task of negotiating with Scotland (Ord. Privy Council, iii. 139). On 21 Oct. in the following year he died, at what, in those days, was the advanced age of sixty-two, and was buried in the choir of the Church of Staindrop, at the gates of Raby, in which he had founded three chantries in 1343 (Swallow, p. 314). His stately and finely sculptured tomb of alabaster, in spite of the injuries it has received since its removal to the west end to make way for the tombs of the Vanes, remains the finest sepulchral monument in the north of England. It has been figured by Gough in his ‘Sepulchral Monuments’ (1786), by Stothard in his ‘Monumental Effigies’ (1817), and by Surtees in his ‘History of Durham.’ It bears recumbent effigies of Westmorland and his two wives. His features, so far as they are revealed by the full armour in which he is represented, are too youthful and too regular to allow us to regard it as a portrait (Swallow, De Nova Villa, p. 311; Oman, Warwick the Kingmaker, p. 17). The skeleton of the earl, which was discovered during some excavations in the chancel, is said to have been that of a very tall man with a diseased leg ({{sc|Swallow}, p. 315).

    In his will, made at Raby, 18 Oct. 1424, besides bequests to his children and the friars, nuns, and anchorites of the dioceses of York and Durham, he left three hundred marks to complete the college of Staindrop, and a smaller sum towards the erection of bridges over the Ure, near Middleham, and the Tees at Winston, near Raby (Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc., i. 68–74). Westmorland was, in fact, no inconsiderable builder. He rebuilt the castle of Sheriff-Hutton, twelve miles north-east of York, on the ridge between Ouse and Derwent, on a scale so magnificent that Leland saw ‘no house in the north so like a princely lodging,’ and the Neville saltire impaling the arms of England and France for his second wife may still be seen on its crumbling and neglected ruins. The church of Sheriff-Hutton has had inserted some of those curious flat-headed windows which are peculiar to the churches on the Neville manors, and they may very well be Westmorland's additions (Murray, Yorkshire, under Staindrop, Well, and Sheriff-Hutton). At Staindrop he added the chamber for the members of his new college on the north side of the choir, and the last bay of the nave in which his tomb now lies. The license to establish a college for a master or warden, six clerks, six decayed gentlemen, six poor officers, and other poor men, for whose support the advowson of the church was set aside with two messuages and twelve acres of land for their residence, was granted on 1 Nov. 1410 (Monasticon Anglicanum, vi. 1401; cf. {{sc|Swallow}, p. 314). Westmorland doubled the entrance gateway of Raby Castle, and threw forward the south-western tower, now called Joan's tower, to correspond (see Pritchett in the Reports and Journal of the British Archµological Association, 1886, 1887, 1889). He is also said to have been the builder of the tall and striking tower of Richmond parish church.

    Westmorland was twice married: first (before 1370) to Margaret, daughter of Hugh, second earl of Stafford (d. 1386); and, secondly (before 20 Feb. 1397), to Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by Catherine Swynford, and widow of Sir Robert Ferrers. She survived him, dying on 13 Nov. 1440 and being buried in Lincoln Cathedral, though her effigy is also on her husband's tomb at Staindrop. The inscription on her monument is quoted by Swallow (p. 137). Joan had some taste for literature. Thomas Hoccleve [q. v.] dedicated a volume of his works to her, and we hear of her lending the ‘Chronicles of Jerusalem’ and the ‘Voyage of Godfrey Bouillon’ to her nephew, Henry V (Fœdera, x. 317).

    The Nevilles were a prolific race, but Westmorland surpassed them all. He had no less than twenty-three children by his two wives—nine by the first, and fourteen by the second. The children of the first marriage, seven of whom were females, were thrown into the shade by the offspring of his more splendid second alliance which brought royal blood into the family. Westmorland devoted himself indefatigably to found the fortunes of his second family by a series of great matches, and a good half of the old Neville patrimony, the Yorkshire estates, was ultimately diverted to the younger branch.

    Thus the later earls of Westmorland had a landed position inferior to that of their ancestors, who were simple barons, and the real headship of the Neville house passed to the eldest son of the second family. Westmorland's children by his first wife were: (1) John, who fought in France and on the Scottish borders, and died before his father (1423); he married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Holland, earl of Kent, and their son Ralph succeeded his grandfather as second Earl of Westmorland in 1425 (see below). (2) Ralph of Oversley, near Alcester, in Warwickshire, in right of his wife Mary (b. 1393), daughter and coheiress of Robert, baron Ferrers of Wem in Shropshire. (3) Mathilda married Peter, lord Mauley (d. 1414). (4) Philippa married Thomas, lord Dacre of Gillsland (d. 1457). (5) Alice married, first, Sir Thomas Grey of Heton; and, secondly, Sir Gilbert Lancaster. (6) Elizabeth, who became a nun in the Minories. (7) Anne, who married Sir Gilbert Umfreville of Kyme. (8) Margaret, who married, first, Richard, lord le Scrope of Bolton in Wensleydale (d. 1420), and, secondly, William Cressener, dying in 1463; and (9) Anastasia.

    By his second wife Neville had nine sons and five daughters: (1) Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury [q. v.] (2) William, baron Fauconberg [q. v.] (3) George, summoned to parliament as Baron Latimer, 1432-69, his father having transferred to him that barony which he had bought from his childless half-brother John, who inherited it from his mother [see under Neville, John, d. 1388)]. George Neville's male descendants held the barony of Latimer till 1577, when it fell into abeyance [see Neville, John, third Baron Latimer]. (5) Robert [q. v.], bishop successively of Salisbury and Durham. (6) Edward, baron of Bergavenny [q. v.] (7–9) Three sons who died young. (10) Joan, a nun. (11) Catherine, married, first, John Mowbray, second duke of Norfolk [q. v.]; secondly, Thomas Strangways; thirdly, Viscount Beaumont (d. 1460); and, fourthly, John Wydeville, brother-in-law of Edward IV. (12) Anne, married, first, Humphrey, first duke of Buckingham (d. 1460) [q. v.]; and, secondly, Walter Blount, first baron Mountjoy (d. 1474). (13) Eleanor, married, first, Richard, lord le Despenser (d. 1414); and, secondly, Henry Percy, second earl of Northumberland (d. 1455). (14) Cicely, who married Richard Plantagenet, duke of York, and was mother of Edward IV.

    Ralph Neville, second Earl of Westmorland (d. 1484), son of John, the eldest son of the first earl by his first wife, married a daughter of Hotspur, and left active Lancastrian partisanship to his younger brothers. He died in 1484. His only son having perished at the battle of St. Albans in 1455, he was succeeded as third Earl of Westmorland by his nephew, Ralph (1456–1523), son of his brother John. This John Neville was a zealous Lancastrian. He took a prominent part in the struggle with the younger branch of the Nevilles for the Yorkshire lands of the first Earl of Westmorland, was summoned to parliament as Lord Neville after the Yorkist collapse in 1459, and was rewarded for his services at Wakefield in December 1460 with the custody of the Yorkshire castles of his uncle and enemy, Salisbury, who was slain there (see under Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury;Nicolas, Historic Peerage, p. 345; Chron. ed. Davies, p. 106). A Yorkist chronicler accuses him of treacherously getting York's permission to raise troops, which he then used against him (ib.) A few months later he was slain at Towton (30 March 1461). When his son Ralph became third Earl of Westmorland, the barony of Neville merged in the earldom of Westmorland, which came to an end with the attainder of Charles Neville, sixth earl [q. v.], in 1571.

    [Rotuli Parliamentorum; Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas; Rymer's Fœdera, original edition; Lords' Report on the Dignity of a Peer; Adam of Usk. ed. Maunde Thompson; Annales Ricardi II et Hen- rici IV with Trokelowe in Rolls Ser.; Gesta Henrici V, ed. Williams for English Historical Society; Otterbourne's Chronicle, ed. Hearne; Testamenta Eboracensia and Wills and Inventories, published by the Surtees Soc.; Hall's Chronicle, ed. Ellis; Dugdale's Baronage and Monasticon Anglicanum, ed. Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel; Rowland's Account of the Noble Family of Nevill, 1830; Swallow, De Nova Villa, 1885; Nicolas's Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope; Wylie's Hist. of Henry IV; Ramsay's Lancaster and York; other authorities in the text.]

    *

    Westmorland was twice married: first (before 1370) to Margaret, daughter of Hugh, second earl of Stafford (d. 1386); and, secondly (before 20 Feb. 1397), to Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by Catherine Swynford, and widow of Sir Robert Ferrers. She survived him, dying on 13 Nov. 1440 and being buried in Lincoln Cathedral, though her effigy is also on her husband's tomb at Staindrop.

    The inscription on her monument is quoted by Swallow (p. 137). Joan had some taste for literature. Thomas Hoccleve [q. v.] dedicated a volume of his works to her, and we hear of her lending the 'Chronicles of Jerusalem' and the 'Voyage of Godfrey Bouillon' to her nephew, Henry V (Fœdera, x. 317).

    *

    Buried:
    Images of St. Mary's ... https://www.google.com/search?q=staindrop+church&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=815&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjzxuiz6Z_LAhUKPCYKHQf1AA4QsAQIOA

    Died:
    Images and history of Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raby_Castle

    Ralph married Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland Bef 29 Nov 1396, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France. Joan (daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster) was born ~ 1379, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France; died 13 Nov 1440, Howden, Yorkshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 65.  Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland was born ~ 1379, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France (daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster); died 13 Nov 1440, Howden, Yorkshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

    Notes:

    Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland (c. 1379 - 13 November 1440), was the fourth of the four children (and only daughter) of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his mistress, later wife, Katherine Swynford. In her widowhood, she was a powerful landowner in the North of England.

    Early life and marriages

    She was probably born at the Swynford manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire. Her surname probably reflects her father's lordship of Beaufort in Champagne, France, where she might also have been born.[2] In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married at Beaufort-en-Vallâee, Anjou, Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, and they had two daughters before he died in about 1395.

    Legitimation

    Along with her three brothers, Joan had been privately declared legitimate by their cousin Richard II of England in 1390. Her parents were married in Lincoln Cathedral in February 1396.[3] Joan was already an adult when she was legitimized by the marriage of her mother and father with papal approval. The Beauforts were later barred from inheriting the throne by a clause inserted into the legitimation act by their half-brother, Henry IV of England, although it is not clear that Henry IV possessed sufficient authority to alter an existing parliamentary statute by himself, without the further approval of Parliament. Soon after the legitimation, on 3 February 1397, when she was eighteen, Joan married Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, who had also been married once before.

    Inheritance

    When Ralph de Neville died in 1425, his lands and titles should, by law of rights, have passed on to his grandson through his first marriage, another Ralph Neville. Instead, while the title of Earl of Westmorland and several manors were passed to Ralph, the bulk of his rich estate went to his wife, Joan Beaufort. Although this may have been done to ensure that his widow was well provided for, by doing this Ralph essentially split his family into two and the result was years of bitter conflict between Joan and her stepchildren who fiercely contested her acquisition of their father's lands. Joan however, with her royal blood and connections, was far too powerful to be called to account, and the senior branch of the Nevilles received little redress for their grievances. Inevitably, when Joan died, the lands would be inherited by her own children.

    Death

    Joan died on 13 November 1440 at Howden in Yorkshire.[3] Rather than be buried with her husband Ralph (who was not buried with his first wife, though his monument has effigies of himself and his two wives) she was entombed next to her mother in the magnificent sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral. Joan's is the smaller of the two tombs; both were decorated with brass plates – full-length representations of them on the tops, and small shields bearing coats of arms around the sides — but those were damaged or destroyed in 1644 by Roundheads during the English Civil War. A 1640 drawing of them survives, showing what the tombs looked like when they were intact, and side-by-side instead of end-to-end, as they are now.

    Descendants

    Joan Beaufort was mother to Cecily, Duchess of York and thus grandmother of Edward IV of England, and of Richard III of England, whom Henry VII defeated to take the throne. Henry then married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, and their son became Henry VIII of England. Henry VIII's sixth wife, Catherine Parr, was also a descendant through Joan and Ralph's eldest son, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and thus Henry's third cousin. The Earl of Salisbury was father to Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, "the Kingmaker" (father of Queen consort Anne Neville).

    Children of Joan Beaufort and Robert Ferrers

    In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, at Beaufort-en-Vallâee, Anjou. They had 2 children:

    Elizabeth Ferrers, 6th Baroness Boteler of Wem (1393–1474). She is buried at Black Friars Church, York. She married John de Greystoke, 4th Baron Greystoke (1389–1436), on 28 October 1407 in Greystoke Castle, Greystoke, Cumberland, and had issue.
    Margaret (or Mary) Ferrers (1394 – 25 January 1457/1458). She married her stepbrother, Sir Ralph Neville, son of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland, c. 1413 in Oversley, Warwickshire, and had issue

    Children of Joan Beaufort and Ralph Neville

    They had 14 children:

    Lady Katherine Neville, married first on 12 January 1411 John Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk; married second Sir Thomas Strangways; married third John Beaumont, 1st Viscount Beaumont; married fourth Sir John Woodville (d. 12 August 1469).
    Lady Eleanor Neville (d. 1472), married first Richard le Despenser, 4th Baron Burghersh, married second Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland
    Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460), married Alice Montacute, suo jure 5th Countess of Salisbury. Had issue. Their descendants include Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick; queen consort Anne Neville, wife of Richard III; and queen consort Catherine Parr, sixth wife of King Henry VIII (great-grandson of Richard's sister, Cecily).
    Robert Neville (d. 1457), Bishop of Durham
    William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent (c.1410–1463)
    Lady Anne Neville (?1411–20 September 1480), married Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham
    Edward Neville, 3rd Baron Bergavenny (d. 1476)
    Lady Cecily Neville (1415–1495) ("Proud Cis"), married Richard, 3rd Duke of York, and mothered Kings Edward IV of England and Richard III of England
    George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer (d. 1469)
    Joan Neville, became a nun
    John Neville, died young
    Cuthbert Neville, died young
    Thomas Neville, died young
    Henry Neville, died young

    Birth:
    She was probably born at the Swynford manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire. Her surname probably reflects her father's lordship of Beaufort in Champagne, France, where she might also have been born.[2] In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, at Beaufort-en-Vallâee, Anjou. They had two daughters before he died in about 1395.

    Buried:
    St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London. Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604.[1] The present church, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren. Its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London.[2]

    The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, dominated the skyline for 300 years.[3] At 365 feet (111 m) high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1962. The dome is among the highest in the world. St Paul's is the second largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral.

    St Paul's Cathedral occupies a significant place in the national identity.[4] It is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz.[4] Services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Winston Churchill; Jubilee celebrations for Queen Victoria; peace services marking the end of the First and Second World Wars; the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer, the launch of the Festival of Britain and the thanksgiving services for the Golden Jubilee, the 80th Birthday and the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.

    St Paul's Cathedral is a working church with hourly prayer and daily services.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral

    Notes:

    Married:
    by Papal Dispensation...

    Children:
    1. Eleanor Neville, Countess of Northumberland was born 1397-1399, Raby, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 0___ 1472.
    2. 60. Richard Neville, I, Knight, 5th Earl of Salisbury was born Abt 1400, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 30 Dec 1460, Wakefield, St. John, West Riding, Yorkshire, England; was buried 15 Jan 1461.
    3. Katherine Neville was born ~ 1400; died Aft 1483.
    4. Robert Neville was born 0___ 1404, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 8 Jul 1457.
    5. 32. George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer was born 1407-1414, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 30 Dec 1469; was buried 31 Dec 1469.
    6. Edward Neville, 3rd Baron of Abergavenny was born 0___ 1414, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 18 Oct 1476, (Raby-Keverstone Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).
    7. Cecily Neville, Duchess of York was born 3 May 1415, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 31 May 1495, Berkhamsted Castle, Berkhamsted, England; was buried Church of St Mary and All Saints, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire, England.
    8. Ralph Neville
    9. Anne Neville was born 1414; died 1480.
    10. William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent was born ~1405; died 9 Jan 1463.

  3. 66.  Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick was born 28 Jan 1381, Salwarpe, Worcestershire, England (son of Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 12th Earl of Warwick and Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick); died 30 Apr 1439, Rouen, Normandy, France; was buried 4 Oct 1439, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Count of Aumale
    • Also Known As: Earl of Albemarle & Worcester
    • Also Known As: Lord Abergavenny
    • Also Known As: Sheriff of Worcestershire
    • Also Known As: Warwick

    Notes:

    Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, Count of Aumale, KG (25 or 28 January 1382[1] – 30 April 1439) was an English medieval nobleman and military commander.

    Early life

    Beauchamp was born at Salwarpe in Worcestershire,[2] the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, and Margaret, a daughter of William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby.[1] His godfather was King Richard II.[2]

    He was knighted at the coronation of King Henry IV and succeeded to the Earldom of Warwick in 1401.[3]

    Welsh Rebellion

    Soon after reaching his majority and taking responsibility for the Earldom, he saw military action in Wales, defending against a Welsh rebellion led by Owain Glyndwr. On 22 July 1403, the day after the Battle of Shrewsbury, he was made a Knight of the Garter.

    In the summer of 1404, he rode into what is today Monmouthshire at the head of a force. Warwick engaged Welsh forces at the Battle of Mynydd Cwmdu, near Tretower Castle a few miles northwest of Crickhowell – nearly capturing Owain Glyndwr himself, taking Owain's banner, forcing the Welsh to flee. They were chased down the valley of the River Usk where they regrouped and turned the tables on the pursuing English force, attempting an ambush. They chased the English in turn to the town walls of Monmouth after a skirmish at Craig-y-Dorth, a conical hill near Mitchel Troy.[4]

    Chivalry and Pilgrimage

    Seal of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick
    Warwick acquired quite a reputation for chivalry, and when in 1408 he went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, he was challenged many times to fight in the sporting combat which was then popular. On the return trip he went through Russia and Eastern Europe, not returning to England until 1410.

    Soldier of the King

    In 1410, he was appointed a member of the royal council and in 1413 was Lord High Steward at the Prince's coronation as Henry V of England. The next year he helped put down the Lollard uprising, and then went to Normandy as Captain of Calais and represented England at the Council of Constance.[5] He spent much of the next decade fighting the French in the Hundred Years' War. In 1419, he was created Count of Aumale, part of the King's policy of giving out Norman titles to his nobles. He was appointed Master of the Horse.

    Responsibilities

    Henry V's will gave Warwick the responsibility for the education of the infant Henry VI of England. This duty required him to travel back and forth between England and Normandy many times. In 1437, the Royal Council deemed his duty complete, and he was appointed lieutenant of France and Normandy. He remained in France for the remaining two years of his life.

    Marriages and children

    Warwick first married Elizabeth de Berkeley (born ca.1386 – 28 December 1422) before 5 October 1397,[6] the daughter of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Lord Berkeley and the Baroness Margaret de Lisle. Together they had 3 daughters:

    Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury (1404–1468), who married John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, and whose great-great-grandson John Dudley was created Earl of Warwick and subsequently Duke of Northumberland;
    Eleanor, Duchess of Somerset, (b 1407) who married Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros and then married Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset;
    Elizabeth, Baroness Latimer of Snape, (b 1417) who married George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer.
    Warwick then married Isabel le Despenser (26 July 1400–1439), the daughter of Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Constance of York. With Isabel, who was also the widow of his cousin Richard Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, his children were:

    Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, (born March 1425) who succeeded his father as Earl of Warwick, and later became Duke of Warwick;
    Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick, (b September 1426) who was theoretically Countess of Warwick in her own right (after the death of her infant niece and namesake), and who married Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.

    Death and Burial

    Effigy of Richard de Beauchamp in the Beauchamp Chapel of St Mary's Church, Warwick. The finest piece of English 15th-century bronze sculpture, modelled and cast by William Austen of London, gilded and engraved by Bartholomew Lambespring, a Dutch goldsmith.[7]

    Richard de Beauchamp's will was made at Caversham Castle in Oxfordshire (now Berkshire), one of his favoured residences, in 1437. Most of his property was entailed, but with a portion of the rest the will established a substantial trust. After his debts were paid the trust endowed the Collegiate Church of St Mary in Warwick, and called for the construction of a new chapel there. It also enlarged the endowment of the chantries at Elmley Castle and Guy's Cliffe, and gave a gift to Tewkesbury Abbey.[8] Beauchamp died in Rouen, Normandy, two years later, on 30 April 1439.[9] After the completion of the chapel, his body was transferred there (in 1475),[8] where his magnificent gilt-bronze monumental effigy may still be seen.

    Buried:
    at St. Mary's...

    Richard married Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick 0Oct 1397. Elizabeth (daughter of Thomas de Berkeley and Margaret Lisle) was born 0___ 1386, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England; died 28 Dec 1422; was buried Kingswood Abbey, Kingswood, Gloucestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 67.  Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick was born 0___ 1386, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England (daughter of Thomas de Berkeley and Margaret Lisle); died 28 Dec 1422; was buried Kingswood Abbey, Kingswood, Gloucestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Elizabeth Beauchamp (nâee de Berkeley), Countess of Warwick, Baroness de Lisle, and Baroness de Teyes (1386 - 28 December 1422) was an English noblewoman and heiress. She was the only child of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley and Margaret de Lisle, 3rd Baroness Lisle.

    With her father's death in 1417, Elizabeth and her husband Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick became involved in an inheritance dispute with her cousin James Berkeley, initiating one of the longest lawsuits in English history.

    Life and inheritance

    Elizabeth de Berkeley was the only child born to Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley by his wife Margaret de Lisle, Baroness Lisle.[1][2] As such, Elizabeth was their sole heir, and was to inherit the baronies of Lisle and Tyes from her mother. Margaret died near 1392, but Elizabeth did not succeed to them until the death of Thomas in 1417, as he held the lands by tenure of courtesy.[1] In September 1392, the Baron Berkeley negotiated Elizabeth's marriage to Richard de Beauchamp, eldest son and heir to Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick. Elizabeth married him sometime before 5 October 1397, and became the Countess of Warwick in 1403.[1] The marriage remained unconsummated for at least six years. Elizabeth gave birth to three girls:[1]

    Lady Margaret Beauchamp (1404 – 1467/1468); married John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury[1][3]
    Lady Eleanor Beauchamp (c. 1408); married (1) Thomas de Ros, 8th Baron de Ros (2) Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset[1] (3) Walter Rokesley
    Lady Elizabeth Beauchamp (c. 1417[1] – died before 2 October 1480); married (1) George Nevill, 1st Baron Latymer[1] (2) Thomas Wake

    Berkeley Castle (as seen in present day), part of the dispute between the Countess and her cousin
    Elizabeth's level of education and literacy is evident from a 1410 commission asking John Walton to translate Boethius' De consolatione philosophiae; he dedicated it in her name.[2]

    An inheritance dispute erupted with her father's death in 1417. Thomas had named her his heir, but many of his lands and estates, including Berkeley Castle, were entailed through the male line to Elizabeth's cousin James Berkeley.[1][3] Elizabeth and her husband refused to accept the entail, thus "initiat[ing] one of the longest lawsuits in England," which lasted until 1609.[1] After Lord Thomas' death, the Earl and Countess of Warwick quickly took control of the castle and gained the temporary permission of King Henry V to maintain it. James was unable to seize control of the castle, as Warwick and the king were then fighting in France.[4] To gain support in the dispute, Elizabeth sought the help of John, Duke of Bedford while James successfully bribed Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, each one of the king's brothers. By 1425, Elizabeth was dead and James had been given Berkeley Castle along with most of the entailed lands.[1][4]

    Elizabeth died on 28 December 1422. She was buried at Kingswood Abbey, and a marble tomb was later placed over her grave through a provision in her husband's will.[1] The following year, the Earl of Warwick remarried to Lady Isabel le Despenser, the widow of his cousin Richard de Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester.[5]

    Buried:
    Kingswood Abbey was a Cistercian abbey, located in the village of Kingswood near Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, England.

    Through the abbey's gatehouse arch are a few houses and the small village primary school of Kingswood.

    Photo, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingswood_Abbey

    Children:
    1. Eleanor Beauchamp, Duchess of Somerset was born 0Sep 1408, Wedgenock, Warwickshire, England; died 6 Mar 1467, Baynard's Castle, London, England.
    2. 33. Elizabeth Beauchamp, Baroness Latimer of Snape was born 16 Sep 1417, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died Bef 2 Oct 1480, Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England; was buried Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England.

  5. 68.  William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu was born 0___ 1374, Halstead, Essex, England; died 28 May 1420, Troyes, France; was buried Llanthony Priory, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.

    Notes:

    William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu (1374-28 May 1420), was an English knight created by King Henry V 1st Count of Eu, in Normandy.

    Origins

    He was born in 1374, the son of Sir William Bourchier (d.1375), (the younger son of Robert Bourchier, 1st Baron Bourchier (d.1349), of Halstead, Essex, Lord Chancellor) by his wife Eleanor de Louvain (27 March 1345 – 5 October 1397), daughter and heiress of Sir John de Louvain (d.1347)[1] (alias Lovayne etc.), feudal baron[2] of Little Easton in Essex. The arms of Louvain were: Gules billety or a fess of the last, often shown with varying number of billets and on occasion with a fess argent, for example in stained glass at Hengrave Hall, Suffolk: Gules, a fess argent, between fourteen billets or.[3] Eleanor was descended from Godfrey de Louvain (d.1226), feudal baron of Little Easton,[4] son of Godfrey III, Count of Louvain (1142-1190), by his 2nd marriage, and half-brother of Henry I, Duke of Brabant (1165-1235).[5] His inheritance from his mother's Louvain lands included the Suffolk manors of Bildeston, Hopton, Shelland and "Lovaynes" in Drinkstone, and in Essex Little Easton, Broxted and Aythorpe Roding.[6]

    Career

    He fought at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. In 1417 he was in the retinue of King Henry V during his second expedition to France, and played a significant role in the capture of Normandy. In 1419 he was appointed Captain of Dieppe and was granted powers to receive the submission of the town and Comtâe of Eu. The French count of Eu had refused to pay homage to the conquering English king and thus had been held prisoner in England since Agincourt. In June 1419 King Henry V awarded six captured French comtâes to certain of his more significant English supporters, and the Comtâe of Eu was granted to William Bourchier, thus making him 1st Count of Eu.[7]

    Marriage & progeny

    Arms of William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu (1374-1420) (Quarterly Bourchier and Lovain, feudal barons of Little Easton, Essex) impaling arms of his father-in-law Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester (1355-1397), youngest son of King Edward III (Royal Arms of England, a label of three points argent for difference). Stained glass, west window, Tawstock Church, Devon. The Count's son William Bourchier, 9th Baron FitzWarin (1407-1470) was the first to be connected with the manor of Tawstock, having married the heiress of that manor
    He married Anne of Gloucester, Countess of Stafford, the daughter of the Plantagenet prince, Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester (1355-1397) (youngest son of King Edward III) by his wife Eleanor de Bohun elder daughter and coheiress of Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford (1341-1373), Earl of Essex and Northampton. The Wrey baronets who were the heirs of the Bourchier Earls of Bath quartered the arms of Wrey with those of Bourchier, the Royal Arms of England and Bohun. They had the following progeny:[8]

    Henry Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex (1404 – 4 April 1483), eldest son
    William Bourchier, (25 Oct 1415-1474), jure uxoris 9th Baron FitzWarin, 2nd son.
    John Bourchier, 1st Baron Berners (c.1416 – 16 May 1474), 3rd son
    Thomas Bourchier, (ca. 1418 – 30 March 1486), Archbishop of Canterbury and a cardinal, 4th son
    Eleanor Bourchier, (ca. 1417 – November, 1474), wife of John de Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk

    Death & burial

    He died at Troyes, France on 28 May 1420 and was buried at Llanthony Priory, Gloucestershire.[9]

    *

    William married Anne of Gloucester ~ 1405. Anne (daughter of Thomas of Woodstock and Eleanor de Bohun) was born 30 Apr 1383; died 16 Oct 1438, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire, Wales. [Group Sheet]


  6. 69.  Anne of Gloucester was born 30 Apr 1383 (daughter of Thomas of Woodstock and Eleanor de Bohun); died 16 Oct 1438, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire, Wales.

    Other Events:

    • Baptism: Pleshey Castle, Essex, England

    Notes:

    Anne of Gloucester, Countess of Stafford (30 April 1383 – 16 October 1438) was the eldest daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, and Eleanor de Bohun.

    Family

    Anne was born on 30 April 1383 and was baptised at Pleshey, Essex, sometime before 6 May. Her uncle, John of Gaunt, ordered several payments to be made in regards to the event.[1]

    Her father was the youngest son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Her mother was Eleanor de Bohun, the daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford, and Joan Fitzalan. Her mother was also a great-great-granddaughter of Edward I.

    Marriage with Thomas Stafford, 3rd Earl of Stafford

    Anne married three times. Her first marriage was to Thomas Stafford, 3rd Earl of Stafford (1368 - 4 July 1392), and took place around 1390. The couple had no children. After her husband's death, Anne married his younger brother Edmund.

    Issue of Anne and Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford

    On 28 June 1398, Anne married Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford (2 March 1378 – 21 July 1403). They had three children together:

    Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, who married Anne, daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, and Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland. Joan was a daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his third wife Katherine Swynford.
    Anne Stafford, Countess of March, who married Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March. Edmund was a great-grandson of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence. Edmund and Anne had no children. She married secondly John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter (d. 1447), and had one son, Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter (d. 1475), and a daughter Anne, who married John Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby.
    Philippa Stafford, died young

    Issue of Anne and William Bourchier, Count of Eu

    In about 1405, Anne married William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu (d. 1420), son of Sir William Bourchier and Eleanor of Louvain, by whom she had the following children:

    Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex. He married Isabel of Cambridge, daughter of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, and Anne de Mortimer. Isabel was also an older sister of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.
    Eleanor Bourchier, Duchess of Norfolk, married John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
    William Bourchier, 9th Baron FitzWarin
    Cardinal Thomas Bourchier
    John Bourchier, Baron Berners. John was the grandfather of John, Lord Berners, the translator of Froissart

    Anne died on 16 Oct 1438 and was buried at Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire.

    Children:
    1. Henry Bourchier, KG, 1st Earl of Essex was born ~ 1404; died 4 Apr 1483; was buried Little Easton, Essex, England.
    2. 34. John Bourchier, Knight, 1st Baron Berners was born ~ 1415, Little Eaton, Essex, England; died 0May 1474.

  7. 70.  Richard Berners

    Richard — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  8. 71.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 35. Margery Berners died 0___ 1475.

  9. 78.  John Danvers, of Epwell & Colthorpe was born (England); died 0___ 1448, (England).

    John married Alice de Verney (England). Alice was born (England); died (England). [Group Sheet]


  10. 79.  Alice de Verney was born (England); died (England).
    Children:
    1. 39. Agnes Danvers was born ~1416, Epwell, Banbury, Oxfordshire, England; died 0Jun 1478, (England).

  11. 80.  Aubrey de Vere, Knight, 10th Earl of Oxford was born ~ 1338, Hedingham Castle, Essex, England (son of John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford and Maude de Badlesmere, Countess of Oxford); died 15 Feb 1400; was buried Hadleigh, Essex, England.

    Notes:

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Aubrey de Vere, 10th Earl of Oxford

    Spouse(s) Alice Fitzwalter

    Issue

    Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford
    John de Vere
    Alice de Vere
    Noble family De Vere
    Father John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford
    Mother Maud de Badlesmere
    Born 1338 - 1340
    Died 23 April 1400

    Aubrey de Vere, 10th Earl of Oxford (c. 1338 - 15 February 1400) was the third son of John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford and Maud de Badlesmere, daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Lord Badlesmere.[1]

    Aubrey de Vere had three brothers, John, Thomas, and Robert, and three sisters. Margaret, Maud and Elizabeth.[2] His eldest brother, John, married the daughter of Hugh Courtenay, Earl of Devon, but died in 1350 in his father's lifetime.[3] Another brother, Robert, also died in his father's lifetime. Aubrey de Vere's third brother, Thomas, succeeded his father as 8th Earl of Oxford, and was in turn succeeded by his only son, Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford, who died in 1392 without issue, leaving Aubrey de Vere to inherit the earldom.[4]

    In 1360 Aubrey de Vere was made steward of the royal forest of Havering in Essex. In 1367 was retained to 'abide for life' with the Black Prince, with a substantial allowance. He was knighted, made constable of Wallingford Castle in 1375 and also given the honours of Wallingford and St. Valery, though he gave up Wallingford in 1378 for Hadleigh Castle. Edward III used him as an ambassador in seeking peace with France. In 1381, de Vere became a Chamberlain of the Royal Household and member of the privy council. In 1388 his nephew, Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland and 9th Earl of Oxford was deemed a traitor, causing Aubrey to lose his post of chamberlain. However, after Robert’s death in 1392, the king gave Aubrey the title of Earl of Oxford allowing him to take a seat in parliament. Aubrey’s son, Richard became the 11th Earl of Oxford on his death.

    Jump up ^ Richardson IV 2011, pp. 268-70.

    References

    Lee, Sidney, ed. (1899). "Vere, Aubrey de (1340?-1400)". Dictionary of National Biography 58. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham IV (2nd ed.).

    Aubrey married Alice FitzWalter ~ 1384, (England). Alice (daughter of John FitzWalter, 3rd Lord FitzWalter and Alianore Percy) was born ~ 1343, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; died 29 Apr 1401, (England). [Group Sheet]


  12. 81.  Alice FitzWalter was born ~ 1343, Alnwick, Northumberland, England (daughter of John FitzWalter, 3rd Lord FitzWalter and Alianore Percy); died 29 Apr 1401, (England).
    Children:
    1. 40. Richard de Vere, Knight, 11th Earl of Oxford was born 15 Aug 1385, Hedingham Castle, Essex, England; died 15 Feb 1417; was buried Earl's Colne, Essex, England.

  13. 82.  Richard Sergeaux, Knight was born ~ 1346, Colquite, Cornwall, England; died 30 Sep 1393.

    Richard married Philippa Arundel ~ 1373. Philippa (daughter of Edmund FitzAlan, Knight and Sybil Montacute) was born ~ 1351, (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England); died 18 May 1452. [Group Sheet]


  14. 83.  Philippa Arundel was born ~ 1351, (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England) (daughter of Edmund FitzAlan, Knight and Sybil Montacute); died 18 May 1452.
    Children:
    1. 41. Alice Sergeaux, Countess of Oxfor was born ~ 1386, Colquite Manor, St Mabyn, Cornwall, England; died 18 May 1452, (England); was buried Earl's Colne, Essex, England.

  15. 106.  Walter Devereux was born 0___ 1411, Bodeham, Herefordshire, England (son of Walter Devereux and Elizabeth Bromwich); died 23 Apr 1459.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Lord Chancellor of Ireland

    Notes:

    Sir Walter Devereux (1411 – 22 April 1459) of Bodenham and Weobley was a loyal supporter of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York during the Wars of the Roses. He was Lord Chancellor of Ireland from 1449 to 1451.

    Ancestry and Childhood

    Walter Devereux was born in 1411 in Bodenham, Herefordshire to a senior Walter Devereux (or Deverois, 1387–1420) and his wife Elizabeth Bromwich.[1][2]

    His maternal grandparents were Thomas Bromwich, Lord Justice of Ireland and Catherine Oldcastle. His paternal grandparents were an elder Walter Devereux (c. 1361–1402) and Agnes Crophull.[a] Agnes was mother of Sir Thomas Parr by a second marriage to John Parr of Kendal; and paternal grandmother of William Parr, 1st Baron Parr of Kendal, a noted courtier under Edward IV of England and grandfather of Queen Catherine Parr. Agnes Crophull's third husband was John Merbury, the father of Walter Devereux's wife by a previous marriage as indicated below.

    The Devereux arms were: Argent a fesse gules, in chief three torteaux.

    Marriage

    Walter Devereux married Elizabeth Merbury in 1427.[2] She was a daughter of Sir John Merbury,[3] Chief Justice of South Wales and his wife Alice Pembridge. They had the following children:

    Anne Devereux (c. 1430 - after 1486). Married William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke.[1][2]
    Walter Devereux, 7th Baron Ferrers of Chartley (c. 1431 - 22 August 1485).[1][2]
    Isabella Devereux (born c. 1435).[2] Married Rowland Lenthall (o.s.p., 1422 to 12 May 1488).[4]
    Sir John Devereux (born c. 1438).[1][2][b]

    Wars of the Roses and Career

    Walter Devereux was 8 years old at the death of his father in 1419. Following his marriage in 1427, he established his first residence at Bodenham, the core of his Devereux family estates. On 8 July 1427 Thomas Barton, Thomas Smith and Thomas Lightfoot, granted John and Agnes Merbury the manors of Bonington, West Leake and Treswell; 3 messuages and 5 virgates of land in Thrumpton in the county of Nottingham; the manors of Hemington and Braunstone and the advowson of the church of Braunstone in the county of Leicester; and a third part of the manors of Market Rasen and East Rasen in the county of Lincoln. They were to be held for the lives of John and Agnes, and after their decease remain to Walter Devereux and Elizabeth, his wife, and the heirs of their bodies. On the Subsidy Rolls of 1428 Walter Devereux held 1/3 of half a fee in Byford, and ½ fee in Bodenham.[c] On 30 July 1428 Maurice Taylor, Roger Haynes, Richard Baby and William Mimm granted to Walter Devereux and his uncles, John and Richard Devereux, all the lands and tenements they held in Bradley and their fees of Weobley, Dilwyn, and King’s Pyon in Herefordshire.

    With the death of his grandmother, Agnes Crophull, on 9 February 1436, he inherited the remainder of his Devereux lands including Lyonshall Castle.[5] She withheld her Crophull lands, deeding a life interest in them to her third husband, John Merbury.[3] With his death on 3 February 1438, Walter Devereux inherited the Crophull lands[6] including Weobley,[d] and the Merbury estates. On 28 April 1438 Walter Devereux was certified as the heir of Agnes Crophul, and paid homage for his inheritance.

    Following the death of Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, on 18 January 1425, Richard, 3rd Duke of York inherited his estates along the Welsh Marches. This brought Walter Devereux into the retinue of the Duke,[7] and he remained his loyal supporter throughout the War of the Roses. Devereux had been knighted by 22 September 1429 when he first represented Herefordshire in Parliament.[8] He probably was in attendance on the Duke when he travelled with Henry VI to France for his coronation on 16 December 1429. On his return Devereux represented Herefordshire again in Parliament on 16 January 1430. He was listed on the subsidy rolls for Herefordshire of 12 January 1431 as holding his 1/3 of half a fee in Byford.

    Walter Devereux was appointed by the Duke of York as steward of his lordships of Radnor in 1435.[9] He represented Herefordshire in Parliament on 10 October 1435, and on 3 January 1436 was assigned to collect the tenth and fifteenth granted by the Parliament to the king.[10] Following York’s appointment as Lieutenant of France in May 1436, Devereux was probably in the army the Duke brought to Normandy to recapture Fecamp and hold the Pays de Caux.

    He represented Herefordshire in Parliament on 14 January 1440,[11] and was described as a knight coming to Parliament on 24 April 1440 when identified as responsible for the distribution of a sum excepted from the collection of the tenth and fifteenth granted by Parliament.[12] On 7 May 1440 Eustace Whitney of Whitney, and Mathew Hay of Chikwell committed to Walter Devereux the wardship and marriages of the daughters of John Walwayn (Ellen, Agnes, and Elizabeth) who were minors in the king’s care. This placed in his keeping two-thirds of a moiety of the manor of Wellington, and two-thirds of a moiety of the manor of Addesore, county Hereford; rendering for the keeping of Wellington 4L 3s 4d, and for Addesore 5s 4d. The grant was confirmed on 16 May 1441 by Devereux’s payment of 20L to the exchequer. On 8 June 1455 Urias and Elizabeth de la Hay; and Henry and Joan ap Griffith granted to Walter Devereux and his son; William Herbert; John Barrow, and Miles Skull a moiety of Wellington and Addesore manors; 100 acres of land and 20 shillings of rent in Wellington forever.[13][14]

    On 2 July 1440 the Duke of York was again appointed Lieutenant of France. On 28 January 1441 Walter Devereux was appointed Justice of the Peace for Herefordshire,[15] and on 18 February 1441 entrusted with collection of a tenth and fifteenth to fund an expedition by the Duke to defend English possessions in France.[16] In May 1441 Walter Devereux was granted protection and appointed an attorney while in France in the company of Richard, Duke of York.[17] During 1442 he was captain of the garrison at Arques (Normandy), and on 18 August led a garrison detachment to support the Siege of Conches, which surrendered on 7 September.[18][19] Henry VI diverted an army promised to York to the Duke of Somerset, and Devereux was back in England on 16 February 1443 when he was appointed again Justice of the Peace for Herefordshire.[20]

    In 1445 Walter Devereux was Bailly of Caus Castle in Shropshire.[21] On 18 November 1445 he was appointed to a commission to inquire why following the death of Sir John Cornewaill on 20 December 1243 his lands were not taken into the king’s hands.

    Early in 1446 Walter Devereux contracted a marriage for his son, Walter, with Anne Ferrers, daughter of William de Ferrers, 6th Baron Ferrers of Chartley; and entails manors on his son and new daughter-in-law. On 1 June 1446, he was entrusted with the collection of a loan for the king necessary for Henry VI’s meeting in October with the King of France to negotiate a final peace.[22]

    While attending Parliament, Devereux witnessed the Duke of York’s grant of land to the house of friars minors at Babewell by Bury St Edmunds on 28 February 1447.[23] On 9 November 1447 he was appointed Sheriff of Herefordshire.[8][24] The manor of Leominster was placed in Walter Devereux’s keeping with the assent of the monastery of Reading on 12 February 1448.[25] On 10 April 1448 Nicholas Poynes and John Langeley granted to Sir Walter and Elizabeth Devereux the manor of Dymock, Gloucestershire.[26] Later on 7 December 1452 William Wykes of Moreton Geffrey, and John Hille of Weobley further committed to Sir Walter and Elizabeth Devereux four parts of the manor of Dymock, which had been taken into the king’s hand.[27]

    On 30 July 1448 the Duke of York was appointed Lieutenant of Ireland, and Devereux was appointed Lord Chancellor of Ireland. They went to Ireland in June 1449, but in June 1450 Jack Cade’s Rebellion broke out signaling growing discontent in England with the rule of Henry VI. In September 1450 the Duke returned to England and had an angry meeting with the King. Devereux yielded his position as Chancellor,[e] and on 1 August 1450 was granted L13 6s 8d from the Irish revenue for life for good and laudable services in the English and French Wars.[28] He represented Herefordshire at the Parliament of 6 November 1450, and a recognizance to the king was placed on Walter Devereux and others for ¹200 to insure that Robert Poynings, a supporter of the rebellion, appeared before Parliament before 7 December. Devereux was again in attendance at Parliament on 20 January 1450, and when it resumed on 5 May 1450. On 17 April 1451 Walter Devereux was appointed to determine the yearly value of the county, castle, and lordship of Pembroke; the castles, towns and lordships of Kilgarran, Llanstephan, Osterlowe, Treyne Clynton, and St Clear in Herefordshire.[29]

    York declared his loyalty to the King at Ludlow in February 1452 stating that the Court should free itself from bad advisors. The King did not respond, and York took to the field with his supporters, which included Walter Devereux, and marched on London. The King eventually found York entrenched at Dartford Heath. The confrontation was resolved following minor skirmishing, but Devereux was attainted for treason by Parliament later that year. At this time, he began holding Wigmore Castle for the Yorkists.

    On 5 January 1453 Jasper and Edmund Tudor were formally invested as the Earls of Pembroke, and Richmond respectively. From this time forward the Tudors intermittently fought a private war with William Herbert and Walter Devereux. On 6 March 1453 Devereux’s son, now Lord Ferrers, represented Herefordshire in Parliament in his place. On 20 March Walter Devereux and William Wylflete were placed under a recognizance of 200L and 50 marks to John, Bishop of St David's, and on 15 May the bishop granted them a moiety of Narberth Castle.[30] On 26 March Walter Devereux of Weobley; William Herbert of Raglan; Humphrey Stafford of Frome; Thomas Throgmerton of Coughton; John Throgmerton of Tewkesbury; and John Cassy of Wightfeld were place under a recognisance to the king of 40L for the good behavior of Thomas Herbert of Billingsley. Devereux granted his part of 80 acres of land in Suthwyk and Peryowe to the Duke of York on 15 June 1453, so that he in turn could grant it to John Lynne.[31] On 14 December 1453 Walter Devereux and his son were appointed to investigate the escape of prisoners in Herefordshire.[32] Devereux was appointed on 22 February 1455 to investigate specifically the misdeeds of John Cassy.[33]

    In August 1453 Bordeaux was lost to the French, and Henry VI became mentally incapacitated. On 27 March 1454 the Duke of York was made Protector of the Realm, but on 25 December 1454 the king regained his senses and set about reversing the Duke’s actions.

    On 22 May 1455, the first Battle of St. Albans was fought north of London, traditionally recognized as the first battle of the War of the Roses. A Yorkist victory that included the capture of the King, the Battle of St. Albans restored the Duke of York to complete power. Shortly after the victory Parliament pardoned Walter Devereux on 9 July.[7] On 4 November 1455 he was appointed Sheriff of Gloucestershire.[34] He was also appointed Justice of the Peace for Gloucestershire and Herefordshire, and would continue to hold one or both of these positions for the rest of his life.[35]

    As the King and the Lancasterian party maneuvered to reverse their losses, lawlessness increased on the Welsh Marches. Walter Devereux, as Constable of Wigmore Castle, was up in arms.[36][37] In the summer of 1456, he descended on Hereford with the castle’s garrison and captured the mayor and justices. Devereux then brought before the justices several local men whom he had the justices condemn to death by hanging. He mustered a force of 2000 archers from Gwent, and marched on the castles at Carmarthen and Aberystwyth, which he took by assault.[38] Afterwards he declared a commission of Oyer and terminer to judge and condemn men whom he believed hostile to York. Among his prisoners were Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, and Robert Rees, Keeper of the Welsh Seal. The king placed Walter Devereux under a recognizance of 1000L on 26 September 1456 to be paid if he didn’t immediately turn himself in at Windsor Castle.[39] He, and his son, were also among a group of prominent Herefordshire Yorkists placed under another recognizance of 5000 marks on 2 June 1457 to be paid if they did not turn themselves in for imprisonment at Marshalsea.[40] Devereux, along with Humphrey Stafford and Clement Spryce, were placed under an additional recognizance of 2000 marks on 3 June to be paid if Humphrey Stafford did not turn himself in at Marshalsea.[41] In early 1458 Henry VI granted Walter Devereux a pardon as part of his general effort at reconciliation with the Yorkists, and this was followed by a grant of land in Drogheda in Ireland in 1459.[1]

    Death

    Walter Devereux died on the 22 or 23 April in 1459.[1] Three writs were issued between 27 April to 30 April 1459 to the escheators of Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Gloucestershire, the march of Wales, Lincolnshire, Bedfordshire, and London to make inquiry into his holdings.[42]

    General Reference

    Cokayne, G.E. Complete Baronetage. (New York; St. Martin's Press, 1984). Volume V, page 321 to 333, Ferrers
    Duncumb, John. Collections Towards the History and Antiquities of the County of Hereford, Volume 2, Issue 1. (Hereford: EG Wright, 1812). Page 37, Broxash Hundred
    Mosley, Charles (editor). Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1999. Page 1378

    *

    Walter married Elizabeth Merbury 0___ 1427. [Group Sheet]


  16. 107.  Elizabeth Merbury
    Children:
    1. 53. Anne Devereux was born ~ 1430, Bodenham, England; died > 25 June 1486.
    2. Walter Devereux, KG, 7th Baron Ferrers of Chartley was born 0___ 1432, Weobly, Herefordshire, England; died 22 Aug 1485, Bosworth Field, Leicestershire, England.

  17. 108.  Richard Wydeville, Duke of Bedford was born 0___ 1385 (son of John Wydeville and Isabel Godard); died 0___ 1441.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Richard Woodeville
    • Also Known As: Richard Wydeville of Grafton

    Richard — Joan Bittlesgate. Joan (daughter of Thomas Bittlesgate and Joan Beauchamp) was born Devon, England. [Group Sheet]


  18. 109.  Joan Bittlesgate was born Devon, England (daughter of Thomas Bittlesgate and Joan Beauchamp).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Joan Bedisgate

    Notes:

    Birth:
    at Knighteston...

    Children:
    1. 54. Richard Woodville, Knight, 1st Earl Rivers was born 0___ 1405, Maidstone, Kent, England; died 12 Aug 1469, Kenilworth, Warwickshire, England.

  19. 110.  Peter I, Count of Saint-Pol

    Peter — Margaret of Baux. [Group Sheet]


  20. 111.  Margaret of Baux (daughter of Francis of Baux and Sueva Orsini).
    Children:
    1. 55. Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Countess Rivers was born 1415-1416, Palace of Westminster, London, England; died 30 May 1472.

  21. 122.  Thomas Montacute, Knight, 4th Earl of Salisbury was born 13 Jun 1388, (Salisbury) England (son of John Montacute, KG, 3rd Earl of Salisbury and Maud Francis, Countess of Salisbury); died 3 Nov 1428, Orleans, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 6th and 3rd Baron Montacute
    • Also Known As: Count of Perche
    • Military: Siege of Harfleur
    • Military: Siege of Orleans

    Notes:

    Origins

    He was the eldest son of John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury (d.1400), who was killed while plotting against King Henry IV in 1400, and his lands forfeited, later partly retrieved by Thomas. His mother was Maud Francis, daughter of Sir Adam Francis (born ca. 1334), Mayor of London.

    Career

    Thomas was summoned to Parliament as Earl of Salisbury in 1409, although he was not formally invested as earl until 1421. In 1414 he was made a Knight of the Garter. In July 1415 he was one of the seven peers who tried Richard, Earl of Cambridge on charges of conspiring against King Henry V. Montacute then joined King Henry V in France, where he fought at the Siege of Harfleur and at the Battle of Agincourt. Montacute fought in various other campaigns in France in the following years. In 1419 he was appointed lieutenant-general of Normandy and created Count of Perche, part of Henry V's policy of creating Norman titles for his followers. He spent most of the rest of his life as a soldier in France, leading troops in the various skirmishes and sieges that were central to that part of the Hundred Years' War. In 1425 he captured the city of Le Mans and fought at the Siege of Orlâeans in 1428 at which he lost his life.

    Marriages & progeny[edit]
    He married twice:

    Firstly to Eleanor Holland, a sister and eventual co-heiress of Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent, and daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent. By Eleanor he had a daughter, his only legitimate child:
    Alice Montacute, who married Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, who succeeded his father-in-law jure uxoris as Earl of Salisbury.

    Secondly to Alice Chaucer, daughter of Thomas Chaucer and grand-daughter of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer.

    Death

    On 27 October 1428 he was wounded during the Siege of Orlâeans, when a cannonball broke a window near to where he stood, and died a few days later.

    Died:
    On 27 October 1428 he was wounded during the Siege of Orlâeans, when a cannonball broke a window near to where he stood, and died a few days later.

    Thomas married Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury 23 May 1399. Eleanor (daughter of Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent and Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent) was born 0___ 1386, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died Aft 1413, Bisham Manor, Bisham, Berkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  22. 123.  Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury was born 0___ 1386, Upholland, Lancashire, England (daughter of Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent and Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent); died Aft 1413, Bisham Manor, Bisham, Berkshire, England.
    Children:
    1. 61. Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury was born 18 Oct 1405, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England; died Bef 9 Dec 1462, Bisham, Berkshire, England.


Generation: 8

  1. 128.  John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de RabyJohn Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby was born 1337-1340, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England (son of Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby and Alice de Audley); died 17 Oct 1388, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: John de Neville

    Notes:

    John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, KG c.1337 - 17 October 1388) was an English peer and soldier.[a]

    John Neville, born at Raby Castle, Durham, between 1337 and 1340, was the eldest son of Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby, and Alice Audley. He had five brothers, including Alexander Neville, Archbishop of York, and four sisters.[1]

    Cokayne notes that Neville's public career was as active as his father's had been. He fought against the Scots at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 as a captain under his father, was knighted about 1360 after a skirmish near Paris while serving under Sir Walter Manny , and fought in Aquitaine in 1366, and again in 1373-4.

    At his father's death on 5 August 1367 he succeeded to the title, and had livery of his lands in England and Scotland in October of that year.

    From 1367 on he had numerous commissions issued to him, and in 1368 served as joint ambassador to France.[2] He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1369.[3]

    In July 1370 he was Admiral of the North, and in November of that year a joint commissioner to treat with Genoa . He was Steward of the King's Household in 1372, and in July of that year was part of an expedition to Brittany . For the next several years he served in Scotland and the Scottish Marches . In 1378 he had licence to fortify Raby Castle, and in June of the same year was in Gascony, where he was appointed Keeper of Fronsac Castle and Seneschal of Gascony .

    He spent several years in Gascony, and was among the forces which raised the siege of Mortaigne in 1381. On his return to England he was again appointed Warden of the Marches. In May 1383 and March 1387 he was a joint commissioner to treat of peace with Scotland, and in July 1385 was to accompany the King to Scotland.[4]

    Neville died at Newcastle upon Tyne on 17 October 1388. In his will he requested burial in Durham Cathedral by his first wife, Maud. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland .[5]

    Marriages and issue

    Neville married, before 1362, firstly, Maud Percy (d. before 18 February 1379), daughter of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick, Northumberland, and Idoine de Clifford, daughter of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford, by whom he had two sons and five daughters:[6]

    Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland.
    Sir Thomas Neville of Brancepeth, who married Maud Stanhope.
    Alice Neville, who married William Deincourt, 3rd Baron Deincourt.
    Maud Nevile.
    Idoine Neville.
    Eleanor Neville, who married Ralph de Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley.
    Elizabeth Neville, who became a nun.
    After his first wife Maud's death in 1379 Neville married secondly, before 9 October 1381, Elizabeth Latimer (d. 5 November 1395), daughter of William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, by whom he had a son and a daughter:[7]

    John Neville, 6th Baron Latimer (c.1382 – 10 December 1430), who married firstly, Maud Clifford (c.26 August 1446), daughter of Thomas de Clifford, 6th Baron de Clifford, whom he divorced before 1413x17, and by whom he had no issue. She married secondly, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge.[8]
    Elizabeth Neville, who married, before 27 May 1396, Sir Thomas Willoughby (died shortly before 20 August 1417) son of Robert Willoughby, 4th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (c.1348-50 – 9 August 1396), by whom she had one child, Sir John Willoughby (c.1400 – 24 February 1437).[9]
    After Neville's death, his widow, Elizabeth, married, as his second wife, Robert Willoughby, 4th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (c.1348-50 – 9 August 1396), by whom she had a daughter, Margaret Willoughby.[10]

    Birth:
    Raby Castle - history & images of this Neville Family Home ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raby_Castle

    John married Maud Percy 0Jul 1357, Alnwick, Northumberland, England. Maud (daughter of Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick and Idonia Clifford) was born Abt 1335, Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; died 18 Feb 1378; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 129.  Maud Percy was born Abt 1335, Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England (daughter of Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick and Idonia Clifford); died 18 Feb 1378; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Maud de Percy

    Notes:

    Maud's ahnentafel: https://histfam.familysearch.org//ahnentafel.php?personID=I1058&tree=EuropeRoyalNobleHous&parentset=0&generations=4

    Children:
    1. 64. Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland was born 0___ 1364, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; died 21 Oct 1425, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; was buried 0Oct 1425, St. Mary's Church, Staindrop, Durham, England.
    2. Eleanor de Neville, Baroness of Lumley was born ~ 1379, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died ~ 1441, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.
    3. Thomas Neville, Knight was born Hornby Castle, Hornby, Lancaster LA2 8LA, UK.

  3. 130.  John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of LancasterJohn of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster was born 6 Mar 1340, St. Bavo's Abbey, Ghent, Belgium (son of Edward III, King of England and Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England); died 3 Feb 1399, Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire, England; was buried 15 Mar 1399, St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Middlesex, England..

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Duke of Aquitaine
    • Also Known As: King of Castile

    Notes:

    John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then rendered in English as Gaunt. When he became unpopular later in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury.[2]

    As a younger brother of Edward, Prince of Wales (Edward, the Black Prince), John exercised great influence over the English throne during the minority of Edward's son, who became King Richard II, and the ensuing periods of political strife. Due to some generous land grants, John was one of the richest men in his era. He made an abortive attempt to enforce a claim to the Crown of Castile that came courtesy of his second wife Constance, who was an heir to the Castillian Kingdom, and for a time styled himself as such.

    John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, include Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. His other legitimate descendants include his daughters Queen Philippa of Portugal and Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter (by his first wife Blanche of Lancaster), and Queen Catherine of Castile (by his second wife Constance of Castile). John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The children of Katherine Swynford, surnamed "Beaufort," were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396. Descendants of this marriage include Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, a grandmother of Kings Edward IV and Richard III; John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, a great-grandfather of King Henry VII; and Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots, from whom are descended all subsequent sovereigns of Scotland beginning in 1437 and all sovereigns of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom from 1603 to the present day. The three houses of English sovereigns that succeeded the rule of Richard II in 1399 — the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor — were all descended from John's children Henry IV, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively. In addition, John's daughter Catherine of Lancaster was married to King Henry III of Castile, which made him the grandfather of King John II of Castile and the ancestor of all subsequent monarchs of the Crown of Castile and united Spain. Through John II of Castile's great-granddaughter Joanna the Mad, John of Gaunt is also an ancestor of the Habsburg rulers who would reign in Spain and much of central Europe.

    John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, the son of his first wife Blanche of Lancaster, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398 as resolution to a dispute between Henry and Thomas de Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk.[3] When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown, since King Richard II had named Henry a traitor and changed his sentence to exile for life.[3] Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England (1399–1413), the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England.

    Duke of Lancaster

    Kenilworth Castle, a massive fortress extensively modernised and given a new Great Hall by John of Gaunt after 1350
    John was the fourth son of King Edward III of England. His first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was also his third cousin, both as great-great-grandchildren of King Henry III. They married in 1359 at Reading Abbey as a part of the efforts of Edward III to arrange matches for his sons with wealthy heiresses. Upon the death of his father-in-law, the 1st Duke of Lancaster, in 1361, John received half his lands, the title "Earl of Lancaster", and distinction as the greatest landowner in the north of England as heir of the Palatinate of Lancaster. He also became the 14th Baron of Halton and 11th Lord of Bowland. John inherited the rest of the Lancaster property when Blanche's sister Maud, Countess of Leicester (married to William V, Count of Hainaut), died without issue on 10 April 1362.

    John received the title "Duke of Lancaster" from his father on 13 November 1362. By then well established, he owned at least thirty castles and estates across England and France and maintained a household comparable in scale and organisation to that of a monarch. He owned land in almost every county in England, a patrimony that produced a net income of between ¹8,000 and ¹10,000 a year.[4]

    After the death in 1376 of his older brother Edward of Woodstock (also known as the "Black Prince"), John of Gaunt contrived to protect the religious reformer John Wycliffe, possibly to counteract the growing secular power of the church.[5] However, John's ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. At a time when English forces encountered setbacks in the Hundred Years' War against France, and Edward III's rule was becoming unpopular due to high taxation and his affair with Alice Perrers, political opinion closely associated the Duke of Lancaster with the failing government of the 1370s. Furthermore, while King Edward and the Prince of Wales were popular heroes due to their successes on the battlefield, John of Gaunt had not won equivalent military renown that could have bolstered his reputation. Although he fought in the Battle of Nâajera (1367), for example, his later military projects proved unsuccessful.

    When Edward III died in 1377 and John's ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, John's influence strengthened. However, mistrust remained, and some[who?] suspected him of wanting to seize the throne himself. John took pains to ensure that he never became associated with the opposition to Richard's kingship. As de facto ruler during Richard's minority, he made unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, when the rebels destroyed his home in London, the Savoy Palace. Unlike some of Richard's unpopular advisors, John was away from London at the time of the uprising and thus avoided the direct wrath of the rebels.

    In 1386 John left England to seek the throne of Castile, claimed in Jure uxoris by right of his second wife, Constance of Castile, whom he had married in 1371. However, crisis ensued almost immediately in his absence, and in 1387 King Richard's misrule brought England to the brink of civil war. Only John, on his return to England in 1389, succeeded in persuading the Lords Appellant and King Richard to compromise to usher in a period of relative stability. During the 1390s, John's reputation of devotion to the well-being of the kingdom was largely restored.

    Sometime after the death of Blanche of Lancaster in 1368 and the birth of their first son, John Beaufort, in 1373, John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford, the daughter of an ordinary knight, entered into an extra-marital love affair that would produce four children for the couple. All of them were born out of wedlock, but legitimized upon their parents' eventual marriage. The adulterous relationship endured until 1381, when it was broken out of political necessity.[6] On 13 January 1396, two years after the death of Constance of Castile, Katherine and John of Gaunt married in Lincoln Cathedral. The children bore the surname "Beaufort" after a former French possession of the duke. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married. A later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne, the phrase excepta regali dignitate ("except royal status"), was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV.

    John died of natural causes on 3 February 1399 at Leicester Castle, with his third wife Katherine by his side.

    Military commander in France

    Because of his rank, John of Gaunt was one of England's principal military commanders in the 1370s and 1380s, though his enterprises were never rewarded with the kind of dazzling success that had made his elder brother Edward the Black Prince such a charismatic war leader.

    On the resumption of war with France in 1369, John was sent to Calais with the Earl of Hereford and a small English army with which he raided into northern France. On 23 August, he was confronted by a much larger French army under Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Exercising his first command, John dared not attack such a superior force and the two armies faced each other across a marsh for several weeks until the English were reinforced by the Earl of Warwick, at which the French withdrew without offering battle. John and Warwick then decided to strike Harfleur, the base of the French fleet on the Seine. Further reinforced by German mercenaries, they marched on Harfleur, but were delayed by French guerilla operations while the town prepared for a siege. John invested the town for four days in October, but he was losing so many men to dysentery and bubonic plague that he decided to abandon the siege and return to Calais. During this retreat, the army had to fight its way across the Somme at the ford of Blanchetaque against a French army led by Hugh de Chãatillon, who was captured and sold to Edward III. By the middle of November, the survivors of the sickly army returned to Calais, where the Earl of Warwick died of plague. Though it seemed an inglorious conclusion to the campaign, John had forced the French king, Charles V, to abandon his plans to invade England that autumn.[7]

    In the summer of 1370, John was sent with a small army to Aquitaine to reinforce his ailing elder brother, the Black Prince, and his younger brother Edmund of Langley, Earl of Cambridge. With them, he participated in the Siege of Limoges (September 1370). He took charge of the siege operations and at one point engaging in hand-to-hand fighting in the undermining tunnels.[8] After this event, the Black Prince surrendered his lordship of Aquitaine and sailed for England, leaving John in charge. Though he attempted to defend the duchy against French encroachment for nearly a year, lack of resources and money meant he could do little but husband what small territory the English still controlled, and he resigned the command in September 1371 and returned to England.[9] Just before leaving Aquitaine, he married the Infanta Constance of Castile on September 1371 at Roquefort, near Bordeaux, Guienne. The following year he took part with his father, Edward III, in an abortive attempt to invade France with a large army, which was frustrated by three months of unfavourable winds.

    Probably John's most notable feat of arms occurred in August–December 1373, when he attempted to relieve Aquitaine by the landward route, leading an army of some 9,000 mounted men from Calais on a great chevauchâee from north-eastern to south-western France on a 900 kilometre raid. This four-month ride through enemy territory, evading French armies on the way, was a bold stroke that impressed contemporaries but achieved virtually nothing. Beset on all sides by French ambushes and plagued by disease and starvation, John of Gaunt and his raiders battled their way through Champagne, east of Paris, into Burgundy, across the Massif Central, and finally down into Dordogne. Unable to attack any strongly fortified forts and cities, the raiders plundered the countryside, which weakened the French infrastructure, but the military value of the damage was only temporary. Marching in winter across the Limousin plateau, with stragglers being picked off by the French, huge numbers of the army, and even larger numbers of horses, died of cold, disease or starvation. The army reached English-occupied Bordeaux on 24 December 1373, severely weakened in numbers with the loss of least one-third of their force in action and another third to disease. Upon arrival in Bordeaux, many more succumbed to the bubonic plague that was raging in the city. Sick, demoralised and mutinous, the army was in no shape to defend Aquitaine, and soldiers began to desert. John had no funds with which to pay them, and despite his entreaties, none were sent from England, so in April 1374, he abandoned the enterprise and sailed for home.[10]

    John's final campaign in France took place in 1378. He planned a 'great expedition' of mounted men in a large armada of ships to land at Brest and take control of Brittany. Not enough ships could be found to transport the horses, and the expedition was tasked with the more limited objective of capturing St. Malo. The English destroyed the shipping in St. Malo harbour and began to assault the town by land on 14 August, but John was soon hampered by the size of his army, which was unable to forage because French armies under Olivier de Clisson and Bertrand du Guesclin occupied the surrounding countryside, harrying the edges of his force. In September, the siege was simply abandoned and the army returned ingloriously to England. John of Gaunt received most of the blame for the debãacle.[11]

    Partly as a result of these failures, and those of other English commanders at this period, John was one of the first important figures in England to conclude that the war with France was unwinnable because of France's greater resources of wealth and manpower. He began to advocate peace negotiations; indeed, as early as 1373, during his great raid through France, he made contact with Guillaume Roger, brother and political adviser of Pope Gregory XI, to let the pope know he would be interested in a diplomatic conference under papal auspices. This approach led indirectly to the Anglo-French Congress of Bruges in 1374–77, which resulted in the short-lived Truce of Bruges between the two sides.[12] John was himself a delegate to the various conferences that eventually resulted in the Truce of Leulinghem in 1389. The fact that he became identified with the attempts to make peace added to his unpopularity at a period when the majority of Englishmen believed victory would be in their grasp if only the French could be defeated decisively as they had been in the 1350s. Another motive was John's conviction that it was only by making peace with France would it be possible to release sufficient manpower to enforce his claim to the throne of Castile.

    Head of government

    On his return from France in 1374, John took a more decisive and persistent role in the direction of English foreign policy. From then until 1377, he was effectively the head of the English government due to the illness of his father and elder brother, who were unable to exercise authority. His vast estates made him the richest man in England, and his great wealth, ostentatious display of it, autocratic manner and attitudes, enormous London mansion (the Savoy Palace on the Strand) and association with the failed peace process at Bruges combined to make him the most visible target of social resentments. His time at the head of government was marked by the so-called Good Parliament of 1376 and the Bad Parliament of 1377. The first, called to grant massive war taxation to the Crown, turned into a parliamentary revolution, with the Commons (supported to some extent by the Lords) venting their grievances at decades of crippling taxation, misgovernment, and suspected endemic corruption among the ruling classes. John was left isolated (even the Black Prince supported the need for reform) and the Commons refused to grant money for the war unless most of the great officers of state were dismissed and the king's mistress Alice Perrers, another focus of popular resentment, was barred from any further association with him. But even after the government acceded to virtually all their demands, the Commons then refused to authorise any funds for the war, losing the sympathy of the Lords as a result.

    The death of the Black Prince on 8 June 1376 and the onset of Edward III's last illness at the closing of Parliament on 10 July left John with all the reins of power. He immediately had the ailing king grant pardons to all the officials impeached by the Parliament; Alice Perrers too was reinstated at the heart of the king's household. John impeached William of Wykeham and other leaders of the reform movement, and secured their conviction on old or trumped-up charges. The parliament of 1377 was John's counter-coup: crucially, the Lords no longer supported the Commons and John was able to have most of the acts of 1376 annulled. He also succeeded in forcing the Commons to agree to the imposition of the first Poll Tax in English history — a viciously regressive measure that bore hardest on the poorest members of society.[13] There was organised opposition to his measures and rioting in London; John of Gaunt's arms were reversed or defaced wherever they were displayed, and protestors pasted up lampoons on his supposedly dubious birth. At one point he was forced to take refuge across the Thames, while his Savoy Palace only just escaped looting.[14] It was rumoured (and believed by many people in England and France) that he intended to seize the throne for himself and supplant the rightful heir, his nephew Richard, the son of the Black Prince, but there seems to have been no truth in this and on the death of Edward III and the accession of the child Richard II, John sought no position of regency for himself and withdrew to his estates.[15]

    John's personal unpopularity persisted, however, and the failure of his expedition to Saint-Malo in 1378 did nothing for his reputation. By this time, too, some of his possessions were taken from him by the Crown. For example, his ship, the Dieulagarde, was seized and bundled with other royal ships to be sold (to pay off the debts of Sir Robert de Crull, who during the latter part of King Edward III's reign had been the Clerk of the King's Ships, and had advanced monies to pay for the king's ships .[16] During the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, John of Gaunt was far from the centre of events, on the March of Scotland, but he was among those named by the rebels as a traitor to be beheaded as soon as he could be found. The Savoy Palace was systematically destroyed by the mob and burned to the ground. Nominally friendly lords and even his own fortresses closed their gates to him, and John was forced to flee into Scotland with a handful of retainers and throw himself on the charity of King Robert II of Scotland until the crisis was over.[17]

    King of Castile

    Upon his marriage to the Infanta Constance of Castile in 1371, John assumed (officially from 29 January 1372) the title of King of Castile and Leâon in right of his wife, and insisted his fellow English nobles henceforth address him as 'my lord of Spain'.[18] He impaled his arms with those of the Spanish kingdom. From 1372, John gathered around himself a small court of refugee Castilian knights and ladies and set up a Castilian chancery that prepared documents in his name according to the style of Peter of Castile, dated by the Castilian era and signed by himself with the Spanish formula 'Yo El Rey' ("I, the King").[19] He hatched several schemes to make good his claim with an army, but for many years these were still-born due to lack of finance or the conflicting claims of war in France or with Scotland. It was only in 1386, after Portugal under its new King John I had entered into full alliance with England, that he was actually able to land with an army in Spain and mount a campaign for the throne of Castile (that ultimately failed). John sailed from England on 9 July 1386 with a huge Anglo-Portuguese fleet carrying an army of about 5,000 men plus an extensive 'royal' household and his wife and daughters. Pausing on the journey to use his army to drive off the French forces who were then besieging Brest, he landed at Corunna in northern Spain on 29 July.


    John of Gaunt dines with John I of Portugal, to discuss a joint Anglo-Portuguese invasion of Castile (from Jean de Wavrin's Chronique d'Angleterre).
    The Castilian king, John of Trastâamara, had expected John would land in Portugal and had concentrated his forces on the Portuguese border. He was wrong-footed by John's decision to invade Galicia, the most distant and disaffected of Castile's kingdoms. From August to October, John of Gaunt set up a rudimentary court and chancery at Ourense and received the submission of the Galician nobility and most of the towns of Galicia, though they made their homage to him conditional on his being recognised as king by the rest of Castile. While John of Gaunt had gambled on an early decisive battle, the Castilians were in no hurry to join battle, and he began to experience difficulties keeping his army together and paying it. In November, he met King John I of Portugal at Ponte do Mouro on the south side of the Minho River and concluded an agreement with him to make a joint Anglo-Portuguese invasion of central Castile early in 1387. The treaty was sealed by the marriage of John's eldest daughter Philippa to the Portuguese king. A large part of John's army had succumbed to sickness, however, and when the invasion was mounted, they were far outnumbered by their Portuguese allies. The campaign of April–June 1387 was an ignominious failure. The Castilians refused to offer battle and the Galician-Anglo-Portuguese troops, apart from time-wasting sieges of fortified towns, were reduced to foraging for food in the arid Spanish landscape. They were harried mainly by French mercenaries of the Castilian king. Many hundreds of English, including close friends and retainers of John of Gaunt, died of disease or exhaustion. Many deserted or abandoned the army to ride north under French safe-conducts. Shortly after the army returned to Portugal, John of Gaunt concluded a secret treaty with John of Trastâamara under which he and his wife renounced all claim to the Castilian throne in return for a large annual payment and the marriage of their daughter Catherine to John of Trastâamara's son Henry.

    Duke of Aquitaine

    John left Portugal for Aquitaine, and he remained in that province until he returned to England in November 1389. This effectively kept him off the scene while England endured the major political crisis of the conflict between Richard II and the Lords Appellant, who were led by John of Gaunt's younger brother Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester. Only four months after his return to England, in March 1390, Richard II formally invested Gaunt with the Duchy of Aquitaine, thus providing him with the overseas territory he had long desired. However he did not immediately return to the province, but remained in England and mainly ruled through seneschals as an absentee duke. His administration of the province was a disappointment, and his appointment as duke was much resented by the Gascons, since Aquitaine had previously always been held directly by the king of England or his heir; it was not felt to be a fief that a king could bestow on a subordinate. In 1394–95, he was forced to spend nearly a year in Gascony to shore up his position in the face of threats of secession by the Gascon nobles. He was one of England's principal negotiators in the diplomatic exchanges with France that led to the Truce of Leulingham in 1396, and he initially agreed to join the French-led Crusade that ended in the disastrous Battle of Nicopolis, but withdrew due to ill-health and the political problems in Gascony and England.[20] For the remainder of his life, John of Gaunt occupied the role of valued counsellor of the king and loyal supporter of the Crown. He did not even protest, it seems, when his younger brother Thomas was murdered at Richard's behest. It may be that he felt he had to maintain this posture of loyalty to protect his son Henry Bolingbroke (the future Henry IV), who had also been one of the Lords Appellant, from Richard's wrath; but in 1398 Richard had Bolingbroke exiled, and on John of Gaunt's death the next year he disinherited Bolingbroke completely, seizing John's vast estates for the Crown.

    Relationship to Chaucer

    John of Gaunt was a patron and close friend of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer, most famously known for his work The Canterbury Tales. Near the end of their lives, Lancaster and Chaucer became brothers-in-law. Chaucer married Philippa (Pan) de Roet in 1366, and Lancaster took his mistress of nearly 30 years, Katherine Swynford (de Roet), who was Philippa Chaucer's sister, as his third wife in 1396. Although Philippa died c. 1387, the men were bound as brothers and Lancaster's children by Katherine – John, Henry, Thomas and Joan Beaufort – were Chaucer's nephews and niece.

    Chaucer's Book of the Duchess, also known as the Deeth of Blaunche the Duchesse,[21] was written in commemoration of Blanche of Lancaster, John of Gaunt's first wife. The poem refers to John and Blanche in allegory as the narrator relates the tale of "A long castel with walles white/Be Seynt Johan, on a ryche hil" (1318–1319) who is mourning grievously after the death of his love, "And goode faire White she het/That was my lady name ryght" (948–949). The phrase "long castel" is a reference to Lancaster (also called "Loncastel" and "Longcastell"), "walles white" is thought to likely be an oblique reference to Blanche, "Seynt Johan" was John of Gaunt's name-saint, and "ryche hil" is a reference to Richmond; these thinly veiled references reveal the identity of the grieving black knight of the poem as John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Earl of Richmond. "White" is the English translation of the French word "blanche", implying that the white lady was Blanche of Lancaster.[22]

    Believed to have been written in the 1390s, Chaucer's short poem Fortune, is also inferred to directly reference Lancaster.[23][24] "Chaucer as narrator" openly defies Fortune, proclaiming he has learned who his enemies are through her tyranny and deceit, and declares "my suffisaunce" (15) and that "over himself hath the maystrye" (14). Fortune, in turn, does not understand Chaucer's harsh words to her for she believes she has been kind to him, claims that he does not know what she has in store for him in the future, but most importantly, "And eek thou hast thy beste frend alyve" (32, 40, 48). Chaucer retorts that "My frend maystow nat reven, blind goddesse" (50) and orders her to take away those who merely pretend to be his friends. Fortune turns her attention to three princes whom she implores to relieve Chaucer of his pain and "Preyeth his beste frend of his noblesse/That to som beter estat he may atteyne" (78–79). The three princes are believed to represent the dukes of Lancaster, York, and Gloucester, and a portion of line 76, "as three of you or tweyne," to refer to the ordinance of 1390 which specified that no royal gift could be authorised without the consent of at least two of the three dukes.[23] Most conspicuous in this short poem is the number of references to Chaucer's "beste frend". Fortune states three times in her response to the plaintiff, "And also, you still have your best friend alive" (32, 40, 48); she also references his "beste frend" in the envoy when appealing to his "noblesse" to help Chaucer to a higher estate. A fifth reference is made by "Chaucer as narrator" who rails at Fortune that she shall not take his friend from him. While the envoy playfully hints to Lancaster that Chaucer would certainly appreciate a boost to his status or income, the poem Fortune distinctively shows his deep appreciation and affection for John of Gaunt.

    Marriages

    Coat of arms of John of Gaunt asserting his kingship over Castile and Leâon, combining the Castilian castle and lion with lilies of France, the lions of England and his heraldic difference

    On 19 May 1359 at Reading Abbey, John married his third cousin, Blanche of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. The wealth she brought to the marriage was the foundation of John's fortune. Blanche died on 12 September 1368 at Tutbury Castle, while her husband was overseas. Their son Henry Bolingbroke became Henry IV of England, after the duchy of Lancaster was taken by Richard II upon John's death while Henry was in exile. Their daughter Philippa became Queen of Portugal by marrying King John I of Portugal in 1387. All subsequent kings of Portugal were thus descended from John of Gaunt.

    In 1371, John married Infanta Constance of Castile, daughter of King Peter of Castile, thus giving him a claim to the Crown of Castile, which he would pursue. Though John was never able to make good his claim, his daughter by Constance, Catherine of Lancaster, became Queen of Castile by marrying Henry III of Castile. Catherine of Aragon is descended from this line.

    During his marriage to Constance, John of Gaunt had fathered four children by a mistress, the widow Katherine Swynford (whose sister Philippa de Roet was married to Chaucer). Prior to her widowhood, Katherine had borne at least two, possibly three, children to Lancastrian knight Sir Hugh Swynford. The known names of these children are Blanche and Thomas. (There may have been a second Swynford daughter.) John of Gaunt was Blanche Swynford's godfather.[25]
    Constance died in 1394.

    John married Katherine in 1396, and their children, the Beauforts, were legitimised by King Richard II and the Church, but barred from inheriting the throne. From the eldest son, John, descended a granddaughter, Margaret Beaufort, whose son, later King Henry VII of England, would nevertheless claim the throne.

    Queen Elizabeth II and her predecessors since Henry IV are descended from John of Gaunt.

    Children

    1640 drawing of tombs of Katherine Swynford and daughter Joan Beaufort

    By Blanche of Lancaster:

    Philippa (1360–1415) married King John I of Portugal (1357–1433).
    John (1362–1365) was the first-born son of John and Blanche of Lancaster and lived possibly at least until after the birth of his brother Edward of Lancaster in 1365 and died before his second brother another short lived boy called John in 1366.[26] He was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester.
    Elizabeth (1364–1426), married (1) in 1380 John Hastings, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1372–1389), annulled 1383; married (2) in 1386 John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter (1350–1400); (3) Sir John Cornwall, 1st Baron Fanhope and Milbroke (d. 1443)
    Edward (1365) died within a year of his birth and was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester.
    John (1366–1367) most likely died after the birth of his younger brother Henry, the future Henry IV of England; he was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester
    Henry IV of England (1367–1413) married (1) Mary de Bohun (1369–1394); (2) Joanna of Navarre (1368–1437)
    Isabel (1368–1368)[27][28]

    By Constance of Castile:

    Catherine (1372–1418), married King Henry III of Castile (1379–1406)
    John (1374–1375)[28][29]

    By Katherine Swynford (nâee de Roet/Roelt), mistress and later wife (children legitimised 1397):

    John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373–1410)—married Margaret Holland.
    Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester and Cardinal (1375–1447)
    Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter (1377–1427), married Margaret Neville, daughter of Sir Thomas de Neville and Joan Furnivall.
    Joan Beaufort (1379–1440)—married first Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem and second Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland.

    By Marie de St. Hilaire of Hainaut, mistress:

    Blanche (1359–1388/89), illegitimate, married Sir Thomas Morieux (1355–1387) in 1381, without issue. Blanche was the daughter of John's mistress, Marie de St. Hilaire of Hainaut (1340-after 1399), who was a lady-in-waiting to his mother, Queen Philippa. The affair apparently took place before John's first marriage to Blanche of Lancaster. John's daughter, Blanche, married Sir Thomas Morieux in 1381. Morieux held several important posts, including Constable of the Tower the year he was married, and Master of Horse to King Richard II two years later. He died in 1387 after six years of marriage.

    Buried:
    St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London. Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604.[1] The present church, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren. Its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London.[2]

    The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, dominated the skyline for 300 years.[3] At 365 feet (111 m) high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1962. The dome is among the highest in the world. St Paul's is the second largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral.

    St Paul's Cathedral occupies a significant place in the national identity.[4] It is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz.[4] Services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Winston Churchill; Jubilee celebrations for Queen Victoria; peace services marking the end of the First and Second World Wars; the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer, the launch of the Festival of Britain and the thanksgiving services for the Golden Jubilee, the 80th Birthday and the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.

    St Paul's Cathedral is a working church with hourly prayer and daily services.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral

    Died:
    Leicester Castle was built over the Roman town walls.

    According to Leicester Museums, the castle was probably built around 1070 (soon after the Norman Conquest in 1066)[2] under the governorship of Hugh de Grantmesnil. The remains now consist of a mound, along with ruins. Originally the mound was 40 ft (12.2 m) high. Kings sometimes stayed at the castle (Edward I in 1300, and Edward II in 1310 and 1311), and John of Gaunt and his second wife Constance of Castile both died here in 1399 and 1394 respectively.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leicester_Castle

    John married Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster 0___ 1396, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. Katherine (daughter of Paon de Roet, Knight and unnamed spouse) was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France; died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 131.  Katherine de Roet, Duchess of LancasterKatherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France (daughter of Paon de Roet, Knight and unnamed spouse); died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Katherine Swynford

    Notes:

    Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster (also spelled Katharine or Catherine[2]), was the third wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, a son of King Edward III. She had been the Duke's lover for many years before their marriage. The couple's children, born before the marriage, were later legitimated during the reign of the Duke's nephew, Richard II, although with the provision that neither they nor their descendants could ever claim the throne of England.

    Their descendants were members of the Beaufort family, which played a major role in the Wars of the Roses. Henry VII, who became King of England in 1485, derived his claim to the throne from his mother Margaret Beaufort, who was a great-granddaughter of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford. His legal claim to the throne, however, was through a matrilineal and previously illegitimate line and Henry's first action was to declare himself king "by right of conquest" retroactively from 21 August 1485, the day before his army defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth.[3]

    Family

    Katherine was the daughter of Paon de Roet, a herald, and later knight, who was "probably christened as Gilles".[4] She had two sisters, Philippa and Isabel (also called Elizabeth) de Roet, and a brother, Walter. Isabel later became Canoness of the convent of St. Waudru's, Mons, c. 1366. Katherine is generally held to have been his youngest child. However, Alison Weir argues that Philippa was the junior and that both were children of a second marriage.[4] Katherine's sister Philippa, a lady of Queen Philippa's household, married the poet Geoffrey Chaucer.

    Life

    She was probably born in Hainaut in 1349 or 1350. Katherine's birth date may have been 25 November, as that is the feast day of her patron, St. Catherine of Alexandria.[citation needed] The family returned to England in 1351, and it is likely that Katherine stayed there during her father's continued travels.

    In about 1366, at St Clement Danes Church, Westminster, Katherine, aged sixteen or seventeen, contracted an advantageous marriage with "Hugh" Ottes Swynford, a Knight from the manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire, the son of Thomas Swynford by his marriage to Nicole Druel. She had the following children by him: Blanche (born 1 May 1367), Thomas (21 September 1368 – 1432), and possibly Margaret Swynford (born about 1369), later recorded as a nun of the prestigious Barking Abbey nominated by command of King Richard II.

    Katherine became attached to the household of John of Gaunt as governess to his daughters Philippa of Lancaster and Elizabeth of Lancaster. The ailing duchess Blanche had Katherine's daughter Blanche (her namesake) placed within her own daughters' chambers and afforded the same luxuries as her daughters; additionally, John of Gaunt stood as godfather to the child.

    Some time after Blanche's death in 1368 and the birth of their first son in 1373, Katherine and John of Gaunt entered into a love affair that would produce four children for the couple, born out of wedlock but legitimized upon their parents' eventual marriage; the adulterous relationship endured until 1381 when it was truncated out of political necessity[5] and ruined Katherine's reputation. On 13 January 1396, two years after the death of the Duke's second wife, Infanta Constance of Castile, Katherine and John of Gaunt married in Lincoln Cathedral. Records of their marriage kept in the Tower and elsewhere list: 'John of Ghaunt, Duke of Lancaster, married Katharine daughter of Guyon King of Armes in the time of K. Edward the 3, and Geffrey Chaucer her sister'.

    On John of Gaunt's death, Katherine became known as dowager Duchess of Lancaster. She outlived him by four years, dying on 10 May 1403, in her early fifties, an age that most of the women in the 15th century did not reach.

    Tomb

    Katherine Swynford's tomb in 1809
    Katherine's tomb and that of her daughter, Joan Beaufort, are under a carved-stone canopy in the sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral. Joan's is the smaller of the two tombs; both were decorated with brass plates — full-length representations of them on the tops, and small shields bearing coats of arms around the sides and on the top — but those were damaged or destroyed in 1644 during the English Civil War. A hurried drawing by William Dugdale records their appearance.

    Children and descendants

    Katherine's children by Hugh Swynford were:

    Margaret Swynford (born c. 1369), became a nun at the prestigious Barking Abbey in 1377 with help from her future stepfather John of Gaunt, where she lived the religious life with her cousin Elizabeth Chaucer, daughter of the famous Geoffrey Chaucer and Katherine's sister Philippa de Roet.[4]
    Sir Thomas Swynford (1367–1432), born in Lincoln while his father Sir Hugh Swynford was away on a campaign with the Duke of Lancaster in Castile fighting for Peter of Castile.[4][6]
    Blanche Swynford, named after the Duchess of Lancaster and a godchild of John of Gaunt. (If, as suggested, she was born after 1375, this date is too late for her to have been fathered by Hugh Swynford, who died in 1371/2. However, since John of Gaunt obtained a dispensation for his marriage to Katherine for being Blanche Swynford's godchild, this theory can be discarded).[4]
    In 1846 Thomas Stapleton suggested that there was a further daughter named Dorothy Swynford, born c. 1366, who married Thomas Thimelby of Poolham near Horncastle, Lincolnshire, Sheriff of Lincolnshire in 1380, but there is no current evidence to support this claim.[4]

    Katherine's children by John of Gaunt were:

    John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373–1410)
    Henry, Cardinal Beaufort (1375–1447)
    Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter (1377–1426)
    Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland (1379–1440)
    The descendants of Katherine Swynford and John of Gaunt are significant in English and Scottish history. Their four children had been given the surname "Beaufort" and with the approval of King Richard II and the Pope were legitimated as adults by their parents' marriage in 1396. Despite this, the Beauforts were barred from inheriting the throne of England by a clause in the legitimation act inserted by their half-brother, Henry IV, although modern scholarship disputes the authority of a monarch to alter an existing parliamentary statute on his own authority, without the further approval of Parliament. This provision was later revoked by Edward IV, placing Katherine's descendants (including himself) back within the legitimate line of inheritance; the Tudor dynasty was directly descended from John and Katherine's eldest child, John Beaufort, great-grandfather of Henry VII, who based his claim to the throne on his mother's descent from John of Gaunt, a son of Edward III. John Beaufort also had a daughter named Joan Beaufort, who married James I of Scotland and thus was an ancestress of the House of Stuart.[7] John and Katherine's daughter, Joan Beaufort, was grandmother of the English kings Edward IV and Richard III, the latter of whom Henry Tudor (thus becoming by conquest Henry VII) defeated at the Battle of Bosworth Field; Henry's claim was strengthened by marrying Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV. It was also through Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland that the sixth queen of Henry VIII, Catherine Parr, descended.[8] John of Gaunt's son — Katherine's stepson Henry of Bolingbroke — became Henry IV after deposing Richard II (who was imprisoned and died in Pontefract Castle, where Katherine's son, Thomas Swynford, was constable and is said to have starved Richard to death for his step-brother). John of Gaunt's daughter by his first marriage to Blanche of Lancaster, Philippa of Lancaster, was great-great-grandmother to Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII and mother of Mary I of England. John of Gaunt's child by his second wife Constance, Catherine (or Catalina), was great-grandmother of Catherine of Aragon as well.

    In literature

    Katherine Swynford is the subject of Anya Seton's novel Katherine (published in 1954) and of Alison Weir's 2008 biography Katherine Swynford: The Story of John of Gaunt and his Scandalous Duchess (ISBN 0-224-06321-9). Swynford is also the subject of Jeannette Lucraft's historical biography Katherine Swynford: The History of a Medieval Mistress. This book seeks to establish Swynford as a powerful figure in the politics of 14th-century England and an example of a woman's ability to manipulate contemporary social mores for her own interests.

    Coat of arms of Katherine Swynford as Duchess of Lancaster, after her marriage to John of Gaunt : three gold Catherine wheels ("roet" means "little wheel" in Old French) on a red field. The wheel emblem shows Katherine's devotion to her patron saint, Catherine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel.,[4] although there was once extant a copy of her seal's impression, ca. 1377, showing her arms of three Catherine wheels of gold on a field Gules, a molet in fess point empaling the arms of Swynford (Birch's Catalogue of Seals

    Buried:
    Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. Mary's Cathedral) is a cathedral located in Lincoln in England and seat of the Bishop of Lincoln in the Church of England. Building commenced in 1088 and continued in several phases throughout the medieval period. It was reputedly the tallest building in the world for 238 years (1311–1549).[1][2][3] The central spire collapsed in 1549 and was not rebuilt. The cathedral is the third largest in Britain (in floor space) after St Paul's and York Minster, being 484 by 271 feet (148 by 83 m). It is highly regarded by architectural scholars; the eminent Victorian writer John Ruskin declared: "I have always held... that the cathedral of Lincoln is out and out the most precious piece of architecture in the British Isles and roughly speaking worth any two other cathedrals we have."

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln_Cathedral

    Notes:

    Married:
    formerly his mistress...

    Children:
    1. John Beaufort, III, Knight, 1st Earl of Somerset was born 1371-1373, Chateau de Beaufrot, Anjou, France; died 14 Mar 1410, Hospital of St. Katherine's by the Tower, London, England; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    2. Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter was born 0___ 1377; died 0___ 1427.
    3. 65. Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland was born ~ 1379, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France; died 13 Nov 1440, Howden, Yorkshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

  5. 132.  Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 12th Earl of Warwick was born 16 Mar 1338, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England (son of Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick); died 10 Apr 1401, (Warwickshire) England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Sheriff of Worcestershire
    • Military: Admiral of the North Fleet

    Notes:

    Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, KG (16 March 1338 - 8 April 1401[1]) was an English medieval nobleman, and one of the primary opponents of Richard II.

    Birth and Marriage

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel; Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester; Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham; Henry, Earl of Derby (later Henry IV); and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, throw down their gauntlets and demand Richard II to let them prove by arms the justice for their rebellion

    He was the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine Mortimer,[2] a daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, and succeeded his father in 1369. He married Margaret Ferrers, daughter of Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Margaret d'Ufford, daughter of Robert d'Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk.

    Royal Service

    Seal of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick
    Knighted around 1355,[2] Beauchamp accompanied John of Gaunt in campaigns in France in 1373, and around that time was made a Knight of the Garter. In the parliaments of 1376 and 1377 he was one of those appointed to supervise reform of King Richard II's government. When these were not as effective as hoped, Beauchamp was made Governor over the King. He brought a large contingent of soldiers and archers to King Richard's Scottish campaign of 1385.

    Conflict with King Richard II

    In 1387 he was one of the Lords Appellant, who endeavored to separate Richard from his favorites. After Richard regained power, Beauchamp retired to his estates, but was charged with high treason in 1397, supposedly as a part of the Earl of Arundel's alleged conspiracy. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London (in what is now known as the "Beauchamp Tower"), pleaded guilty and threw himself on the mercy of the king. He forfeited his estates and titles, and was sentenced to life imprisonment on the Isle of Man. The next year, however, he was moved back to the Tower, until he was released in August 1399 after Henry Bolingbroke's initial victories over King Richard II.

    Restored by Bolingbroke

    After Bolingbroke deposed Richard and became king as Henry IV, Beauchamp was restored to his titles and estates. He was one of those who urged the new King to execute Richard, and accompanied King Henry against the rebellion of 1400.

    Death

    Monumental effigies of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick and his wife
    Beauchamp died in 1401 (sources differ as to whether on 8 April or 8 August).[3]

    Succession

    He was succeeded by his son Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick.

    Died:
    (sources differ as to whether on 8 April or 8 August)

    Thomas — Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick. Margaret (daughter of William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Margaret de Ufford) was born ~ 1347, Groby, Leicestershire, England; died 22 Jan 1407, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried St. Mary's, Warwick, Warwickshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 133.  Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick was born ~ 1347, Groby, Leicestershire, England (daughter of William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Margaret de Ufford); died 22 Jan 1407, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried St. Mary's, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Will: 28 Nov 1406

    Notes:

    About

    history

    Margaret Ferrers1,2,3,4,5,6,7

    F, #15405, b. circa 1361, d. 22 January 1407
    Father Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby2,3,4,8,6,9 b. 28 Feb 1333, d. 8 Jan 1371
    Mother Margaret de Ufford2,3,4,8,6,9 d. b 25 May 1368
    Margaret Ferrers was born circa 1361. She married Sir Thomas Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, Admiral of the North Fleet, Sheriff of Worcestershire, son of Sir Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, Sheriff of Worcestershire, Warwickshire, & Leicestershire, Marshal of England and Katherine de Mortimer, before April 1381; They had 1 son (Richard, Earl of Warwick) and 2 daughters (Katherine; & Margaret).2,4,5,6,7 Margaret Ferrers left a will on 28 November 1406.4,6 She died on 22 January 1407; Buried at south part of the collegiate church at St. Mary's, Warwick.2,4,6

    Family Sir Thomas Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, Admiral of the North Fleet, Sheriff of Worcestershire b. b 16 Mar 1339, d. 8 Apr 1401

    Child

    Sir Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl Warwick, Earl of Albemarle & Worcester, Lord Abergavenny, Sheriff of Worcestershire+2,4,6 b. 25 Jan 1382 or 28 Jan 1382, d. 30 Apr 1439

    Citations

    [S4153] Unknown author, Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles by Gerald Paget, Vol. I, p. 87; Plantagenet Ancestry of 17th Century Colonists, by David Faris, p. 13.
    [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 72.
    [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 208.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 145-146.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 298.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 296-297.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 155.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 297-298.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 154.
    From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p513.htm#i15405
    ___________________

    Margaret Ferrers
    F, #3485, d. 27 January 1407
    Last Edited=21 Aug 2005
    Margaret Ferrers was the daughter of Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Lord Ferrers (of Groby) and Margaret d'Ufford. She married Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine Mortimer.1 She died on 27 January 1407. She was also reported to have died on 22 January 1407.1
    She lived at Groby, Leicestershire, England.
    Child of Margaret Ferrers and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick
    Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick+ b. 25 Jan 1381/82, d. 30 Apr 1439
    Citations
    [S125] Richard Glanville-Brown, online , Richard Glanville-Brown (RR 2, Milton, Ontario, Canada), downloaded 17 August 2005.
    From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p349.htm#i3485
    _______________________

    Margaret FERRERS
    Died: 22 Jan 1406
    Buried: St Mary's, Warwick
    Father: William FERRERS (3º B. Ferrers of Groby)
    Mother: Margaret De UFFORD
    Married: John De BEAUCHAMP / Thomas De BEAUCHAMP (12° E. Warwick) Apr 1434
    Children:
    1. Richard BEAUCHAMP (2º B. Powis) (b. 1436 - d. ABT 19 Apr 1475 / Jan 1503) (m. Elizabeth Stafford)
    From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/FERRERS.htm#Margaret FERRERS1
    _____________________

    Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, Count of Aumale, KG (25 or 28 January 1382[1] – 30 April 1439) was an English medieval nobleman and military commander.
    Beauchamp was born at Salwarpe in Worcestershire,[2] the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, and Margaret, a daughter of William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby.[1] His godfather was King Richard II.[2]
    He was knighted at the coronation of King Henry IV and succeeded to the Earldom of Warwick in 1401.[3]
    .... etc.
    Warwick first married Elizabeth de Berkeley (born ca.1386 – 28 December 1422) before 5 October 1397,[6] the daughter of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Lord Berkeley and the Baroness Margaret de Lisle. Together they had 3 daughters:
    Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury (1404–1468), who married John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, and whose great-great-grandson John Dudley was created Earl of Warwick and subsequently Duke of Northumberland;
    Eleanor, Duchess of Somerset, (b 1407) who married Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros and then married Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset;
    Elizabeth, Baroness Latimer of Snape, (b 1417) who married George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer.
    Warwick then married Isabel le Despenser (26 July 1400–1439), the daughter of Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Constance of York. With Isabel, who was also the widow of his cousin Richard Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, his children were:
    Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, (born March 1425) who succeeded his father as Earl of Warwick, and later became Duke of Warwick;
    Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick, (b September 1426) who was theoretically Countess of Warwick in her own right (after the death of her infant niece and namesake), and who married Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.
    Richard de Beauchamp's will was made at Caversham Castle in Oxfordshire (now Berkshire), one of his favoured residences, in 1437. Most of his property was entailed, but with a portion of the rest the will established a substantial trust. After his debts were paid the trust endowed the Collegiate Church of St Mary in Warwick, and called for the construction of a new chapel there. It also enlarged the endowment of the chantries at Elmley Castle and Guy's Cliffe, and gave a gift to Tewkesbury Abbey.[8] Beauchamp died in Rouen, Normandy, two years later, on 30 April 1439.[9] After the completion of the chapel, his body was transferred there (in 1475),[8] where his magnificent gilt-bronze monumental effigy may still be seen.
    From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_de_Beauchamp,_13th_Earl_of_Warwick
    __________________

    Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 04
    Beauchamp, Richard de (1382-1439) by James Gairdner
    BEAUCHAMP, RICHARD de, Earl of Warwick (1382–1439), a brave and chivalrous warrior in an age of chivalry, of an ancient family, whose ancestry was traced to the legendary Guy of Warwick, was the son of Thomas, earl of Warwick [see Beauchamp, Thomas de], by Margaret his wife, daughter of William, Lord Ferrers of Groby. He was born at Salwarp, in Worcestershire, on 28 Jan. 1382. His godfathers at baptism were King Richard II and Richard Scrope, afterwards archbishop of York, .... etc.
    The earl was twice married. His first wife was Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Thomas, Lord Berkley, by whom he had three daughters. His second, whom he married by papal dispensation, was Isabella, widow of his cousin, Richard Beauchamp, earl of Worcester, who was slain at Meaux in 1422. It was by this second marriage that he had his son and heir, Henry [see Beauchamp, Henry de].
    [Dugdale's Baronage; Dugdale's Warwickshire, i. 408-11; Cotton MS. Julius, E iv.; Walsingham's Historia Anglicana and Ypodigma Neustriµ; Fabyan; Hall; Gregory, in Gairdner's Historical Collections of a London Citizen; Leland's Itinerary, vi. 89; Paston Letters, No. 18; Rymer, ix.-x.]
    From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Beauchamp,_Richard_de_(1382-1439)_(DNB00)
    https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati04stepuoft#page/29/mode/1up to https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati04stepuoft#page/31/mode/1up
    ___________________

    Margaret Ferrers[1,2]

    - 22 Jan 1406/1407
    Sex Female

    Lived In England

    Complete *

    Died 22 Jan 1406/1407

    Buried St.Mary's, Warwick

    Person ID I00101306 Leo

    Last Modified 15 Jun 2009

    Father William de Ferrers, 3rd Lord Ferrers of Groby, b. est 1333

    Mother Margaret de Ufford

    Family ID F00044073 Group Sheet

    Family Thomas de Beauchamp, 4th Earl of Warwick, b. Bef 16 Mar 1339

    Married Bef Apr 1381

    Children

    1. Richard de Beauchamp, 5th Earl of Warwick, b. Jan 1381, Salwarpe, co Worcester

    2. Katherine de Beauchamp
    3. Margaret de Beauchamp
    4. Katherine de Beauchamp
    5. Elizabeth de Beauchamp
    Last Modified 15 Jun 2009

    Family ID F00044072 Group Sheet

    Sources

    1. [S00010] A Genealogical History of the dormant, abeyant, forfeited and extinct peerages of the British Empire, London, 1866, Burke, Sir Bernard, Reference: 31

    2. [S00058] The Complete Peerage, 1936 , Doubleday, H.A. & Lord Howard de Walden, Reference:

    Children:
    1. 66. Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick was born 28 Jan 1381, Salwarpe, Worcestershire, England; died 30 Apr 1439, Rouen, Normandy, France; was buried 4 Oct 1439, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

  7. 134.  Thomas de Berkeley was born 5 Jan 1352, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England (son of Maurice Berkeley, Knight, 4th Baron Berkeley and Elizabeth Despencer); died 13 Jul 1417, Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England; was buried Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England.

    Thomas married Margaret Lisle 0Nov 1367, Wingrave, Buckingham, England. Margaret (daughter of Warin de Lisle, Knight, Baron de Lisle and Margaret Pipard) was born ~ 1359, Kingston Lisle, Sparsholt, Berkshire, England; died 20 Mar 1392; was buried Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 135.  Margaret Lisle was born ~ 1359, Kingston Lisle, Sparsholt, Berkshire, England (daughter of Warin de Lisle, Knight, Baron de Lisle and Margaret Pipard); died 20 Mar 1392; was buried Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England.
    Children:
    1. 67. Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick was born 0___ 1386, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England; died 28 Dec 1422; was buried Kingswood Abbey, Kingswood, Gloucestershire, England.

  9. 138.  Thomas of Woodstock was born 7 Jan 1355, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England (son of Edward III, King of England and Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England); died 8 Sep 1397, Calais, France.

    Notes:

    Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Buckingham, 1st Earl of Essex, KG (7 January 1355 – 8 or 9 September 1397) was the fourteenth and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was the fifth of the five sons of Edward III who survived to adulthood.

    Early life

    Thomas was born 7 January 1355 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire after two short-lived brothers, one of whom had also been baptised Thomas.[2] He married Eleanor de Bohun by 1376,[3] was given Pleshey castle in Essex, and was appointed Constable of the Realm.[2] The younger sister of Woodstock's wife, Mary de Bohun, was subsequently married to Henry of Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby, who later became King Henry IV of England.

    In 1377, at the age of 22, Woodstock was knighted[2] and created Earl of Buckingham.[4] In 1385 he received the title Duke of Aumale and at about the same time was created Duke of Gloucester.[5]

    Campaign in Brittany[edit]

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel; Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester; Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham; Henry, Earl of Derby (later Henry IV); and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, demand Richard II to let them prove by arms the justice for their rebellion

    Murder of Thomas of Woodstock.

    Arms of Thomas of Woodstock quartering arms of his father-in-law Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford (1341-1373), father of his wife Eleanor de Bohun (c.1366-1399). Royal Arms of England with in the 4th quarter the arms of Bohun (Azure, a bend argent cotised or between six lions rampant or). 15th century stained glass, west window, St Peter's Church, Tawstock, Devon. Tawstock was a seat of William Bourchier, jure uxoris Baron FitzWarin (1407-1470) (a descendant of Thomas of Woodstock's daughter Anne of Gloucester), who had married the heiress of Tawstock
    Thomas of Woodstock was in command of a large campaign in northern France that followed the Breton War of Succession of 1343–64. The earlier conflict was marked by the efforts of John IV, Duke of Brittany to secure control of the Duchy of Brittany against his rival Charles of Blois. John was supported in this struggle by the armies of the kingdom of England, whereas Charles was supported by the kingdom of France. At the head of an English army, John prevailed after Charles was killed in battle in 1364, but the French continued to undermine his position, and he was later forced into exile in England. He returned to Brittany in 1379, supported by Breton barons who feared the annexation of Brittany by France. An English army was sent under Woodstock to support his position. Due to concerns about the safety of a longer shipping route to Brittany itself, the army was ferried instead to the English continental stronghold of Calais in July 1380.[6] As Woodstock marched his 5,200 men east of Paris, they were confronted by the army of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, at Troyes, but the French had learned from the Battle of Crâecy in 1346 and the Battle of Poitiers in 1356 not to offer a pitched battle to the English. Eventually, the two armies simply marched away. French defensive operations were then thrown into disarray by the death of King Charles V of France on 16 September 1380. Woodstock's chevauchâee continued westwards largely unopposed, and in November 1380 he laid siege to Nantes and its vital bridge over the Loire towards Aquitaine.[6] However, he found himself unable to form an effective stranglehold, and urgent plans were put in place for Sir Thomas Felton to bring 2,000 reinforcements from England. By January, though, it had become apparent that the duke of Brittany was reconciled to the new French king Charles VI and, with the alliance collapsing and dysentery ravaging his men, Woodstock abandoned the siege.[6]

    Dispute with King Richard II

    Thomas of Woodstock was the leader of the Lords Appellant, a group of powerful nobles whose ambition to wrest power from Thomas's nephew, King Richard II of England, culminated in a successful rebellion in 1388 that significantly weakened the king's power. Richard II managed to dispose of the Lords Appellant in 1397, and Thomas was imprisoned in Calais to await trial for treason.

    During that time he was murdered, probably by a group of men led by Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, and the knight Sir Nicholas Colfox, presumably on behalf of Richard II. This caused an outcry among the nobility of England that is considered by many to have added to Richard's unpopularity.

    Marriage & progeny

    Thomas married Eleanor de Bohun (c.1366-1399), the elder daughter and co-heiress with her sister, Mary de Bohun, of their father Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford (1341-1373). Thomas of Woodstock had by his wife Eleanor the following five children:

    Humphrey, 2nd Earl of Buckingham (c. 1381 - 2 September 1399)
    Anne of Gloucester (c. 1383 - 1438) who married thrice: Firstly to Thomas Stafford, 3rd Earl of Stafford;[7] Secondly to Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford; Thirdly to William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu (1374-1420)
    Joan (1384 - 16 August 1400) married Gilbert Talbot, 5th Lord Talbot (1383–1419). She died in childbirth.
    Isabel (12 March 1385/1386 - April 1402)
    Philippa (c. 1388), died young

    As he was attainted as a traitor, his dukedom of Gloucester was forfeit. The title Earl of Buckingham was inherited by his son, who died in 1399 only two years after his own death. Thomas of Woodstock's eldest daughter, Anne, married into the powerful Stafford family, who were Earls of Stafford. Her son, Humphrey Stafford was created Duke of Buckingham in 1444 and also inherited part of the de Bohun estates.

    The other part of these estates — including the Earldom of Hereford, which had belonged to Mary de Bohun and had then become incorporated into the holdings of the House of Lancaster — became a matter of contention in the latter 15th century.

    In literature

    Thomas of Woodstock's murder plays a prominent part in William Shakespeare's play Richard II, though he is dead at the time of the play's beginning.
    He also is the subject of Thomas of Woodstock, another Elizabethan drama by an anonymous playwright. Because of its stylistic affinities to Shakespeare's play, it is also called Richard the Second Part One.

    Died:
    Thomas of Woodstock was the leader of the Lords Appellant, a group of powerful nobles whose ambition to wrest power from Thomas's nephew, King Richard II of England, culminated in a successful rebellion in 1388 that significantly weakened the king's power. Richard II managed to dispose of the Lords Appellant in 1397, and Thomas was imprisoned in Calais to await trial for treason.

    During that time he was murdered, probably by a group of men led by Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, and the knight Sir Nicholas Colfox, presumably on behalf of Richard II. This caused an outcry among the nobility of England that is considered by many to have added to Richard's unpopularity.

    Thomas — Eleanor de Bohun. Eleanor (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Knight and Joan FitzAlan) was born ~ 1366, (Hereford, Herefordshire, England); died 0___ 1399. [Group Sheet]


  10. 139.  Eleanor de Bohun was born ~ 1366, (Hereford, Herefordshire, England) (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Knight and Joan FitzAlan); died 0___ 1399.
    Children:
    1. 69. Anne of Gloucester was born 30 Apr 1383; died 16 Oct 1438, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire, Wales.

  11. 160.  John de Vere, 7th Earl of OxfordJohn de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford was born 12 Mar 1312, Hedingham Castle, Essex, England (son of Alphonse de Vere and Jane Foliot); died 24 Jan 1360.

    Other Events:

    • Military: Captain of Edward III

    Notes:

    John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford (c. 12 March 1312 – 24 January 1360) was the nephew and heir of Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford who succeeded as Earl of Oxford in 1331, after his uncle died without issue.

    John de Vere was a trusted captain of Edward III in the king's wars in Scotland and France, and took part in both the Battle of Crâecy and the Battle of Poitiers. He died campaigning in France in 1360. Throughout his career he was closely associated with William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton, who was his brother-in-law.

    Family background and marriage[edit]
    John de Vere was the only son of Alphonse de Vere, and Jane, daughter of Sir Richard Foliot. Alphonse was a younger son of Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford and apparently died shortly before 20 December 1328, when a writ was issued for inquisitions post mortem into the land that he held direct from the King. These hearings established that Alphonse's next heir was his son John, then aged 15 years and more. The manors concerned were Aston Sandford, Buckinghamshire, Westwick by St Albans and Great Hormead, Hertfordshire, as well as property at Beaumont and Althorne in Essex.[1]

    Alphonse was a brother of Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford.[2] When the 6th Earl's son died without issue in 1329, he obtained licence from the king to entail his estates on his nephew, John.[3] It was in this way that John de Vere, when his uncle died 17 April 1331, became Earl of Oxford. He had made homage and received livery by 17 May.[4]

    In 1336 John married Maud de Badlesmere, who was the second of the four daughters of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, of Badlesmere in Kent and Margaret de Clare. Maud was a co-heiress of her brother Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere. When Giles died in 1338, this brought a significant part of the Badlesmere inheritance into de Vere's hands. The marriage also forged a strong bond with William Bohun, Earl of Northampton, who had married Badlesmere's third daughter, Elizabeth de Badlesmere, and thus became Oxford's brother-in-law.[2][5] The two campaigned together, sat on the same commissions and died the same year.[2]

    Career

    De Vere's military career began with service on Edward III's Scottish campaigns, in the 1330s Second War of Scottish Independence. He took part in the Roxburgh campaign of 1334–5, and in the summer campaign of 1335.[2] Later in the decade, England's military efforts turned towards France, with the beginning of the Hundred Years' War. In March 1340, de Vere served in Flanders, and was therefore out of the country during Edward's disputes with Archbishop John de Stratford. Oxford was not forced to take sides in the conflict, and has been described as a "political neutral".[6]

    After a period in England, de Vere returned to the Continent in 1342, where he served with Northampton, who had been made lieutenant of Brittany. They both took part in the Battle of Morlaix that year. The next year the two earls were sent to Scotland to relieve Lochmaben Castle, and in 1345 they were again campaigning in Brittany. Tradition has it that, returning to England, their ships were forced ashore by bad weather, and the party was robbed of their possessions by the locals.[2] In the summer of 1346 de Vere was campaigning with the king in Normandy, and took part in the Battle of Crâecy. According to the chronicler Froissart, de Vere was fighting with the Black Prince, and was among the captains who sent a request to Edward III for reinforcements when the king famously answered 'Let the boy win his spurs'.[2] Oxford was also at the Siege of Calais, but reportedly fell ill in 1348, and did not take part in any major campaigning until 1355.[2]

    In 1355 he was again in the company of the Black Prince, and took part in the prince's great raid in Languedoc. 19 September 1356, at the Battle of Poitiers, Oxford was in command of the vanguard together with the earl of Warwick. de Vere's attack on the flank of the French cavalry, with a group of archers, did much to secure the English victory.[2] His last campaign was Edward III's Rheims campaign in 1359–60. Here he died, probably during the raid into Burgundy, on 23 or 24 January 1360.[2][7] He was buried in the de Vere family's burial place Colne Priory in Essex.[2]

    Descendants and assessment

    Maud de Vere died in 1366. The couple had four sons and three daughters.[8] The eldest son, John, married Elizabeth Courtenay, daughter of Hugh Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon, but died before his father, in 1350.[9] (After the death of her husband, Elizabeth married Sir Andrew Luttrell of Chilton (in Thorverton), Devon.) Another son, Robert, also died in his father's lifetime. The eldest remaining son was then Thomas, born about 1336 or 1337, who succeeded his father in 1360. Thomas's son Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford succeeded at his father's death, but with Robert's forfeiture in 1392, the earldom was given to Robert's uncle Aubrey – the seventh earl's fourth son. The eldest daughter, Margaret, married three times, while of the second, Matilda, little is known.[10] The third daughter, Elizabeth, married Sir Hugh Courtenay, eldest son and heir of Hugh de Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon.[11]

    John de Vere, in the family tradition of the "fighting de Veres",[12] was active in almost all major military engagements in the years from 1340 to 1360.[13] On the Roxburgh campaign he brought a retinue of twenty-eight men-at-arms and twelve mounted archers.[2] In Brittany in 1342, the retinue had grown to forty men-at-arms, one banneret, nine knights, twenty-nine esquires, and thirty mounted archers.[12] His retinue was of a diverse composition, and also included foreign mercenaries.[14] At one point, in the Battle of Poitiers, John Hawkwood, who was later to make his fortune as a condottiero in Italy, also served with de Vere.[15] Yet in spite of this, de Vere never distinguished himself particularly as a military commander. Neither did he receive a great amount of royal patronage, and was never made a member of the Order of the Garter. This was largely a consequence of the de Vere family's relatively modest resources among the English peerage. As an example can be mentioned that in the late 1340, ¹349 were owed to Oxford in arrears for his services, yet at the same time the king owed Northampton two debts of ¹782 and ¹1237.[16] This obstacle of resources and status John de Vere was unable to overcome either by marriage or warfare.[2]

    John married Maude de Badlesmere, Countess of Oxford 0___ 1336. Maude (daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, Knight, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere) was born 0___ 1310, Badlesmere Manor, Kent, England; died 24 May 1366, Hall Place, Earl's Colne, Essex, England; was buried Colne Priory, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 161.  Maude de Badlesmere, Countess of Oxford was born 0___ 1310, Badlesmere Manor, Kent, England (daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, Knight, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere); died 24 May 1366, Hall Place, Earl's Colne, Essex, England; was buried Colne Priory, Essex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Maud de Badlesmere

    Notes:

    Maud de Badlesmere, Countess of Oxford (1310 – May 1366) was an English noblewoman, and the wife of John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford. She, along with her three sisters, was a co-heiress of her only brother Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere, who had no male issue.

    At the age of 11 she was imprisoned in the Tower of London along with her mother, Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere and her four siblings, after the former refused Queen consort Isabella admittance to Leeds Castle and ordered an assault upon her when she attempted entry.

    Family

    Maud was born at Castle Badlesmere, Kent, England in 1310, the second eldest daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare. She had three sisters, Margery, Elizabeth, and Margaret; all of whom eventually married and had issue. She had one brother, Giles.

    Her paternal grandparents were Guncelin de Badlesmere and Joan FitzBernard, and her maternal grandparents were Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond and Juliana FitzGerald of Offaly.

    On 14 April 1322, when she was twelve years of age, Maud's father was hanged, drawn and quartered by orders of King Edward II, following his participation in the Earl of Lancaster's rebellion and his subsequent capture after the Battle of Boroughbridge. Maud, her siblings,[1] and her mother had been arrested the previous October after the latter had ordered an assault upon Queen consort Isabella after refusing her admittance to Leeds Castle where Baron Badlesmere held the post of governor.[2] Maud's mother, Baroness Badlesmere, remained imprisoned in the Tower of London until 3 November 1322,[3] although it is not known when Maud and her siblings were released. Her brother Giles obtained a reversal of their father's attainder in 1328, and he succeeded to the barony as 2nd Baron Badlesmere. Maud, along with her three sisters, was Giles's co-heiress, as he had married but fathered no children by his wife, Elizabeth Montagu.

    Marriages and issue

    In June 1316, Maud, aged six, married her first husband, Robert FitzPayn, son of Robert FitzPayn. Welsh historian R. R. Davies relates in his book, Lords and lordship in the British Isles in the late Middle Ages how her father, Lord Badlesmere, when drawing up the marriage contract, sought to provide for Maud's future by ensuring that she would have independent means. He granted her land worth 200 marks per year, and her future father-in-law was constrained to endow her with three manors and their revenues.[4] The marriage did not produce children; and on an unknown date sometime before March 1335 Maud married secondly, John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford. Upon her marriage, Maud assumed the title Countess of Oxford. John was a captain in King Edward III's army, and as such participated in the Battle of Crâecy and the Battle of Poitiers.

    The marriage produced seven children:[5]

    John de Vere (December 1335- before 23 June 1350), married Elizabeth de Courtney as her first husband.
    Thomas de Vere, 8th Earl of Oxford (1336- 18 September 1371), married Maud de Ufford, by whom he had a son Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford
    Aubrey de Vere, 10th Earl of Oxford (1338- 15 February 1400), married Alice FitzWalter, by whom he had three children, including Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford
    Robert de Vere (died 1360)
    Elizabeth de Vere (died 23 September 1375), married firstly in 1341, Sir Hugh de Courtney, by whom she had one son, Hugh de Courtney, Lord Courtney; she married secondly John de Mowbray, 3rd Lord Mowbray; she married thirdly on 18 January 1369 Sir William Costyn
    Margaret de Vere (died 15 June 1398), married firstly Henry de Beaumont, 3rd Baron Beaumont (4 April 1340- 17 June 1369), the son of John de Beaumont, 2nd Baron Beaumont and Eleanor of Lancaster, by whom she had issue; she married secondly Sir Nicholas de Loveyne; she married thirdly after 1375 Sir John Devereux, by whom she had issue.
    Maud de Vere

    In June 1338, Maud's brother Giles died without leaving any legitimate issue. A considerable portion of the Badlesmere estates was inherited by Maud and her husband.

    Maud died at the de Vere family mansion Hall Place in Earls Colne, Essex in May 1366 at the age of fifty-six years. Evidence given at the various inquisitions post mortem held after her death differ as to whether she died on the 19th, 23rd or 24th day of the month.[6] This source gives details of her numerous properties which were to be found in Essex and six other counties.

    Maud was buried in Colne Priory. Her husband had died in 1360.

    who was the second of the four daughters of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, of Badlesmere in Kent and Margaret de Clare.

    Children:
    1. 80. Aubrey de Vere, Knight, 10th Earl of Oxford was born ~ 1338, Hedingham Castle, Essex, England; died 15 Feb 1400; was buried Hadleigh, Essex, England.
    2. Margaret de Vere, Baroness de Vere was born 0___ 1344, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England; died 15 Jun 1398, England; was buried Grey Friars, London, Middlesex, England.

  13. 162.  John FitzWalter, 3rd Lord FitzWalter was born ~ 1315 (son of Robert Fitzwalter, 2nd Lord FitzWalter and Joan de Multon); died 18 Oct 1361.

    John married Alianore Percy ~ 1342. Alianore (daughter of Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick and Idonia Clifford) was born ~ 1336, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ; died Bef 1361. [Group Sheet]


  14. 163.  Alianore Percy was born ~ 1336, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ (daughter of Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick and Idonia Clifford); died Bef 1361.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Eleanor Percy

    Children:
    1. 81. Alice FitzWalter was born ~ 1343, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; died 29 Apr 1401, (England).

  15. 166.  Edmund FitzAlan, Knight was born ~ 1327, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (son of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Isabe le Despenser, Countess of Arundel); died 1376-1382, Sussex, England.

    Notes:

    Sir Edmund de Arundel, knt (b ca 1327; d 1376-1382), bastardized by the annulment. Edmund was nevertheless knighted, married at the age of twenty, in the summer of 1347 [2] Sybil de Montacute, a younger daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, whose elder sister Elizabeth was married to his maternal uncle (the uncle may have arranged this marriage).

    Edmund protested his bastardization bitterly in 1347, but was apparently ignored. After his father's death in 1376, Edmund disputed his half-brother Richard's inheritance of the earldom and associated lands and titles in 1376 and apparently tried to claim the six manors allotted to his deceased mother. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1377, and finally freed through the intervention of two of his brothers-in-law (his wife's brother John de Montacute and the second husband of Elizabeth de Montacute, Lady Le Despencer).[2] They had three daughters who were his co-heiresses and who brought a failed suit in 1382 against their half-uncle the Earl:

    Elizabeth de Arundel, who married Sir Leonard Carew and has descendants

    Philippa de Arundel (died 18 May 1452), married (as his 2nd wife) Sir Richard Sergeaux, Knt, of Colquite, Cornwall.[3] A Victorian historical novel[citation needed] ascribes the following five children to her: a) Richard, born 21 December 1376, and died childless, 24 June 1396; b) Elizabeth, born 1379, wife of Sir William Marny; c) Philippa, born 1381, wife of Robert Passele; d) Alice, born at Kilquyt, 1 September 1384, wife of Guy de Saint Albino; e) Joan, born 1393, died 21 February 1400. "Philippa became a widow, 30 September 1393, and died 13 September 1399." (I.P.M., 17 Ric. II., 53; 21 Ric. II., 50; 1 H. IV., 14, 23, 24.)[citation needed]*** Alice Sergeaux later Countess of Oxford (c. 1386-18 May 1452), married 1stly Guy de St Aubyn of St. Erme, Cornwall, and 2ndly about 1406-7 as his 2nd wife, the 11th Earl of Oxford and widower of Alice de Holand (dsp. 1406, niece of Henry IV, and mother of two sons by him

    John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
    Robert de Vere, whose grandson, John, became the 15th Earl of Oxford.

    Edmund married Sybil Montacute ~ 1356. Sybil (daughter of William Montagu, Knight, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury) was born (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England). [Group Sheet]


  16. 167.  Sybil Montacute was born (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England) (daughter of William Montagu, Knight, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury).
    Children:
    1. 83. Philippa Arundel was born ~ 1351, (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England); died 18 May 1452.
    2. Elizabeth FitzAlan was born ~ 1349, (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England); died ~ 1386, Arundel, Sussex, England.

  17. 212.  Walter Devereux was born 25 Dec 1387, Bodeham, Herefordshire, England (son of Walter Devereux, Knight and Agnes Crophull); died 0___ 1420.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Walter Deverois

    Notes:

    Sir Walter Devereux of Bodenham was a prominent knight of Herefordshire during the reigns of Henry IV and Henry V. He is the ancestor of the Devereux Earls of Essex and Viscounts of Hereford.

    Childhood and Ancestry

    Walter Devereux was born on Christmas Day 1387,[1][2] and was 15 years old at the death of his father, Walter Devereux of Weobley.[3] He inherited only part of the lands of his father, and his mother, Agnes Crophull,[a] held the majority of his estates in dower during his lifetime.[4]

    His arms were: Argent a fesse gules, in chief three torteaux.

    Career

    Walter Devereux assumed a position in the retinue of Henry IV following the death of his father on 25 July 1402 at the Battle of Pilleth. On 13 December 1402 Sir Edmund Mortimer declared his rebellion against Henry IV, but Devereux stayed loyal to the king. He was probably present at the Battle of Shrewsbury on 21 July 1403, and subsequently was knighted.[b] Sir Walter Devereux was placed on a Commission of array for Herefordshire on 8 September 1403 to raise troops for the defense against the king’s enemies who have lately invaded the realm.[5] It is probable that Devereux was present when Henry IV faced off with a combined Welsh and French force in South Wales during the summer of 1405, but no major battle occurred and the English force had dispersed by October of that year. Devereux remained an important supporter of the efforts to suppress the rebellion in Wales as Prince Henry assumed responsibility for the fight. Walter Devereux would be among 14 men below the rank of baron who would be retained for life by Prince Henry (the future Henry V).[6]

    In 1406 Welsh raiders damaged Lyonshall Castle in the heart of Devereux territory. Walter Devereux shared a claim on the castle with the family of his distant cousin John Devereux, 1st Baron Devereux. These claims could only be inherited through the male line, and would result in the castle finally passing to his son in the 1430s. When the daughter of John Devereux, Joan 3rd Baroness Devereux and Baroness Fitzwalter, died on 11 May 1409 she still possessed Lyonshall. On 24 May 1409 an order was issued to the escheator and sheriff of Herefordshire to take the castle into the king’s hands, and arrest ‘certain of the king’s lieges’ who had entered and held it with a strong hand to the contempt of the king. This is probably a reference to Walter Devereux trying to assert his claim.

    As described in Shakespeare's plays, there is suggestion that when Henry V assumed the throne on 20 March 1413, the new king did not favor the companions of his youth who had supported him in his struggles with the partisans of his father, Henry IV. This loss of favor may have contributed to the shift of the Devereux family into the retinue of the newly reinstated Earl of March, and ultimately into the affinity of the House of York.

    On 12 November 1414 John and Agnes Cheverell granted for 200 marks to Agnes Crophul, mother of Walter Devereux, and her heirs 1 messuage, 20 acres of land, 5 acres of meadow, and 7 acres of pasture in Whitchurch maund; the manor and rent of Whitchurch maund; 7 messuages, 1 toft, 243 acres of land, 26 acres of meadow, and 28 acres of wood in Bodenham, which encompassed all the land concessions of Walter Devereux’s ancestor, William Devereux of Bodenham, to Baron John Devereux.

    Walter Devereux went with Henry V to France along with his brothers, Sir John Devereux[7] and Sir Richard Devereux.[8][9] He fought at the Siege of Harfleur, and the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415.

    On 2 May 1417 Geoffrey Harley, Richard Hull, and John Monnington granted to John Merbury, and Agnes Crophul, his wife and the heirs of their body: Weobley Castle, and the manors of Weobley, Cotesbach, and Newbold Verdon; the manors of Arnold, Treswell, Hyde, Hemington (in Lockington), Sutton Bonington, Leake, Thrumpton, Braunstone, and the manor and vill of Market Rasen; 3 knights’ fees in Weobley, Straddle (in Vowchurch), Cusop, and Little Marcle in Herefordshire, one and a quarter knights’ fees in Bitterly and Blithelow (in Bishop's Castle) in Shropshire; 60 shillings of rent and the view of frankpledge of Skeffington in Leicestershire; the advowsons in Leicestershire of the priory of Grace Dieu; the churches of Braunstone, Skeffington, and Cotesbach; a fourth part of the church of Bosworth, the advowson of Ludlow in Shropshire; and a fourth part of a water mill in Luton and Wheathampstead (Bedfordshire). These lands would all pass together to the Devereux family following the marriage of Walter Devereux’s son to John Merbury’s daughter from a previous marriage.

    On 3 November 1417 Walter Devereux acquired 3 messuages, 7 tofts, 1 dovecote, 273 acres of land, 20 acres of meadow, 15 acres of pasture and 22 shillings 6 pence of rent in Lyde Muscegros, Lyde Godfrey, Lyde Saucy, and Lyde Prior in Herefordshire.[10] They would remain in the possession of the Devereux family for the next 100 years.

    On 20 January 1418 John Walwyn died holding a moiety of the manors of Wellington and Addesore, and left a widow and three underage daughters who became the wards of Walter Devereux. Walwyn’s widow died in 1419, and the next year the eldest daughter, Elena wife of Richard Monington, proved her full age before the escheator and jurors.[11]

    Death

    Walter Devereux died in 1419, and the escheator of Hereford and the adjacent march of Wales was ordered to take his lands in hand on 20 November 1419.[1][12]

    Marriage

    Walter Devereux married about 1409 to Elizabeth Maud Bromwich, daughter of Sir Thomas Bromwich.[3][1][13] They had at least one son, Walter Devereux his heir, in 1411, and a daughter, Elizabeth.[14][15][c]

    General Reference

    Brydges, Sir Egerton. "Collins's Peerage of England; Genealogical, Biographical, and Historical. Greatly Augmented, and Continued to the Present Time." (London: F.C. and J. Rivington, Otridge and Son; J. Nichols and Co.; T. Payne, Wilkie and Robinson; J. Walker, Clarke and Sons; W. Lowndes, R. Lea, J. Cuthell, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Co.; White, Cochrane, and Co.; C. Law, Cadell and Davies; J. Booth, Crosby and Co.; J. Murray, J. Mawman, J. Booker, R. Scholey, J. Hatchard, R. Baldwin, Craddock and Joy; J. Fauldner, Gale, Curtis and Co.; Johnson and Co.; and G. Robinson, 1812). Volume VI, pages 1 to 22, Devereux, Viscount Hereford
    Duncumb, John. "Collections Towards the History and Antiquities of the County of Hereford." (Hereford: E.G. Wright, 1812). Part I of Volume II, page 37 and 49, Broxash Hundred
    Mosley, Charles (editor). Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1999. Page 1378
    Robinson, Charles J. "A History of the Castles of Herefordshire and their Lords." (Woonton: Logaston Press, 2002). pages 125 to 129, Lyonshall Castle

    *

    Walter married Elizabeth Bromwich ~ 1409. [Group Sheet]


  18. 213.  Elizabeth Bromwich (daughter of Thomas Bromwich and unnamed spouse).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Elizabeth Maud Bromwich

    Children:
    1. 106. Walter Devereux was born 0___ 1411, Bodeham, Herefordshire, England; died 23 Apr 1459.

  19. 216.  John Wydeville was born 0___ 1341 (son of Richard de Wydeville and unnamed spouse); died 8 Sep 1403.

    John married Isabel Godard 0___ 1379. Isabel (daughter of John de Lyons and Alice de St. Liz) was born 5 Apr 1345; died 23 Nov 1392. [Group Sheet]


  20. 217.  Isabel Godard was born 5 Apr 1345 (daughter of John de Lyons and Alice de St. Liz); died 23 Nov 1392.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isabel Gobion

    Children:
    1. 108. Richard Wydeville, Duke of Bedford was born 0___ 1385; died 0___ 1441.

  21. 218.  Thomas Bittlesgate was born 0___ 1350, (England) (son of John Bittlesgate and unnamed spouse); died 31 Dec 1360, England.

    Thomas — Joan Beauchamp. Joan (daughter of John de Beauchamp and Joan de Bridport) was born 0___ 1360; died 0___ 1368. [Group Sheet]


  22. 219.  Joan Beauchamp was born 0___ 1360 (daughter of John de Beauchamp and Joan de Bridport); died 0___ 1368.
    Children:
    1. 109. Joan Bittlesgate was born Devon, England.

  23. 222.  Francis of Baux

    Francis — Sueva Orsini. [Group Sheet]


  24. 223.  Sueva Orsini (daughter of Nicola Orsini and Jeanne de Sabran).
    Children:
    1. 111. Margaret of Baux

  25. 244.  John Montacute, KG, 3rd Earl of Salisbury was born 1327-1350, Donyatt, Somersetshire, England (son of John Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute and Margaret Monthermer); died 5 Jan 1400, Cirencester, Gloucester, England; was buried Bisham Priory, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 5th and 2nd Baron Montacute
    • Also Known As: Baron Montacute
    • Also Known As: John Montague

    Notes:

    Early life

    He was the son of Sir John de Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute (died in 1390), and Margaret de Monthermer.[3] His father was the younger brother of William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury. His mother was the daughter of Thomas de Monthermer, 2nd Baron de Monthermer (1301 – Battle of Sluys, 1340), and Margaret Teyes (died in 1349), and granddaughter and heiress of Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer, and Joan of Acre.[4] As a young man Montagu or Montacute distinguished himself in the war with France, and then went to fight against the pagans in Prussia, probably on the expedition led by Henry Bolingbroke (the future Henry IV of England). Bolingbroke was to entrust his young son and heir, later Henry V, to the care of Sir John and his wife Maud following the death of his wife Mary de Bohun. Lady Margaret cared for the young boy at a Montacute house in Welsh Bicknor near Monmouth until her death in 1395.

    He was summoned to parliament in 1391 as Baron Montagu. Montagu was a favorite of the King during the early years of the reign of Richard II. He accompanied the King during his expeditions to Ireland in 1394 and 1395, and as a privy councillor was one of the principal advocates of the King's marriage to Isabella of Valois. During the trips to France associated with the marriage, he met and encouraged Christine de Pisan, whose son was educated in the Montacute household. Montacute was a prominent Lollard, and was remonstrated by the King for this.

    With the death of his mother around this time, John inherited the barony of Monthermer and its estates. In 1397, he became Earl of Salisbury on the death of his uncle and inherited Bisham Manor and other estates. He continued as one of the major aristocratic allies of King Richard II, helping to secure the fall of the Duke of Gloucester and the Earl of Warwick. He persuaded the king to spare the life of Warwick. He received a portion of the forfeited Warwick estates, and in 1399 was made a Knight of the Garter.

    Early in 1399, he went to on a successful mission to France to prevent the proposed marriage of Henry Bolingbroke and a daughter of the Duke of Berry. In May, he again accompanied Richard II on an expedition to Ireland. When news reached them of that Bolingbroke had returned to England, Montacute was sent to Wales to raise opposing forces. When these deserted, Montacute advised King Richard to flee to Bordeaux. Instead Richard was imprisoned, Henry took the throne and, in the October, Montacute was arrested along with many of Richard's former councillors, and held in the Tower of London.

    Issue

    By Maud Francis, John had three sons and three daughters:

    Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury (c. 1388–1428), married firstly Lady Eleanor Holland, daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent and Lady Alice FitzAlan by whom he had issue.[3] Their descendants include Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick and Queen consort Catherine Parr, sixth wife of Henry VIII. Thomas married secondly, Alice Chaucer by whom he had no issue.[3][5]

    Robert Montecute, married Mary deDevon

    Richard Montacute (d. after 1400), never married; died d.s.p (decessit sine prole).[3][6][7]

    Anne Montacute (d.1457), who married firstly (as his 2nd wife) Sir Richard II Hankford[3] (c.1397-1431) of Annery, Monkleigh in Devon, feudal baron of Bampton in Devon.[8] Their descendants include Queen consort Anne Boleyn, second wife of Henry VIII. After the death of Sir Richard, Anne married secondly Sir John FitzLewis by whom she had further issue, and thirdly, she married John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter by whom she had no issue.[3][9]

    Margaret Montacute (d. before 1416), married William Ferrers, 5th Baron Ferrers of Groby; no issue.[3][5]

    Elizabeth Montacute (d. about 1448), married Robert Willoughby, 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby;[3] they had one daughter, Joan, who became suo jure 7th Baroness.[10]

    Downfall and death

    Montacute had to answer charges related to the arrest and subsequent death of the Duke of Gloucester in 1397. Eventually he was released, due to the intercession of King Henry's sister Elizabeth, Countess of Huntingdon. Not long after his release, Montacute joined with the Earl of Huntingdon and a group of other barons in the Epiphany Rising, a plot to kill King Henry IV and restore Richard II. After the plot failed, mob violence ensued, and he was caught by a mob of townspeople at Cirencester, held without trial, and executed by beheading on 7 January 1400. His eldest son, Thomas – by Maud Francis daughter of London citizen, Adam Francis – eventually recovered the earldom, though the attainder against John Montacute was not reversed until the accession of Edward IV in 1461.

    end of biography

    John MONTAGUE (3º E. Salisbury)

    Born: ABT 1327 / 1350, Donyatt, Somersetshire, England

    Died: 5 Jan 1399/00, Cirencester, Gloucester, England

    Buried: Salisbury Cathedral, Wiltshire, England

    Notes: Knight of the Garter. Lord Montagu [1299], Lord Monthermer [1309], and Lord Montagu [1357], nephew and heir, being son and heir of the Earl's younger brother John (sum. to Parl. in 1357), by Margaret, according to modern doctrine suo jure Baroness Monthermer, daughter and heir of Thomas (De Monthermer), Lord Monthermer (d. 1340). He succeeded his father, 25 Feb 1389/90, when he was aged 39, and his mother, 24 Mar 1394/5. In 1369 he was knighted by the Earl of Cambridge in the field at Bourdeilles, and in 1383 was the King's Knight. In the 15th year of Richard II he obtained leave to serve in Prussia. He was sum. to Parl. 23 Nov 1392 to 30 Nov 1396, as Lord Montagu (1357); and, as Earl of Salisbury, to the succeeding Parl. of Richard II (18 Jul and 15 Oct 1397, and 19 Aug 1399) and to the 1st Parl. of Henry IV (30 Sep 1399). Chief Commissioner of array in Herts, 1385. In 1392 he was one of the King's supporters against the Appellants of 1387; K.G.; and one of the executive committee of the adjourned Parl. to whom the bussiness remaining uncompleted was committed. In Sep 1398 Marshal of England; in Oct a commissioner to receive the Queen's dower, and envoy to Paris, upon the rumour of the proposed marriage of Hereford to Marie De Berri. Keeper of Trowbridge Castle, and commissioner to treat of peace with Scotland, in Mar 1398/9. In May he accompanied Richard to Ireland; but he was sent back, in advance of the King, to raise forces with which to meet the invading Hereford. Later they joined company in England. This Earl of Salisbury was the only temporal Nobleman, who remained firm to King Richard's interest AFT the invasion of the Duke of Lancaster. With the other Lords Appellant of 1397, he was committed to the Tower 20 Oct 1399; on the 29th in Parl. he was challenged by Lord Morley upon his defence and accepted the challenge, and the matter was referred to the Constable and Marshal. He joined the conspiracy of the Earls of Kent and Huntingdon to murder Henry IV and his sons at Windsor, at a Christmas mumming; but the King was warned and the conspirators marched across England proclaiming that King Richard was alive. At Cirencester the people rose against them, and beheaded the Earls of Kent and Salisbury, 5 Jan 1399/1400. He was attained of treason in Parl. Mar 1400/1; but this judgement was reversed in 1461. He married, before 4 May 1383, Maud, relict of John, son of Andrew Aubrey (d. 1380/1), widow (having been 2nd wife) of Sir Alan Buxhall of Sussex, Dorset and Staffs (d. 2 Nov 1381), and daughter of Adam Francis, Mayor of London, 1352-54, M.P. for London in 7 Parl., 1352-69, by Agnes, daughter and coheir of William Champnes' [Visitation of Kent, Harl. Soc., vol. lxxv, p. 31]. He died (as above) and was buried at Cirencester. His widow, for whom robes of the Garter were prepared, had a grant, in Feb 1398/9, of the manor of Stokenham, Devon. She died in 1424, before 5 Aug. His body was buried at Bisham Abbey (which his ancestor the first Earl had founded) by the side of the second Earl of Salisbury, having been removed thither by order of his widow.

    Father: John MONTAGUE (Sir)

    Mother: Margaret De MONTHERMER

    Married: Maud FRANCIS (dau. of Sir Adam Francis and Agnes Champnes') (w.1 of John Aubrey - w.2 of Sir Allan Boxhull, Knight of the Garter) BEF 4 May 1383

    Children:

    1. Thomas MONTAGUE (4º E. Salisbury)

    2. Richard MONTAGUE

    3. Elizabeth MONTAGUE (B. Willoughby of Eresby)

    4. Margaret MONTAGUE (B. Ferrers of Groby)

    5. Anne MONTAGUE (D. Huntington)

    6. Robert MONTAGUE

    end of biography

    Died:
    the Earl of Salisbury was executed for treason by King Henry IV

    John married Maud Francis, Countess of Salisbury (England). Maud (daughter of Adam Francis and Agnes Champnes) was born ~ 1370, London, Middlesex, England; died ~ 1424, (England). [Group Sheet]


  26. 245.  Maud Francis, Countess of Salisbury was born ~ 1370, London, Middlesex, England (daughter of Adam Francis and Agnes Champnes); died ~ 1424, (England).

    Notes:

    Maud Montacute, Countess of Salisbury (c. 1370 – c. 1424) was the foster mother of the future King Henry V of England, after the death of his mother.

    She was born Maud Francis, daughter of Sir Adam Francis, born ca. 1334, Mayor of London, and Alice Champneis, born in 1338, both born in London. She was married and widowed three times. Her first husband was John Aubrey (son of another mayor of London, Andrew Aubrey) and her second Sir Alan Buxhull, KG in 1372.

    Her third husband was John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, and they had five children:

    Richard Montacute
    Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury
    Lady Anne Montacute
    Lady Margaret Montacute
    Lady Elizabeth Montacute
    Following the death of Mary de Bohun, her son, Henry of Monmouth, was given into the care of the Earl and Countess of Salisbury by his father, Henry Bolingbroke, the future King Henry IV of England. They cared for him at the manor of Courtfield in Herefordshire. An effigy in the church at Welsh Bicknor is believed to be that of the countess.

    In 1400, the Earl of Salisbury was executed for treason by King Henry IV. In 1420, Maud petitioned King Henry V to have the earl's remains transferred from Cirencester Abbey to Bisham Priory.

    Children:
    1. Anne Montacute was born (Salisbury) England; died 28 Nov 1457, England; was buried London, England.
    2. 122. Thomas Montacute, Knight, 4th Earl of Salisbury was born 13 Jun 1388, (Salisbury) England; died 3 Nov 1428, Orleans, France.
    3. Margaret Montacute was born (Salisbury) England.
    4. Elizabeth Montacute was born (Salisbury) England.
    5. Richard Montague was born Aft 1388, (Boveney, Buckinghamshire, England).

  27. 246.  Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of KentThomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent was born 1350-1354, Upholland, Lancashire, England (son of Thomas Holland, Knight, 1st Earl of Kent and Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent); died 25 Apr 1397, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: La Rioja, Spain
    • Also Known As: Baron Holand
    • Also Known As: Thomas de Holand
    • Military:
    • Military: 3 Apr 1367; Battle of Nâajera

    Notes:

    Thomas Holland (also known as de Holland),[1] 2nd Earl of Kent, 3rd Baron Holand KG (1350/1354 - 25 April 1397) was an English nobleman and a councillor of his half-brother, King Richard II of England.

    Family and early Life

    Thomas Holland (or de Holand)[1] was born in Upholand, Lancashire, in 1350[1][3] or 1354[2][4] (sources differ on his birth year). He was the eldest surviving son of Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent".[5] His mother was a daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, and Margaret Wake. Edmund was in turn a son of Edward I of England and his second Queen consort Marguerite of France, and thus a younger half-brother of Edward II of England.
    His father died in 1360, and later that year, on 28 December, Thomas became Baron Holand.[3] His mother was still Countess of Kent in her own right, and in 1361 she married Edward, the Black Prince, the son of King Edward III.

    Military career

    At sixteen, in 1366, Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine.[6] Over the next decade he fought in various campaigns, including the Battle of Nâajera, under the command of his stepfather Edward, the Black Prince. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1375.[6]

    Richard II became king in 1377, and soon Holland acquired great influence over his younger half-brother, which he used for his own enrichment. In 1381, he succeeded as Earl of Kent.[6]

    Later years and death

    Prior to his death, Holland was appointed Governor of Carisbrooke Castle.[6] Holland died at Arundel Castle, Sussex, England on 25 April 1397.[1]

    Marriage and progeny

    On 10 April 1364 Holland married Lady Alice FitzAlan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel by his wife Eleanor of Lancaster .[1][2] By his wife he had progeny three sons and six daughters. All the sons died without legitimate progeny, whereupon the daughters and their issue became co-heiresses to the House of Holland. The progeny were as follows:

    Sons

    Thomas Holland, 3rd Earl of Kent, 1st Duke of Surrey (1374 – 7 January 1400), eldest son and heir, created Duke of Surrey. Died without progeny.

    Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent (6 January 1384 – 15 September 1408), heir to his elder brother. Died without legitimate progeny, but had an illegitimate child by his mistress Constance of York.

    John Holland, died without progeny

    Daughters

    Through the marriages of his daughters, he became the ancestor of many of the prominent figures in the Wars of the Roses, including Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (father of Kings Edward IV and Richard III), Henry Tudor (later King Henry VII), and Warwick the Kingmaker, father of queen consort Anne Neville. He was also an ancestor of queen consort Catherine Parr, the sixth wife of King Henry VIII. His daughters were as follows:

    Eleanor I Holland (1373 - October 1405), (who bore the same first name as her younger sister, alias Alianore) married twice: Firstly to Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March (1374-1398), heir presumptive to his mother's first cousin King Richard II (1377-1399). Her only child and sole heiress to the Mortimer claim was Anne Mortimer. Following the deposition of Richard II in 1399 by his own first-cousin the Lancastrian Henry Bolingbroke (who ruled as King Henry IV (1399-1413)), Anne Mortimer's claim to the throne of England was pursued by her son Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (1411-1460) which drawn-out struggle formed the basis of the Wars of the Roses. Secondly she married Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton

    Joan Holland (ca. 1380-12 April 1434), married Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York

    Margaret Holland (1385 - 31 December 1439), married first John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and second Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence

    Elizabeth Holland, who married Sir John Neville (c.1387 – before 20 May 1420), eldest son and heir of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, and by him had three sons, Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland, John Neville, Baron Neville, and Sir Thomas Neville, and a daughter, Margaret Neville.[7]

    Eleanor II Holland (1386- after 1413), (who bore the same first name as her eldest sister, alias Alianore) married Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury

    Bridget Holland, who became a nun[1]

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Tompsett, Brian. "de Holland, Thomas, Earl of Kent 2nd". Royal Genealogical Data. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c Lundy, Darryl. "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10292". thePeerage.com. Retrieved 30 October 2011.[unreliable source?]
    ^ Jump up to: a b Rayment, Leigh. "Peers - H - page 4". Leigh Rayment's Peerage Page. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
    Jump up ^ Western, Peter. "Page - pafg22". Maximilian Genealogy Master Database 2000. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
    Jump up ^ Western, Peter. "Page - pafg51". Maximilian Genealogy Master Database 2000. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Lee, Sidney, ed. (1891). "Holland, Thomas (1350-1397)". Dictionary of National Biography 27. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
    Jump up ^ Richardson III 2011, p. 249.
    Dictionary of National Biography, Vol.27, Ed. Sidney Lee, Smith, Elder & Co., 1851.

    Military:
    At sixteen, in 1366, Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine .[6] Over the next decade he fought in various campaigns, including the Battle of Nâajera , under the command of his stepfather Edward, the Black Prince . He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1375.[

    Thomas married Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent 10 Apr 1364, Arundel, West Sussex, England. Alice (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel) was born 1350-1352, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 17 Mar 1415, (Arundel, West Sussex, England). [Group Sheet]


  28. 247.  Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent was born 1350-1352, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel); died 17 Mar 1415, (Arundel, West Sussex, England).

    Notes:

    Alice Holland, Countess of Kent (c. 1350 - 17 March 1416), LG, formerly Lady Alice FitzAlan, was an English noblewoman, a daughter of the 10th Earl of Arundel, and the wife of the 2nd Earl of Kent, the half-brother of King Richard II. As the maternal grandmother of Anne Mortimer, she was an ancestor of King Edward IV and King Richard III, as well as King Henry VII and the Tudor dynasty through her daughter Margaret Holland. She was also the maternal grandmother of Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland.

    She was appointed a Lady of the Garter in 1388.

    Family

    Lady Alice FitzAlan was born circa 1350 at Arundel Castle in Sussex, England,[2] the second daughter of the 10th Earl of Arundel, and Lady Eleanor of Lancaster. She had six siblings who included Richard FitzAlan, later 11th Earl of Arundel, and Lady Joan FitzAlan, later Countess of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton. She also had three half-siblings from her parents' previous marriages.

    Her paternal grandparents were the 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, and her maternal grandparents were the 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth.

    Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland was a granddaughter of Lady Alice FitzAlan

    Marriage and issue

    In 1354, at the age of four, Lady Alice was betrothed to her father's ward Edmund Mortimer who would in 1360 become the 3rd Earl of March. The marriage however did not take place. Alice married instead on 10 April 1364, 2nd Earl of Kent, one of the half-brothers of the future King Richard II by his mother Joan of Kent's first marriage to Thomas Lord Holland. She received from her father a marriage portion of 4000 marks.[3] Upon her marriage, she was styled Lady Holland. She did not, however, become Countess of Kent until 1381, when her husband succeeded his father as Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent.

    Lord Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine in 1366, and in 1375, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Two years later in 1377, his half-brother Richard succeeded to the throne of England, as King Richard II. Alice's husband would become one of the young King's chief counsellors and exert a strong influence over his brother which led to the enrichment of Thomas and Alice. Alice was appointed a Lady of the Garter, an order of chivalry, in 1388.

    Together Thomas and Alice had ten children:[4]

    Alianore Holland (1373- October 1405), married firstly Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, by whom she had issue, including Anne Mortimer and Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March; she married secondly, Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton, by whom she had two daughters.
    Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey (1374- 7 January 1400), married Joan Stafford, but the marriage was childless.
    John Holland (died young)
    Richard Holland (died young)
    Elizabeth Holland (died 4 January 1423), married Sir John Neville, Lord Neville by whom she had issue.
    Joan Holland (1380- 12 April 1434), married firstly as his second wife, Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York; married secondly William de Willoughby, 5th Lord Willoughby de Eresby; married thirdly Henry le Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham, her fourth husband was Henry Bromflete, 1st Lord Vessy. All her marriages were childless.
    Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent (6 January 1384 – 15 September 1408), married Lucia Visconti[5] (1372-14 April 1424), but the marriage was childless. He fathered an illegitimate daughter Eleanor de Holland (born 1406), by his mistress Constance of York.
    Margaret Holland (1385- 30 December 1439), married firstly John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, by whom she had issue including John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset and Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland; she married secondly Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence.
    Eleanor Holland (1386- after 1413), married Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury, by whom she had one daughter, Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury.
    Bridget Holland (died before 1416), a nun at Barking Abbey.
    Later years[edit]
    Alice's husband died on 25 April 1397. In 1399, King Richard was deposed, and the throne was usurped by Henry IV, the son-in-law of her elder sister, Joan. In January 1400, Alice's eldest son Thomas, who had succeeded his father as the 3rd Earl of Kent, was captured at Cirencester and beheaded without a trial by a mob of angry citizens[6] as a consequence of having been one of the chief conspirators in the Epiphany Rising. The rebels had hoped to seize and murder King Henry, and immediately restore King Richard to the throne. Less than three years earlier, her brother Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel and a Lord Appellant had been executed for his opposition to King Richard.

    Alice herself died on 17 March 1416 at the age of sixty-six years.

    Descendants

    Alice had many illustrious descendants which included English kings Edward IV, Richard III (and his consort Queen Anne), Henry VII; from the latter of whom descended the Tudor monarchs. Alice was also an ancestress of Scottish king James II of Scotland and his successors which included Mary, Queen of Scots and James I of England. Her other notable descendants include the last queen consort of Henry VIII, Catherine Parr; Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick known in history as Warwick the Kingmaker; Cecily Bonville; Isabel Ingoldisthorpe, wife of John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu; John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester, and Anne Bourchier, 7th Baroness Bourchier. Living descendants of Alice Fitzalan include the current British Royal Family.

    Birth:
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Children:
    1. Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury was born 13 Oct 1370, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 18 Oct 1405, Bisham, Berkshire, England.
    2. Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent, 5th Baron Holand was born 6 Jan 1384; died 15 Sep 1408.
    3. Margaret Holland, Duchess of Clarence was born 0___ 1385, (England); died 31 Dec 1439; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    4. 123. Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury was born 0___ 1386, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died Aft 1413, Bisham Manor, Bisham, Berkshire, England.
    5. Elizabeth Holland was born 0___ 1388, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 4 Jan 1424.