Joan Cobham

Female 1350 - 1388  (~ 37 years)


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Generation: 1

  1. 1.  Joan Cobham was born ~1350 (daughter of John Cobham and Margaret Courtenay); died 1388.

    Joan married John Pole 1362. John (son of Margaret Peverel, Countess of Derby, son of William de la Pole and Margaret Peverel) was born ~1341, Newborough, Staffordshire, England; died >9 Mar 1380, Chrishall, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]

    Children:
    1. Joan Pole was born ~1372; died ~13 Jan 1433.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  John Cobham was born ~1321 (son of John Cobham, Knight, 2nd Lord Cobham and Joan Beauchamp); died 10 Jan 1408.

    John married Margaret Courtenay >1342. Margaret (daughter of Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon and Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon) was born 1326; died 2 Aug 1385. [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Margaret Courtenay was born 1326 (daughter of Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon and Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon); died 2 Aug 1385.
    Children:
    1. 1. Joan Cobham was born ~1350; died 1388.


Generation: 3

  1. 4.  John Cobham, Knight, 2nd Lord Cobham was born (England) (son of Henry de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham (of Kent) and Maud Morville).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: John de Cobham

    John married Joan Beauchamp 1314, England. Joan (daughter of John de Beauchamp, II, 1st Baron Beauchamp and Joan Chenduit) was born 1304, West Hatch, Somerset, England; died <1343, Stoke, Kent, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 5.  Joan Beauchamp was born 1304, West Hatch, Somerset, England (daughter of John de Beauchamp, II, 1st Baron Beauchamp and Joan Chenduit); died <1343, Stoke, Kent, England.

    Notes:

    Joan de Cobham formerly Beauchamp aka de Beauchamp
    Born 1304 in West Hatch, Somerset, England
    ANCESTORS ancestors
    Daughter of John (Beauchamp) de Beauchamp and Joan (Chenduit) de Beauchamp
    Sister of William Beauchamp, Aleonore Beauchamp, Beatrice Beauchamp, John Beauchamp and Thomas Beauchamp
    Wife of John (Cobham) de Cobham Knt — married 1314 in England
    DESCENDANTS descendants
    Mother of Joan (Cobham) le Despenser and John (Cobham) de Cobham
    Died after 1343 in Stoke, Kent, Englandmap
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    Beauchamp-151 created 21 Feb 2011 | Last modified 16 Nov 2017
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    Categories: West Hatch, Somerset | Stoke-in-Kent, England | Magna Carta | Malet-18 Descendants.

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    Joan (Beauchamp) de Cobham is a descendant of a Magna Carta surety baron.
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    NOTE: Joan de Beauchamp is a descendant of Magna Carta surety baron William Malet.

    Contents
    [hide]
    1 Biography
    1.1 Marriage
    1.2 Issue
    2 Death
    3 Sources
    4 Acknowledgements
    Biography
    Joan de Beauchamp was the daughter of Sir John de Beauchamp by his wife Joan, said to be the daughter of (Unknown) Chenduit.[1]
    Marriage
    In 1314, Joan married Sir John de Cobham, 2nd Lord Cobham, son of Henry de Cobham, 1st Lord Cobham, by his wife Maud de Morville.[2]
    Issue
    Joan and John had one known son, John,[3] and one known daughter, Joan.[4]
    Death
    Joan was living in 1343.[5]
    Sources
    Source: Royal Ancestry by Douglas Richardson Vol. IV p. 614.
    Source: Richardson, Douglas, and Kimball G. Everingham. Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Vol. V. Salt Lake City, UT.: Douglas Richardson., 2013. Pages 404.
    Source: Richardson, Douglas; Everingham, Kimball G., editor. Magna Carta Ancestry: A study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 2nd edition, 2011, Vol. 3 p. 106, 233, 344.
    Source: Richardson, Douglas; Everingham, Kimball G., editor. Magna Carta Ancestry: A study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 2nd edition, 2011, 2nd ed. Vol. IV p. 375-376
    Source: The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant, Cokayne, George Edward, (Gloucester [England] : Alan Sutton Pub. Ltd., 1987), 942 D22cok., vol. 2 p. 49.
    Source: Marlyn Lewis. * Pedigree Resource File CD 49 Publication: Salt Lake City, UT: Intellectual Reserve, Inc., 2002.
    ? Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families vol. 5 p. 404
    ? Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families vol. 5 p. 404
    ? Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families vol. 5 p. 404
    ? Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families vol. 5 p. 404
    ? Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families vol. 5 p. 404

    Children:
    1. Joan Cobham was born 1316; died >15 May 137.
    2. 2. John Cobham was born ~1321; died 10 Jan 1408.

  3. 6.  Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon was born 12 Jul 1303, Okehampton, Devon, England (son of Hugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon and Agnes St. John); died 3 May 1377, Exeter, Devonshire, England; was buried Exter Cathedral, Devonshire, England.

    Notes:

    Hugh COURTENAY (2° E. Devon)

    Born: 12 Jul 1303, Okehampton, Devon, England

    Died: 2 May 1377, Exeter, Devon, England

    Buried: Exeter Cathedral, Devonshire, England

    Father: Hugh COURTENAY (1° E. Devon)

    Mother: Agnes St. JOHN

    Married: Margaret De BOHUN (C. Devon) 11 Aug 1325

    Children:

    1. Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)

    2. Edward COURTENAY of Godlington

    3. Margaret COURTENAY

    4. Thomas COURTENAY (Sir Knight)

    5. Phillip COURTENAY of Powderham (Sir)

    6. Elizabeth COURTENAY

    7. Catherine COURTENAY

    8. Joan COURTENAY

    10. Matilda COURTENAY

    11. Eleanor COURTENAY

    12. Guinora COURTENAY (b. ABT 1348)

    13. Isabel COURTENAY

    14. Phillipa COURTENAY

    15. William COURTENAY (Archbishop of Canterbury)

    16. John COURTENAY

    17. Peter COURTENAY (Sir)

    18. Humphrey COURTENAY (Sir) (b. ABT 1355)

    19. Anne COURTENAY

    *

    Hugh married Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon 11 Aug 1325. Margaret (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England) was born 3 Apr 1311; died 16 Dec 1391. [Group Sheet]


  4. 7.  Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon was born 3 Apr 1311 (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England); died 16 Dec 1391.
    Children:
    1. 3. Margaret Courtenay was born 1326; died 2 Aug 1385.
    2. Edward Courtenay was born 1329-1334, Devonshire, England; died 1368-1372.


Generation: 4

  1. 8.  Henry de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham (of Kent) was born ~1260, Cobham, Kent, England; died 25 Aug 1339, Hache, Somerset, England; was buried Beauchamp Chapel, Stoke-under-Hamden, Somerset, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Chief Baron of the Excheuquer
    • Occupation: Constable of Rochester, Dover, Canterbury & Tonbridge
    • Occupation: Sheriff of Kent

    Notes:

    Family

    He was the son of John de Cobham of Cobham, Kent, and of Cowling or Cooling, Kent (died bef. 30 March 1300),[2] Sheriff of Kent, Constable of Rochester and Chief Baron of the Exchequer, by wife Joan de Septvans, daughter of Sir Robert de Septvans.[3]

    His father was a brother of Sir Henry de Cobham, of Rundale, Kent (died c. 1316), Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, who married Joan Pencester (bef. 1269 - 1314/1315), daughter of Stephen de Pencester, and had Stephen de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham (of Rundale) and John de Cobham (died c. 1314), without issue.[4]

    Biography

    He was made Constable of Rochester Castle for life in 1303/1304, of Dover Castle, of Tonbridge Castle in 1324 and of Canterbury, all in Kent.[3] He was Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports in 1307 and between 1315 and 1320 and he also held the title of Sheriff of Kent (1300–1301, 1307 and 1315).[3]

    He was created 1st Baron Cobham (of (Cobham, in) Kent) in the Peerage of England by writ on 8 January 1312/1313[1] and presided at the arraignment of Lord Badlesmere for treason at Canterbury in 1322.[3]

    The family's coat of arms is as follows: Gules semy of fleurs-de-lis or, a cross argent.

    He died at Hache, Somerset, and was buried at Beauchamp Chapel, Stoke-under-Hamden, Somerset.[5]

    Marriage and issue[edit]
    Sometime prior to July 1285, Henry married Maud de Moreville, widow of Matthew de Columbers (died bef. 1284), whom she married before 1284, and daughter of Eudes de Moreville. Their son and successor was John de Cobham, 2nd Baron Cobham (of Kent).

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b L. G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms (London, U.K.: Heraldry Today, 1972), page 77.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 344.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume III, page 343.
    Jump up ^ Hasted, Edward (1798). "Parishes". The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent. Institute of Historical Research. 6: 80–98. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne, et al., The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 344.

    Henry — Maud Morville. Maud (daughter of Eudes de Moreville and unnamed spouse) was born 1247. [Group Sheet]


  2. 9.  Maud Morville was born 1247 (daughter of Eudes de Moreville and unnamed spouse).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Maud de Moreville

    Children:
    1. 4. John Cobham, Knight, 2nd Lord Cobham was born (England).

  3. 10.  John de Beauchamp, II, 1st Baron Beauchamp was born 25 Jul 1274; died 0Dec 1336.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 1st Baron Hatch
    • Also Known As: Baron Beauchamp de Somerset

    Notes:

    John II de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp "de Somerset" (25 July 1274 - October/December 1336),[2] was feudal baron of Hatch[1] in Somerset.

    Origins

    He was born 25 July 1274 the son and heir of John I de Beauchamp (d.1283),[3] feudal baron of Hatch, seated at Hatch Beauchamp in Somerset, by his wife Cicely de Vivonne/de Forz (d.1320), one of the four daughters and co-heiresses of William de Vivonne/de Forz (d.1259), who held a one-half moiety of the feudal barony of Curry Mallet in Somerset.[4] Cicely thus inherited a one-eighth share of the barony of Curry Malet.

    Career

    In 1299 he was created by writ Baron Beauchamp "de Somerset".

    Marriage & progeny

    At some time before 1301 he married Joan Chenduit, by whom he had progeny including:[2]

    John de Beauchamp, 2nd Baron Beauchamp (1304-1343), eldest son and heir.
    William Beauchamp
    Joan Beauchamp
    Alienor Beauchamp
    Beatrice Beauchamp

    Death

    He died between October and December 1336.

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b Sanders, I.J. English Baronies: A Study of their Origin and Descent 1086-1327, Oxford, 1960, p.51, note 2
    ^ Jump up to: a b "- Person Page 1982". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
    Jump up ^ Sanders, p.51
    Jump up ^ Sanders, pp.38-9

    John married Joan Chenduit Bef 1301. Joan died 9 Feb 1327. [Group Sheet]


  4. 11.  Joan Chenduit died 9 Feb 1327.
    Children:
    1. John Beauchamp, Lord Hacche was born 4 Oct 1304, Stoke-sub-Hamdon, Somersetshire, England; died 19 May 1343, Hatch, Somerset, England.
    2. William Beauchamp
    3. 5. Joan Beauchamp was born 1304, West Hatch, Somerset, England; died <1343, Stoke, Kent, England.
    4. Alienor Beauchamp
    5. Beatrice Beauchamp

  5. 12.  Hugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of DevonHugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon was born 14 Sep 1276, (Okehampton, Devon, England) (son of Hugh Courtenay and Eleanor Despencer); died 23 Dec 1340, Tiverton, Devon, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 9th Earl of Devon

    Notes:

    Hugh de Courtenay, 1st/9th Earl of Devon (14 September 1276 – 23 December 1340)[1] was the son of Sir Hugh de Courtenay (died 1292), feudal baron of Okehampton in Devon, by his wife Eleanor le Despenser (died 1328), sister of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester. Forty-one years after the death of his cousin, Isabel de Forz, suo jure 8th Countess of Devon (1237–1293) (nâee de Redvers, eldest daughter of Baldwin de Redvers, 6th Earl of Devon (1217-1245)), letters patent were granted by King Edward III, dated 22 February 1335, declaring him Earl of Devon, and stating that he 'should assume such title and style as his ancestors, Earls of Devon, had wont to do'.[2] This thus made him 1st Earl of Devon, if the letters patent are deemed to have created a new peerage, otherwise 9th Earl of Devon if it is deemed a restitution of the old dignity of the de Redvers family and he is deemed to have succeeded the suo jure 8th Countess. Authorities differ in their opinions[3] and thus alternative ordinal numbers exist for this Courtenay earldom.

    Early life

    Hugh de Courtenay was born 14 September 1276, the son of Sir Hugh de Courtenay (died 28 February 1292) feudal baron of Okehampton in Devon, by his wife Eleanor le Despenser (died 30 September 1328), sister of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester, an important adviser to King Edward II. He was the grandson of John de Courtenay (died c. 3 May 1274)[4] of Okehampton by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford. John's father, Robert de Courtenay (died 1242), the son of Reginald de Courtenay (died 1190) by Hawise de Curci (died 1219), the heiress of the feudal barony of Okehampton),[5] had married Mary de Redvers (sometimes called "de Vernon"), the daughter of William de Redvers, 5th Earl of Devon (died 1217).

    On 28 February 1292, about the time of his marriage, Hugh succeeded to the Okehampton estate and to those de Redvers estates that had not yet been alienated to the Crown. He may then have been styled Earl of Devon, the first of the Courtenay family, although was not recognised in the de facto Earldom until 1333.

    Campaign against Scotland, 1297–1300

    He did homage to Edward I on 20 June 1297 and was granted his own livery. At the time the King was with his army crossing the Tweed into Scotland. It is probable that the honour was in acknowledgement of Hugh's military achievements. That July the English defeated and humiliated the Scots at Irvine. However the following year the tables were turned on the advent of the remarkable campaign of William Wallace.

    The following February 6, 1298 he was summoned as a Lord in Parliament, and sat throughout the reign of Edward II and into the Mortimer Regency for Edward's son. He remained an important noble at Parliaments into the reign of Edward III. He was summoned as Hugoni de Curtenay with the confusing suffix of senior being known as Lord Courtenay.

    Courtenay joined King Edward at the long siege of Caerlaverock Castle, just over the Solway Firth for a fortnight in July 1300. He proved himself a fine soldier and loyal adherent to the English crown. He had not been present at the disastrous encounter outside Stirling Castle in 1298, during which half the English contingent were killed, including commander Hugh Cressingham. But Edward was determined to march into Ayrshire to devastate Robert Bruce's estates. Unfortunately the English army melted away into the forests as the army moved further northwards. Courtenay may have been with the English King when he sat down in Sweetheart Abbey to receive Robert Winchelsey, Archbishop of Canterbury who had travelled north with a demanding missive from Pope Boniface to cease hostilities. The King could not ignore this order. In September he disbanded troops and withdrew over the Solway Firth to Carlisle. The campaign had failed due to a shortage of money, so Parliament was recalled for January 1301. Before returning to London the English drew up a six months truce.

    Parliament of 1301

    Parliament met at Lincoln. The agenda included redrafting the Royal Forest Charter, which had no precedent since it was first introduced in the reign of Henry II, 150 years earlier. Local juries were expected to "perambulate the forests" to gather evidence. But the King needed money and was required by Parliament to surrender his absolute authority and ownership of what became community forests.

    Campaigns against Scotland, 1301–1308

    In 1306 the Prince of Wales was despatched into Scotland; the vanguard led by Aymer de Valence, the King's half uncle. On 22 May, Courtenay was knighted by the Prince, presumably for his efforts against the Scots. In June the English occupied Perth. On 19 June, Valence, who had cut a swathe through the Lowlands fell on the Scots army at Methven in the early dawn. The Bruce fled into the hills. Edward I was merciless as many prisoners were punished. That autumn the army returned to Hexham. The war was all but over: there were however sieges at Mull of Kintyre and Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire. Edward I committed many atrocities rounding up the Scots aristocracy and their women.

    Then as Robert Bruce returned from exile in Ireland the English army started losing battles. The ailing King had one last campaign in which Courtenay played a major part. Struggling into the saddle to the Solway Firth, Edward I died at Burgh-on-Sands awaiting a crossing. In 1308 a new campaign was sent to quell Robert Bruce, and Courtenay was made a knight banneret, one of the King's elite household.[6]

    During the reign of Edward II he was made a Lord Ordainer, one of the ruling council in the Lords. He was appointed to the King's Council on 9 Augustus 1318. He was appointed the Warden of the coast of Devon and Cornwall in 1324 and then again in 1336, because his estates stretched across what is now Exmoor and Dartmoor. But he took the honours reluctantly and played a guarded game with King and Parliament. A veteran campaigner he aimed to ingratiate himself with the young Edward III, and so refused the Third Penny from the Exchequer. He was investigated; and on 22 February 1335 elevated to the Earldom of Devon, restored to his ancestral line.

    Forty-one years after the death of his cousin, Isabel de Fortibus, Countess of Devon, letters patent were issued dated 22 February 1335 declaring him Earl of Devon, and stating that he 'should assume such title and style as his ancestors, Earls of Devon, had wont to do'.[7] He was the 9th Earl of Devon, but the first in the Courtenay line.

    Family

    He married Agnes de Saint John, daughter of John de Saint John, Baron St John, of Basing, Hampshire, by Alice, daughter of Sir Reynold Fitz Peter.[8] They had four sons and two daughters:

    John Courtenay (1300–1349), Prior of Lewes and Abbot of Tavistock.
    Hugh de Courtenay, 2nd/10th Earl of Devon (1303-1377), second son, who married Margaret de Bohun, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford by Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King Edward I and Eleanor of Castile.
    Robert Courtenay (1309–1334), 3rd son, of Moreton Hampstead in Devon.
    Sir Thomas Courtenay (1315-1356), 4th son, of Wootton Courtenay in Somerset, and of Woodhuish, Brixham[9] in Devon, a military commander against the French, who died in 1356,[10] the date of the Battle of Poitiers. He married a great Somerset heiress, Muriel de Moels, the eldest of the two daughters and co-heiresses of John Moels, 4th Baron Moels, feudal baron of North Cadbury in Somerset. His wife's share of her paternal inheritance included the manors of Kings Carswell and Dunterton[11] in Devon, and Blackford, Holton and Lattiford in Somerset.[12]
    Eleanor Courtenay (c.1309 – c.1330), who married John de Grey, 3rd Baron Grey of Codnor.
    Elizabeth Courtenay (born c.1313), who married Bartholomew de Lisle.
    Courtenay died at Tiverton, Devon, 23 December 1340, and was buried at Cowick Priory near Exeter on 5 Feb 1341.[8]

    *

    Hugh COURTENAY (1° E. Devon)

    Born: 14 Sep 1273

    Died: 23 Dec 1340

    Father: Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)

    Mother: Eleanor DESPENCER

    Married 1: Elizabeth PLANTAGENET

    Married 2: Agnes St. JOHN 1292

    Children:

    1. Hugh COURTENAY (2° E. Devon)

    2. John COURTENAY

    3. Eleanor COURTENAY

    4. Robert COURTENAY

    5. Thomas COURTENAY

    6. Elizabeth COURTENAY (b. ABT 1313)

    *

    Hugh married Agnes St. John 0___ 1292. [Group Sheet]


  6. 13.  Agnes St. John
    Children:
    1. 6. Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon was born 12 Jul 1303, Okehampton, Devon, England; died 3 May 1377, Exeter, Devonshire, England; was buried Exter Cathedral, Devonshire, England.
    2. John Courtenay was born (Okehampton, Devon, England).
    3. Eleanor Courtenay was born (Okehampton, Devon, England).
    4. Robert Courtenay was born (Okehampton, Devon, England).
    5. Thomas Courtenay was born 0___ 1312, (Okehampton, Devon, England); died 0___ 1362.
    6. Elizabeth Courtenay was born ~ 1313, (Okehampton, Devon, England).

  7. 14.  Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of HerefordHumphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1276, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England (son of Humphrey de Bohun, V, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Fiennes); died 16 Mar 1322, Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, England; was buried Friars Minor, York, Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Lord High Constable of England
    • Also Known As: Count of Holland
    • Also Known As: Earl of Essex
    • Military: Battle of Bannockburn, June 1314
    • Military: Battle of Boroughbridge

    Notes:

    Sir Humphrey (VII) de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford (1276 - 16 March 1322) was a member of a powerful Anglo-Norman family of the Welsh Marches and was one of the Ordainers who opposed Edward II's excesses.

    Family background

    Arms of Bohun: Azure, a bend argent cotised or between six lions rampant or

    Counter seal of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, showing the so-called "Bohun swan" above the escutcheon
    Humphrey de Bohun's birth year is uncertain although several contemporary sources indicate that it was 1276. His father was Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and his mother was Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand II de Fiennes, chevalier, seigneur of Fiennes. He was born at Pleshey Castle, Essex.

    Humphrey (VII) de Bohun succeeded his father as Earl of Hereford and Earl of Essex, and Constable of England (later called Lord High Constable). Humphrey held the title of Bearer of the Swan Badge, a heraldic device passed down in the Bohun family. This device did not appear on their coat of arms, (az, a bend ar cotised or, between 6 lioncels or) nor their crest (gu, doubled erm, a lion gardant crowned), but it does appear on Humphrey's personal seal (illustration).

    Scotland

    Humphrey was one of several earls and barons under Edward I who laid siege to Caerlaverock Castle in Scotland in 1300 and later took part in many campaigns in Scotland. He also loved tourneying and gained a reputation as an "elegant" fop. In one of the campaigns in Scotland Humphrey evidently grew bored and departed for England to take part in a tournament along with Piers Gaveston and other young barons and knights. On return all of them fell under Edward I's wrath for desertion, but were forgiven. It is probable that Gaveston's friend, Edward (the future Edward II) had given them permission to depart. Later Humphrey became one of Gaveston's and Edward II's bitterest opponents.

    He would also have been associating with young Robert Bruce during the early campaigns in Scotland, since Bruce, like many other Scots and Border men, moved back and forth from English allegiance to Scottish. Robert Bruce, King Robert I of Scotland, is closely connected to the Bohuns. Between the time that he swore his last fealty to Edward I in 1302 and his defection four years later, Bruce stayed for the most part in Annandale, rebuilding his castle of Lochmaben in stone, making use of its natural moat. Rebelling and taking the crown of Scotland in February 1306, Bruce was forced to fight a war against England which went poorly for him at first, while Edward I still lived. After nearly all his family were killed or captured he had to flee to the isle of Rathlin, Ireland. His properties in England and Scotland were confiscated.

    Humphrey de Bohun received many of Robert Bruce's forfeited properties. It is unknown whether Humphrey was a long-time friend or enemy of Robert Bruce, but they were nearly the same age and the lands of the two families in Essex and Middlesex lay very close to each other. After Bruce's self-exile, Humphrey took Lochmaben, and Edward I awarded him Annandale and the castle. During this period of chaos, when Bruce's queen, Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter of the Earl of Ulster, was captured by Edward I and taken prisoner, Hereford and his wife Elizabeth became her custodians. She was exchanged for Humphrey after Bannockburn in 1314. Lochmaben was from time to time retaken by the Scots but remained in the Bohun family for many years, in the hands of Humphrey's son William, Earl of Northampton, who held and defended it until his death in 1360.

    Battle of Bannockburn

    At the Battle of Bannockburn (23-24 June 1314), Humphrey de Bohun should have been given command of the army because that was his responsibility as Constable of England. However, since the execution of Piers Gaveston in 1312 Humphrey had been out of favour with Edward II, who gave the Constableship for the 1314 campaign to the youthful and inexperienced Earl of Gloucester, Gilbert de Clare. Nevertheless, on the first day, de Bohun insisted on being one of the first to lead the cavalry charge. In the melee and cavalry rout between the Bannock Burn and the Scots' camp he was not injured although his rash young cousin Henry de Bohun, who could have been no older than about 22, charged alone at Robert Bruce and was killed by Bruce's axe.

    On the second day Gloucester was killed at the start of battle. Hereford fought throughout the day, leading a large company of Welsh and English knights and archers. The archers might have had success at breaking up the Scots schiltrons until they were overrun by the Scots cavalry. When the battle was lost Bohun retreated with the Earl of Angus and several other barons, knights and men to Bothwell Castle, seeking a safe haven. However, all the refugees who entered the castle were taken prisoner by its formerly pro-English governor Walter fitz Gilbert who, like many Lowland knights, declared for Bruce as soon as word came of the Scottish King's victory. Humphrey de Bohun was ransomed by Edward II, his brother-in-law, on the pleading of his wife Isabella. This was one of the most interesting ransoms in English history. The Earl was traded for Bruce's queen, Elizabeth de Burgh and daughter, Marjorie Bruce, two bishops amongst other important Scots captives in England. Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan, who had crowned Robert Bruce in 1306 and for years had been locked in a cage outside Berwick, was not included; presumably she had died in captivity.[1]

    Ordainer

    Like his father, grandfather, and great-great-grandfather, this Humphrey de Bohun was careful to insist that the king obey Magna Carta and other baronially-established safeguards against monarchic tyranny. He was a leader of the reform movements that promulgated the Ordinances of 1311 and fought to insure their execution.

    The subsequent revival of royal authority and the growing ascendancy of the Despensers (Hugh the elder and younger) led de Bohun and other barons to rebel against the king again in 1322. De Bohun had special reason for opposing the Despensers, for he had lost some of his estates in the Welsh Marches to their rapacity and he felt they had besmirched his honour. In 1316 De Bohun had been ordered to lead the suppression of the revolt of Llywelyn Bren in Glamorgan which he did successfully. When Llewelyn surrendered to him the Earl promised to intercede for him and fought to have him pardoned. Instead Hugh the younger Despenser had Llewelyn executed without a proper trial. Hereford and the other marcher lords used Llywelyn Bren's death as a symbol of Despenser tyranny.

    Death at Boroughbridge

    Main article: Battle of Boroughbridge
    The rebel forces were halted by loyalist troops at the wooden bridge at Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, where Humphrey de Bohun, leading an attempt to storm the bridge, met his death on 16 March 1322.

    Although the details have been called into question by a few historians, his death may have been particularly gory. As recounted by Ian Mortimer:[2]

    "[The 4th Earl of] Hereford led the fight on the bridge, but he and his men were caught in the arrow fire. Then one of de Harclay's pikemen, concealed beneath the bridge, thrust upwards between the planks and skewered the Earl of Hereford through the anus, twisting the head of the iron pike into his intestines. His dying screams turned the advance into a panic."'
    Humphrey de Bohun may have contributed to the failure of the reformers' aims. There is evidence that he suffered for some years, especially after his countess's death in 1316, from clinical depression.[3]

    Marriage and children

    His marriage to Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (Elizabeth Plantagenet), daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, on 14 November 1302, at Westminster gained him the lands of Berkshire.

    Elizabeth had an unknown number of children, probably ten, by Humphrey de Bohun.

    Until the earl's death the boys of the family, and possibly the girls, were given a classical education under the tutelage of a Sicilian Greek, Master "Digines" (Diogenes), who may have been Humphrey de Bohun's boyhood tutor.[citation needed] He was evidently well-educated, a book collector and scholar, interests his son Humphrey and daughter Margaret (Courtenay) inherited.

    Mary or Margaret (the first-born Margaret) and the first-born Humphrey were lost in infancy and are buried in the same sarcophagus in Westminster Abbey. Since fraternal twins were known in the Castilian royal family of Elizabeth Bohun, who gave birth to a pair who lived to manhood, Mary (Margaret?) and Humphrey, see next names, may have been twins, but that is uncertain. The name of a possible lost third child, if any, is unknown—and unlikely.

    Hugh de Bohun? This name appears only in one medieval source, which gives Bohun names (see Flores Historiarum) and was a probably a copyist's error for "Humphrey". Hugh was never used by the main branch of the Bohuns in England.[4] Date unknown, but after 1302, since she and Humphrey did not marry until late in 1302.

    Eleanor de Bohun (17 October 1304 – 1363),[5] married James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde and Thomas Dagworth, 1st Baron Dagworth.

    Humphrey de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Mary or Margaret) Infant.

    Mary or Margaret de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Humphrey) Infant.

    John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (About 1307 – 1336)

    Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (About 1309 to 1311 – 1361).

    Margaret de Bohun (3 April 1311 – 16 December 1391), married Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon. Gave birth to about 16 to 18 children (including an Archbishop, a sea commander and pirate, and more than one Knight of the Garter) and died at the age of eighty.

    William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (About 1310-1312 –1360). Twin of Edward. Married Elizabeth de Badlesmere, daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare, by whom he had issue.

    Edward de Bohun (About 1310-1312 –1334). Twin of William. Married Margaret, daughter of William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros, but they had no children. He served in his ailing elder brother's stead as Constable of England. He was a close friend of young Edward III, and died a heroic death attempting to rescue a drowning man-at-arms from a Scottish river while on campaign.

    Eneas de Bohun, (Birth date unknown, died after 1322, when he's mentioned in his father's will). Nothing known of him.

    Isabel de Bohun (b. ? May 1316). Elizabeth died in childbirth, and this child died on that day or very soon after. Buried with her mother in Waltham Abbey, Essex.

    Notes

    This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2012)
    Jump up ^ Ronald McNair Scott, Robert the Bruce - King of Scots, Canongate, 1988; pp. 75-76 and 164.
    Jump up ^ Mortimer, The Greatest Traitor, page 124.
    Jump up ^ See Conway-Davies, 115, footnote 2, from a contemporary chronicler's account of Humphrey de Bohun, Cotton MS. Nero C. iii, f. 181, "De ce qe vous auez entendu qe le counte de Hereford est moreis pensifs qil ne soleit." "There were some. . . [fine] qualities about the earl of Hereford, and he was certainly a bold and able warrior, though gloomy and thoughtful."
    Jump up ^ Le Melletier, 16-17, 38-45, 138, in his comprehensive research into this family, cites no one named Hugh Bohun.
    Jump up ^ See Cokayne, Complete Peerage, s.v. "Dagworth" p. 28, footnote j.: "She was younger than her sister, Margaret, Countess of Devon (Parl. Rolls. vol. iv., p. 268), not older, as stated by genealogists."
    References[edit]
    Cokayne, G. (ed. by V. Gibbs). Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom (Vols II, IV, V, VI, IX: Bohun, Dagworth, Essex, Hereford, Earls of, Montague), London: 1887–1896.
    Conway-Davies, J. C. The Baronial Opposition to Edward II: Its Character and Policy. (Many references, esp. 42 footnote 1, 114, 115 & footnote 2, 355-367, 426–9, 435–9, 473–525) Cambridge(UK): 1918.
    Le Melletier, Jean, Les Seigneurs de Bohun, 1978, p. 16, 39–40.
    Mortimer, Ian. The Greatest Traitor: The Life of Sir Roger Mortimer, Ruler of England 1327–1330 (100–9, 114, 122–6), London: 2003
    Scott, Ronald McNair. Robert the Bruce: King of Scots (144–164) NY: 1989
    Further reading[edit]
    Wikisource has the text of the 1885–1900 Dictionary of National Biography's article about Bohun, Humphrey VIII de.

    Secondary sources

    Altschul, Michael. A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares 1217–1314. (132–3, ) Baltimore:1965.
    Barron, Evan MacLeod. The Scottish War of Independence. (443, 455) Edinburgh, London:1914, NY:1997 (reprint).
    Barrow, G. W. S. Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland. (222, 290, 295–6, 343–4) Berkeley, Los Angeles:1965.
    Beltz, George Frederick. Memorials of the Order of the Garter. (148–150) London:1841.
    Bigelow, M[elville] M. "The Bohun Wills" I. American Historical Review (v.I, 1896). 415–41.
    Dictionary of National Biography. [Vol II: Bohun; Vol. VI: Edward I, Edward II; Vol. XI: Lancaster]. London and Westminster. Various dates.
    Eales, Richard and Shaun Tyas, eds., Family and Dynasty in Late Medieval England, Shaun Tyas, Donington:2003, p. 152.
    Fryde, E. B. and Edward Miller. Historical Studies of the English Parliament vol. 1, Origins to 1399, (10–13, 186, 285–90, 296) Cambridge (Eng.): 1970.
    Hamilton, J. S. Piers Gaveston Earl of Cornwall 1307-1312: Politics and Patronage in the Reign of Edward II (69, 72, 95–98, 104–5) Detroit: 1988
    Hutchison, Harold F. Edward II. (64–86, 104–5, 112–3) London: 1971.
    Jenkins, Dafydd. "Law and Government in Wales Before the Act of Union". Celtic Law Papers (37–38) Aberystwyth:1971.
    McNamee, Colin. The Wars of the Bruces. (51, 62–66) East Linton (Scotland):1997.
    Tout, T. F. and Hilda Johnstone. The Place of the Reign of Edward II in English History. (86, 105–6, 125 & footnote 3, 128–34) Manchester: 1936.
    Primary sources[edit]
    Flores historiarum. H. R. Luard, ed. (vol. iii, 121) London: 1890.
    Vita Edwardi Secundi. (117–119) N. Denholm-Young, Ed. and Tr.
    External links[edit]

    Birth:
    Pleshey Castle was originally a motte and bailey castle, which consisted of a wooden palisade and tower on a high man-made hill (motte) surrounded by two baileys (castle yard or ward), which at some time in the castle's early history was surrounded by a moat. Later, probably in the 12th century, the motte was fortified with a stone castle. The motte at Pleshey is now about 15 metres high, and is one of the largest mottes in England.[citation needed] The castle was dismantled in 1158 but was subsequently rebuilt at the end of the 12th century.[citation needed] The castle was passed to the Dukes of Gloucester through marriage and after Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester had been executed by Richard II in 1397, it decayed and became ruined. Most of the masonry was dismantled for building material in 1629, leaving just the motte and other earthworks.[citation needed]

    Map and more history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleshey

    Occupation:
    The Lord High Constable of England is the seventh of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Great Chamberlain and above the Earl Marshal. His office is now called out of abeyance only for coronations. The Lord High Constable was originally the commander of the royal armies and the Master of the Horse. He was also, in conjunction with the Earl Marshal, president of the Court of Chivalry or Court of Honour. In feudal times, martial law was administered in the court of the Lord High Constable.

    The constableship was granted as a grand serjeanty with the Earldom of Hereford by the Empress Matilda to Miles of Gloucester, and was carried by his heiress to the Bohuns, Earls of Hereford and Essex. They had a surviving male heir, and still have heirs male, but due to the power of the monarchy the constableship was irregularly given to the Staffords, Dukes of Buckingham; and on the attainder of Edward Stafford, the third Duke, in the reign of King Henry VIII, it became merged into the Crown. Since that point it has not existed as a separate office, except as a temporary appointment for the Coronation of a monarch; in other circumstances the Earl Marshal exercises the traditional duties of the office.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_High_Constable_of_England

    Military:
    The Battle of Bannockburn (Bláar Allt nam Báanag, often mistakenly called Bláar Allt a' Bhonnaich in Scottish Gaelic) (24 June 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the First War of Scottish Independence, and a landmark in Scottish history.

    Stirling Castle, a Scots royal fortress, occupied by the English, was under siege by the Scottish army. The English king, Edward II, assembled a formidable force to relieve it. This attempt failed, and his army was defeated in a pitched battle by a smaller army commanded by the King of Scots, Robert the Bruce.

    More ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn

    Military:
    The Battle of Boroughbridge was a battle fought on 16 March 1322 between a group of rebellious barons and King Edward II of England, near Boroughbridge, north-west of York. The culmination of a long period of antagonism between the King and Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, his most powerful subject, it resulted in Lancaster's defeat and execution. This allowed Edward to re-establish royal authority, and hold on to power for another five years.

    Not in itself a part of the Wars of Scottish Independence, the battle is significant for its employment of tactics learned in the Scottish wars in a domestic, English conflict. Both the extensive use of foot soldiers rather than cavalry, and the heavy impact caused by the longbow, represented significant steps in military developments.

    More ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Boroughbridge

    Humphrey married Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England 14 Nov 1302, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. Elizabeth (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England) was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales; died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 15.  Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England); died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Elizabeth of Rhuddlan

    Notes:

    Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (7 August 1282 - 5 May 1316) was the eighth and youngest daughter of King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castile. Of all of her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother King Edward II, as they were only two years apart in age.

    First marriage

    In April 1285 there were negotiations with Floris V for Elizabeth's betrothal to his son John I, Count of Holland. The offer was accepted and John was sent to England to be educated. On 8 January 1297 Elizabeth was married to John at Ipswich. In attendance at the marriage were Elizabeth's sister Margaret, her father, Edward I of England, her brother Edward, and Humphrey de Bohun. After the wedding Elizabeth was expected to go to Holland with her husband, but did not wish to go, leaving her husband to go alone.

    After some time travelling England, it was decided Elizabeth should follow her husband. Her father accompanied her, travelling through the Southern Netherlands between Antwerp, Mechelen, Leuven and Brussels, before ending up in Ghent. There they remained for a few months, spending Christmas with her two sisters Eleanor and Margaret. On 10 November 1299, John died of dysentery, though there were rumours of his murder. No children had been born from the marriage.

    Second marriage

    On her return trip to England, Elizabeth went through Brabant to see her sister Margaret. When she arrived in England, she met her stepmother Margaret, whom Edward had married while she was in Holland. On 14 November 1302 Elizabeth was married to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, 3rd of Essex, also Constable of England, at Westminster Abbey.[citation needed]

    Offspring

    The children of Elizabeth and Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford were:

    Hugh de Bohun (September 1303 – 1305)
    Lady Eleanor de Bohun (17 October 1304 – 1363)
    Humphrey de Bohun (b&d 1305) (buried with Mary or Margaret)
    Mary or Margaret de Bohun (b&d 1305) (buried with Humphrey)
    John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (23 November 1306 – 1335)
    Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (6 December c. 1309 – 1361)
    Margaret de Bohun, 2nd Countess of Devon (3 April 1311 – 1391)
    William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (1312–1360).
    Edward de Bohun (1312–1334), twin of William
    Eneas de Bohun, (1314 - after 1322); he is mentioned in his father's will
    Isabel de Bohun (b&d 5 May 1316)

    Later life

    During Christmas 1315, Elizabeth, who was pregnant with her eleventh child, was visited by her sister-in-law, Queen Isabella of France. This was a great honour, but the stress of it may have caused unknown health problems that later contributed to Elizabeth's death in childbirth.[citation needed] On 5 May 1316 she went into labour, giving birth to her daughter Isabella. Both Elizabeth and her daughter Isabella died shortly after the birth, and were buried together in Waltham Abbey.

    Birth:
    Rhuddlan Castle (Welsh: Castell Rhuddlan) is a castle located in Rhuddlan, Denbighshire, Wales. It was erected by Edward I in 1277 following the First Welsh War.

    View images, map & history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhuddlan_Castle

    Buried:
    Waltham Abbey is a market town of about 20,400 people in Epping Forest District in the southwest of the county of Essex, 24 km (15 mi) NNE of central London on the Greenwich Meridian, between the River Lea in the west and Epping Forest in the east.

    Waltham Abbey takes its name from the Abbey Church of Waltham Holy Cross, a scheduled ancient monument that was prominent in the town's early history.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waltham_Abbey_(town)

    Died:
    shortly after childbirth...

    Notes:

    Married:
    Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the most notable religious buildings in the United Kingdom and has been the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556 the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, however, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the original abbey church.

    According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site (then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island)) in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III.

    Since 1066, when Harold Godwinson and William the Conqueror were crowned, the coronations of English and British monarchs have been held there. There have been at least 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100. Two were of reigning monarchs (Henry I and Richard II), although, before 1919, there had been none for some 500 years.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Abbey

    Children:
    1. Eleanor de Bohun, Countess of Ormonde was born 17 Oct 1304, Knaresborough Castle, North Yorkshire, England; died 7 Oct 1363.
    2. 7. Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon was born 3 Apr 1311; died 16 Dec 1391.
    3. William de Bohun, Knight, 1st Earl of Northampton was born 0___ 1312, Caldecot, Rutland, Northampton, England; died 16 Sep 1360, (England).
    4. Agnes (Margaret) de Bohun, Baroness Ferrers of Chartley was born 0___ 1313, Caldecot, Rutland, Northampton, England.


Generation: 5

  1. 18.  Eudes de Moreville

    Eudes — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  2. 19.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 9. Maud Morville was born 1247.

  3. 24.  Hugh Courtenay was born 25 Mar 1249, Oakhampton, Devonshire, England (son of John Courtenay, 2nd Baron Okehampton and Isabel de Vere); died 28 Feb 1292, Colcombe, Devonshire, England; was buried Cowick Priory, Exeter, Devonshire, England.

    Notes:

    Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)

    Born: 25 Mar 1249, Oakhampton, Devon, England

    Died: 28 Feb 1290/91, Cullicomb, Devon, England

    Buried: Cowick, Devonshire, England

    Father: John COURTENAY (2° B. Okehampton)

    Mother: Isabel De VERE

    Married: Eleanor DESPENCER (BET 1245/1260-30 Sep 1328) BEF 1273

    Children:

    1. Eleanor COURTENAY

    2. Phillip COURTENAY

    3. Thomas COURTENAY

    4. Avelina (Ada)COURTENAY

    5. John COURTENAY

    6. Robert COURTENAY

    7. Alice COURTENAY

    8. Hugh COURTENAY (1° E. Devon)

    9. Margaret COURTENAY

    10. Isabel COURTENAY

    11. Egeline COURTENAY

    *

    Sir Hugh de Courtenay (1251–1292) was the son and heir of John de Courtenay, feudal baron of Okehampton, Devon, by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford. His son inherited the earldom of Devon.

    Early years

    Sir Hugh de Courtenay, born 25 March 1251,[1] was the son and heir of John de Courtenay of Okehampton, Devon, by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford, and Hawise de Quincy.[2] John's father, Robert de Courtenay (d. 26 July 1242),[3] son of Reginald de Courtenay (d.1190) by Hawise de Curci (d.1219), heiress of the feudal barony of Okehampton,[4] married Mary de Redvers (sometimes called 'de Vernon'), daughter of William de Redvers, 5th Earl of Devon (d.1217).

    In order to avoid military service Courtenay paid a fine on 12 December 1276. He was called to arms on the emergency against the Welsh princes, fighting in the 1282 campaign. He attended upon the King at Shrewsbury on 28 June 1283. He again absented himself from the wars on 14 June 1287 by paying the King's justice a fine.[5]

    Marriage and issue

    Courtenay married Eleanor le Despenser (d.1328),[6] daughter of Hugh le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer, Justiciar of England, of Loughborough, Leicestershire and Ryhall, Rutland by his wife Aline Basset, daughter of Sir Philip Basset, Justiciar of England, of Wycombe, Buckinghamshire and Compton Bassett and Wootton Bassett, Wiltshire. By his wife he had four[6] sons and five[6] daughters:[7]

    Hugh de Courtenay, 1st/9th Earl of Devon (1276–1340) of Tiverton Castle, eldest son and heir.
    Sir Philip Courtenay (d.1314) of Moreton Hampstead in Devon, slain at Stirling on 24 June 1314, according to Vivian.[6] Died childless, when Moreton Hampstead was inherited by his elder brother the Earl of Devon.[8]
    John Courtenay, died young.[6]
    Robert Courtenay, died young.[6]
    Isabel de Courtenay, wife of John de Saint John, 1st Baron St John (died 1329) of Basing.[6]
    Aveline de Courtenay, wife of Sir John Giffard[6]
    Egeline (or Eleanor) de Courtenay, wife of John le Scales[6]
    Margaret (or Margery) de Courtenay, wife of John de Moels.[9] Other sources give her husband as Nicholas de Moels, 2nd Baron Moels (d.1316), feudal baron of North Cadbury, Somerset. Without progeny.
    Alice Courtenay, died young[6]

    Death

    Courtenay died at Colcombe, Devon, on 28 February 1292.[10] He was buried at Cowick Priory, near Exeter.

    *

    Hugh married Eleanor Despencer Bef 1273. Eleanor died 30 Sep 1328. [Group Sheet]


  4. 25.  Eleanor Despencer died 30 Sep 1328.
    Children:
    1. 12. Hugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon was born 14 Sep 1276, (Okehampton, Devon, England); died 23 Dec 1340, Tiverton, Devon, England.
    2. Isabel Courtenay was born ~ 1283.

  5. 28.  Humphrey de Bohun, V, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1249 (son of Humphrey de Bohun, VI, 2nd Earl of Hereford and Eleanor de Braose); died 31 Dec 1298, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England; was buried Walden Priory, Essex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Birth: ~ 1256, Herefordshire, England

    Notes:

    Humphrey (V) de Bohun (c. 1249[nb 1] – 31 December 1298), 3rd Earl of Hereford and 2nd Earl of Essex, was an English nobleman known primarily for his opposition to King Edward I over the Confirmatio Cartarum.[1] He was also an active participant in the Welsh Wars and maintained for several years a private feud with the earl of Gloucester.[2] His father, Humphrey (V) de Bohun, fought on the side of the rebellious barons in the Barons' War. When Humphrey (V) predeceased his father, Humphrey (VI) became heir to his grandfather, Humphrey (IV). At Humphrey (IV)'s death in 1275, Humphrey (VI) inherited the earldoms of Hereford and Essex. He also inherited major possessions in the Welsh Marches from his mother, Eleanor de Braose.

    Bohun's spent most of his early career reconquering Marcher lands captured by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd during the Welsh war in England. This was finally accomplished through Edward I's war in Wales in 1277. Hereford also fought in Wales in 1282–83 and 1294–95. At the same time he also had private feuds with other Marcher lords, and his conflict with Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, eventually ended with the personal intervention of King Edward himself. Hereford's final years were marked by the opposition he and Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, mounted against the military and fiscal policy of Edward I. The conflict escalated to a point where civil war threatened, but was resolved when the war effort turned towards Scotland. The king signed the Confirmatio Cartarum – a confirmation of Magna Carta – and Bohun and Bigod agreed to serve on the Falkirk Campaign. Bohun died in 1298, and was succeeded by his son, Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.

    Family background and inheritance

    Humphrey (VI) de Bohun was part of a line of Anglo-Norman aristocrats going back to the Norman Conquest, most of whom carried the same name.[3] His grandfather was Humphrey (IV) de Bohun, who had been part of the baronial opposition of Simon de Montfort, but later gone over to the royal side. He was taken prisoner at the Battle of Lewes in May 1264, but was restored to favour after the royalist victory at the Battle of Evesham the next year.[4] Humphrey (IV)'s son, Humphrey (V) de Bohun, remained loyal to the baronial side throughout the Barons' War, and was captured at Evesham on 4 August 1265. In October that year Humphrey (V) died in captivity at Beeston Castle in Cheshire from injuries he had sustained in the battle.[5]

    Humphrey (V) had been excluded from succession as a result of his rebellion, but when Humphrey (IV) died in 1275, Humphrey (VI) inherited the earldoms of Hereford and Essex.[6] Humphrey (VI) had already served as deputy Constable of England under Humphrey (IV).[7] Humphrey (IV) had reserved the honour of Pleshey for his younger son Henry, but the remainder of his lands went to Humphrey (VI).[4] The inheritance Humphrey (VI) received – in addition to land in Essex and Wiltshire from Humphrey (IV) – also consisted of significant holdings in the Welsh Marches from his mother.[8] His mother Eleanor was a daughter and coheir of William de Braose and his wife Eva Marshal, who in turn was the daughter and coheir of William Marshal, regent to Henry III.[6]

    Since Humphrey (VI) was only sixteen years old at the time of his father's death, the Braose lands were taken into the king's custody until 1270.[1] Part of this inheritance, the Marcher lordship of Brecon, was in the meanwhile given to the custody of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Hertford. Humphrey technically regained his lordship from Clare in 1270, but by this time these lands had effectively been taken over by the Welsh prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, who had taken advantage of the previous decade's political chaos in England to extend his territory into the Marches.[9]

    He granted his brother Gilbert de Bohun all of their mother's lands in Ireland and some land in England and Wales.

    Welsh Wars

    See also: Conquest of Wales by Edward I
    Over the next years, much of Hereford's focus was on reconquering his lost lands in the Marches, primarily through private warfare against Llywelyn.[10] Henry III died in 1272, while his son – now Edward I – was crusading; Edward did not return until 1274.[11] Llywelyn refused to pay homage to the new king, partly because of the military actions of Bohun and other Marcher lords, which Llywelyn saw as violations of the Treaty of Montgomery.[12] On 12 November 1276, Hereford was present at a royal assembly where judgment was passed on Llewelyn,[7] and in 1277, Edward I declared war on the Welsh prince.[13] Rebellion in his own Brecon lands delayed Hereford's participation in the early days of the Welsh war. He managed, however, to both suppress the rebellion, and conquer lands further west.[14] He then joined up with the royal army and served for a while in Anglesey, before returning to Brecon, where he received the surrender of certain Welsh lords.[15] After the campaign was over, on 2 January 1278, he received protection from King Edward to go on pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.[7]

    In 1282, war with Wales broke out again; this time it would not be simply a punitive campaign, but a full-scale war of conquest.[16] Initially, the king wanted to fight the war with paid forces, but the nobility insisted on the use of the feudal summons. To men like Hereford, this was preferable, because as part of a feudal army the participants would have both a stake in the war and a justifiable claim on conquered land. In the end, although the earls won, none of them were paid for the war effort.[17] Hereford jealously guarded his authority as hereditary Constable of England, and protested vigorously when the Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester was appointed commander of the forces in South Wales.[18] In the post war settlement, however, neither Hereford nor Gloucester received any significant rewards of land, the way several other magnates did.[19] Hereford fought again in Wales, in the suppression of the rebellion of 1294–95, when he again had to pacify the territory of Brecon before joining the king in the north.[20]

    Private war in the Marches

    The historic county of Brecknockshire, which corresponds roughly to Hereford's lordship of Brecon.
    Parallel with the Welsh Wars, Hereford was also struggling to assert his claims to lands in the Marches against other Marcher lords. In 1284 Edward I granted the hundred of Iscennen in Carmarthenshire to John Giffard. Hereford believed the land belonged to him by right of conquest, and started a campaign to win the lands back, but the king took Giffard's side.[21] Problems also arose with the earl of Gloucester. As Gloucester's former ward, Hereford had to buy back his own right of marriage, but Gloucester claimed he had not received the full sum.[6] There was also remaining resentment on Hereford's part for his subordination to Gloucester in the 1282–83 campaign. The conflict came to a head when Gloucester's started construction of a castle at Morlais, which Hereford claimed was his land.[22] In 1286, the Crown ordered Gloucester to cease, but to no avail.[23]

    It had long been established Marcher custom to solve conflicts through private warfare.[1] Hereford's problem, however, was his relative weakness in the Marches, and now he was facing open conflict with two different enemies. He therefore decided to take the issue to the king instead, in a break with tradition.[6] King Edward again ordered Gloucester to stop, but the earl ignored the order and initiated raids on Hereford's lands.[24] Hostilities continued and Hereford responded, until both earls were arrested and brought before the king.[25] The real offense was not the private warfare in itself, but the fact that the earls had not respected the king's injunction to cease.[2] In the parliament of January 1292, Gloucester was fined 10,000 marks and Hereford 1,000. Gloucester's liberty of Glamorgan was declared forfeit, and confiscated by the crown, as was Hereford's of Brecon.[26]

    In the end the fines were never paid, and the lands were soon restored.[22] Edward had nevertheless demonstrated an important point. After the conquest of Wales, the strategic position of the Marcher lordships was less vital to the English crown, and the liberty awarded to the Marcher lords could be curtailed.[2] For Edward this was therefore a good opportunity to assert the royal prerogative, and to demonstrate that it extended also into the Marches of Wales.[27]

    Opposition to Edward I

    In 1294 the French king declared the English duchy of Aquitaine forfeit, and war broke out between the two countries.[28] Edward I embarked on a wide-scale and costly project of building alliances with other princes on the Continent, and preparing an invasion.[29] When the king, at the parliament of March 1297 in Salisbury, demanded military service from his earls, Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, refused in his capacity of marshal of England. The argument was that the king's subjects were not obliged to serve abroad if not in the company of the king, but Edward insisted on taking his army to Flanders while sending his earls to Gascony.[30]


    Bohun and Bigod confront King Edward. Early 20th-century imaginary illustration
    At the time of the Salisbury parliament, Hereford was accompanying two of the king's daughters to Brabant, and could not be present.[31] On his return, however, as Constable of England, he joined Bigod in July in refusing to perform feudal service.[6] The two earls were joined in their opposition by the earls of Arundel and Warwick.[32] The main reasons for the magnates' defiance was the heavy burden of taxation caused by Edward's continuous warfare in Wales, France and Scotland. In this they were also joined by Robert Winchelsey, the Archbishop of Canterbury, who was in the midst of an ongoing dispute with the king over clerical taxation.[33] At one point Bohun and Bigod turned up in person at the Exchequer to protest a tax they claimed did not have the consent of the community of the realm.[34] For Hereford there was also a personal element in the opposition to the king, after the humiliation and the affront to his liberties he had suffered over the dispute in the Marches.[35][36] At a meeting just outside London, Bohun gave an impassioned speech objecting to the king's abuse of power and demanding the restoration of ancient liberties. The grievances were summarised in a document known as the Remonstrances.[37]

    Neither party showed any inclination to back down, and the nation seemed on the brink of another civil war.[38] Just as the conflict was coming to a head, however, external events intervened to settle it. In September 1297, the English suffered a heavy defeat to the Scots at the Battle of Stirling Bridge.[39] The Scottish victory exposed the north of England to Scottish raids led by William Wallace. The war with Scotland received wider support from the English magnates, now that their own homeland was threatened, than did the war in France to protect the king's continental possessions.[40] Edward abandoned his campaign in France and negotiated a truce with the French king. He agreed to confirm Magna Carta in the so-called Confirmatio Cartarum (Confirmation of the Charters).[41] The earls consequently consented to serve with the king in Scotland, and Hereford was in the army that won a decisive victory over the Scots in the Battle of Falkirk in 1298.[7] Hereford, not satisfied that the king had upheld the charter, withdrew after the battle, forcing Edward to abandon the campaign.[2]

    Death and family

    The earthwork remains of Pleshey Castle where Humphrey de Bohun died.
    In 1275 Bohun married Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand de Fiennes, chevalier, seigneur of Fiennes, by his 2nd wife, Isabel (kinswoman of Queen Eleanor of Provence). She predeceased him, and was buried at Walden Priory in Essex. Hereford himself died at Pleshey Castle on 31 December 1298, and was buried at Walden alongside his wife.[6] They had one son Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, born around 1276.[42] The son was given possession of his father's lands and titles on 16 February 1299.[43] The young Humphrey also inherited his father's title of Constable of England.[44]

    A common theme in Humphrey de Bohun's actions was his fierce protection of what he regarded as his feudal privileges.[1] His career was marked by turbulence and political strife, particularly in the Marches of Wales, but eventually he left a legacy of consolidated possessions there. In 1297, at the height of the conflict between Edward I and rebellious barons, the king had actively tried to undermine Hereford's authority in the Marches, but failed due to the good relations the earl enjoyed with the local men.[45]

    Notes

    Jump up ^ He was reported to be 18 ˝ years old in the 51st year of the reign of Henry III, and 24 or 26 after the death of his grandfather in 1275. Cokayne (1910–59), pp. 463–6.

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Fritze and Robison, (2002).
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Hicks (1991).
    Jump up ^ White, Graeme (2004). "Bohun, Humphrey (III) de (b. before 1144, d. 1181)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2774.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Vincent (2004).
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1953), p. 202.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Waugh (2004).
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Cokayne (1910–59), pp. 463–6.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 21.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 112.
    Jump up ^ Davies (2000), pp. 322–3.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), pp. 225–6.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 174–5.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), p. 408.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 171.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), pp. 178–9, 194.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 188.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1972), pp. 71–3.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1972), p. 72.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 204.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 256.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), pp. 201–2.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Prestwich (2007), p. 136.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 348.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 226.
    Jump up ^ Carpenter (2003), p. 478.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), p. 350
    Jump up ^ Davies (1978), pp. 259–60, 255–7.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 378–9.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 387–8.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), pp. 666, 678.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), p. 680 n.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 419.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 420.
    Jump up ^ Carpenter (2003), p. 485.
    Jump up ^ Morris (2008), p. 297.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), pp. 274–5.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 420–1.
    Jump up ^ Davies (1978), p. 269.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 283.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (2007), p. 170.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 427–8.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne (1910–59), p. 467.
    Jump up ^ Fryde, E. B. (1961). Handbook of British Chronology (Second ed.). London: Royal Historical Society. p. 431.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 300.
    Jump up ^ Davies (1978), p. 290.

    Sources

    Carpenter, David (2003). The Struggle for Mastery: Britain, 1066-1284. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-522000-5.
    Cokayne, George (1910–59). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. VI (New ed.). London: The St. Catherine Press.
    Davies, R. R. (1978). Lordship and Society in the March of Wales, 1282-1400. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822454-0.
    Davies, R. R. (2000). The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063-1415. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820878-2.
    Fritze, Ronald H.; William Baxter Robison (2002). "Bohoun, Humphrey de, 3rd Earl of Hereford and 2nd Earl of Essex (c. 1249-98)". Historical dictionary of late medieval England, 1272-1485. Westport, London: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 61–3. ISBN 0-313-29124-1. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
    Hicks, Michael (1991). Who's Who in Late Medieval England (1272-1485). Who's Who in British History Series. 3. London: Shepheard-Walwyn. pp. 29–30. ISBN 0-85683-092-5.
    Morris, J. E. (1901). The Welsh Wars of Edward I. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Morris, Marc (2008). A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and the Forging of Britain (updated ed.). London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-179684-6.
    Prestwich, Michael (1972). War, Politics and Finance under Edward I. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-09042-7.
    Prestwich, Michael (1997). Edward I (updated ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07209-0.
    Prestwich, Michael (2007). Plantagenet England: 1225-1360 (new ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822844-9.
    Powicke, F. M. (1953). The Thirteenth Century: 1216-1307. Oxford: Clarendon. ISBN 0-19-285249-3.
    Vincent, Nicholas (2004). "Bohun, Humphrey (IV) de, second earl of Hereford and seventh earl of Essex (d. 1275)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2775.
    Waugh, Scott L. (2004). "Bohun, Humphrey (VI) de, third earl of Hereford and eighth earl of Essex (c.1249–1298)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2776.

    Humphrey married Maud de Fiennes 20 Jul 1275. Maud (daughter of Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde) was born ~ 1251, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England; died 6 Nov 1298; was buried Saffron Walden, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 29.  Maud de Fiennes was born ~ 1251, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England (daughter of Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde); died 6 Nov 1298; was buried Saffron Walden, Essex, England.
    Children:
    1. 14. Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1276, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England; died 16 Mar 1322, Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, England; was buried Friars Minor, York, Yorkshire, England.

  7. 30.  Edward I, King of EnglandEdward I, King of England was born 17 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was christened 22 Jun 1239, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom (son of Henry III, King of England and Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile); died 7 Jul 1307, Burgh by Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria, England; was buried 28 Oct 1307, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward Longshanks

    Notes:

    More on King Edward I ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England

    Remember Mel Gibson's role as William Wallace in his 1995 movie, "Braveheart", about the 13th c. Scottish Rebellion? Here is the fellow he battled, brilliantly portrayed by Patrick McGoohan... Here's a clip of that movie... http://www.cinemagia.ro/trailer/braveheart-braveheart-inima-neinfricata-1054/

    Edward I, called Longshanks (1239-1307), king of England (1272-1307), Lord of Gascony, of the house of Plantagenet. He was born in Westminster on June 17, 1239, the eldest son of King Henry III, and at 15 married Eleanor of Castile. In the struggles of the barons against the crown for constitutional and ecclesiastical reforms, Edward took a vacillating course. When warfare broke out between the crown and the nobility, Edward fought on the side of the king, winning the decisive battle of Evesham in 1265. Five years later he left England to join the Seventh Crusade.

    Following his father's death in 1272, and while he was still abroad, Edward was recognized as king by the English barons; in 1273, on his return to England, he was crowned.

    The first years of Edward's reign were a period of the consolidation of his power. He suppressed corruption in the administration of justice, restricted the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to church affairs, and eliminated the papacy's overlordship over England. On the refusal of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd (died 1282), ruler of Wales, to submit to the English crown, Edward began the military conflict that resulted, in 1284, in the annexation of Llewelyn's principality to the English crown. In 1290 Edward expelled all Jews from England. War between England and France broke out in 1293 as a result of the efforts of France to curb Edward's power in Gascony. Edward lost Gascony in 1293 and did not again come into possession of the duchy until 1303. About the same year in which he lost Gascony, the Welsh rose in rebellion.
    Greater than either of these problems was the disaffection of the people of Scotland. In agreeing to arbitrate among the claimants to the Scottish throne, Edward, in 1291, had exacted as a prior condition the recognition by all concerned of his overlordship of Scotland. The Scots later repudiated him and made an alliance with France against England. To meet the critical situations in Wales and Scotland, Edward summoned a parliament, called the Model Parliament by historians because it was a representative body and in that respect was the forerunner of all future parliaments. Assured by Parliament of support at home, Edward took the field and suppressed the Welsh insurrection. In 1296, after invading and conquering Scotland, he declared himself king of that realm. In 1298 he again invaded Scotland to suppress the revolt led by Sir William Wallace. In winning the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, Edward achieved the greatest military triumph of his career, but he failed to crush Scottish opposition.

    The conquest of Scotland became the ruling passion of his life. He was, however, compelled by the nobles, clergy, and commons to desist in his attempts to raise by arbitrary taxes the funds he needed for campaigns. In 1299 Edward made peace with France and married Margaret, sister of King Philip III of France. Thus freed of war, he again undertook the conquest of Scotland in 1303. Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. No sooner had Edward established his government in Scotland, however, than a new revolt broke out and culminated in the coronation of Robert Bruce as king of Scotland. In 1307 Edward set out for the third time to subdue the Scots, but he died en route near Carlisle on July 7, 1307. He also had a daughter with Eleanor of Castile that died young.

    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Edward I [37370] Burgh by Sands, Cumbria, England

    is the 22nd great-grandfather of David Hennessee:

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    and also of Sheila Ann Mynatt Hennessee (1945-2016):

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=I27517&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    Died:
    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church, St. Michael's, until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Photos, maps & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgh_by_Sands

    Edward married Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England 18 Oct 1254, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain. Eleanor (daughter of Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu) was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain; died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. [Group Sheet]


  8. 31.  Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain (daughter of Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu); died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Ponthieu

    Notes:

    Eleanor of Castile (1241 - 28 November 1290) was the first queen consort of Edward I of England. She was also Countess of Ponthieu in her own right from 1279 until her death in 1290, succeeding her mother and ruling together with her husband.

    Eleanor was better-educated than most medieval queens, and exerted a strong cultural influence on the nation. She was a keen patron of literature, and encouraged the use of tapestries, carpets and tableware in the Spanish style, as well as innovative garden designs. She was also a successful businesswoman, endowed with her own fortune as Countess of Ponthieu.

    Issue

    Daughter, stillborn in May 1255 in Bordeaux, France. Buried in Dominican Priory Church, Bordeaux, France.
    Katherine (c 1261 – 5 September 1264) and buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Joanna (January 1265 - before 7 September 1265), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    John (13 July 1266 – 3 August 1271), died at Wallingford, in the custody of his granduncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall. Buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Henry (before 6 May 1268 – 16 October 1274), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Eleanor (18 June 1269 – 29 August 1298). She was long betrothed to Alfonso III of Aragon, who died in 1291 before the marriage could take place, and in 1293 she married Count Henry III of Bar, by whom she had one son and one daughter.
    Daughter (1271 Palestine ). Some sources call her Juliana, but there is no contemporary evidence for her name.
    Joan (April 1272 – 7 April 1307). She married (1) in 1290 Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, who died in 1295, and (2) in 1297 Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer. She had four children by each marriage.
    Alphonso (24 November 1273 - 19 August 1284), Earl of Chester.
    Margaret (15 March 1275 – after 1333). In 1290 she married John II of Brabant, who died in 1318. They had one son.
    Berengaria (1 May 1276 – before 27 June 1278), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Daughter (December 1277/January 1278 - January 1278), buried in Westminster Abbey. There is no contemporary evidence for her name.
    Mary (11 March 1279 – 29 May 1332), a Benedictine nun in Amesbury.
    Son, born in 1280 or 1281 who died very shortly after birth. There is no contemporary evidence for his name.
    Elizabeth (7 August 1282 – 5 May 1316). She married (1) in 1297 John I, Count of Holland, (2) in 1302 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex. The first marriage was childless; by Bohun, Elizabeth had ten children.
    Edward II of England, also known as Edward of Caernarvon (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327). In 1308 he married Isabella of France. They had two sons and two daughters.
    It is often said, on the basis of antiquarian genealogies from the 15th-17th centuries, that Eleanor delivered 2 daughters in the years after Edward II's birth. The names most often associated with these ephemeral daughters are "Beatrice" and "Blanche"; later writers also mention "Juliana" and "Euphemia," and even a "Berenice," probably by confusion with the historical daughter Berengaria. At least one eighteenth-century writer made "Beatrice" and Berengaria into twins, presumably because of the alliteration of names; but Berengaria's birth in 1276 (not the 1280s) was noted by more than one chronicler of the day, and none of them reports that Berengaria had a twin sister. Queen Eleanor's wardrobe and treasury accounts survive almost intact for the years 1288-1290 and record no births in those years, nor do they ever refer to daughters with any of those names. Even more records survive from King Edward's wardrobe between 1286 and 1290 than for his wife's, and they too are silent on any such daughters. It is most unlikely that they ever existed in historical fact. It is more likely that there were other pregnancies and short-lived children in the years prior to 1266, when records for Eleanor's movements are very slight.

    Eleanor as a mother

    It has been suggested that Eleanor and Edward were more devoted to each other than to their children. As king and queen, however, it was impossible for them to spend much time in one place, and when they were very young, the children could not travel constantly with their parents. The children had a household staffed with attendants carefully chosen for competence and loyalty, with whom the parents corresponded regularly. The children lived in this comfortable establishment until they were about seven years old; then they began to accompany their parents, if at first only on important occasions. By their teens they were with the king and queen much of the time. In 1290, Eleanor sent one of her scribes to join her children's household, presumably to help with their education. She also sent gifts to the children regularly, and arranged for the entire establishment to be moved near to her when she was in Wales. In 1306 Edward sharply scolded Margerie de Haustede, Eleanor's former lady in waiting who was then in charge of his children by his second wife, because Margerie had not kept him well informed of their health. Edward also issued regular instructions for the care and guidance of these children.

    Two incidents cited to imply Eleanor's lack of interest in her children are easily explained in the contexts of royal childrearing in general, and of particular events surrounding Edward and Eleanor's family. When their six-year-old son Henry lay dying at Guildford in 1274, neither parent made the short journey from London to see him; but Henry was tended by Edward's mother Eleanor of Provence. The boy had lived with his grandmother while his parents were absent on crusade, and since he was barely two years old when they left England in 1270, he could not have had many worthwhile memories of them at the time they returned to England in August 1274, only weeks before his last illness and death. In other words, the dowager queen was a more familiar and comforting presence to her grandson than his parents would have been at that time, and it was in all respects better that she tended him then. Furthermore, Eleanor was pregnant at the time of his final illness and death; exposure to a sickroom would probably have been discouraged. Similarly, Edward and Eleanor allowed her mother, Joan of Dammartin, to raise their daughter Joan in Ponthieu (1274–78). This implies no parental lack of interest in the girl; the practice of fostering noble children in other households of sufficient dignity was not unknown and Eleanor's mother was, of course, dowager queen of Castile. Her household was thus safe and dignified, but it does appear that Edward and Eleanor had cause to regret their generosity in letting Joan of Dammartin foster young Joan. When the girl reached England in 1278, aged six, it turned out that she was badly spoiled. She was spirited and at times defiant in childhood, and in adulthood remained a handful for Edward, defying his plans for a prestigious second marriage for her by secretly marrying one of her late first husband's squires. When the marriage was revealed in 1297 because Joan was pregnant, Edward was enraged that his dignity had been insulted by her marriage to a commoner of no importance. Joan, at twenty-five, reportedly defended her conduct to her father by saying that nobody saw anything wrong if a great earl married a poor woman, so there could be nothing wrong with a countess marrying a promising young man. Whether or not her retort ultimately changed his mind, Edward restored to Joan all the lands he had confiscated when he learned of her marriage, and accepted her new husband as a son-in-law in good standing. Joan marked her restoration to favour by having masses celebrated for the soul of her mother Eleanor.

    Birth:
    Maps & History of Burgos ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Burgos

    Children:
    1. Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre was born 0Apr 1272, Acre, Israel; died 23 Apr 1307, Clare Castle, Clare, Suffolk, England; was buried Clare Priory, Clare, Suffolk, England.
    2. 15. Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales; died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.
    3. Edward II, King of England was born 25 Apr 1284, Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales; died 21 Sep 1327, Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England.


Generation: 6

  1. 48.  John Courtenay, 2nd Baron Okehampton was born ~ 1218, Okehampton, Devon, England (son of Robert de Courtenay and Mary de Redvers); died 3 May 1274, Okehampton, Devon, England.

    John — Isabel de Vere. Isabel (daughter of Hugh de Vere, Knight, 4th Earl of Oxford and Hawise de Quincy) was born ~ 1222, (Essex, England); died Aft 11 Aug 1299. [Group Sheet]


  2. 49.  Isabel de Vere was born ~ 1222, (Essex, England) (daughter of Hugh de Vere, Knight, 4th Earl of Oxford and Hawise de Quincy); died Aft 11 Aug 1299.

    Notes:

    Isabel De VERE

    Born: ABT 1222

    Died: AFT 11 Aug 1299

    Father: Hugh De VERE (4° E. Oxford)

    Mother: Hawise QUINCY (C. Oxford)

    Married: John COURTENAY (2° B. Okehampton)

    Children:

    1. Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)

    *

    Children:
    1. 24. Hugh Courtenay was born 25 Mar 1249, Oakhampton, Devonshire, England; died 28 Feb 1292, Colcombe, Devonshire, England; was buried Cowick Priory, Exeter, Devonshire, England.

  3. 56.  Humphrey de Bohun, VI, 2nd Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1219, Hungerford, Berkshire, England (son of Humphrey de Bohun, IV, Knight, 2nd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Lusignan); died 27 Oct 1265.

    Humphrey married Eleanor de Braose Aft 1241, Breconshire, Wales. Eleanor (daughter of William de Braose, Lord of Brycheiniog and Eva Marshal, Countess of Abergavenny) was born ~ 1228, Breconshire, Wales; died 0___ 1251; was buried Llanthony Priory, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 57.  Eleanor de Braose was born ~ 1228, Breconshire, Wales (daughter of William de Braose, Lord of Brycheiniog and Eva Marshal, Countess of Abergavenny); died 0___ 1251; was buried Llanthony Priory, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Eleanor de Braose (c. 1228–1251) was a Cambro-Norman noblewoman and a wealthy co-heiress of her father, who was the powerful Marcher lord William de Braose, and of her mother, Eva Marshal, a co-heiress of the Earls of Pembroke. Her husband was Humphrey de Bohun, heir of the 2nd Earl of Hereford, by whom she had children, including Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford.

    Family

    Eleanor was born in about 1228.[citation needed] She was the youngest of four daughters[1] and a co-heiress of the powerful Marcher lord William de Braose, and Eva Marshal,[2] both of whom held considerable lordships and domains in the Welsh Marches and Ireland.[citation needed] Eva was one of the daughters of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke by Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke, daughter of Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, "Strongbow".[3][4] Eleanor's three sisters were Isabella de Braose, Maud de Braose, Baroness Mortimer, and Eva de Braose, wife of William de Cantelou.[5]

    While Eleanor was a young girl, her father - known to the Welsh as Gwilym Ddu (Black William) - was hanged on the orders of Llewelyn the Great, Prince of Wales for alleged adultery with Llewelyn's wife, Joan, Lady of Wales.[6] Following the execution, her mother held de Braose lands and castles in her own right.[citation needed]

    Marriage and issue

    On an unknown date after August 1241, Eleanor became the first wife of Humphrey de Bohun,[5] the son of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Lusignan. The marriage took place after the death of Humphrey's mother, Maud.[3]

    Humphrey and Eleanor had the following children:

    Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford (c.1249- 31 December 1298), married Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand II de Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde, by whom he had issue, including Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.[7]
    Gilbert de Bohun. His brother granted him Eleanor's lands in Ireland. [8]
    Eleanor de Bohun (died 20 February 1314, buried Walden Abbey). She married Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby on 26 June 1269. They had at least two sons and one daughter.[9]
    Margery de Bohun (fl.1265 – 1280) married Theobald de Verdun and had a son also Theobald de Verdun, both of whom were hereditary Constables of Ireland.[10]
    Eleanor died in 1251,[citation needed] and was buried at Llanthony Secunda Priory.[11] She passed on her considerable possessions in the Welsh Marches to her eldest son Humphrey.[12] Her husband survived her, married Joan de Quincy,[13] and died in 1265.[14]

    Notes

    Jump up ^ Dugdale 1894, p. 134.
    Jump up ^ Lundy 2010, p. 19081 § 190805 cites Cokayne 2000a, p. 462.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Lundy 2012, p. 63 § 623 cites Cokayne 2000, p. 22
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Dugdale 1894, pp. 134,135
    ^ Jump up to: a b Cawley 2012a, "William de Briouse" cites Dugdale 1894, p. 134.
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012a, "William de Briouse" cites several sources including Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 319.
    Jump up ^ Lundy 2010, p. 19081 § 190805 cites Cokayne 2000a, p. 463.
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Cokayne 2000a, p. 463 footnote g, citing Lambeth Library, Carew MS, no. 613, fol. 66.
    Jump up ^ Richardson 2004, p. 307
    Jump up ^ Richardson 2004, p. 734
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, Vol. I (1834), XX, p. 168.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 2000a, p. 464
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. I, Henry III, 587, p. 187.
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Dugdale 1894, p. 135

    References

    Cawley, Charles (10 April 2012), England, earls created 1067-1122: Humphrey [VI] de Bohun, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    Cawley, Charles (23 September 2012a), Untitled English Nobility A - C: William de Briouse (-hanged 2 May 1230), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    Cokayne, George E (2000), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, I (new, 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes ed.), Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, p. 22
    Cokayne, George E (2000a), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, VI (new, 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes ed.), Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, p. 462
    Dugdale, William, Sir (1894), "Lanthony Abbey, Gloucestershire: Num. II: Fundatorum Progenies", Monasticon Anglicanum, 6, T.G. March, pp. 134, 135
    Lundy, Darryl (20 February 2010), Eleanor de Briouze, The Peerage, p. 19081 § 190805, retrieved November 2012 Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
    Lundy, Darryl (10 Apr 2012), Eve Marshal, The Peerage, p. 63 § 623, retrieved November 2012 Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
    Richardson, Douglas (2004), Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.: Genealogical Publishing Company, p. 734

    Children:
    1. 28. Humphrey de Bohun, V, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1249; died 31 Dec 1298, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England; was buried Walden Priory, Essex, England.
    2. Eleanor de Bohun died 20 Feb 1314; was buried Walden Abbey, Essex, England.
    3. Margaret de Bohun was born ~ 1252, Bisley, Stroud, Gloucestershire, England.

  5. 58.  Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes was born 0___ 1192, Tolleshunt, Essex, England (son of Guillaume de Fiennes, Seigneur de Tingry and Agnes Dammartin); died 0___ 1265, Wendover Manor, Buckinghamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Enguerrand Ingelram II de Fiennes, Baron de Tingry
    • Also Known As: Lord of Wendover

    Notes:

    Enguerrand Ingelram de Fiennes, Seigneur de Fiennes
    Also Known As: "Ingelram /De Fiennes/"
    Birthdate: 1192
    Birthplace: Tolleshunt, Essex, England
    Death: Died 1265 in Wendover Manor, Buckinghamshire, England
    Place of Burial: Was Civil War in time of Henry III
    Immediate Family:
    Son of Guillaume, seigneur de Fiennes et de Tingry and Agnes Dammartin
    Husband of Agnáes de Condâe and Isabelle Fiennes (de Condâe)
    Father of Elisabeth de Fiennes; Robert I de Fiennes, seigneur de Heuchin; Enguerrand de Fiennes; Guillaume II de Fiennes, baron de Tingry, Lord of Wendover; Maude de Fiennes and 2 others
    Brother of Michel de Fiennes; Baudouin de Fiennes; William de la Plaunche Bastard Fiennes and Mahaut de Fiennes
    Half brother of William de Fiennes
    Occupation: Baron de Tingry & de Ruminghen, Seigneur de Fiennes, Lord of Wendover; Seigneur de Fiennes; Baron de Tingry
    Managed by: James Fred Patin, Jr.
    Last Updated: June 29, 2016
    View Complete Profile
    view all 17
    Immediate Family

    Agnáes de Condâe
    wife

    Elisabeth de Fiennes
    daughter

    Isabelle Fiennes (de Condâe)
    wife

    Robert I de Fiennes, seigneur de...
    son

    Enguerrand de Fiennes
    son

    Guillaume II de Fiennes, baron d...
    son

    Maude de Fiennes
    daughter

    Reginald de Fiennes
    son

    Jean de Fiennes
    son

    Guillaume, seigneur de Fiennes e...
    father

    Agnes Dammartin
    mother

    Michel de Fiennes
    sister
    About Enguerrand Ingelram II de Fiennes, baron de Tingry
    The line goes further back. When I get time, I'll continue to check it out & add what I can confirm. It is listed at http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=chan83&id=I003489

    ID: P26622 Birth: 1192 in Conde, France _APID: 1,7249::109510975 1 Death: Age: 75 1267 _APID: 1,7249::109510975 1 Name: *INGELRAM ENGUERRAND II DE FIENNES _APID: 1,7249::109510975 1 Sex: M 2

    HintsAncestry Hints for *INGELRAM ENGUERRAND II DE FIENNES

    1 possible matches found on Ancestry.com Ancestry.com
    Father: *GUILLAUME WILLIAM DE FIENNES SHERIFF OF WENDOVER SIR LORD BARON b: 1160 in Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England Mother: *AGNES DE MELLO DEDAMMARTIN b: 1185 in Dampmartin, I-de-F, France

    Marriage 1 *ISABEL DE CONDE b: 1210 in of Bucks, England

    Children

    Has Children *WILLIAM II DE FIENNES BARON TINGRY b: 1245 in Wendover, Bucks, England Has No Children Maud De Fiennes b: 1246 Has No Children Giles De Fiennes Sir b: 1250 in Wendover Manor, Bucks, England
    Sources:

    Repository: Name: Ancestry.co.uk Note:
    Title: Millennium File Author: Heritage Consulting Publication: Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Note: Repository: Name: Ancestry.com Note:
    Title: Ancestry Family Trees Publication: Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. Note: This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. Page: Ancestry Family Tree Text: http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=11811357&pid=26622

    Enguerrand — Isabelle de Conde. [Group Sheet]


  6. 59.  Isabelle de Conde

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Buckinghamshire, England
    • Also Known As: Agnes de Conde

    Children:
    1. William de Fiennes, II, Knight, Baron Tingy was born 0___ 1245, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England.
    2. 29. Maud de Fiennes was born ~ 1251, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England; died 6 Nov 1298; was buried Saffron Walden, Essex, England.

  7. 60.  Henry III, King of EnglandHenry III, King of England was born 1 Oct 1207, Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom; was christened 0___ 1207, Bermondsey, London, Middlesex, England (son of John I, King of England and Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England); died 16 Nov 1272, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was buried 20 Nov 1272, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Duke of Aquitaine
    • Also Known As: Henry III, King of England
    • Also Known As: Henry of Winchester
    • Also Known As: Lord of Ireland

    Notes:

    King Henry III biography... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III_of_England

    Henry married Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile 14 Jan 1236, Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England. Eleanor was born 0___ 1222, Aix-En-Provence, Bouches-Du-Rhone, France; died 24 Jun 1291, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England; was buried 11 Sep 1291, Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 61.  Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile was born 0___ 1222, Aix-En-Provence, Bouches-Du-Rhone, France; died 24 Jun 1291, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England; was buried 11 Sep 1291, Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Eleonore Berenger

    Notes:

    Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223 - 24/25 June 1291[1]) was Queen consort of England, as the spouse of King Henry III of England, from 1236 until his death in 1272.

    Although she was completely devoted to her husband, and staunchly defended him against the rebel Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, she was very much hated by the Londoners. This was because she had brought a large number of relatives with her to England in her retinue; these were known as "the Savoyards", and they were given influential positions in the government and realm. On one occasion, Eleanor's barge was attacked by angry citizens who pelted her with stones, mud, pieces of paving, rotten eggs and vegetables.

    Eleanor was the mother of five children including the future King Edward I of England. She also was renowned for her cleverness, skill at writing poetry, and as a leader of fashion.

    Family[edit]
    Born in Aix-en-Provence, she was the second daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (1198–1245) and Beatrice of Savoy (1205–1267), the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and his second wife Margaret of Geneva. She was well educated as a child, and developed a strong love of reading. Her three sisters also married kings.[2] After her elder sister Margaret married Louis IX of France, their uncle William corresponded with Henry III of England to persuade him to marry Eleanor. Henry sought a dowry of up to twenty thousand silver marks to help offset the dowry he had just paid for his sister Isabella, but Eleanor's father was able to negotiate this down to no dowry, just a promise to leave her ten thousand when he died.

    Like her mother, grandmother, and sisters, Eleanor was renowned for her beauty. She was a dark-haired brunette with fine eyes.[3] Piers Langtoft speaks of her as "The erle's daughter, the fairest may of life".[4] On 22 June 1235, Eleanor was betrothed to King Henry III (1207–1272).[1] Eleanor was probably born in 1223; Matthew Paris describes her as being "jamque duodennem" (already twelve) when she arrived in the Kingdom of England for her marriage.

    Marriage and issue

    13th century costume depicting Eleanor of Provence, Queen of Henry III of England - illustration by Percy Anderson for Costume Fanciful, Historical and Theatrical, 1906
    Eleanor was married to King Henry III of England on 14 January 1236.[5] She had never seen him prior to the wedding at Canterbury Cathedral and had never set foot in his kingdom.[6] Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury, officiated. She was dressed in a shimmering golden gown which was tightly-fitted to the waist, and then flared out in wide pleats to her feet. The sleeves were long and lined with ermine.[7] After riding to London the same day where a procession of citizens greeted the bridal pair, Eleanor was crowned queen consort of England in a ceremony at Westminster Abbey which was followed by a magnificent banquet with the entire nobility in full attendance.[8]

    Eleanor and Henry together had five children:

    Edward I (1239–1307), married Eleanor of Castile (1241–1290) in 1254, by whom he had issue, including his heir Edward II. His second wife was Margaret of France, by whom he had issue.
    Margaret (1240–1275), married King Alexander III of Scotland, by whom she had issue.
    Beatrice (1242–1275), married John II, Duke of Brittany, by whom she had issue.
    Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245–1296), married Aveline de Forz in 1269, who died four years later without issue; married Blanche of Artois in 1276, by whom he had issue.
    Katherine (25 November 1253 – 3 May 1257)
    Four others are listed, but their existence is in doubt as there is no contemporary record of them. These are:

    Richard (1247–1256)
    John (1250–1256)
    William (1251–1256)
    Henry (1256–1257)
    Eleanor seems to have been especially devoted to her eldest son, Edward; when he was deathly ill in 1246, she stayed with him at the abbey at Beaulieu in Hampshire for three weeks, long past the time allowed by monastic rules.[9] It was because of her influence that King Henry granted the duchy of Gascony to Edward in 1249.[citation needed] Her youngest child, Katherine, seems to have had a degenerative disease that rendered her deaf. When the little girl died at the age of three, both her royal parents suffered overwhelming grief.[10]

    Unpopularity

    Eleanor was a loyal and faithful consort to Henry, but she brought in her retinue a large number of uncles and cousins, "the Savoyards," and her influence with the King and her unpopularity with the English barons created friction during Henry's reign.[11] Her uncle William of Savoy became a close advisor of her husband, displacing and displeasing English barons.[12] Though Eleanor and Henry supported different factions at times, she was made regent of England when her husband left for Normandy in 1253. Eleanor was devoted to her husband's cause, stoutly contested Simon de Montfort, raising troops in France for Henry's cause. On 13 July 1263, she was sailing down the Thames when her barge was attacked by citizens of London.[13] Eleanor stoutly hated the Londoners who returned her hatred; in revenge for their dislike Eleanor had demanded from the city all the back payments due on the monetary tribute known as queen-gold, by which she received a tenth of all fines which came to the Crown. In addition to the queen-gold other such fines were levied on the citizens by the Queen on the thinnest of pretexts.[14] In fear for her life as she was pelted with stones, loose pieces of paving, dried mud, rotten eggs and vegetables, Eleanor was rescued by Thomas Fitzthomas, the Mayor of London, and took refuge at the bishop of London's home.

    Later life

    In 1272 Henry died, and her son Edward, who was 33 years old, became Edward I, King of England. She remained in England as queen dowager, and raised several of her grandchildren—Edward's son Henry and daughter Eleanor, and Beatrice's son John. When her grandson Henry died in her care in 1274, Eleanor went into mourning and gave orders for his heart to be buried at the priory at Guildford which she founded in his memory. In 1275 Eleanor's two remaining daughters died Margaret 26 February and Beatrice 24 March.

    She retired to a convent; however, she remained in contact with her son, King Edward, and her sister, Queen Margaret of France.

    Eleanor died on 24/25 June 1291 in Amesbury, eight miles north of Salisbury, England. She was buried on 11 September 1291 in the Abbey of St Mary and St Melor, Amesbury on 9 December. The exact site of her grave at the abbey is unknown making her the only English queen without a marked grave. Her heart was taken to London where it was buried at the Franciscan priory.[15]

    Cultural legacy

    Eleanor was renowned for her learning, cleverness, and skill at writing poetry,[6] as well as her beauty; she was also known as a leader of fashion, continually importing clothes from France.[4] She often wore parti-coloured cottes (a type of tunic), gold or silver girdles into which a dagger was casually thrust, she favoured red silk damask, and decorations of gilt quatrefoil, and to cover her dark hair she wore jaunty pillbox caps. Eleanor introduced a new type of wimple to England, which was high, "into which the head receded until the face seemed like a flower in an enveloping spathe".[4]

    She had developed a love for the songs of the troubadors as a child, and continued this interest. She bought many romantic and historical books, covering stories from ancient times to modern romances.

    Eleanor is the protagonist of The Queen From Provence, a historical romance by British novelist Jean Plaidy which was published in 1979. Eleanor is a main character in the novel Four Sisters, All Queens by author Sherry Jones, as well as in the novel The Sister Queens by Sophie Perinot. She is also the subject of Norwegian Symphonic metal band Leave's Eyes in their song "Eleonore De Provence" from their album Symphonies of the Night.

    Children:
    1. 30. Edward I, King of England was born 17 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was christened 22 Jun 1239, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom; died 7 Jul 1307, Burgh by Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria, England; was buried 28 Oct 1307, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet, Prince of England was born 16 Jan 1245, London, Middlesex, England; died 5 Jun 1296, Bayonne, Pyrennes-Atlantiques, France; was buried 15 Jul 1296, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    3. Margaret of England, Queen of Scots was born 29 Sep 1251, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; died 26 Feb 1275, Cupar Castle, Cupar, Fife, Scotland; was buried Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.
    4. Mary Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England was born 1255, Elsenham Manor, Essex, England; died 16 Sep 1295, West Greenwich, London, England.

  9. 62.  Fernando III, King of Castile and LeonFernando III, King of Castile and Leon was born 5 Aug 1201, Castile, Spain (son of Alfonso IX, King of Leon and Galacia and Berengaria of Castile, Queen of Castile); died 30 May 1252, Seville, Spain; was buried Seville Cathedral, Seville, Spain.

    Other Events:

    • Religion: Roman Catholic
    • Also Known As: Ferdinand III of Castile
    • Also Known As: King of Castile and Toledo
    • Also Known As: King of Leon
    • Also Known As: Saint Ferdinand, T.O.S.F.
    • Also Known As: San Fernando
    • Baptism: 19 Aug 1201

    Notes:

    Ferdinand III, also called Saint Ferdinand, Spanish San Fernando (born 1201?- died May 30, 1252, Sevilla; canonized February 4, 1671; feast day May 30), king of Castile from 1217 to 1252 and of Leon from 1230 to 1252 and conqueror of the Muslim cities of Câordoba (1236), Jaâen (1246), and Sevilla (1248). During his campaigns, Murcia submitted to his son Alfonso (later Alfonso X), and the Muslim kingdom of Granada became his vassal.

    Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of Leon and Berenguela, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile. At birth, he was the heir to Leon, but his uncle, Henry I of Castile, died young, and his mother inherited the crown of Castile, which she conferred on him. His father, like many Leonese, opposed the union, and Ferdinand found himself at war with him. By his will Alfonso IX tried to disinherit his son, but the will was set aside, and Castile and Leon were permanently united in 1230.

    Ferdinand married Beatrice of Swabia, daughter of the Holy Roman emperor, a title that Ferdinand’s son Alfonso X was to claim. His conquest of Lower Andalusia was the result of the disintegration of the Almohad state. The Castilians and other conquerors occupied the cities, driving out the Muslims and taking over vast estates.

    Ferdinand’s second wife was Joan of Ponthieu, whom he married in 1237; their daughter Eleanor married the future Edward I of England in 1254. Ferdinand settled in Sevilla, where he is buried.

    Buried:
    Images & History ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seville_Cathedral

    Fernando married Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu 0___ 1237. Jeanne was born 0___ 1220, Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne, France; died 16 Mar 1279, Abbeville, Somme, France. [Group Sheet]


  10. 63.  Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu was born 0___ 1220, Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne, France; died 16 Mar 1279, Abbeville, Somme, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Joan, Countess of Ponthieu
    • Also Known As: Queen Consort of Castile and Leon

    Notes:

    Joan of Dammartin (French: Jeanne de Dammartin; c. 1220[1] – 16 March 1279) was Queen consort of Castile and Leâon (1252), suo jure Countess of Ponthieu (1251–1279) and Aumale (1237–1279). Her daughter, the English queen Eleanor of Castile, was her successor in Ponthieu. Her son and co-ruler in Aumale, Ferdinand II, Count of Aumale, predeceased her, so she was succeeded by her grandson John I, Count of Aumale, deceased at the Battle of Courtrai, 11 July 1302.

    Family

    Joan was the eldest daughter of Simon of Dammartin, Count of Ponthieu (1180- 21 September 1239) and his wife Marie of Ponthieu, Countess of Montreuil (17 April 1199- 1251). Her paternal grandparents were Alberic II, Count de Dammartin and Mahaut de Clermont, daughter of Renaud de Clermont, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, and Clâemence de Bar.[2] Her maternal grandparents were William IV of Ponthieu and Alys, Countess of the Vexin, daughter of Louis VII of France and Constance of Castile.

    Henry III of England

    After secret negotiations were undertaken in 1234, it was agreed that Joan would marry King Henry III of England. This marriage would have been politically unacceptable to the French, however, since Joan stood to inherit not only her mother's county of Ponthieu but also the county of Aumale that was vested in her father's family. Ponthieu bordered on the duchy of Normandy, and Aumale lay within Normandy itself. The French king Philip Augustus had seized Normandy from King John of England as recently as 1205, and Philip's heirs could not risk the English monarchy recovering any land in that area, since it might allow the Plantagenets to re-establish control in Normandy.

    As it happened, Joan's father Simon had become involved in a conspiracy of northern French noblemen against Philip Augustus and to win pardon from Philip's son Louis VIII, Simon—who had only daughters—was compelled to promise that he would marry off neither of his two eldest daughters without the permission of the king of France. In 1235, the queen-regent of France, Blanche of Castile, invoked that promise on behalf of her son, King Louis IX of France, and threatened to deprive Simon of all his lands if Joan married Henry III.[citation needed] Blanch also petitioned the Pope to deny the marriage based on consanguinity. He agreed, denying the dispensation which Henry had sought and paid for. Henry therefore abandoned the project for his marriage to Joan and in January 1236 married instead Eleanor of Provence, the sister of Louis IX's wife.

    Queen of Castile

    In November 1235, Blanche of Castile's nephew, King Ferdinand III of Castile, lost his wife, Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen, and Blanche's sister Berengaria of Castile, Ferdinand's mother, was concerned that her widowed son might involve himself in liaisons that were unsuited to his dignity as king. Berengaria determined to find Ferdinand another wife, and her sister Blanche suggested Joan of Dammartin, whose marriage to the king of Castile would keep her inheritance from falling into hostile hands.[3] In October 1237, at the age of about seventeen, Joan and Ferdinand were married in Burgos. Since Ferdinand already had seven sons from his first marriage to Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen, there was little chance of Ponthieu being absorbed by Castile.

    They had four sons and one daughter:

    Ferdinand II, Count of Aumale (1239–ca 1265) m. (after 1256) Laure de Montfort, Lady of Espernon (d before 08.1270), and had issue:
    Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu, who married king Edward I of England and had issue
    Louis (1243–ca 1275), who married Juana de Manzanedo, Lady of Gaton, and had issue
    Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo
    John (1246), died young and buried at the cathedral in Câordoba
    She accompanied Ferdinand to Andalucia and lived with him in the army camp as he besieged Seville in 1248.[4]

    Upon her mother's death in 1251, Joan succeeded as Countess of Ponthieu and Montreuil, which she held in her own right.

    After Ferdinand III died in 1252, Joan did not enjoy a cordial relationship with his heir, her stepson Alfonso X of Castile, with whom she quarreled over the lands and income she should have received as dowager queen of Castile. Sometime in 1253, she became the ally and supporter of another of her stepsons, Henry of Castile, who also felt Alfonso had not allowed him all the wealth their father had meant him to have. Joan unwisely attended secret meetings with Henry and his supporters, and it was rumored that she and Henry were lovers. This further strained her relations with Alfonso and in 1254, shortly before her daughter Eleanor was to marry Edward of England, Joan and her eldest son Ferdinand left Castile and returned to her native Ponthieu.

    Children:
    1. 31. Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain; died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.


Generation: 7

  1. 96.  Robert de Courtenay (son of Reginald de Courtenay and Hawise de Curci); died 0___ 1219.

    Robert — Mary de Redvers. [Group Sheet]


  2. 97.  Mary de Redvers

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Mary de Vernon

    Children:
    1. 48. John Courtenay, 2nd Baron Okehampton was born ~ 1218, Okehampton, Devon, England; died 3 May 1274, Okehampton, Devon, England.

  3. 98.  Hugh de Vere, Knight, 4th Earl of Oxford was born ~ 1208, (Essex, England) (son of Robert de Vere, Knight, 3rd Earl of Oxford and Isabel de Bolebec, Countess of Oxford); died 0Dec 1263, (Essex, England).

    Notes:

    Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford (c. 1208 – December 1263) was the only son and heir of Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford and Isabel de Bolebec, daughter and eventual sole heiress of Hugh de Bolebec.

    Early life

    Hugh de Vere was born about 1208, soon after the marriage of his parents. He was a minor when his father died in autumn 1221. Hugh's mother, Isabel de Bolebec, Countess of Oxford, purchased her son's wardship from the crown for 6000 marks.[1] Hugh did homage to King Henry III in October 1231, and was knighted by the King at Gloucester on 22 May 1233.[2] Two days later the King 'girt him with the sword of the Earldom of Oxford and directed the sheriff to let him have what he ought to have in the name of the Earldom of Oxford as his predecessors had had'.[3]

    Career

    He inherited the office of Master Chamberlain of England which had been granted to his great-grandfather Aubrey de Vere II. By right of that office, he participated in the coronation of Queen Eleanor in 1236. Earl Hugh was a critic of King Henry from 1246, and in 1258 and 1259 was elected to serve on various baronial committees attempting to reform royal government.[4] The earl purchased the right to hold a market at the town on his primary estate, Castle Hedingham in Essex, and founded a chantry there.[5]

    Marriage and issue

    Hugh de Vere married Hawise de Quincy,[6] daughter of Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester, and his wife, Margaret de Beaumont. They had a son and three daughters:[7]

    Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford.
    Isabel de Vere, who married firstly, Sir John de Courtenay of Okehampton, Devon, and secondly, Oliver de Dinham, Lord Dinham.
    Lora de Vere, who married Reynold d'Argentine of Melbourn, Cambridgeshire.
    Margaret de Vere, who married Hugh de Cressy (d. shortly before 24 April 1263).[8]
    Hugh de Vere died before 23 December 1263 and was buried at Earls Colne. His widow was living in 1273 and died on 3 February thereafter. She was buried at Earls Colne Priory.[9]

    Footnotes

    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1945, p. 213.
    Jump up ^ Richardson IV 2011, p. 262.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1945, p. 214.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1945, p. 214.
    Jump up ^ Victoria County History of Essex, vol. II, p. 184.
    Jump up ^ Richardson IV 2011, p. 262.
    Jump up ^ Complete Peerage, X, 215 note 'h'.
    Jump up ^ Richardson IV 2011, pp. 262-e.
    Jump up ^ Richardson IV 2011, p. 262.

    References

    Cokayne, George Edward (1945). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday. X. London: St. Catherine Press.
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. IV (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1460992709

    Hugh married Hawise de Quincy (Essex, England). [Group Sheet]


  4. 99.  Hawise de Quincy (daughter of Saer de Quincy, Knight, 1st Earl of Winchester and Margaret de Beaumont).

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Hedingham Castle, in the village of Castle Hedingham, Essex, is the best preserved Norman keep in England.

    Picture, history & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedingham_Castle

    Children:
    1. Robert de Vere, Knight, 5th Earl of Oxford was born ~ 1240, Hedingham Castle, Essex, England; died Bef 7 SEPT 1296; was buried Earls Coine, Essex, England.
    2. 49. Isabel de Vere was born ~ 1222, (Essex, England); died Aft 11 Aug 1299.
    3. Lora De Vere was born (Essex, England).
    4. Margaret de Vere was born (Essex, England).

  5. 112.  Humphrey de Bohun, IV, Knight, 2nd Earl of Hereford was born 0___ 1204 (son of Henry de Bohun, 1st Earl of Hereford and Maud FitzGeoffrey); died 24 Sep 1275, Warwickshire, England; was buried Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 1st Earl of Essex
    • Also Known As: Constable of England

    Notes:

    Humphrey (IV) de Bohun (1204 – 24 September 1275) was 2nd Earl of Hereford and 1st Earl of Essex, as well as Constable of England. He was the son of Henry de Bohun, 1st Earl of Hereford, and Maud FitzGeoffrey).

    Career

    He was one of the nine godfathers of Prince Edward, later to be Edward I of England. He served as High Sheriff of Kent for 1239–1240.

    In 1258, after returning from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Humphrey fell away, like his father, from the royal to the baronial cause. He served as a nominee of the opposition on the committee of twenty-four which was appointed, in the Oxford parliament of that year, to create the Provisions of Oxford to reform the administration. It was only the alliance of Montfort with Llewelyn of North Wales that brought the earl of Hereford back to his allegiance. Humphrey V headed the first secession of the Welsh Marchers from the party of the opposition (1263), and was amongst the captives whom the Montfortians took at the Battle of Lewes.[1]

    The earl's son and namesake was on the victorious side, and shared in the defeat of Evesham, which he did not long survive. Humphrey V was, therefore, naturally selected as one of the twelve arbitrators to draw up the Dictum of Kenilworth (1266), by which the disinherited rebels were allowed to make their peace. Dying in 1275, he was succeeded by his grandson Humphrey VII.[1]

    Marriage and children

    He married c. 1236 Maud de Lusignan (c. 1210 – 14 August 1241, buried at Llanthony, Gloucester), daughter of Raoul I of Lusignan, Comte d'Eu by marriage, and second wife Alix d'Eu, 8th Comtesse d'Eu and 4th Lady of Hastings, and had issue. Their children were:

    Humphrey (V) de Bohun, who predeceased his father in 1265. The earldom therefore passed through him to his son Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford)
    Henry de Bohun
    Geoffrey de Bohun
    Ralph de Bohun, Clerk
    Maud de Bohun, married (1) Anselm Marshal, 6th Earl of Pembroke; (2) Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester
    Alice de Bohun, married Roger V de Toeni
    Eleanor de Bohun, married Sir John de Verdun, Baron of Westmeath
    He married secondly, Maud de Avenbury (d. 8 October 1273), with whom he had two sons:

    John de Bohun
    Sir Miles de Bohun
    Death & burial[edit]
    He died in Warwickshire and was buried at Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester.

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bohun". Encyclopµdia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 137.
    Complete Peerage

    Humphrey married Maud de Lusignan ~ 1246. Maud was born ~ 1210; died 14 Aug 1241; was buried Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 113.  Maud de Lusignan was born ~ 1210; died 14 Aug 1241; was buried Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester, England.
    Children:
    1. 56. Humphrey de Bohun, VI, 2nd Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1219, Hungerford, Berkshire, England; died 27 Oct 1265.
    2. Henry de Bohun
    3. Geoffrey de Bohun
    4. Ralph de Bohun
    5. Maud de Bohun
    6. Alice de Bohun
    7. Eleanor de Bohun was born Bef 1241; died Aft 10 Jun 1278, Debden, Essex, England.

  7. 114.  William de Braose, Lord of Brycheiniog was born 0___ 1197, Brecon, Wales (son of Reginald de Braose, Knight and Grace Brewer); died 2 May 1230, Wales; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 7th Baron Bramber
    • Also Known As: Lord of Abergavenny
    • Also Known As: William Bruce

    Notes:

    William de Braose (c. 1197 – 2 May 1230) was the son of Reginald de Braose by his first wife, Grecia Briwere. He was an ill-fated member of a powerful and long-lived dynasty of Marcher Lords.

    Early years

    William de Braose was born in Brecon, probably between 1197 and 1204. The Welsh, who detested him and his family name, called him Gwilym Ddu, Black William. He succeeded his father in his various lordships in 1227, including Abergavenny and Buellt.[citation needed]

    Career

    He was captured by the Welsh forces of Prince Llywelyn the Great, in fighting in the commote of Ceri near Montgomery, in 1228. William was ransomed for the sum of ą2,000 and then furthermore made an alliance with Llywelyn, arranging to marry his daughter Isabella de Braose to Llywelyn's only legitimate son Dafydd ap Llywelyn. However, it became known that William had committed adultery with Llywelyn's wife, Joan, Lady of Wales, and Braose was taken at his own home and transported to Wales.[2] The marriage planned between their two children did, however, take place.[3]

    Execution

    The Chronicle of Ystrad Fflur's entry for 1230 reads:[citation needed]

    "In this year William de Breos the Younger, lord of Brycheiniog, was hanged by the Lord Llywelyn in Gwynedd, after he had been caught in Llywelyn's chamber with the king of England's daughter, Llywelyn's wife".[citation needed]
    Llywelyn had William publicly hanged on 2 May 1230,[4] possibly at Crogen, near Bala, though others believe the hanging took place near Llywelyn's palace at Abergwyngregyn.

    Legacy

    With William's death by hanging and his having four daughters, who divided the de Braose inheritance between them and no male heir, the titles now passed to the junior branch of the de Braose dynasty, the only male heir was now John de Braose who had already inherited the titles of Gower and Bramber from his far-sighted uncle Reginald de Braose.[citation needed]

    Family

    William married Eva Marshal, daughter of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. They had four daughters:[citation needed]

    Isabella de Braose (born c. 1222), wife of Prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn
    Maud de Braose (born c. 1224 – 1301), wife of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer another very powerful Marcher dynasty.
    Eleanor de Braose (c. 1226 – 1251), wife of Humphrey de Bohun and mother of Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford.
    Eva de Braose (c. 1227- July 1255), wife of William III de Cantilupe.
    William's wife Eva continued to hold de Braose lands and castles in her own right, after the death of her husband. She was listed as the holder of Totnes in 1230, and was granted 12 marks to strengthen Hay Castle by King Henry III on the Close Rolls (1234–1237).[citation needed]

    *

    Born: about 1197
    His father handed over the Sussex lands of Bramber and Knepp to him in August 1218, so it is probable that he came of age in that year.

    Died: 2nd May 1230

    William succeeded his father as lord of Abergavenny (right), Builth and other Marcher lordships in 1227. Styled by the Welsh as "Black William", he was imprisoned by Llewelyn ap Iorwerth in 1229 during Hubert de Burgh's disastrous Kerry (Ceri) campaign. He was ransomed and released after a short captivity during which he agreed to cede Builth as a marriage portion for his daughter Isabel on her betrothal to Dafydd, son and heir of Llewelyn. The following Easter, Llewelyn discovered an intrigue between his wife, Joan, and William. Supported by a general clamour for his death, Llewelyn had William publicly hanged on 2nd May 1230.

    Father: Reginald de Braose

    Mother: Grace Brewer

    William was married to Eva Marshal (1206 -1246)

    Child 1: Isabel, the eldest
    Child 2: Maud
    Child 3: Eva
    Child 4: Eleanor

    Note: The arms shown above are attributed to this William by Matthew Paris. (see Aspilogia II, MP I No 44 & MP IV No 27). In the two existing versions of the manuscript the arms are given differently.

    Died:
    Eva's husband was publicly hanged by Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales on 2 May 1230 after being discovered in the Prince's bedchamber together with his wife Joan, Lady of Wales.

    William married Eva Marshal, Countess of Abergavenny 2 May 1230, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales. Eva (daughter of William Marshal, Templar Knight, 1st Earl Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke) was born 0___ 1203, Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 0___ 1246. [Group Sheet]


  8. 115.  Eva Marshal, Countess of Abergavenny was born 0___ 1203, Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales (daughter of William Marshal, Templar Knight, 1st Earl Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke); died 0___ 1246.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Birth: 1194

    Notes:

    Eva Marshal (1203 – 1246) was a Cambro-Norman noblewoman and the wife of the powerful Marcher lord William de Braose. She was the daughter of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, and the granddaughter of Strongbow and Aoife of Leinster.

    She held de Braose lands and castles in her own right following the public hanging of her husband by the orders of Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales.

    Family and marriage

    Lady Eva was born in 1203, in Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales, the fifth daughter[1] and tenth child of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke. Her paternal grandparents were John Marshal and Sibyl of Salisbury, and her maternal grandparents were Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, known to history as Strongbow and Aoife of Leinster, for whom she was probably named.

    Lady Eva was the youngest of ten children, having had five older brothers and four older sisters. Eva and her sisters were described as being handsome, high-spirited girls.[2] From 1207 to 1212, Eva and her family lived in Ireland.

    Sometime before 1221, she married Marcher lord William de Braose, who in June 1228 succeeded to the lordship of Abergavenny,[n 1] and by whom she had four daughters. William was the son of Reginald de Braose and his first wife Grecia Briwere. He was much hated by the Welsh who called him Gwilym Ddu or Black William.

    Issue

    Isabella de Braose (b.1222), married Prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn. She died childless.
    Maud de Braose (1224 – 1301), in 1247, she married Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Wigmore, by whom she had issue, including Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer and Isabella Mortimer, Countess of Arundel.
    Eva de Braose (1227 – 28 July 1255), married William de Cantelou, by whom she had issue.
    Eleanor de Braose (c.1228 – 1251). On an unknown date after August 1241, she married Humphrey de Bohun. They had two sons, Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and Gilbert de Bohun, and one daughter, Alianore de Bohun. All three children married and had issue. Eleanor was buried in Llanthony Secunda Priory.

    Widowhood

    Eva's husband was publicly hanged by Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales on 2 May 1230 after being discovered in the Prince's bedchamber together with his wife Joan, Lady of Wales. Several months later, Eva's eldest daughter Isabella married the Prince's son, Dafydd ap Llywelyn, as their marriage contract had been signed prior to William de Braose's death. Prince Llywelyn wrote to Eva shortly after the execution, offering his apologies, explaining that he had been forced to order the hanging due to the insistence by the Welsh lords. He concluded his letter by adding that he hoped the execution would not affect their business dealings.[3]

    Following her husband's execution, Eva held de Braose lands and castles in her own right. She is listed as holder of Totnes in 1230, which she held until her death. It is recorded on the Close Rolls (1234–1237) that Eva was granted 12 marks by King Henry III of England to strengthen Hay Castle. She had gained custody of Hay as part of her dower.[4]

    In early 1234, Eva was caught up in her brother Richard's rebellion against King Henry and possibly acted as one of the arbitrators between the King and her mutinous brothers following Richard's murder in Ireland.[5] This is evidenced by the safe conduct she received in May 1234, thus enabling her to speak with the King. By the end of that month, she had a writ from King Henry granting her seisen of castles and lands he had confiscated from her following her brother's revolt. Eva also received a formal statement from the King declaring that she was back in "his good graces again".[6]

    She died in 1246 at the age of forty-three.

    Royal descendants

    Most notably through her daughter Maud, who married Roger Mortimer, she was the ancestress of the English kings: Edward IV, Edward V, Richard III, and all monarchs from Henry VIII onwards. She was also the ancestress of Queen consorts Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr by three of her four daughters; Eleanor, Maud, and Eva de Braose.

    Ancestry

    [show]Ancestors of Eva Marshal

    Notes

    Jump up ^ Although he held the lordship in tenancy, he never held the title Lord Abergavenny.
    References[edit]
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Cawley, Charles (2010). Medieval Lands, Earls of Pembroke 1189-1245( Marshal)
    Jump up ^ Costain, Thomas B.(1959). The Magnificent Century. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company Inc. p.103
    Jump up ^ Gen-Medieval-L Archives, retrieved on 7 November 2009
    Jump up ^ Close Rolls (1234-1237)
    Jump up ^ Linda Elizabeth Mitchell (2003). Portraits of Medieval Women: Family, Marriage and Politics in England 1225-1350. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. p.47
    Jump up ^ Mitchell, p.47

    Sources

    Cawley, Charles, ENGLISH NOBILITY MEDIEVAL: Earls of Pembroke 1189-1245, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    de Braose family genealogy
    Cokayne, G. E. The Complete Peerage
    Costain, Thomas B. (1959). The Magnificent Century. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc.

    Birth:
    Images, History, Map & Source for Pembroke Castle, Wales ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pembroke_Castle

    Children:
    1. Isabella de Braose was born ~ 1222, (Wales).
    2. Maud de Braose, Lady Mortimer was born ~ 1224, (Wales); died 0___ 1301.
    3. Eva de Braose was born 0___ 1227; died 28 Jul 1255.
    4. 57. Eleanor de Braose was born ~ 1228, Breconshire, Wales; died 0___ 1251; was buried Llanthony Priory, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.

  9. 116.  Guillaume de Fiennes, Seigneur de Tingry was born 0___ 1160, Wendover Manor, Buckinghamshire, England.

    Guillaume — Agnes Dammartin. [Group Sheet]


  10. 117.  Agnes Dammartin
    Children:
    1. 58. Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes was born 0___ 1192, Tolleshunt, Essex, England; died 0___ 1265, Wendover Manor, Buckinghamshire, England.

  11. 120.  John I, King of EnglandJohn I, King of England was born 24 Dec 1166, Beaumont Palace, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England (son of Henry II, King of England and Eleanore de Aquitaine, Queen of England); died 19 Oct 1216, Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 19 Oct 1216, Worcester Cathedral, Worcester, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Johan sanz Terre
    • Also Known As: John de Normandie, King of England
    • Also Known As: John I, King of England
    • Also Known As: John Lackland
    • Also Known As: John Plantagenet, King of England

    Notes:

    John (24 December 1166 - 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre),[1] was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216.

    Following the battle of Bouvines, John lost the duchy of Normandy to King Philip II of France, which resulted in the collapse of most of the Angevin Empire and contributed to the subsequent growth in power of the Capetian dynasty during the 13th century.

    The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered to be an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.

    more on King John ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John,_King_of_England

    More images of King John ...

    https://www.google.com/search?q=john+lackland+coat+of+arms&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=810&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiNnKWp6aPPAhULXB4KHb1qCnQQsAQIKw&dpr=1#imgrc=F8SAOkDV1jsAEM%3A

    *

    Baronial Order of Magna Charta:

    The Baronial Order of Magna Charta ("BOMC") is a scholarly, charitable, and lineage society founded in 1898. The BOMC was originally named the Baronial Order of Runnemede, but the name was subsequently changed to better reflect the organization's purposes relating to the Magna Charta and the promulgation of "freedom of man under the rule of law." view its membership list: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baronial_Order_of_Magna_Charta

    These 25 barons were Sureties for the concessions made by John, King of England, d. 18 Oct 1216.

    1. William d'Albini, Lord of Belvoir Castle, d. 1236.
    ((26th, 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    24th, 25th & 26th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=12&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46884

    2. Roger Bigod, (43132) Earl of Norfolk and Suffolk, d. 1220.
    (26th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I43132

    3. Hugh Bigod, (43271) heir to the earldoms of Norfolk and Suffolk, d. 1225.
    (25th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I43271

    4. Henry de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, (46127) d. 1220.
    (26th, 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    25th & 26th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46127


    5. Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford, (46129) d. 1217.
    (25th, 26th & 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46129

    6. Gilbert de Clare, heir to the earldom of Hertford, (45550) d. 1230.
    (24th, 26th & 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    25th & 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars;
    24th & 25th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=16&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I45550

    John FitzRobert, Lord of Warkworth Castle, Northumberland, d. 1240.

    7. Robert FitzWalter, Lord of Dunmow Castle, Essex, d. 1234.
    (28th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars)

    William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, d. 1241, no great-grandchildren.
    William Hardell, Mayor of the City of London, d. after 1216, no known issue.
    William de Huntingfield, Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, d. 1220.
    John de Lacie, Lord of Pontefract Castle, d. 1240.
    William de Lanvallei, Lord of Standway Castle, Essex, d. 1217.
    William Malet, Sheriff of Somerset and Dorset, d. about 1217.
    Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex and Gloucester, d. 1216, d.s.p..

    William Marshall jr, heir to the earldom of Pembroke, d. 1231, (43947) d.s.p..
    A cousin to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars & Perry Green "Pop" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I43947

    Roger de Montbegon, Lord of Hornby Castle, Lancashire, d. 1226, d.s.p..
    Richard de Montfichet, Baron, d. after 1258, d.s.p..

    8.. William de Mowbray, Lord of Axholme Castle, Lincolnshire, (46138) d. 1223
    (24th & 26th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46138

    Richard de Percy, Baron, Yorkshire, d. 1244, d.s.p..

    9.Saire de Quincey, Earl of Winchester, (46162) d. 1219.
    (25th & 27th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    25th & 26th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee;
    27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46162

    10. Robert de Roos, Lord of Hamlake Castle, Yorkshire, (46148)d. 1226.
    (25th, 26th & 27th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=12&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46148

    Geoffrey de Saye, Baron, d. 1230.

    11. Robert de Vere, heir to the earldom of Oxford, d. 1221.
    (25th, 27th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    25th, 26th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee;
    27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars; http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=12&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46155

    Eustace de Vesci, Lord of Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, d. 1216 d.s.p..

    Birth:
    Beaumont Palace, built outside the north gate of Oxford, was intended by Henry I about 1130 to serve as a royal palace conveniently close to the royal hunting-lodge at Woodstock (now part of the park of Blenheim Palace). Its former presence is recorded in Beaumont Street, Oxford. Set into a pillar on the north side of the street, near Walton Street, is a stone with the inscription: "Near to this site stood the King's Houses later known as Beaumont Palace. King Richard I was born here in 1157 and King John in 1167". The "King's House" was the range of the palace that contained the king's lodgings.

    Henry passed Easter 1133 in the nova aula, his "new hall" at Beaumont in great pomp, celebrating the birth of his grandson, the future Henry II.[1] Edward I was the last king to sojourn in Beaumont officially as a palace, and in 1275 he granted it to an Italian lawyer, Francesco Accorsi, who had undertaken diplomatic missions for him.[2] When Edward II was put to flight at the battle of Bannockburn in 1314, he is said to have invoked the Virgin Mary and vowed to found a monastery for the Carmelites (the White Friars) if he might escape safely. In fulfilment of his vow he remanded Beaumont Palace to the Carmelites in 1318.

    In 1318, the Palace was the scene for the beginnings of the John Deydras affair, in which a royal pretender, arguing that he was the rightful king of England, claimed the Palace for his own. John Deydras was ultimately executed for sedition.[3]


    When the White Friars were disbanded at the Reformation, most of the structure was dismantled and the building stone reused in Christ Church and St John's College.[4] An engraving of 1785[5] shows the remains of Beaumont Palace, the last of which were destroyed in the laying out of Beaumont Street in 1829.[6]

    Drawings, Sketches & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beaumont_Palace

    Buried:
    Worcester Cathedral, before the English Reformation known as Worcester Priory, is an Anglican cathedral in Worcester, England; situated on a bank overlooking the River Severn. It is the seat of the Bishop of Worcester. Its official name is The Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Mary the Virgin of Worcester. Built between 1084 and 1504, Worcester Cathedral represents every style of English architecture from Norman to Perpendicular Gothic.

    It is famous for its Norman crypt and unique chapter house, its unusual Transitional Gothic bays, its fine woodwork and its "exquisite" central tower,[1] which is of particularly fine proportions.

    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Worcester_Cathedral

    Died:
    Newark Castle, in Newark, in the English county of Nottinghamshire was founded in the mid 12th century by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln. Originally a timber castle, it was rebuilt in stone towards the end of the century. Dismantled in the 17th century after the English Civil War, the castle was restored in the 19th century, first by Anthony Salvin in the 1840s and then by the corporation of Newark who bought the site in 1889. The Gilstrap Heritage Centre is a free-admission museum in the castle grounds about the history of the town of Newark.

    Images & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newark_Castle,_Nottinghamshire

    John married Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England 26 Aug 1200, Cathedral of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. Isabelle was born 0___ 1188, Angouleme, France; died 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France; was buried 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France. [Group Sheet]


  12. 121.  Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of EnglandIsabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England was born 0___ 1188, Angouleme, France; died 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France; was buried 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Angouleme
    • Also Known As: Isabella de Taillefer, Queen of England
    • Alt Birth: Abt 1173
    • Alt Death: 14 Oct 1217
    • Alt Death: 4 Jun 1246

    Notes:

    Isabel of Gloucester (c. 1173 - 14 October 1217) was the first wife of John of England . She is known by an exceptionally large number of alternative names: Hadwisa, Hawisia, Hawise, Joan, Eleanor, Avise and Avisa.

    *

    Isabella of Angoulăeme (French: Isabelle d'Angoulăeme, IPA: [izab?l d?~gul?m]; c.1188 – 4 June 1246) was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216. She was also reigning Countess of Angoulăeme from 1202 until 1246.

    She had five children by the king including his heir, later Henry III. In 1220, Isabella married Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche, by whom she had another nine children.

    Some of her contemporaries, as well as later writers, claim that Isabella formed a conspiracy against King Louis IX of France in 1241, after being publicly snubbed by his mother, Blanche of Castile for whom she had a deep-seated hatred.[1] In 1244, after the plot had failed, Isabella was accused of attempting to poison the king. To avoid arrest, she sought refuge in Fontevraud Abbey where she died two years later, but none of this can be confirmed.

    Queen of England

    She was the only daughter and heir of Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angoulăeme, by Alice of Courtenay, who was sister of Peter II of Courtenay, Latin Emperor of Constantinople and granddaughter of King Louis VI of France.

    Isabella became Countess of Angoulăeme in her own right on 16 June 1202, by which time she was already queen of England. Her marriage to King John took place on 24 August 1200, in Angoulăeme,[2] a year after he annulled his first marriage to Isabel of Gloucester. She was crowned queen in an elaborate ceremony on 8 October at Westminster Abbey in London. Isabella was originally betrothed to Hugh IX le Brun, Count of Lusignan,[3] son of the then Count of La Marche. As a result of John's temerity in taking her as his second wife, King Philip II of France confiscated all of their French lands, and armed conflict ensued.

    At the time of her marriage to John, the blonde and blue-eyed 12-year-old Isabella was already renowned by some for her beauty[4] and has sometimes been called the Helen of the Middle Ages by historians.[5] Isabella was much younger than her husband and possessed a volatile temper similar to his own. King John was infatuated with his young, beautiful wife; however, his acquisition of her had as much, if not more to do with spiting his enemies, than romantic love. She was already engaged to Hugh IX le Brun, when she was taken by John. It had been said that he neglected his state affairs to spend time with Isabella, often remaining in bed with her until noon. However, these were rumors, ignited by John's enemies to discredit him as being a weak and grossly irresponsible ruler. Given that at the time they were made John was engaging in a desperate war with King Phillip of France to hold on to the remaining Plantagenet dukedoms. The common people began to term her a "siren" or "Messalina", which spoke volumes as to common opinion .[6] Her mother-in-law, Eleanor of Aquitaine readily accepted her as John's wife.[7]

    On 1 October 1207 at Winchester Castle, Isabella gave birth to a son and heir who was named Henry after the King's father, Henry II. He was quickly followed by another son, Richard, and three daughters, Joan, Isabel, and Eleanor. All five children survived into adulthood, and would make illustrious marriages; all but Joan would produce offspring of their own.

    Second marriage

    When King John died in October 1216, Isabella's first act was to arrange the speedy coronation of her nine-year-old son at the city of Gloucester on 28 October. As the royal crown had recently been lost in The Wash, along with the rest of King John's treasure, she supplied her own golden circlet to be used in lieu of a crown.[8] The following July, less than a year after his crowning as King Henry III of England, she left him in the care of his regent, William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and returned to France to assume control of her inheritance of Angoulăeme.

    In the spring of 1220, she married Hugh X of Lusignan, "le Brun", Seigneur de Luisignan, Count of La Marche, the son of her former fiancâe, Hugh IX, to whom she had been betrothed before her marriage to King John. It had been previously arranged that her eldest daughter Joan should marry Hugh, and the little girl was being brought up at the Lusignan court in preparation for her marriage. Hugh, however, upon seeing Isabella, whose beauty had not diminished,[9] preferred the girl's mother. Princess Joan was provided with another husband, King Alexander II of Scotland, whom she wed in 1221.

    Isabella had married Hugh without waiting to receive the consent of the King's council in England, which was the required procedure for a former Queen of England, as the Council had the power to not only choose the Queen Dowager's second husband, but to decide whether or not she should be allowed to marry at all. Isabella's flouting of this law caused the Council to confiscate her dower lands and stop the payment of her pension.[10] Isabella and her husband retaliated by threatening to keep Princess Joan, who had been promised in marriage to the King of Scotland, in France. The council first responded by sending furious letters, signed in the name of young King Henry, to the Pope, urging him to excommunicate Isabella and her husband, but then decided to come to terms with Isabella, as to avoid conflict with the Scottish king, who was eager to receive his bride. Isabella was granted, in compensation for her dower lands in Normandy, the stannaries in Devon and the revenue of Aylesbury for a period of four years. She also received ą3000 as payment for arrears in her pension.[11]

    By Hugh X, Isabella had nine more children. Their eldest son Hugh XI of Lusignan succeeded his father as Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulăeme in 1249.

    Isabella's children from her past marriage continued their lives in England.

    Rebellion and death[edit]
    Described by some contemporaries as "vain, capricious, and troublesome,"[12] Isabella could not reconcile herself with her less prominent position in France. Though Queen dowager of England, Isabella was now mostly regarded as a mere Countess of La Marche and had to give precedence to other women.[13] In 1241, when Isabella and Hugh were summoned to the French court to swear fealty to King Louis IX of France's brother, Alphonse, who had been invested as Count of Poitou, their mother, the Queen Dowager Blanche openly snubbed her. This so infuriated Isabella, who had a deep-seated hatred of Blanche due to the latter having fervently supported the French invasion of England during the First Barons' War in May 1216, that she began to actively conspire against King Louis. Isabella and her husband, along with other disgruntled nobles, including her son-in-law Raymond VII of Toulouse, sought to create an English-backed confederacy which united the provinces of the south and west against the French king.[14] She encouraged her son Henry in his invasion of Normandy in 1230, but then did not provide him the support she had promised.[15]

    In 1244, after the confederacy had failed and Hugh had made peace with King Louis, two royal cooks were arrested for attempting to poison the King; upon questioning they confessed to having been in Isabella's pay.[16] Before Isabella could be taken into custody, she fled to Fontevraud Abbey, where she died on 4 June 1246.[17]

    By her own prior arrangement, she was first buried in the Abbey's churchyard, as an act of repentance for her many misdeeds. On a visit to Fontevraud, her son King Henry III of England was shocked to find her buried outside the Abbey and ordered her immediately moved inside. She was finally placed beside Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Afterwards, most of her many Lusignan children, having few prospects in France, set sail for England and the court of Henry, their half-brother.

    Issue

    With King John of England: 5 children, all of whom survived into adulthood, including:
    King Henry III of England (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272). Married Eleanor of Provence, by whom he had issue, including his heir, King Edward I of England.
    Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272). Married firstly Isabel Marshal, secondly Sanchia of Provence, and thirdly Beatrice of Falkenburg. Had issue.
    Joan (22 July 1210 – 1238), the wife of King Alexander II of Scotland. Her marriage was childless.
    Isabella (1214–1241), the wife of Emperor Frederick II, by whom she had issue.
    Eleanor (1215–1275), who would marry firstly William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke; and secondly Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, by whom she had issue.

    With Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche: nine children, all of whom survived into adulthood, including:

    Hugh XI of Lusignan (1221–1250), Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulăeme. Married Yolande de Dreux, Countess of Penthiáevre and of Porhoet, by whom he had issue.
    Aymer of Lusignan (1222–1260), Bishop of Winchester
    Agnáes de Lusignan (1223–1269). Married William II de Chauvigny (d. 1270), and had issue.
    Alice of Lusignan (1224 – 9 February 1256). Married John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, by whom she had issue.
    Guy of Lusignan (c. 1225 – 1264), killed at the Battle of Lewes. (Tufton Beamish maintains that he escaped to France after the Battle of Lewes and died there in 1269).
    Geoffrey of Lusignan (c. 1226 – 1274). Married in 1259 Jeanne, Viscountess of Chăatellerault, by whom he had issue.
    Isabella of Lusignan (c.1226/1227 14 January 1299). Married firstly before 1244 Maurice IV, seigneur de Craon (1224–1250),[18] by whom she had issue; she married secondly, Geoffrey de Rancon.[19]
    William of Lusignan (c. 1228 – 1296). 1st Earl of Pembroke. Married Joan de Munchensi, by whom he had issue.
    Marguerite de Lusignan (c. 1229 – 1288). Married firstly in 1243 Raymond VII of Toulouse; secondly c. 1246 Aimery IX de Thouars, Viscount of Thouars and had issue

    Birth:
    Aquitaine, Charente department...

    Notes:

    Married:
    Bordeaux Cathedral (Cathâedrale Saint-Andrâe de Bordeaux) is a Roman Catholic cathedral, seat of the Archbishop of Bordeaux-Bazas, located in Bordeaux.

    The cathedral was consecrated by Pope Urban II in 1096. Of the original Romanesque edifice, only a wall in the nave remains. The Royal Gate is from the early 13th century, while the rest of the construction is mostly from the 14th-15th centuries. The building is a national monument of France.

    In this church in 1137 the 13-year-old Eleanor of Aquitaine married the future Louis VII, a few months before she became Queen.


    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bordeaux_Cathedral

    Children:
    1. 60. Henry III, King of England was born 1 Oct 1207, Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom; was christened 0___ 1207, Bermondsey, London, Middlesex, England; died 16 Nov 1272, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was buried 20 Nov 1272, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. Richard Plantagenet, Knight, 1st Earl of Cornwall was born 5 Jan 1209, Winchester Castle, Castle Ave, Winchester, Hampshire SO23 8PJ, United Kingdom; was christened 0___ 1214, Winchester Castle, Castle Ave, Winchester, Hampshire SO23 8PJ, United Kingdom; died 2 Apr 1272, Berkhamsted Castle, Hertfordshire, England; was buried 13 Apr 1272, Hailes Abbey, Winchcombe, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire - GL54 5PB, England.
    3. Isabella Plantagenet was born 0___ 1214; died 0___ 1241.
    4. Eleanor of Leicester was born 0___ 1215, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England; died 13 Apr 1275, Montargis Abbey, France; was buried Montargis Abbey, France.

  13. 124.  Alfonso IX, King of Leon and Galacia was born 15 Aug 1171, Zamora, Spain; died 24 Sep 1230, Villanueva de Sarria, Spain; was buried Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.

    Notes:

    Alfonso IX (15 August 1171 – 23 or 24 September 1230) was king of Leâon and Galicia from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death. According to Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406), he is said to have been called the Baboso or Slobberer because he was subject to fits of rage during which he foamed at the mouth.[citation needed]

    He took steps towards modernizing and democratizing his dominion and founded the University of Salamanca in 1212. In 1188 he summoned the first parliament reflecting full representation of the citizenry ever seen in Western Europe, the Cortes of Leâon.[1]

    He took a part in the work of the Reconquest, conquering the area of Extremadura (including the cities of Câaceres and Badajoz).

    Family

    Alfonso was born in Zamora. He was the only son of King Ferdinand II of Leâon and Urraca of Portugal.[1] His father was the younger son of Alfonso VII of Leâon and Castile, who divided his kingdoms between his sons, which set the stage for conflict in the family until the kingdoms were re-united by Alfonso IX's son, Ferdinand III of Castile.[2]

    Reign

    Alfonso IX had great difficulty in obtaining the throne through his given birthright. In July 1188 his cousin Alfonso VIII of Castile required the younger Alfonso to recognize the elder as overlord in exchange for recognizing the younger's authority in Leâon.[3]

    The convening of the Cortes de Leâon in the cloisters of the Basilica of San Isidoro would be one of the most important events of Alfonso's reign. The difficult economic situation at the beginning of his reign compelled Alfonso to raise taxes on the underprivileged classes, leading to protests and a few towns revolts. In response the king summoned the Cortes, an assembly of nobles, clergy and representatives of cities, and subsequently faced demands for compensatory spending and greater external control and oversight of royal expenditures. Alfonso's convening of the Cortes is considered by many historians, including Australia's John Keane,[4] to be instrumental to the formation of democratic parliaments across Europe. Note that Iceland had already held what may have been what is Europe's first parliament, the ´ingvellir, in 930 CE. However, the Cortes' 1188 session predates the first session of the Parliament of England, which occurred in the thirteenth century.

    In spite of the democratic precedent represented by the Cortes and the founding of the University of Salamanca, Alfonso is often chiefly remembered for the difficulties his successive marriages caused between him with Pope Celestine III. He was first married in 1191 to his first cousin, Theresa of Portugal,[1] who bore him two daughters, and a son who died young. The marriage was declared null by the papal legate Cardinal Gregory for consanguinity.

    After Alfonso VIII of Castile was defeated at the Battle of Alarcos, Alfonso IX invaded Castile with the aid of Muslim troops.[1] He was summarily excommunicated by Pope Celestine III. In 1197, Alfonso IX married his first cousin once removed, Berengaria of Castile, to cement peace between Leâon and Castile.[5] For this second act of consanguinity, the king and the kingdom were placed under interdict by representatives of the Pope.[6] In 1198, Pope Innocent III declared Alfonso and Berengaria's marriage invalid, but they stayed together until 1204.[7] The annulment of this marriage by the pope drove the younger Alfonso to again attack his cousin in 1204, but treaties made in 1205, 1207, and 1209 each forced him to concede further territories and rights.[8][9] The treaty in 1207 is the first existing public document in the Castilian dialect.[10]

    The Pope was, however, compelled to modify his measures by the threat that, if the people could not obtain the services of religion, they would not support the clergy, and that heresy would spread. The king was left under interdict personally, but to that he showed himself indifferent, and he had the support of his clergy.

    Children

    In 1191, he married Theresa of Portugal,[11] daughter of King Sancho I of Portugal and Queen Dulce of Aragon.[12] Between 1191 and 1196, the year in which their marriage was annulled, three children were born:

    Sancha (1191–before 1243)[13] unmarried and without issue. She and her sister Dulce became nuns or retired at the Monastery of San Guillermo Villabuena (Leâon) where she died before 1243.
    Ferdinand(1192/1193–1214),[14] unmarried and without issue.
    Dulce (1193/1194–1248).[15]
    On 17 November 1197 he married infanta Berengaria of Castile, daughter of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonor of England. Five children were born of this marriage:

    Eleanor[16] (1198/1199 - 11 November 1202).
    Constance (1 May 1200 - 7 September 1242), became a nun at the Abbey of Santa Marâia la Real de Las Huelgas, Burgos, where she died.[16]
    Ferdinand III of Castile (1201–1252). King of Castile in 1217 after the death of Henry I of Castile and of Leâon in 1230 after the death of his father.[16]
    Alfonso (1202–1272), Lord of Molina due to his first marriage to Mafalda Gonzâalez de Lara.[16]
    Berengaria of Leâon (1204–1237), in 1224 married John of Brienne,[16]
    Alfonso also fathered many illegitimate children. After the annulment of his first marriage and before wedding Berengaria, he had a relationship which lasted about two years with Inâes Íäniguez de Mendoza, daughter of Iänigo Lâopez de Mendoza and Marâia Garcâia,[17] with whom he had a daughter born around 1197:

    Urraca Alfonso, the wife of Lope Dâiaz II de Haro, Lord of Biscay.[18]
    He had another relationship afterwards with a noblewoman from Galicia, Estefanâia Pâerez de Faiam. In 1211, King Alfonso gave her lands in Orense where her family, as can be inferred from her last will dated 1250, owned many estates, as well as in the north of Portugal. She was the daughter of Pedro Menâendez Faiam, who confirmed several royal charters of King Alfonso IX, and granddaughter of Menendo Faiam, who also confirmed several diplomas issued in Galicia as of 1155 by King Ferdinand II of Leâon. After the relationship ended, Estefanâia married Rodrigo Suâarez with whom she had issue. In her will, she asked to be buried in the Monastery of Fiäaes in northern Portugal.[19]

    Alfonso IX and Estefanâia were the parents of:[a]

    Ferdinand Alfonso of Leâon (born in 1211),[19] died young.
    According to Spanish historian, Julio Gonzâalez, after his relationship with Estefanâia, the king had a lover from Salamanca, of unknown origin, whose name was Maura and with whom he had: [21]

    Fernando Alfonso de Leâon (ca. 1214/1218 – Salamanca, 10 January 1278), archdeacon of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela,[21] who had issue with Aldara de Ulloa.
    Of his relationship with the noblewoman from Portugal, Aldonza Martâinez de Silva, daughter of Martim Gomes da Silva and his wife Urraca Rodrigues,[22] which lasted from 1214 to 1218, three children were born:

    Rodrigo (ca. 1214 – ca. 1268), lord of Aliger and Castro del Râio, and Adelantado of the March of Andalusia, he married Inâes Rodrâiguez, daughter of Rodrigo Fernâandez de Valduerna,[23] Lord of Cabrera and alfâerez of King Alfonso IX.
    Aldonza (died after 1267). Married count Pedro Ponce de Cabrera,[24] and had issue. They are the ancestors of the Ponce de Leâon family.
    Teresa Alfonso of Leâon.[b]
    King Alfonso's most long-lasting relationship, which began in 1218 and lasted until his death in 1230,[27] was with Teresa Gil de Soverosa.[28] A member of the Portuguese nobility, Teresa was the daughter of Gil Vasques de Soverosa and his first wife Marâia Aires de Fornelos. They had four children, all of them born between 1218 and 1239:[29]

    Sancha (d. 1270). Married Simon Ruiz, Lord of Los Cameros.[30] She later became a nun at the convent of Santa Eufemia de Cozuelos which she had founded.[30]
    Marâia (died after July 1275).[c] Her first marriage was with Álvaro Fernâandez de Lara. She was then the concubine of her nephew King Alfonso X of Castile and, according to the Count of Barcelos, her second husband was Suero Arias de Valladares.[30]
    Martâin (died 1268/1272), married to Maria Mendes de Sousa, founders of the Monastery of Sancti-Spâiritus, Salamanca. There was no issue from this marriage.[31]
    Urraca (d. after 1252). First married Garcâia Romeu,[30] and then Pedro Nâuänez de Guzmâan.[30]
    Although Alfonso IX is supposed to have had another son, Pedro Alfonso de Leâon, there is no documentary proof that he was the king's son or that he was the Grand Master of the Order of Santiago.[d]

    Death

    Alfonso IX of Leâon died on 24 September 1230. His death was particularly significant in that his son, Ferdinand III of Castile, who was already the King of Castile also inherited the throne of Leâon from his father. This was thanks to the negotiations of his mother, Berengaria, who convinced her stepdaughters to renounce their claim on the throne.[33] In an effort to quickly consolidate his power over Leâon, Ferdinand III abandoned a military campaign to capture the city of Jaâen immediately upon hearing news of his father's death and traveled to Leâon to be crowned king. This coronation united the Kingdoms of Leâon and Castile which would go on to dominate the Iberian Peninsula.

    Alfonso — Berengaria of Castile, Queen of Castile. Berengaria (daughter of Alfonso VIII, King of Castile and Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile) was born 1179-1180, Burgos, Spain; died 8 Nov 1246, Las Huelgas, Spain. [Group Sheet]


  14. 125.  Berengaria of Castile, Queen of Castile was born 1179-1180, Burgos, Spain (daughter of Alfonso VIII, King of Castile and Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile); died 8 Nov 1246, Las Huelgas, Spain.

    Notes:

    Berengaria (Castilian: Berenguela; 1179 or 1180 – 8 November 1246) was queen regnant of Castile[1] in 1217 and queen consort of Leâon from 1197 to 1204. As the eldest child and heir presumptive of Alfonso VIII of Castile, she was a sought after bride, and was engaged to Conrad, the son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. After his death, she married her cousin, Alfonso IX of Leâon, to secure the peace between him and her father. She had five children with him before their marriage was voided by Pope Innocent III.

    When her father died, she served as regent for her younger brother Henry I in Castile until she succeeded him on his untimely death. Within months, she turned Castile over to her son, Ferdinand III, concerned that as a woman she would not be able to lead Castile's forces. However, she remained one of his closest advisors, guiding policy, negotiating, and ruling on his behalf for the rest of her life. She was responsible for the re-unification of Castile and Leâon under her son's authority, and supported his efforts in the Reconquista. She was a patron of religious institutions and supported the writing of a history of the two countries.

    Early family life

    Berengaria was born either in 1179[2][3] or 1180,[3][4] in Burgos.[3] She was the eldest daughter of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England. Those who cared for the young infanta were generously rewarded.[5] Her nurse, Estefanâia, received land from Alfonso and Eleanor on her retirement in May 1181.[5] Another nurse, Elvira, received a similar retirement gift in 1189 at Berengaria's request.[5]

    As the eldest child of king Alfonso and Eleanor, she was the heiress presumptive of the throne of Castile for several years,[6] because many of her siblings who were born after her died shortly after birth or in early infancy, so Berengaria became a greatly desired partner throughout Europe.[6]

    Berengaria's first engagement was agreed in 1187 when her hand was sought by Conrad, Duke of Rothenburg and fifth child of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.[7] The next year, the marriage contract was signed in Seligenstadt, including a dowry of 42000 Maravedâi.[7] Conrad then marched to Castile, where in Carriâon the engagement was celebrated and Conrad was knighted.[8] Berengaria's status as heir of Castile when she inherited the throne was based in part on documentation in the treaty and marriage contract,[9][10] which specified that she would inherit the kingdom after her father or any childless brothers who may come along.[9] Conrad would only be allowed to co-rule as her spouse, and Castile would not become part of the Empire.[7] The treaty also documented traditional rights and obligations between the future sovereign and the nobility.[11]

    The marriage was not consummated, due to Berengaria's young age, as she was less than 10 years old.[12] Conrad and Berengaria never saw each other again.[13] By 1191, Berengaria requested an annulment of the engagement from the Pope, influenced, no doubt, by third parties such as her grandmother Eleanor of Aquitaine, who was not interested in having a Hohenstaufen as a neighbor to her French fiefdoms.[13] Those fears were neutralized when the duke was assassinated in 1196.[13]

    Marriage to Alfonso IX

    In order to help secure peace between Castile and Leâon, Berengaria married Alfonso IX of Leâon, her first cousin once removed, in Valladolid in 1197.[14] As part of the marriage, and in accordance with Spanish customs of the time, she received direct control over a number of castles and lands within Leâon.[14] Most of these were along the border with Castile, and the nobles who ran them in her name were allowed to seek justice from either king in the event of being wronged by the other.[14] In turn, these knights were charged with maintaining the peace along the border in the queen's name.[15]

    Berengaria and Alfonso IX had five children:

    Eleanor (1198/1199 – 1202).
    Constance (1200 – 1242), a nun in the Abbey of las Huelgas.
    Ferdinand III (1201 – 1252), King of Castile and Leâon.
    Alfonso (1203 – 1272), Lord of Molina and Mesa by his first marriage. He married, first, Mafalda de Lara, heiress of Molina and Mesa, second, Teresa Nâuänez, and third, Mayor Tâellez de Meneses, Lady of Montealegre and Tiedra, by whom he was the father of Marâia of Molina, wife of King Sancho IV of Leâon and Castile.
    Berengaria (1204 – 1237), married John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem.
    Starting in 1198, Pope Innocent III objected to the marriage on the grounds of consanguinity, though the couple stayed together until 1204.[16] They vehemently sought a dispensation in order to stay together, including offering large sums of money.[17] However, the pope denied their request, although they succeeded in having their children considered legitimate.[18] Her marriage dissolved, Berengaria returned to Castile and to her parents in May 1204, where she dedicated herself to the care of her children.[18]

    Between queenships

    Stained glass window in the Alcâazar of Segovia depicting Berengaria and her father
    Though she had left her role as queen of Leâon, she retained authority over and taxing rights in many of the lands she had received there, including Salamanca and Castroverde,[19] which she gave to her son Ferdinand in 1206.[20] Some of the nobles who had served her as queen followed her back to the court in Castille.[21] The peace which had prevailed since her marriage was lost, and there was war again between Leâon and Castille, in part over her control of these lands.[22] In 1205, 1207, and 1209, treaties were made again between the two countries, each expanding her control.[23] In the treaties of 1207 and 1209, Berengaria and her son were given again significant properties along the border, including many key castles, including Villalpando.[24] The treaty in 1207 is the first existing public document in the Castilian dialect.[25]

    In 1214, on the death of her father, Alfonso VIII of Castile, the crown passed to his only surviving son, Berengaria's 10-year-old brother, Henry I.[26] Their mother Eleanor assumed the regency, but died 24 days after her husband.[26] Berengaria, now heir presumptive again, replaced her as regent.[26] At this point internal strife began, instigated by the nobility, primarily the House of Lara.[27] They forced Berengaria to cede regency and guardianship of her brother to Count Álvaro Nâuänez de Lara.[27]

    In 1216, an extraordinary parliamentary session was held in Valladolid, attended by such Castilian magnates as Lope Dâiaz II de Haro, Gonzalo Rodrâiguez Girâon, Álvaro Dâiaz de Cameros, Alfonso Tâellez de Meneses and others, who agreed, with the support of Berengaria, to make common cause against Álvaro Nâuänez de Lara.[28] At the end of May the situation in Castile had grown perilous for Berengaria, so she decided to take refuge in the castle of Autillo de Campos, which was held by Gonzalo Rodrâiguez Girâon (one of her allies) and sent her son Ferdinand to the court of his father.[28] On 15 August 1216, an assembly of all the magnates of Castile was held to attempt to reach an accord that would prevent civil war, but disagreements led the families of Girâon, Tâellez de Meneses, and Haro to break definitively with Álvaro de Lara.[28]

    Queen of Castile

    Circumstances changed suddenly when Henry died on 6 June 1217 after receiving a head wound from a tile which came loose while he was playing with other children at the palace of the Bishop of Palencia.[29] His guardian, Count Álvaro Nâuänez de Lara, tried to hide the fact, taking the king's body to the castle of Tariego, although it was inevitable that the news would reach Berengaria.[30]

    The new sovereign was well aware of the danger her former husband posed to her reign; being her brother's closest agnate, it was feared that he would claim the crown for himself.[29] Therefore, she kept her brother's death and her own accession secret from Alfonso.[29] She wrote to Alfonso asking that Ferdinand be sent to visit her, and then abdicated in their son's favor on 31 August.[29] In part, she abdicated as she would be unable to be the military leader Castile needed its king to be in that time.[31]

    Royal advisor

    Although she did not reign for long, Berengaria continued to be her son's closest advisor, intervening in state policy, albeit in an indirect manner.[32] Well into her son's reign, contemporary authors wrote that she still wielded authority over him.[32] One example was how she arranged the marriage of her son with princess Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (known as Beatriz in Castile), daughter of Duke Philip of Swabia and granddaughter of two emperors: Frederick Barbarossa and Isaac II Angelos of Byzantium.[33] The wedding took place on 30 November 1219 at Burgos.[33] Another instance in which Berengaria's mediation stood out developed in 1218 when the scheming Lara family, still headed by former regent Álvaro Nâuänez de Lara, conspired to have Alfonso IX, King of Leâon and King Ferdinand's father, invade Castile to seize his son's throne.[33] However, the capture of Count Lara facilitated the intervention of Berengaria, who got father and son to sign the Pact of Toro on 26 August 1218, putting an end to confrontations between Castile and Leâon.[33]

    In 1222, Berengaria intervened anew in favor of her son, achieving the ratification of the Convention of Zafra, thereby making peace with the Laras by arranging the marriage of Mafalda, daughter and heiress of the Lord of Molina, Gonzalo Pâerez de Lara, to her own son and King Ferdinand's brother, Alfonso.[34] In 1224 she arranged the marriage of her daughter Berengaria to John of Brienne, a maneuver which brought Ferdinand III closer to the throne of Leâon, since John was the candidate Alfonso IX had in mind to marry his eldest daughter Sancha.[35] By proceeding more quickly, Berengaria prevented the daughters of her former husband from marrying a man who could claim the throne of Leâon.[35]

    Perhaps her most decisive intervention on Ferdinand's behalf took place in 1230, when Alfonso IX died and designated as heirs to the throne his daughters Sancha and Dulce from his first marriage to Theresa of Portugal, superseding the rights of Ferdinand III.[36] Berengaria met with the princesses’ mother and succeeded in the ratification of the Treaty of las Tercerâias, by which they renounced the throne in favor of their half-brother in exchange for a substantial sum of money and other benefits.[36][37] Thus were the thrones of Leâon and Castile re-united in the person of Ferdinand III,[36] which had been divided by Alfonso VII in 1157.[9] She intervened again by arranging the second marriage of Ferdinand after the death of Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen.[38] Although he already had plenty of children, Berengaria was concerned that the king's virtue not be diminished with illicit relations.[38] This time, she chose a French noblewoman, Joan of Dammartin, a candidate put forth by the king's aunt and Berengaria's sister Blanche, widow of King Louis VIII of France.[38] Berengaria served again as regent, ruling while her son Ferdinand was in the south on his long campaigns of the Reconquista.[39] She governed Castile and Leâon with her characteristic skill, relieving him of the need to divide his attention during this time.[39]

    Patronage and legacy

    Berengaria's tomb in Las Huelgas
    She met with her son a final time in Pozuelo de Calatrava in 1245, afterwards returning to Toledo.[40] She died 8 November 1246,[41] and was buried at Las Huelgas near Burgos.[42]

    Much like her mother, she was a strong patron of religious institutions.[43] She worked with her mother to support the Abbey of Santa Marâia la Real de Las Huelgas.[43] As queen of Leâon, she supported the Order of Santiago and supported the Basilica of San Isidoro, not only donating to it, but also exempting it from any taxes.[43] She re-established the tradition of Leâonese royal women supporting the Monastery of San Pedro de Eslonza, last performed by her great-grand aunt, Sancha Raimâundez.[43]

    She is portrayed as a wise and virtuous woman by the chroniclers of the time.[44][45][46] She was also concerned with literature and history, charging Lucas de Tuy to compose a chronicle on the Kings of Castile and Leâon to aid and instruct future rulers of the joint kingdom.[44] She herself was discussed in the works of Rodrigo Jimâenez de Rada, whose work was sponsored by her son Ferdinand, and Juan of Osma,[45] who was chancellor of Castile under Ferdinand.[46]

    Children:
    1. 62. Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon was born 5 Aug 1201, Castile, Spain; died 30 May 1252, Seville, Spain; was buried Seville Cathedral, Seville, Spain.
    2. Berenguela of Leon was born 0___ 1204; died 12 Apr 1237.


Generation: 8

  1. 192.  Reginald de Courtenay was born (Courtenay, France); died 27 Sep 1194.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Renaud de Courtenay

    Notes:

    Renaud de Courtenay (Anglicised to Reginald; died 27 September 1194), of Sutton, Berkshire, was a French nobleman of the House of Courtenay who came over to England and founded of the English Courtenay family which became Earls of Devon in 1335, which title is still held today by his direct male descendant.

    Origins

    He was the son of Miles (Milo) de Courtenay, Seigneur (lord of the manor) of Courtenay, in the Kingdom of France, today in the Loiret department in north-central France, by his wife Ermengard de Nevers.

    Career

    He succeeded his father as Seigneur of Courtenay. He fought in the Second Crusade, with King Louis VII of France. He quarrelled with King Louis VII, who seized Renaud's French possessions and gave them along with Renaud's daughter Elizabeth to his youngest brother, Pierre (Peter) of France, who thenceforth became known as Peter I of Courtenay (died 1183)). He was created Lord[clarification needed] of Sutton in 1161. In 1172 he accompanied King Henry II in the Irish Expedition to County Wexford.[1]

    Marriages

    Renaud married twice:

    (1) Helene du Donjon, daughter of Frederick du Donjon and Corbeil, sister of Guy du Donjon
    (2) alternatively given as Hawise de Courcy (d.1219) heiress of the feudal barony of Okehampton in Devon [2] ).
    (2) Maud FitzEdith, daughter of Robert FitzEdith, Lord Okehampton (d.1172) (illegitimate son of Henry I, King of England by Edith FitzForne).

    Progeny

    By his first marriage he had a daughter Elizabeth who was given in marriage by the French King Louis VII (d.1180) to his youngest brother Peter of France, who thenceforth became known as Peter I of Courtenay (d.1183).[3]

    He also had a son, Robert de Courtenay, who was the great-grandfather of Hugh de Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon (d.1340).

    *

    Reginald — Hawise de Curci. Hawise died 0___ 1219. [Group Sheet]


  2. 193.  Hawise de Curci died 0___ 1219.

    Notes:

    Married:
    (1) Helene du Donjon, daughter of Frederick du Donjon and Corbeil, sister of Guy du Donjon
    (2) alternatively given as Hawise de Courcy (d.1219) heiress of the feudal barony of Okehampton in Devon [2] ).
    (2) Maud FitzEdith, daughter of Robert FitzEdith, Lord Okehampton (d.1172) (illegitimate son of Henry I, King of England by Edith FitzForne).

    Children:
    1. 96. Robert de Courtenay died 0___ 1219.

  3. 196.  Robert de Vere, Knight, 3rd Earl of OxfordRobert de Vere, Knight, 3rd Earl of Oxford was born Aft 1165 (son of Aubrey de Vere, III, Knight, 1st Earl of Oxford and Agnes of Essex, Countess of Oxford); died Bef 25 Oct 1221; was buried Hatfield Regis Priory, Hatfield Broad Oak, Essex, England.

    Notes:

    Robert de Vere (after c. 1165 – before 25 October 1221), hereditary Master Chamberlain of England,[1] was son of Aubrey de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford, and Agnes of Essex. He succeeded his brother as the third Earl of Oxford, and was one of the twenty-five guarantors of Magna Carta.

    Arms of Robert de Vere

    de Vere effigy, St Mary's Church, Hatfield Broad Oak

    Robert de Vere was the second surviving son of Aubrey de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford, and his third wife, Agnes of Essex. The date of his birth is not known, but he was likely born after 1164. Almost nothing is known of his life until 1207, when he married Isabel de Bolebec, the widow of Henry de Nonant (d.1206) of Totnes, Devon. In 1206-7 Isabel and her sister Constance were co-heiresses of their niece, another Isabel de Bolebec, the countess of Oxford by her marriage to Robert's brother, Aubrey de Vere, 2nd Earl of Oxford. They divided the barony of Whitchurch.[2] The fact that aunt and niece had identical names, Isabel de Bolbec, and were successively countesses of Oxford and heiresses of Whitchurch has led to confusion between the two women.

    When Robert's brother, Aubrey de Vere, 2nd Earl of Oxford, died in the latter half of 1214, Robert succeeded to his title and estates and the hereditary office of Master Chamberlain of England. The dower of Earl Aubrey's second wife, Alice (possibly his cousin, a daughter of Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk),[3] had not been formalized. In 1215 Oxford settled his sister-in-law's dower by lot, the earl drawing two knights' fees for every one drawn by Alice.[4] This is the only known instance of dower being settled in this manner.

    Oxford joined the disaffected barons who met at Stamford and forced King John to issue Magna Carta at Runnymede on 15 June 1215. The earl was elected one of the barons who were to guarantee the King's adherence to its terms. Together with other Magna Carta barons, he was excommunicated as a rebel by Pope Innocent III on 16 December 1215, and joined them in offering the crown to Prince Louis of France.[5]

    Oxford took up arms against King John, but pledged loyalty to him after the King had taken Castle Hedingham in March 1216. Later in the same year, however, he did homage to Prince Louis at Rochester.[6] Louis entered London and was proclaimed King. On 14 June 1216, he captured Winchester and soon controlled over half of England.[7]

    In the midst of this crisis, King John died, prompting many of the barons to desert Louis in favor of John's nine-year-old son, Henry III. In 1217 Prince Louis retook Castle Hedingham and restored it to Oxford, but despite this Oxford transferred his allegiance to the new King in October 1217. Although he did homage to Henry, he was not fully restored in his offices and lands until February 1218.

    Earl Robert served as a king's justice in 1220-21, and died before 21 October 1221. He was buried at Hatfield Regis Priory, where either his son, Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford, or his grandson, Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford had an effigy erected in which he is depicted in chain mail, cross-legged, pulling his sword from its scabbard and holding a shield with the arms of the Veres.[8]

    Issue

    Robert de Vere and Isabel de Bolebec had a son, Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford.[9]

    Ancestry

    [show] Ancestors of Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford

    Footnotes

    Jump up ^ Richardson IV 2011, p. 261.
    Jump up ^ DeAragon, R. "Isabel de Bolebec, Countess of Oxford," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 56:278-9;
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1945, p. 210.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1945, p. 210.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1945, p. 211; Richardson IV 2011, p. 261.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1945, pp. 211–212.
    Jump up ^ Alan Harding (1993), England in the Thirteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), p. 10.

    *

    Buried:
    Hatfield Broad Oak Priory, or Hatfield Regis Priory, is a former Benedictine priory in Hatfield Broad Oak, Essex, England. Founded by 1139, it was dissolved in 1536 as part of Henry VIII's dissolution of the monasteries.

    History & Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hatfield_Regis_Priory

    Robert — Isabel de Bolebec, Countess of Oxford. Isabel (daughter of Hugh de Bolebec, II, Lord of Whitchurch and Margaret de Montfichet) was born ~ 1164, Whitchurch, Buckinghamshire, England; died 2 Feb 1245; was buried Black Friars Church, Oxford, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 197.  Isabel de Bolebec, Countess of Oxford was born ~ 1164, Whitchurch, Buckinghamshire, England (daughter of Hugh de Bolebec, II, Lord of Whitchurch and Margaret de Montfichet); died 2 Feb 1245; was buried Black Friars Church, Oxford, England.

    Notes:

    Isabel de Bolebec, Countess of Oxford (c. 1164 - 2 or 3 February 1245), was the eldest daughter and co-heiress of Hugh de Bolebec II, Lord of Whitchurch, Buckinghamshire, and his wife, Margaret de Montfichet. She married Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford, and was a benefactress of the Order of Friars Preacher (Dominicans) in England.

    Isabel de Bolebec was the daughter and co-heiress of Hugh de Bolebec II (died c. 1165),[1] Lord of Whitchurch, Buckinghamshire, and his wife, Margaret de Montfichet. She had a brother, Walter,[2] and a sister, Constance, the wife of Ellis de Beauchamp.[3] In 1206-07 she and Constance were co-heirs to their niece, Isabel de Bolebec, daughter of their brother, Walter, and wife of Aubrey de Vere, 2nd Earl of Oxford.[4]

    Isabel's first husband was Henry de Nonant (Novaunt), Lord of Totnes, Devon, who died childless in 1206.[5] The widowed Isabel petitioned the Crown in 1207 for the right to marry whom she wished. That same year she married Robert de Vere, a younger brother of the earl of Oxford, by whom she had a son, Hugh de Vere. In the autumn of 1214 Robert inherited the earldom at the death of his brother, Aubrey de Vere, 2nd Earl of Oxford, without legitimate offspring, and Isabel became Countess of Oxford. The new earl joined barons and kinsmen whose dissatisfaction with King John prompted their rebellion. On 15 June 1215 the King agreed to Magna Carta, and Oxford was one of twenty-five barons elected to guarantee its observance, and was thus among those excommunicated by Pope Innocent III when he released the King from its terms. In 1216 King John besieged and took the Oxford's seat, Castle Hedingham, in Essex. Oxford made peace with the regents of John's son, Henry III the next year, and later served as a royal judge.[6] He died before 25 October 1221.[7]

    Isabel inherited the barony of Bolebec, and from her death in 1245 until 1703 the Earls of Oxford adopted the style of "Baron de Bolebec" in addition to their title of earl, and from 1462-1625 that of "Viscount Bolebec".[8]

    On the death of Earl Robert, the widowed Countess purchased the wardship of her minor son from the crown for the substantial sum of 6000 marks. In 1237, she and Hugh traveled together on a pilgrimage "beyond the seas".[9] In 1224-25 Isabel sued Woburn Abbey for the manor of Mendham.[10]

    Isabel was a benefactress of the Order of Friars Preacher (Dominicans) in England,[11] helping them to find quarters at Oxford, and contributing to the building of their oratory there about 1227. When the friars needed a larger priory, she and the Bishop of Carlisle bought land south of Oxford and contributed most of the funds and materials. She was buried in the new church in the friary there.[12]

    *

    Children:
    1. 98. Hugh de Vere, Knight, 4th Earl of Oxford was born ~ 1208, (Essex, England); died 0Dec 1263, (Essex, England).
    2. Eleanor de Vere was born (Essex, England).

  5. 198.  Saer de Quincy, Knight, 1st Earl of Winchester was born ~ 1170; died 3 Nov 1219, (Acre) Israel; was buried Acre, Israel.

    Other Events:

    • Burial: Garendon Abbey, Leicestershire, England
    • Residence: England
    • Also Known As: Earl Saer
    • Also Known As: Saleur di Quinci

    Notes:

    Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester (c. 1170 – 3 November 1219) (or Saieur di Quinci[1]) was one of the leaders of the baronial rebellion against King John of England, and a major figure in both the kingdoms of Scotland and England in the decades around the turn of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

    Earl of Winchester

    Seal of Robert Fitzwalter (d.1235). So close was the alliance between both men that Robert's seal shows the arms of Saer on a separate shield before his horse
    Following his marriage, Winchester became a prominent military and diplomatic figure in England. There is no evidence of any close alliance with King John, however, and his rise to importance was probably due to his newly acquired magnate status and the family connections that underpinned it.

    One man with whom he does seem to have developed a close personal relationship is his cousin, Robert Fitzwalter (d. 1235). In 1203, they served as co-commanders of the garrison at the major fortress of Vaudreuil in Normandy. They surrendered the castle without a fight to Philip II of France, fatally weakening the English position in northern France. Although popular opinion seems to have blamed them for the capitulation, a royal writ is extant stating that the castle was surrendered at King John's command, and both Winchester and Fitzwalter endured personal humiliation and heavy ransoms at the hands of the French.

    In Scotland, he was perhaps more successful. In 1211 to 1212, the Earl of Winchester commanded an imposing retinue of a hundred knights and a hundred serjeants in William the Lion's campaign against the Mac William rebels, a force which some historians have suggested may have been the mercenary force from Brabant lent to the campaign by John.

    Magna Carta

    Arms displayed by Earl Saire on his seal on Magna Carta. These differ from his arms used elsewhere but can also be seen in stained glass at Winchester Great Hall

    In 1215, when the baronial rebellion broke out, Robert Fitzwalter became the military commander, and the Earl of Winchester joined him, acting as one of the chief authors of Magna Carta and negotiators with John; both cousins were among the 25 guarantors of the Magna Carta. De Quincy fought against John in the troubles that followed the sealing of the Charter, and, again with Fitzwalter, travelled to France to invite Prince Louis of France to take the English throne. He and Fitzwalter were subsequently among the most committed and prominent supporters of Louis's candidature for the kingship, against both John and the infant Henry III.

    The Fifth Crusade

    When military defeat cleared the way for Henry III to take the throne, de Quincy went on crusade, perhaps in fulfillment of an earlier vow. In 1219 he left to join the Fifth Crusade, then besieging Damietta. While in the east, he fell sick and died. He was buried in Acre, the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, rather than in Egypt, and his heart was brought back and interred at Garendon Abbey near Loughborough, a house endowed by his wife's family.

    Family

    The family of de Quincy had arrived in England after the Norman Conquest, and took their name from Cuinchy in the Arrondissement of Bâethune; the personal name "Saer" was used by them over several generations. Both names are variously spelled in primary sources and older modern works, the first name being sometimes rendered Saher or Seer, and the surname as Quency or Quenci.

    The first recorded Saer de Quincy (known to historians as "Saer I") was lord of the manor of Long Buckby in Northamptonshire in the earlier twelfth century, and second husband of Matilda of St Liz, stepdaughter of King David I of Scotland by Maud of Northumbria. This marriage produced two sons, Saer II and Robert de Quincy. It was Robert, the younger son, who was the father of the Saer de Quincy who eventually became Earl of Winchester. By her first husband Robert Fitz Richard, Matilda was also the paternal grandmother of Earl Saer's close ally, Robert Fitzwalter.

    Robert de Quincy seems to have inherited no English lands from his father, and pursued a knightly career in Scotland, where he is recorded from around 1160 as a close companion of his cousin, King William the Lion. By 1170 he had married Orabilis, heiress of the Scottish lordship of Leuchars and, through her, he became lord of an extensive complex of estates north of the border which included lands in Fife, Strathearn and Lothian.

    Saer de Quincy, the son of Robert de Quincy and Orabilis of Leuchars, was raised largely in Scotland. His absence from English records for the first decades of his life has led some modern historians and genealogists to confuse him with his uncle, Saer II, who took part in the rebellion of Henry the Young King in 1173, when the future Earl of Winchester can have been no more than a toddler. Saer II's line ended without direct heirs, and his nephew and namesake would eventually inherit his estate, uniting his primary Scottish holdings with the family's Northamptonshire patrimony, and possibly some lands in France.

    Issue

    By his wife Margaret de Beaumont, Earl Saire had three sons and three daughters:

    Lora who married Sir William de Valognes, Chamberlain of Scotland.
    Arabella who married Sir Richard Harcourt.
    Robert (d. 1217), before 1206 he married Hawise of Chester, Countess of Lincoln, sister and co-heiress of Ranulf de Blundeville, Earl of Chester.
    Roger, who succeeded his father as earl of Winchester (though he did not take formal possession of the earldom until after his mother's death).
    Robert de Quincy (second son of that name; d. 1257) who married Helen, daughter of the Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great.
    Hawise, who married Hugh de Vere, Earl of Oxford.

    Preceded by

    New Creation Earl of Winchester Succeeded by

    Roger de Quincy

    References

    Jump up ^ Leuchars St Athernase website
    Background Reading[edit]
    Medieval Lands Project on Saher de Quincy
    "Winchester", in The Complete Peerage, ed. G.E.C., xii. 745-751
    Sidney Painter, "The House of Quency, 1136-1264", Medievalia et Humanistica, 11 (1957) 3-9; reprinted in his book Feudalism and Liberty
    Grant G. Simpson, “An Anglo-Scottish Baron of the Thirteenth century: the Acts of Roger de Quincy Earl of Winchester and Constable of Scotland” (Unpublished PhD Thesis, Edinburgh 1963).
    Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 (7th Edition, 1992,), 58-60.

    Burial:
    He was buried in Acre, the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, rather than in Egypt, and his heart was brought back and interred at Garendon Abbey near Loughborough, a house endowed by his wife's family.

    Maps & History ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garendon_Abbey

    Saer — Margaret de Beaumont. Margaret (daughter of Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Petronilla de Grandmesnil) died 0___ 1235. [Group Sheet]


  6. 199.  Margaret de Beaumont (daughter of Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Petronilla de Grandmesnil); died 0___ 1235.
    Children:
    1. 99. Hawise de Quincy
    2. Roger de Quincy, Knight, 2nd Earl of Winchester was born ~ 1195; died 25 Apr 1264.
    3. Robert de Quincy died 0___ 1217, London, Middlesex, England.

  7. 224.  Henry de Bohun, 1st Earl of HerefordHenry de Bohun, 1st Earl of Hereford was born 0___ 1176, Hungerford, Berkshire, England (son of Humphrey de Bohun, III, Lord of Trowbridge and Margaret of Huntingdon, Duchess of Brittany); died 1 Jun 1220.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Constable of England

    Notes:

    Henry de Bohun, 1st Earl of Hereford (1176 – 1 June 1220) was an Anglo-Norman nobleman.

    He was Earl of Hereford and Hereditary Constable of England from 1199 to 1220.

    Lineage

    He was the son of Humphrey III de Bohun and Margaret of Huntingdon, daughter of Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon, a son of David I of Scotland. His paternal grandmother was Margaret of Hereford, eldest daughter of Miles de Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford and Constable of England. Bohun's half-sister was Constance, Duchess of Brittany; his sister by Humphrey III de Bohun and Margaret of Huntingdon was Matilda.

    Earldom

    The male line of Miles of Gloucester having failed, on the accession of King John of England, Bohun was created Earl of Hereford and Constable of England (1199). The lands of the family lay chiefly on the Welsh Marches, and from this date the Bohuns took a foremost place among the Marcher barons.[1]

    Henry de Bohun figured with the earls of Clare and Gloucester among the twenty-five barons who were elected by their fellows to enforce the terms of the Magna Carta in 1215, and was subsequently excommunicated by the Pope.

    Marriage and Children

    He married Maud de Mandeville (or Maud FitzGeoffrey), daughter of Geoffrey Fitz Peter, 1st Earl of Essex. Their children were:

    Humphrey V de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, married Maud de Lusignan, by whom he had at least three children.
    Henry de Bohun, who died young.
    Ralph de Bohun.

    Later career

    In the civil war that followed the Magna Carta, he was also a supporter of King Louis VIII of France and was captured at the Battle of Lincoln in 1217.[1] He died while on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.[3]

    Preceded by Humphrey III de Bohun Lord High Constable 1199–1220 Succeeded by Humphrey V de Bohun Preceded by New Creation Earl of Hereford 1199–1220 Succeeded by Humphrey V de Bohun

    References

    Cokayne, G. (ed. by V. Gibbs). Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. London:1887-1896, H-457-459
    ^ Jump up to: a b Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Davis, Henry (1911). "Bohun". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopµdia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 137.
    Jump up ^ Cawley, Charles; Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, Medieval Lands Project; ENGLAND, EARLS CREATED 1067-1122 v3.1; HEREFORD, EARLS of HEREFORD 1200-1373 (BOHUN) (Chap 2D); Humphrey III de Bohun
    Jump up ^ BOMC: Profiles of Magna Charta Sureties and Other Supporters

    Died:
    en route to the Holy Land...

    Henry — Maud FitzGeoffrey. Maud (daughter of Geoffrey FitzPiers, Knight, Earl of Essex and Beatrice de Saye) was born 1176-1177, Walden, Essex, England; died 27 Aug 1236. [Group Sheet]


  8. 225.  Maud FitzGeoffrey was born 1176-1177, Walden, Essex, England (daughter of Geoffrey FitzPiers, Knight, Earl of Essex and Beatrice de Saye); died 27 Aug 1236.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Maud de Mandeville

    Children:
    1. Ralph de Bohun was born 0___ 1202, Warwickshire, England.
    2. 112. Humphrey de Bohun, IV, Knight, 2nd Earl of Hereford was born 0___ 1204; died 24 Sep 1275, Warwickshire, England; was buried Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester, England.

  9. 228.  Reginald de Braose, KnightReginald de Braose, Knight was born 0___ 1162, (Bramber, West Sussex, England) (son of William de Braose, Knight, 3rd Lord of Bramber and Bertha of Hereford); died BY 1228; was buried Saint John's, Brecon, Wales.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Lord of Brecon, Abergavenny, Builth

    Notes:

    Died: by 1228

    Reginald is said to be buried at St. John's, Brecon (right).

    Reginald supported Giles in his rebellions against King John. They were both active against the King in the barons' war. Neither was present at the signing of Magna Carta because they were still rebels who refused to compromise. King John aquiesced to Reginald's claims to the de Braose estates in Wales in May 1216.

    He became Lord of Brecon, Abergavenny, Builth and other Marcher lordships but was very much a vassal of Llywelyn Fawr, Prince of Gwynedd and now his father-in-law.

    Henry III restored Reginald to favour and the Bramber estates (confiscated from William by King John) in 1217.

    At this seeming betrayal, Rhys and Owain, Reginald's nephews who were princes of Deheubarth, were incensed and they took Builth (except the castle). Llewelyn Fawr also became angry and besieged Brecon. Reginald eventually surrendered to Llewelyn and gave up Seinhenydd (Swansea).

    By 1221 they were at war again with Llewelyn laying siege to Builth. The seige was relieved by Henry III's forces. From this time on Llewelyn tended to support the claims of Reginald's nephew John concerning the de Braose lands.

    sealReginald was a witness to the re-issue of Magna Carta by Henry III in 1225.

    Father: William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber

    Mother: Maud de St. Valery

    Married (1) to Grace, daughter of William Brewer

    Child 1: William de Braose, Lord of Abergavenny

    Child 2 ? Matilda = Rhys Mechyll (of Deheubarth)

    Married (2) to Gwladus Ddu (1215)

    end of biography

    Reginald married Grace Brewer 19 Mar 1202, Bramber, Sussex, England. Grace (daughter of William Brewer and unnamed spouse) was born 0___ 1186, Eu, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France; died 0___ 1226. [Group Sheet]


  10. 229.  Grace Brewer was born 0___ 1186, Eu, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France (daughter of William Brewer and unnamed spouse); died 0___ 1226.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Grecian Alice De BRIWERE

    Children:
    1. Matilda de Braose was born ~ 1172, Carmarthenshire, Wales.
    2. 114. William de Braose, Lord of Brycheiniog was born 0___ 1197, Brecon, Wales; died 2 May 1230, Wales; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

  11. 230.  William Marshal, Templar Knight, 1st Earl PembrokeWilliam Marshal, Templar Knight, 1st Earl Pembroke was born 1146-1147, (Berkshire, England) (son of John FitzGilbert and Sibyl of Salisbury); died 14 Apr 1219, Caversham, Berkshire, England; was buried Temple Church, London, Middlesex, England.

    Notes:

    William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1146 or 1147 - 14 May 1219), also called William the Marshal (Norman French: Williame le Mareschal), was an Anglo-Norman soldier and statesman.[1] He served five English kings – The "Young King" Henry, Henry II, Richard I, John, and Henry III.

    Knighted in 1166, he spent his younger years as a knight errant and a successful tournament fighter; Stephen Langton eulogized him as the "best knight that ever lived."[2] In 1189, he received the title of Earl of Pembroke through marriage during the second creation of the Pembroke Earldom. In 1216, he was appointed protector for the nine-year-old Henry III, and regent of the kingdom.

    Before him, his father's family held an hereditary title of Marshal to the king, which by his father's time had become recognized as a chief or master Marshalcy, involving management over other Marshals and functionaries. William became known as 'the Marshal', although by his time much of the function was actually delegated to more specialized representatives (as happened with other functions in the King's household). Because he was an Earl, and also known as the Marshal, the term "Earl Marshal" was commonly used and this later became an established hereditary title in the English Peerage.


    Early life

    Tomb effigy of William Marshal in Temple Church, London
    William's father, John Marshal, supported King Stephen when he took the throne in 1135, but in about 1139 he changed sides to back the Empress Matilda in the civil war of succession between her and Stephen which led to the collapse of England into "the Anarchy".[4]

    When King Stephen besieged Newbury Castle in 1152, according to William's biographer, he used the young William as a hostage to ensure that John kept his promise to surrender the castle. John, however, used the time allotted to reinforce the castle and alert Matilda's forces. When Stephen ordered John to surrender immediately or William would be hanged, John replied that he should go ahead saying, "I still have the hammer and the anvil with which to forge still more and better sons!" Subsequently there was a bluff made to launch William from a pierriáere, a type of trebuchet towards the castle. Fortunately for the child, Stephen could not bring himself to harm young William.[5] William remained a crown hostage for many months, only being released following the peace that resulted from the terms agreed at Winchester on 6 November 1153 that ended the civil war.

    Knight-Errant

    As a younger son of a minor nobleman, William had no lands or fortune to inherit, and had to make his own way in life. Around the age of twelve, when his father's career was faltering, he was sent to Normandy to be brought up in the household of William de Tancarville, a great magnate and cousin of young William's mother. Here he began his training as a knight. This would have included basic biblical stories and prayers written in Latin, as well as exposure to French romances, which conferred the basic precepts of chivalry to the budding knight.[6] In addition, while in Tancarville’s household, it is likely that Marshal also learned important and lasting practical lessons concerning the politics of courtly life. According to his thirteenth-century biography, L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal, Marshal had a number of adversaries in court who machinated to his disadvantage—these individuals likely would have been threatened by the boy’s close relationship with the magnate.[7] He was knighted in 1166 on campaign in Upper Normandy, then being invaded from Flanders. His first experience in battle came with mixed reviews. According to L'Histoire, everyone who witnessed the young knight in action agreed that he had acquitted himself well in combat. However, as medieval historian David Crouch explains, “War in the twelfth century was not fought wholly for honour. Profit was there to be made…”[8] On this front, Marshal was not so successful, as he was unable to parlay his combat victories into profit from either ransom or seized booty. As described in L'Histoire, the Earl of Essex, who was expecting the customary tribute from his valorous knight following battle, jokingly remarked: “Oh? But Marshal, what are you saying? You had forty or sixty of them — yet you refuse me so small a thing!”[9] In 1167 he was taken by William de Tancarville to his first tournament where he found his true mâetier. Quitting the Tancarville household he then served in the household of his mother's brother, Patrick, Earl of Salisbury. In 1168 his uncle was killed in an ambush by Guy de Lusignan. William was injured and captured in the same skirmish. It is known that William received a wound to his thigh and that someone in his captor's household took pity on the young knight. He received a loaf of bread in which were concealed several lengths of clean linen bandages with which he could dress his wounds. This act of kindness by an unknown person perhaps saved Marshal's life as infection setting into the wound could have killed him. After a period of time, he was ransomed by Eleanor of Aquitaine, who was apparently impressed by tales of his bravery.

    Thereafter he found he could make a good living out of winning tournaments, dangerous, often deadly, staged battles in which money and valuable prizes could be won by capturing and ransoming opponents, their horses and armour. His record is legendary: on his deathbed he recalled besting 500 knights during his tourneying career.[10]

    Royal favour

    13th-century depiction by Matthew Paris of the Earl of Pembroke's coat of arms[11]
    Upon his return during the course of 1185 William rejoined the court of King Henry II, and now served the father as a loyal captain through the many difficulties of his final years. The returns of royal favour were almost immediate. The king gave William the large royal estate of Cartmel in Cumbria, and the keeping of Heloise, the heiress of the northern barony of Lancaster. It may be that the king expected him to take the opportunity to marry her and become a northern baron, but William seems to have had grander ambitions for his marriage. In 1188 faced with an attempt by Philip II to seize the disputed region of Berry, Henry II summoned the Marshal to his side. The letter by which he did this survives, and makes some sarcastic comments about William's complaints that he had not been properly rewarded to date for his service to the king. Henry therefore promised him the marriage and lands of Dionisia, lady of Chăateauroux in Berry. In the resulting campaign, the king fell out with his heir Richard, count of Poitou, who consequently allied with Philip II against his father. In 1189, while covering the flight of Henry II from Le Mans to Chinon, William unhorsed the undutiful Richard in a skirmish. William could have killed the prince but killed his horse instead, to make that point clear. He is said to have been the only man ever to unhorse Richard. Nonetheless after Henry's death, Marshal was welcomed at court by his former adversary, now King Richard I, who was wise to include a man whose legendary loyalty and military accomplishments were too useful to ignore, especially in a king who was intending to go on Crusade.[1]

    During the old king's last days he had promised the Marshal the hand and estates of Isabel de Clare (c.1172–1220), but had not completed the arrangements. King Richard however, confirmed the offer and so in August 1189, at the age of 43, the Marshal married the 17-year-old daughter of Richard de Clare (Strongbow). Her father had been Earl of Pembroke, and Marshal acquired large estates and claims in England, Wales, Normandy and Ireland. Some estates however were excluded from the deal. Marshal did not obtain Pembroke and the title of earl, which his father-in-law had enjoyed, until 1199, as it had been taken into the king's hand in 1154. However, the marriage transformed the landless knight from a minor family into one of the richest men in the kingdom, a sign of his power and prestige at court. They had five sons and five daughters, and have numerous descendants.[1] William made numerous improvements to his wife's lands, including extensive additions to Pembroke Castle and Chepstow Castle.[citation needed]

    William was included in the council of regency which the King appointed on his departure for the Third Crusade in 1190. He took the side of John, the king's brother, when the latter expelled the justiciar, William Longchamp, from the kingdom, but he soon discovered that the interests of John were different from those of Richard. Hence in 1193 he joined with the loyalists in making war upon him. In spring 1194, during the course of the hostilities in England and before King Richard's return, William Marshal's elder brother John Marshal (who was serving as seneschal) was killed while defending Marlborough for the king's brother John. Richard allowed Marshal to succeed his brother in the hereditary marshalship, and his paternal honour of Hamstead Marshall. The Marshal served the king in his wars in Normandy against Philip II. On Richard's death-bed the king designated Marshal as custodian of Rouen and of the royal treasure during the interregnum.[1]

    King John and Magna Carta

    A 13th-century depiction of the Second Battle of Lincoln, which occurred at Lincoln Castle on 20 May 1217; the illustration shows the death of Thomas du Perche, the Comte de la Perche

    William supported King John when he became king in 1199, arguing against those who maintained the claims of Arthur of Brittany, the teenage son of John's elder brother Geoffrey Plantagenet. William was heavily engaged with the defence of Normandy against the growing pressure of the Capetian armies between 1200 and 1203. He sailed with King John when he abandoned the duchy in December 1203. He and the king had a falling out in the aftermath of the loss of the duchy, when he was sent with the earl of Leicester as ambassadors to negotiate a truce with King Philip II of France in 1204. The Marshal took the opportunity to negotiate the continued possession of his Norman lands.

    Before commencing negotiations with King Philip, William had been generously permitted to do homage to the King of France by King John so he might keep his possessions in Normandy; land which must have been of sentimental value due to the time spent there in his youth and adolescence. However, once official negotiations began, Philip demanded that such homage be paid exclusively to him, which King John had not consented to.[12] When William paid homage to King Philip, John took offence and there was a major row at court which led to cool relations between the two men. This became outright hostility in 1207 when John began to move against several major Irish magnates, including William. Though he left for Leinster in 1207 William was recalled and humiliated at court in the autumn of 1208, while John's justiciar in Ireland Meilyr fitz Henry invaded his lands, burning the town of New Ross.

    Meilyr's defeat by Countess Isabel led to her husband's return to Leinster. He was once again in conflict with King John in his war with the Braose and Lacy families in 1210, but managed to survive. He stayed in Ireland until 1213, during which time he had Carlow Castle erected[13] and restructured his honour of Leinster. Taken back into favour in 1212, he was summoned in 1213 to return to the English court. Despite their differences, William remained loyal throughout the hostilities between John and his barons which culminated on 15 June 1215 at Runnymede with the sealing of Magna Carta. William was one of the few English earls to remain loyal to the king through the First Barons' War. It was William whom King John trusted on his deathbed to make sure John's nine-year-old son Henry would get the throne. It was William who took responsibility for the king's funeral and burial at Worcester Cathedral.[1]

    On 11 November 1216 at Gloucester, upon the death of King John, William Marshal was named by the king's council (the chief barons who had remained loyal to King John in the First Barons' War) to serve as protector of the nine-year-old King Henry III, and regent of the kingdom. In spite of his advanced age (around 70) he prosecuted the war against Prince Louis and the rebel barons with remarkable energy. In the battle of Lincoln he charged and fought at the head of the young King's army, leading them to victory. He was preparing to besiege Louis in London when the war was terminated by the naval victory of Hubert de Burgh in the straits of Dover. [1]

    William was criticised for the generosity of the terms he accorded to Louis and the rebels in September 1217; but his desire for an expeditious settlement was dictated by sound statesmanship. Self-restraint and compromise were the keynote of Marshal's policy, hoping to secure peace and stability for his young liege. Both before and after the peace of 1217 he reissued Magna Carta, in which he is a signatory as one of the witnessing barons.

    Death and legacy

    William Marshal was interred in Temple Church, London
    Marshal's health finally failed him early in 1219. In March 1219 he realised that he was dying, so he summoned his eldest son, also William, and his household knights, and left the Tower of London for his estate at Caversham in Berkshire, near Reading, where he called a meeting of the barons, Henry III, the Papal legate Pandulf Verraccio, the royal justiciar (Hubert de Burgh), and Peter des Roches (Bishop of Winchester and the young King's guardian). William rejected the Bishop's claim to the regency and entrusted the regency to the care of the papal legate; he apparently did not trust the Bishop or any of the other magnates that he had gathered to this meeting. Fulfilling the vow he had made while on crusade, he was invested into the order of the Knights Templar on his deathbed. He died on 14 May 1219 at Caversham, and was buried in the Temple Church in London, where his tomb can still be seen.[1]

    Descendants of William Marshal and Isabel de Clare

    William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (1190–6 April 1231), married (1) Alice de Bâethune, daughter of Earl of Albemarle; (2) 23 April 1224 Eleanor Plantagenet, daughter of King John of England. They had no children.
    Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1191–16 April 1234), married Gervase le Dinant. He died in captivity. They had no children.
    Maud Marshal (1194–27 March 1248), married (1) Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk, they had four children; (2) William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey, they had two children; (3) Walter de Dunstanville.
    Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke (1197–27 June 1241), married (1) Marjorie of Scotland, youngest daughter of King William I of Scotland; by an unknown mistress he had one illegitimate daughter:
    Isabel Marshal, married to Rhys ap Maeldon Fychan.
    Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke (c. 1199 – November 1245), married Margaret de Quincy, Countess of Lincoln, granddaughter of Hugh de Kevelioc, 3rd Earl of Chester. No children.
    Isabel Marshal (9 October 1200 – 17 January 1240), married (1) Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford, whose daughter Isabel de Clare married Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, the grandfather of Robert the Bruce; (2) Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall
    Sibyl Marshal (c. 1201–27 April 1245), married William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby–they had seven daughters.
    Agnes Ferrers (died 11 May 1290), married William de Vesci.

    Isabel Ferrers (died before 26 November 1260)
    Maud Ferrers (died 12 March 1298), married (1) Simon de Kyme, and (2) William de Vivonia (de Forz), and (3) Amaury IX of Rochechouart.
    Sibyl Ferrers, married Sir Francis or Franco de Bohun.
    Joan Ferrers (died 1267)
    Agatha Ferrers (died May 1306), married Hugh Mortimer, of Chelmarsh.
    Eleanor Ferrers (died 16 October 1274), married to:

    Eva Marshal (1203–1246), married William de Braose, Lord of Abergavenny

    Isabella de Braose (b.1222), married Prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn. She died childless.
    Maud de Braose (1224–1301), in 1247, she married Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer and they had descendants.
    Eva de Braose (1227 – 28 July 1255), married Sir William de Cantelou and had descendants.
    Eleanor de Braose (c.1228–1251). On an unknown date after August 1241, she married Sir Humphrey de Bohun and had descendants.

    Anselm Marshal, 6th Earl of Pembroke (c. 1208–22 December 1245), married Maud de Bohun, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford. They had no children.
    Joan Marshal (1210–1234), married Warin de Munchensi (d. 1255), Lord of Swanscombe
    Joan de Munchensi (1230–20 September 1307) married William of Valence, the fourth son of King John's widow, Isabella of Angoulăeme, and her second husband, Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche. Valence was half-brother to Henry III and Edward I's uncle.

    The fate of the Marshal family

    During the civil wars in Ireland, William had taken two manors that the Bishop of Ferns claimed but could not get back. Some years after William's death, that bishop is said[14] to have laid a curse on the family that William's sons would have no children, and the great Marshal estates would be scattered. Each of William's sons did become earl of Pembroke and marshal of England, and each died without legitimate issue. William's vast holdings were then divided among the husbands of his five daughters. The title of "Marshal" went to the husband of the oldest daughter, Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk, and later passed to the Mowbray dukes of Norfolk and then to the Howard dukes of Norfolk, becoming "Earl Marshal" along the way. The title of "Earl of Pembroke" passed to William of Valence, the husband of Joan Marshal's daughter, Joan de Munchensi; he became the first of the de Valence line of earls of Pembroke.

    Through his daughter Isabel, William is ancestor to the both the Bruce and Stewart kings of Scots. Through his granddaughter Maud de Braose, William is ancestor to the last Plantagenet kings, Edward IV through Richard III, and all English monarchs from Henry VIII and afterward.

    Buried:
    at Temple Church...

    The Temple Church is a late 12th-century church in the City of London located between Fleet Street and the River Thames, built by the Knights Templar as their English headquarters. During the reign of King John (1199-1216) it served as the royal treasury, supported by the role of the Knights Templars as proto-international bankers. It is jointly owned by the Inner Temple and Middle Temple[1] Inns of Court, bases of the English legal profession. It is famous for being a round church, a common design feature for Knights Templar churches, and for its 13th and 14th century stone effigies. It was heavily damaged by German bombing during World War II and has since been greatly restored and rebuilt. The area around the Temple Church is known as the Temple and nearby formerly in the middle of Fleet Street stood the Temple Bar, an ornamental processional gateway. Nearby is the Temple Underground station.

    Photo, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_Church

    Died:
    Caversham is a suburb in the Borough of Reading...

    Map, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caversham,_Berkshire

    William married Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke 0Aug 1189, London, England. Isabel (daughter of Richard de Clare, Knight, 2nd Earl Pembroke and Eva Aoife Mac Murchada, Countess Pembroke) was born 0___ 1172, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 14 Oct 1217, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; was buried Tintern Abbey, Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales. [Group Sheet]


  12. 231.  Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke was born 0___ 1172, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales (daughter of Richard de Clare, Knight, 2nd Earl Pembroke and Eva Aoife Mac Murchada, Countess Pembroke); died 14 Oct 1217, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; was buried Tintern Abbey, Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Death: 0___ 1220, Pembrokeshire, Wales

    Notes:

    F Isabel De CLAREPrint Family Tree
    Born in 1172 - Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales
    Deceased 14 October 1217 - Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales , age at death: 45 years old
    Buried in 1217 - Monmouth, Monmouthshire, Wales

    Parents
    Richard (Strongbow) De ( 2nd Earl Pembroke, Lord Marshall) CLARE, born in 1125 - Tonbridge, Kent, England, Deceased 20 April 1176 - Dublin, Ireland age at death: 51 years old , buried in 1176 - Dublin, Ireland
    Married 26 August 1171, Waterford, Waterford, Ireland, to
    Eva Aoife Mac (Countess Pembroke) MURCHADA, born 26 April 1141 - Dublin, Ireland, Deceased in 1188 - Waterford, Ireland age at death: 47 years old , buried - Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales

    Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
    Married in August 1189, London, England, to William (SIR - Knight Templar)(Earl Pembroke) MARSHALL, born 12 May 1146 - Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales, Deceased 14 May 1219 - Reading, Berkshire, England age at death: 73 years old , buried in 1219 - London, England (Parents : M John (Fitzgilbert) (Earl of Pembroke, Marshall of England) MARSHALL 1105-1165 & F Sibilla De SALISBURY 1109-1155) with
    F Maud (Countess of Norfolk Countess of Surrey) MARSHALL 1192-1248 married to William (de Warenne) WARREN 1166-1240 with
    M John De (SIR - Earl of Surrey) WARREN 1231-1304 married before 1244, England, to Alice (Le Brun) De (Countess of Surrey) LUSIGNAN 1224-1291 with :
    F Eleanor (Plantagenet) De WARREN 1244-1282
    M William De (SIR) WARREN 1256-1286

    John De (SIR - Earl of Surrey) WARREN 1231-1304 married in 1247, Surrey, England, to Isabel De Surrey 1234-
    Maud (Countess of Norfolk Countess of Surrey) MARSHALL 1192-1248 married to Hugh (Magna Charta Baron - EARL of NORFOLK) BIGOD 1175-1225 with
    F Isabel BIGOD ca 1215-1239 married before 1235, Shere, Surrey, England, to John (Fitzgeoffrey) (SIR - Lord of Shere) (Justiciar of England) FITZPIERS 1215-1258 with :
    F Aveline (Fitzjohn) FITZPIERS ca 1235-1274
    F Maud (Fitzjohn) (Countess of WARWICK) FITZPIERS 1237-1301
    F Eve (Baroness of Abergavenny) MARSHALL 1194-1246 married 2 May 1230, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales, to William "Black William" (de Braose) BRUCE 1204-1230 with
    M William (de Braose) BRUCE 1210-1292 married to Maud De Fay 1180-1249 with :
    F Eleanor (de Braose) BRUCE 1230-
    F Isabella (de Braose) BRUCE 1220/- married to Dafydd (Ap Llywelyn) (Prince of WALES) TUDOR 1208-1246
    F Eva (de Braose) BRUCE 1220-1255 married 25 July 1238, Calne, Wiltshire, England, to William De CANTILUPE 1216-1254 with :
    F Joane CANTILUPE 1240-1271
    F Sybilla De Cantilupe ca 1240-
    F Millicent (Cauntelo) De CANTILUPE ca 1250-/1299
    F Maud (de Braose) (BARONESS WIGMORE) BRUCE 1226-1300 married in 1247, King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, England, to Roger De (SIR) MORTIMER 1231-1282 with :
    F Isabella De MORTIMER 1248-1274
    M Edmund De (Sir - 7th Lord) MORTIMER 1252-1303
    F Isolde De MORTIMER 1267-1338
    Eve (Baroness of Abergavenny) MARSHALL 1194-1246 married in 1230, England, to Milo (de Saint Maur) (SIR) SEYMOUR ca 1200-1245 with
    M Richard SEYMOUR 1230-1271 married in 1250 to Isabel (Lady) MARSHALL 1238-1268 with :
    M Roger (de Saint Maur) SEYMOUR 1258-1300
    F Katherine SEYMOUR ca 1265-ca 1335
    M Gilbert MARSHALL 1196-1241 married to Marjorie Of SCOTLAND 1204-1244 with
    F Isabel (Lady) MARSHALL 1238-1268 married in 1250 to Richard SEYMOUR 1230-1271 with :
    M Roger (de Saint Maur) SEYMOUR 1258-1300
    F Katherine SEYMOUR ca 1265-ca 1335
    M William (4th Earl of Pembroke/ChiefJusticar of Ireland) MARSHALL 1198-1231 married 23 April 1224, Hampshire, England, to Eleanor (Princess of England) PLANTAGENET ca 1205-1275 with
    F Isabel Marshall 1225/-1239
    M X MARSHALL ca 1230- married to ? ? with :
    M X MARSHALL ca 1260-
    F Isabel (Fitzgilbert) (Countess MARSHALL) MARSHALL 1200-1239 married 9 October 1217, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England, to Gilbert III De (Earl of Gloucester - Hertford) CLARE, MAGNA CARTA BARON ca 1180-1230 with
    M Richard De (Earl of Herts - Gloucs) CLARE 1222-1262 married 25 January 1238, Lincolnshire, England, to Maud De (Countess of Gloucester) LACY 1223-1289 with :
    M Gilbert IV De (Earl of Herts - Gloucs) CLARE 1243-1295
    M Thomas De (Lord of Thomand, Connaught, Chancellor of Ireland) CLARE 1245-1287
    F Rohesia De CLARE 1252-1316
    F Isabel De (Lady Annabelle - 3rd Countess of Pembroke) CLARE 1226-1264 married in May 1240, Scotland, to Robert "the Competitor" De (SIR - 5th Lord of Annandale) BRUCE 1210-1295 with :
    M Robert De (Lord Annadale) BRUCE 1243-1304
    F Mary Clarissa De BRUCE 1255-1283
    Isabel (Fitzgilbert) (Countess MARSHALL) MARSHALL 1200-1239 married 30 March 1231, Bucks, Pennsylvania, USA, to Richard (Earl of CORNWALL) CORNWALL 1209-1272 with
    M Richard (SIR) (PLANTAGENET) CORNWALL 1234-1272 married before 1280, Cornwall, England, to Joan SAINT OWEN 1234-1308 with :
    M Edmund De (PLANTAGENET) CORNWALL 1280-1354
    F Sibyl MARSHALL ca 1201-1245 married 14 May 1219, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales, to William De (SIR - 5th Earl of Derby,) (Sheriff of Leicester) FERRERS 1190-1254 with
    F Maud De FERRERS ca 1215-1298 married in 1248 to William (Fortibus) De (SIR) VIVONNE 1215-1259 with :
    F Joan de ** (Countess of Chewton) VIVONNE 1235-1314
    F Margaret (Joan) De (to Wynter) FERRERS ca 1220-1267 married 5 December 1242, England, to Roger De Quincy ca 1215-1242/
    Margaret (Joan) De (to Wynter) FERRERS ca 1220-1267 married before 1245, England, to John De MOHUN ca 1220-1255 with :
    M John De MOHUN ca 1243-1279

    Margaret (Joan) De (to Wynter) FERRERS ca 1220-1267 married about 1256, Derbyshire, England, to Roger (SIR ) (MIDLANDS) WYNTER ca 1220- with :
    M Robert ** (Bedfordshire) WYNTER /1260-
    M Roger de ** (Suffolk - ??) WYNTER /1267-ca 1327
    M ** (Connection speculative) WYNTER /1268-
    F Isabel De FERRERS 1223-1252 married after 1247, England, to Reginald De MOHUN 1202-1256 with :
    F Isabel De MOHUN 1248-1280
    F Agatha De FERRERS ca 1225- married to Hugh De MORTIMER 1219-1274 with :
    M Robert De MORTIMER 1251-1287
    F Mary De MORTIMER 1260-1290
    M William De (SIR) FERRERS 1235-1287 married in 1262, Wootton Bassett, Wiltshire, England, to Anne le De SPENCER 1240/-1280 with :
    M ? ?
    F Anne De (to GREY) FERRERS 1268-1324
    M William De (SIR - to Wynter via VERDON) FERRERS 1272-1325
    M Robert De (6th Earl of Derby) (to NEVILLE) FERRERS ca 1239-1279 married 26 June 1269, Staffordshire, England, to Alianore De BOHUN 1240-1314 with :
    M John De (SIR - Baron of Chartley) FERRERS 1271-1312
    F Joane MARSHALL 1202-1234 married to Warin Munchensy 1192-1255 with
    F Joan MUNCHENSY 1222-1307 married to William (de Lusignan) (Earl of Pembroke) VALENCE 1225-1296 with :
    F Margaret De (Baroness de la ROCHE) VALENCE 1254-1315
    F Isabel De VALENCE ca 1262-1305

    Siblings
    M Richard III De (SIR) CLARE, MAGNA CARTA BARON ca 1153-1217 Married in 1180, England, to Amicie De CAEN 1160-1225
    F Joan De ( Baroness of Gamage) CLARE 1175-1222/ Married in 1196, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales, to Godfrey De (Sir) ( Lord of Gamage) GAMAGE 1176-1253

    Paternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
    M Gilbert De (1st Earl Pembroke) CLARE 1100-1148 married (1130)
    F Isabel De (Countess Pembroke and Buckingham) BEAUMONT 1086-1147
    M Richard (Strongbow) De ( 2nd Earl Pembroke, Lord Marshall) CLARE 1125-1176
    married (1171)
    3 children

    F Isabel De (Countess Pembroke and Buckingham) BEAUMONT 1086-1147
    married (1098)M Henry I (Beauclerc) (KING OF ENGLAND) NORMANDY 1068-1135
    F Constance Maude FITZROY 1098-
    married (1120)
    1 child



    Maternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
    M Dermot Dairmait Mac (King of Leinster) MURCHADA 1110-1171 married (1140)
    F Mor Tauthail Moringen Murchertaig (Queen of Ireland) O'TOOLE 1114-1191
    F Eva Aoife Mac (Countess Pembroke) MURCHADA 1141-1188
    married (1171)
    3 children
    F Urlachen Mac MURCHADA 1154-1200
    married (1171)
    2 children



    Notes
    Individual Note
    Source: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=10154284&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt Birth date: 1172 Birth place: Pembroke, Wales Death date: 1220 Death place: Pembroke, Wales 1,7249::10154284
    Source: Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - Web: International, Find A Grave Index - Ancestry.com - Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. - 1,70699::0 1,70699::438790
    Source: Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - UK and Ireland, Find A Grave Index, 1300s-Current - Ancestry.com - Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. - 1,60526::0 1,60526::219175

    Death
    Age: 48


    Sources
    Individual:
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=8010
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=8010
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=8010
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=8010
    Birth, death:
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=10154284&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 1172 Birth place: Pembroke, Wales Death date: 1220 Death place: Pembroke, Wales - 1,7249::10154284
    - Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - Web: International, Find A Grave Index - Ancestry.com - Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. - 1,70699::0 - 1,70699::438790
    - Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - UK and Ireland, Find A Grave Index, 1300s-Current - Ancestry.com - Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. - 1,60526::0 - 1,60526::219175
    Burial:
    - Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - Web: International, Find A Grave Index - Ancestry.com - Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. - 1,70699::0 - 1,70699::438790
    - Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - UK and Ireland, Find A Grave Index, 1300s-Current - Ancestry.com - Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. - 1,60526::0 - 1,60526::219175

    Family Tree Preview
    Ancestry Chart Descendancy Chart
    _____| 16_ Richard (Fitzgilbert) De CLARE 1030-1089
    _____| 8_ Gilbert (Fitzrichard) De (Some say - Lord of Chepstow) CLARE 1065-1114
    _____| 4_ Gilbert De (1st Earl Pembroke) CLARE 1100-1148
    / \ _____| 18_ Hugh De CLERMONT 1030-1101
    |2_ Richard (Strongbow) De ( 2nd Earl Pembroke, Lord Marshall) CLARE 1125-1176
    | \ _____| 20_ Roger De (SIR - Barbatus le Barber) BEAUMONT 1022-1094
    | \ _____| 10_ Robert De (SIR - 1st Earl Leics - Count Melun) BEAUMONT 1046-1118
    | \ _____| 22_ Hugh (The Great) (Count of Vermandois) CAPET 1053-1102
    |--1_ Isabel De CLARE 1172-1217
    | _____| 24_ Murchad Macdairmata MURCHADA 1032-1070
    | _____| 12_ Donnchad Enna Mac MURCHADA 1085-1115
    | _____| 6_ Dermot Dairmait Mac (King of Leinster) MURCHADA 1110-1171
    | / \ _____| 26_ Gilla Michil O'BRIEN 1055-1068
    |3_ Eva Aoife Mac (Countess Pembroke) MURCHADA 1141-1188
    \ _____| 28_ Gilla-Comgaill II (King of Ui Muriedaig) O'TOOLE 1055-1127
    \ _____| 14_ Mouirchertach (King of Ui Muiredaig) O'TOOLE 1089-1164
    \ _____| 30_ Loigsech (King of Loigsi) O'MORDA

    end of biography

    Isabel de Clare, suo jure Countess of Pembroke and Striguil (1172-1220) was a Cambro-Norman-Irish noblewoman, go to this link for further clarification ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambro-Norman, and one of the wealthiest heiresses in Wales and Ireland. She was the wife of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, who served four successive kings as Lord Marshal of England. Her marriage had been arranged by King Richard I.

    Daniel Maclise's painting of the marriage of Isabel's parents, Strongbow and Aoife of Leinster in August 1170, the day after the capture of Waterford.
    Isabel was born in 1172 in Pembrokeshire, Wales, the eldest child of Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (1130 – 20 April 1176), known to history as "Strongbow", and Aoife of Leinster, who was the daughter of Dermot MacMurrough, the deposed King of Leinster and Mor Ui Thuathail. The latter was a daughter of Muirchertach Ua Tuathail and Cacht Nâi Morda. The marriage of Strongbow and Aoife took place in August 1170, the day after the capture of Waterford by the Cambro-Norman forces led by Strongbow.

    Isabel's paternal grandparents were Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Beaumont. She had a younger brother Gilbert de Striguil who, being a minor, was not formally invested with either the earldom of Pembroke or of Striguil. It is unlikely that his father could have passed on the title to Pembroke as he himself did not possess it. When Gilbert died in 1185, Isabel became Countess of Pembroke in her own right (suo jure) until her death in 1220. In this way, she could be said to be the first successor to the earldom of Pembroke since her grandfather Gilbert, the first earl. By this reckoning, Isabel ought to be called the second countess, not the fourth countess of Pembroke. In any event, the title Earl was re-created for her husband. She also had an illegitimate half-sister Basile de Clare, who married three times. Basile's husbands were: Robert de Quincy; Raymond Fitzgerald, Constable of Leinster: Geoffrey FitzRobert, Baron of Kells.

    Isabel was described as having been "the good, the fair, the wise, the courteous lady of high degree".[2] She allegedly spoke French, Irish and Latin.[3] After her brother Gilbert's death, Isabel became one of the wealthiest heiresses in the kingdom, owning besides the titles of Pembroke and Striguil, much land in Wales and Ireland.[4] She inherited the numerous castles on the inlet of Milford Haven, guarding the South Channel, including Pembroke Castle.[5] She was a legal ward of King Henry II, who carefully watched over her inheritance.[6]

    Marriage

    The new King Richard I arranged her marriage in August 1189 to William Marshal, regarded by many as the greatest knight and soldier in the realm. Henry II had promised Marshal he would be given Isabel as his bride, and his son and successor Richard upheld the promise one month after his accession to the throne. At the time of her marriage, Isabel was residing in the Tower of London in the protective custody of the Justiciar of England, Ranulf de Glanville.[7] Following the wedding, which was celebrated in London "with due pomp and ceremony",[8] they spent their honeymoon at Stoke d'Abernon in Surrey which belonged to Enguerrand d'Abernon.[9]

    Marriage to Isabel elevated William Marshal from the status as a landless knight into one of the richest men in the kingdom. He would serve as Lord Marshal of England, four kings in all: Henry II, Richard I, John, and Henry III. Although Marshal did not become the jure uxoris 1st Earl of Pembroke, Earl of Striguil until 1199, he nevertheless assumed overlordship of Leinster in Ireland, Pembroke Castle, Chepstow Castle, as well as Isabel's other castles in Wales such as the keep of Haverford, Tenby, Lewhaden, Narberth, Stackpole.[10]

    Shortly after their marriage, Marshal and Isabel arrived in Ireland, at Old Ros, a settlement located in the territory which belonged to her grandfather, Dermot MacMurrough. A motte was hastily constructed, a medieval borough quickly grew around it, and afterwards the Marshals founded the port town by the river which subsequently became known as New Ross. The Chronicles of Ros, which are housed in the British Museum, described Isabel and Marshal's arrival in Ireland and records that Isabella set about building a lovely city on the banks of the Barrow.

    In 1192, Isabel and her husband assumed the task of managing their vast lands; starting with the rebuilding of Kilkenny Castle and the town, both of which had been damaged by the O'Brien clan in 1173. Later they commissioned the construction of several abbeys in the vicinity.[11]

    The marriage was happy, despite the vast difference in age between them. William Marshal and Isabel produced a total of five sons and five daughters.[12]

    end of biography

    Buried:
    Tintern Abbey (Welsh: Abaty Tyndyrn, About this sound pronunciation in Welsh (help·info)) was founded by Walter de Clare, Lord of Chepstow, on 9 May 1131. It is situated adjacent to the village of Tintern in Monmouthshire, on the Welsh bank of the River Wye, which forms the border between Monmouthshire in Wales and Gloucestershire in England. It was only the second Cistercian foundation in Britain, and the first in Wales. Falling into ruin after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century, the remains were celebrated in poetry and often painted by visitors from the 18th century onwards. In 1984 Cadw took over responsibility for the site.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tintern_Abbey

    Children:
    1. William Marshal, Knight, 2nd Earl of Pembroke was born 1190-1198, (Berkshire, England); died 6 Apr 1231, London, Middlesex, England.
    2. Maud Marshal, Countess of Norfolk was born ~ 1193, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 27 Mar 1248, Tintern Abbey, Chapel Hill, Monmouthshire, Wales.
    3. Isabel Marshal, Countess Marshall was born 9 Oct 1200, Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 17 Jan 1240, Berkhamsted Castle, Berkhamsted, Hertforshire, England.
    4. Sybil Marshal was born ~ 1201, (Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales); died 0Apr 1245.
    5. 115. Eva Marshal, Countess of Abergavenny was born 0___ 1203, Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 0___ 1246.
    6. Joan Marshal was born 0___ 1210, (England); died 0___ 1234, (England).

  13. 240.  Henry II, King of EnglandHenry II, King of England was born 5 Mar 1133, Le Mans, France; was christened 25 Mar 1133, Le Mans, France (son of Geoffrey "Le Bon" Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy and Matilda of England, Queen of England); died 6 Jul 1189, Chinon Castle, France; was buried 7 Jul 1189, Fontevraud Abbey, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Count of Anjou
    • Also Known As: Count of Nantes
    • Also Known As: Curt Mantel
    • Also Known As: Duke of Aquitaine
    • Also Known As: Duke of Normandy
    • Also Known As: Henry Curtmantle
    • Also Known As: Henry FitzEmpress
    • Also Known As: Henry II, King of England

    Notes:

    Henry founded the Plantagenet Dynasty...

    Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. Henry was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England. He became actively involved by the age of 14 in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England, then occupied by Stephen of Blois, and was made Duke of Normandy at 17. He inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards married Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to Louis VII of France had recently been annulled. Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry's military expedition to England in 1153, and Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later.

    Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his grandfather Henry I. During the early years of his reign the younger Henry restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou, Maine and Touraine. Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. This controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket's murder in 1170. Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a "cold war" over several decades. Henry expanded his empire, often at Louis' expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse; despite numerous peace conferences and treaties, no lasting agreement was reached. By 1172, he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland and the western half of France, an area that would later come to be called the Angevin Empire.

    Henry and Eleanor had eight children. As they grew up, tensions over the future inheritance of the empire began to emerge, encouraged by Louis and his son King Philip II. In 1173 Henry's heir apparent, "Young Henry", rebelled in protest; he was joined by his brothers Richard and Geoffrey and by their mother, Eleanor. France, Scotland, Brittany, Flanders, and Boulogne allied themselves with the rebels. The Great Revolt was only defeated by Henry's vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them "new men" appointed for their loyalty and administrative skills. Young Henry and Geoffrey revolted again in 1183, resulting in Young Henry's death. The Norman invasion of Ireland provided lands for his youngest son John, but Henry struggled to find ways to satisfy all his sons' desires for land and immediate power. Philip successfully played on Richard's fears that Henry would make John king, and a final rebellion broke out in 1189. Decisively defeated by Philip and Richard and suffering from a bleeding ulcer, Henry retreated to Chinon castle in Anjou, where he died.

    Henry's empire quickly collapsed during the reign of his youngest son John. Many of the changes Henry introduced during his long rule, however, had long-term consequences. Henry's legal changes are generally considered to have laid the basis for the English Common Law, while his intervention in Brittany, Wales and Scotland shaped the development of their societies and governmental systems. Historical interpretations of Henry's reign have changed considerably over time. In the 18th century, scholars argued that Henry was a driving force in the creation of a genuinely English monarchy and, ultimately, a unified Britain. During the Victorian expansion of the British Empire, historians were keenly interested in the formation of Henry's own empire, but they also expressed concern over his private life and treatment of Becket. Late-20th-century historians have combined British and French historical accounts of Henry, challenging earlier Anglo-centric interpretations of his reign.

    Who could forget Peter O'Toole's magnificient protrayal of Henry II in the 1968 movie production of "The Lion in Winter" and Katherine Hepburn's Eleanor of Aquitaine? ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lion_in_Winter_(1968_film)

    end of biography

    Source: 'The World Book Encyclopedia', 1968, p H178. 'Royalty for Commoners', Roderick W. Stuart, 1993, p 37-38. Reigned 1154-1189.

    He ruled an empire that stretched from the Tweed to the Pyrenees. In spite of frequent hostitilties with the French King his own family and rebellious Barons (culminating in the great revolt of 1173-74) and his quarrel with Thomas Becket, Henry maintained control over his possessions until shortly before his death. His judicial and administrative reforms which increased Royal control and influence at the expense of the Barons were of great constitutional importance. Introduced trial by Jury. Duke of Normandy. Henry II 'Curt Mantel,' Duke of Normandy, Count of Maine and Anjou, King Of England became king in 1154.

    At the height of his power, Henry ruled England and almost all western France. His marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, the most famous woman of the age, brought the duchy of Aquitaine under his control. Henry also claimed to rule Scotland, Wales, and eastern Ireland. Henry II carried on his grandfather's policy of limiting the power of the nobles. He also tried to make the Roman Catholic Church in England submit to his authority. This policy brought him into conflict with Thomas a Becket, Achbishop of Canterbury. Four of the king's knights murdered Becket while he was at vespers in his cathedral. Henry made Anglo-Saxon common law, rather than the revised Roman law, the supreme law of the land. He introduced trial by jury and circuit courts. In his later years, Henry's sons often rebelled against him. Two of them, Richard the Lion-Hearted and John, became the next two kings of England.

    REF: "Falls the Shadow" Sharon Kay Penman: William the Conqueror requested a large number of Jews to move to England after his conquest. They spoke Norman & did well under his reign. They continued to thrive under William's grandson Henry II.

    REF: British Monarchy Official Website: Henry II (reigned 1154-89)

    ruled over an empire which stretched from the Scottish border to the Pyrenees. Married to Eleanor, the heiress of Aquitaine, the king spent only 13 years of his reign in England; the other 21 years were spent on the continent in his territories in what is now France. By 1158, Henry had restored to the crown some of the lands and royal power lost by Stephen. For example, locally chosen sheriffs were changed into royally appointed agents charged with enforcing the law and collecting taxes in the counties. Personally interested in government and law, Henry strengthened royal justice, making use of juries and re-introduced the sending of justices (judges) on regular tours of the country to try cases for the Crown. His legal reforms have led him to be seen as the founder of English Common Law. Henry's disagreements with his Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, over Church/State relations ended in Becket's murder in 1170. Family disputes almost wrecked the king's achievements and he died in 1189 at war with his sons.

    Reigned 25 Oct 1154-1189. Invested As Duke Of Nomandy By His Parents In 1150.

    Ruled An Empire That Stretched From The Tweed To The Pyrenees.

    Numerous Quarrels With French King, & His Own Family.

    Quarreled With Thomas Becket.

    Beat Rebellious Barons (Culminating In The Great Revolt Of 1173-74).

    Retained Control Of His Possessions Until Shortly Before His Death.

    Important Judicial & Admin. Reforms Incr. Power Of King At The Expense Of Barons

    Introduced Trial By Jury.

    Count Of Anjou & Aquitaine.

    Buried:
    Click on this link to view images of Fontevraud Abbey ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fontevraud_Abbey

    Died:
    Images and commentary for Chinon Castle ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%A2teau_de_Chinon

    Henry married Eleanore de Aquitaine, Queen of England 18 May 1152, Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France. Eleanore was born 0___ 1123, Chateau de Belin, Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France; died 31 Mar 1204, Poitiers, France; was buried 1 Apr 1204, Fontevraud Abbey, France. [Group Sheet]


  14. 241.  Eleanore de Aquitaine, Queen of EnglandEleanore de Aquitaine, Queen of England was born 0___ 1123, Chateau de Belin, Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France; died 31 Mar 1204, Poitiers, France; was buried 1 Apr 1204, Fontevraud Abbey, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Duchess of Aquitaine
    • Also Known As: Queen Consort of the Franks

    Notes:

    Eleanor of Aquitaine (French: Aliâenor, âElâeonore, Latin: Alienora; 1122 – 1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in western Europe during the High Middle Ages and a member of the Ramnulfid dynasty of rulers in southwestern France. She inherited the Duchy of Aquitaine from her father, William X, in 1137, and later became queen consort of France (1137–1152) and of England (1154–1189). She was the patron of literary figures such as Wace, Benoăit de Sainte-Maure, and Bernart de Ventadorn. She was a leader of the Second Crusade and of armies several times in her life.

    As Duchess of Aquitaine, Eleanor was the most eligible bride in Europe. Three months after she became duchess, she married King Louis VII of France, son of her guardian, King Louis VI. As Queen of France, she participated in the unsuccessful Second Crusade. Soon after, Eleanor sought an annulment of her marriage,[1] but her request was rejected by Pope Eugene III.[2] However, after the birth of her second daughter Alix, Louis agreed to an annulment given that their union had not produced a son after fifteen years of marriage.[3] The marriage was annulled on 11 March 1152 on the grounds of consanguinity within the fourth degree. Their daughters were declared legitimate and custody was awarded to Louis, while Eleanor's lands were restored to her.

    As soon as the annulment was granted, Eleanor became engaged to Henry, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, who became King Henry II of England in 1154. Henry was her third cousin (cousin of the third degree), and eleven years younger. The couple married on 18 May 1152 (Whit Sunday), eight weeks after the annulment of Eleanor's first marriage, in a cathedral in Poitiers, France. Over the next thirteen years, she bore Henry eight children: five sons, three of whom would become kings; and three daughters. However, Henry and Eleanor eventually became estranged. Henry imprisoned her in 1173 for supporting her son Henry's revolt against her husband. She was not released until 6 July 1189, when Henry died and their son ascended the English throne as Richard I.

    Now queen dowager, Eleanor acted as regent while Richard went on the Third Crusade, where on his return he was captured and held prisoner. Eleanor lived well into the reign of her youngest son, John. By the time of her death, she had outlived all her children except for John and Eleanor.

    Film, radio and television

    Eleanor has featured in a number of screen versions of the Ivanhoe and Robin Hood stories. She has been played by Martita Hunt in The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men (1952), Jill Esmond in the British TV adventure series The Adventures of Robin Hood (1955–1960), Phyllis Neilson-Terry in the British TV adventure series Ivanhoe (1958), Yvonne Mitchell in the BBC TV drama series The Legend of Robin Hood (1975), Siăan Phillips in the TV series Ivanhoe (1997), and Tusse Silberg in the TV series The New Adventures of Robin Hood (1997). She was portrayed by Lynda Bellingham in the BBC series Robin Hood. Most recently, she was portrayed by Eileen Atkins in Robin Hood (2010).

    In the 1964 film, "Becket" (1964), Eleanor is briefly played by Pamela Brown to Peter O'Toole's first performance as a young Henry II.

    In the 1968 film, The Lion in Winter, Eleanor is played by Katharine Hepburn, while Henry is again portrayed by O'Toole. The film is about the difficult relationship between them and the struggle of their three sons Richard, Geoffrey, and John for their father's favour and the succession. A 2003 TV film, The Lion in Winter (2003 film), starred Glenn Close as Eleanor and Patrick Stewart as Henry.

    She was portrayed by Mary Clare in the silent film, Becket (1923), by Prudence Hyman in Richard the Lionheart (1962), and twice by Jane Lapotaire; in the BBC TV drama series, The Devil's Crown (1978), and again in Mike Walker's BBC Radio 4 series, Plantagenet (2010). In the 2010 film, Robin Hood, starring Russell Crowe, Eleanor is played by Eileen Atkins. In the 2014 film, Richard the Lionheart: Rebellion, Eleanor is played by Debbie Rochon.

    More on Queen Eleanor ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor_of_Aquitaine

    Click this link to view an image collage of Mirabell Castle ... http://bit.ly/1p8kovL

    Click on this link to view images of Fontevraud Abbey ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fontevraud_Abbey

    Henry II held his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine , prisoner at Old Sarum. In the 1190s, the plain between Old Sarum and Wilton was one of five specially designated by Richard I for the holding of English tournaments

    Old Sarum is the site of the earliest settlement of Salisbury in England. Located on a hill about 2 miles (3 km) north of modern Salisbury near the A345 road , the settlement appears in some of the earliest records in the country.

    Buried:
    The abbey was originally the site of the graves of King Henry II of England, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, their son King Richard I of England, their daughter Joan, their grandson Raymond VII of Toulouse, and Isabella of Angoulăeme, wife of Henry and Eleanor's son King John. However, there is no remaining corporal presence of Henry, Eleanor, Richard, or the others on the site. Their remains were possibly destroyed during the French Revolution.

    Click on this link to view images of Fontevraud Abbey ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fontevraud_Abbey

    Notes:

    Married:
    thier marriage turned sour after Henry's affair with Rosamund Clifford...

    Children:
    1. Richard Plantagenet, I, King of England was born 8 Sep 1157, Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England; died 6 Apr 1199, Limousin, France; was buried Fontevraud Abbey, France.
    2. Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile was born 13 Oct 1162, Domfront Castle, Normandy, France; died 31 Oct 1214, Burgos, Spain; was buried Burgos, Spain.
    3. 120. John I, King of England was born 24 Dec 1166, Beaumont Palace, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England; died 19 Oct 1216, Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 19 Oct 1216, Worcester Cathedral, Worcester, Warwickshire, England.

  15. 250.  Alfonso VIII, King of Castile was born 11 Nov 1155, Soria, Spain (son of Sancho III, King of Castile and Blanche of Navarre, Queen of Castile); died 5 Oct 1214, Avila, Spain; was buried Burgos, Spain.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: King of Toledo
    • Also Known As: The Noble
    • Also Known As: the one of the Navas

    Notes:

    Buried:
    at the Abbey of Santa Marâia la Real de Las Huelgas...

    Died:
    at Gutierre-Muänoz...

    Alfonso married Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile 0___ 1174, Burgos, Spain. Eleanor (daughter of Henry II, King of England and Eleanore de Aquitaine, Queen of England) was born 13 Oct 1162, Domfront Castle, Normandy, France; died 31 Oct 1214, Burgos, Spain; was buried Burgos, Spain. [Group Sheet]


  16. 251.  Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile was born 13 Oct 1162, Domfront Castle, Normandy, France (daughter of Henry II, King of England and Eleanore de Aquitaine, Queen of England); died 31 Oct 1214, Burgos, Spain; was buried Burgos, Spain.

    Notes:

    Eleanor of England (Spanish: Leonor; 13 October 1162[1] – 31 October 1214[2]), or Eleanor Plantaganet,[3] was Queen of Castile and Toledo[4] as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile.[5][6] She was the sixth child and second daughter of Henry II, King of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.[7][8]

    Early life and family

    Eleanor was born in the castle at Domfront, Normandy on 13 October 1162,[9] as the second daughter of Henry II, King of England and his wife Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine,[3] and was baptised by Henry of Marcy. Her half-siblings were Marie and Alix of France, and her full siblings were Henry the Young, Duchess Matilda, King Richard, Duke Geoffrey, Queen Joan and King John.

    Queenship

    In 1174, when she was 12 years old, Eleanor married King Alfonso VIII of Castile in Burgos.[10][11] The couple had been betrothed in 1170, but due to the bride's youth as well as the uproar in Europe regarding her father's suspected involvement in the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket, the wedding was delayed. Her parents' purpose in arranging the marriage was to secure Aquitaine’s Pyrenean border, while Alfonso was seeking an ally in his struggles with his uncle, Sancho VI of Navarre. In 1177, this led to Henry overseeing arbitration of the border dispute.[12]

    Around the year 1200, Alfonso began to claim that the duchy of Gascony was part of Eleanor's dowry, but there is no documented foundation for that claim. It is highly unlikely that Henry II would have parted with so significant a portion of his domains. At most, Gascony may have been pledged as security for the full payment of his daughter’s dowry. Her husband went so far on this claim as to invade Gascony in her name in 1205. In 1206, her brother John, King of England granted her safe passage to visit him, perhaps to try opening peace negotiations. In 1208, Alfonso yielded on the claim.[13] Decades later, their great-grandson Alfonso X of Castile would claim the duchy on the grounds that her dowry had never been fully paid.

    Of all Eleanor of Aquitaine’s daughters, her namesake was the only one who was enabled, by political circumstances, to wield the kind of influence her mother had exercised.[14] In her own marriage treaty, and in the first marriage treaty for her daughter Berengaria, Eleanor was given direct control of many lands, towns, and castles throughout the kingdom.[15] She was almost as powerful as Alfonso, who specified in his will in 1204 that she was to rule alongside their son in the event of his death, including taking responsibility for paying his debts and executing his will.[16] It was she who persuaded him to marry their daughter Berengaria to Alfonso IX of Leâon. Troubadours and sages were regularly present in Alfonso VIII’s court due to Eleanor’s patronage.[17]

    Eleanor took particular interest in supporting religious institutions. In 1179, she took responsibility to support and maintain a shrine to St. Thomas Becket in the cathedral of Toledo. She also created and supported the Abbey of Santa Marâia la Real de Las Huelgas, which served as a refuge and tomb for her family for generations, and its affiliated hospital.[18]

    When Alfonso died, Eleanor was reportedly so devastated with grief that she was unable to preside over the burial. Their eldest daughter Berengaria instead performed these honours. Eleanor then took sick and died only twenty-eight days after her husband, and was buried at Abbey of Santa Marâia la Real de Las Huelgas.[19]

    Children

    Name Birth Death Notes
    Berengaria Burgos,
    1 January/
    June 1180 Las Huelgas near Burgos,
    8 November 1246 Married firstly in Seligenstadt on 23 April 1188 with Duke Conrad II of Swabia, but the union (only by contract and never solemnized) was later annulled. Married in Valladolid between 1/16 December 1197 with King Alfonso IX of Leâon as his second wife.[20] After their marriage was dissolved on grounds of consanguinity in 1204, she returned to her homeland and became regent of her minor brother King Henry I. Queen of Castile in her own right after the death of Henry I in 1217, quickly abdicated in favour of her son Ferdinand III of Castile who would re-unite the kingdoms of Castile and Leâon.
    Sancho Burgos,
    5 April 1181 26 July 1181 Robert of Torigny records the birth "circa Pascha" in 1181 of "filium Sancius" to "Alienor filia regis Anglorum uxor Anfulsi regis de Castella".[21] “Aldefonsus...Rex Castellµ et Toleti...cum uxore mea Alienor Regina et cum filio meo Rege Sancio” donated property to the bishop of Segovia by charter dated 31 May 1181.[22] “Adefonsus...Rex Castellµ et Toleti...cum uxore mea Alienor Regina et cum filio meo Rege Sancio” donated property to the monastery of Rocamador by charter dated 13 Julu 1181.[23]
    Sancha 20/28 March 1182 3 February 1184/
    16 October 1185 King Alfonso VIII "cum uxore mea Alionor regina et cum filiabus meis Berengaria et Sancia Infantissis" exchanged property with the Templars by charter dated 26 January 1183.[24]
    Henry before July 1182 before January 1184 The dating clause of a charter dated July 1182 records “regnante el Rey D. Alfonso...con su mugier Doäna Lionor, con su fijo D. Anric”.[25] The dating of the document in which his sister Sancha is named suggests that they may have been twins.
    Ferdinand before January 1184 Died young, ca. 1184? The dating clause of a charter dated January 1184 (“V Kal Feb Era 1222”) records “regnante rege Alfonso cum uxore sua regina Eleonor et filio suo Fernando”.[26]
    Urraca 1186/
    28 May 1187 Coimbra,
    3 November 1220 Married in 1206 to Infante dom Afonso of Portugal, who succeeded his father as King Afonso II on 26 March 1212.
    Blanche Palencia,
    4 March 1188 Paris,
    27 November 1252 Married on 23 May 1200 to Prince Louis of France, who succeeded his father as King Louis VIII on 14 July 1223. Crowned Queen at Saint-Denis with her husband on 6 August 1223. Regent of the Kingdom of France during 1226-1234 (minority of her son) and during 1248-1252 (absence of her son on Crusade).
    Ferdinand Cuenca,
    29 September 1189 Madrid,
    14 October 1211 Heir of the throne since his birth. On whose behalf Diego of Acebo and the future Saint Dominic travelled to Denmark in 1203 to secure a bride.[27] Ferdinand was returning through the San Vicente mountains from a campaign against the Muslims when he contracted a fever and died.[28]
    Mafalda Plasencia,
    1191 Salamanca,
    1211 Szabolcs de Vajay says that she “died at the point of becoming the fiancâee of the Infante Fernando of Leâon” (without citing the primary source on which this information is based) and refers to her burial at Salamanca Cathedral.[29] Betrothed in 1204 to Infante Ferdinand of Leon, eldest son of Alfonso IX and stepson of her oldest sister.
    Eleanor 1200[30] Las Huelgas,
    1244 Married on 6 February 1221 with King James I of Aragon. They became separated on April 1229 on grounds of consanguinity.
    Constance c. 1202[30] Las Huelgas,
    1243 A nun at the Cistercian monastery of Santa Marâia la Real at Las Huelgas in 1217, she became known as the Lady of Las Huelgas, a title shared with later royal family members who joined the community.[30]
    Henry Valladolid,
    14 April 1204 Palencia,
    6 June 1217 Only surviving son, he succeeded his father in 1214 aged ten under the regency firstly of his mother and later his oldest sister. He was killed when he was struck by a tile falling from a roof.
    Later Depictions[edit]
    Eleanor was praised for her beauty and regal nature by the poet Ramâon Vidal de Besalâu after her death.[31] Her great-grandson Alfonso X referred to her as "noble and much loved".[32]

    Eleanor was played by Ida Norden in the silent film The Jewess of Toledo.[33]

    Ancestors

    [show]Ancestors of Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile
    Notes[edit]
    Jump up ^ Historians are divided in their use of the terms "Plantagenet" and "Angevin" in regards to Henry II and his sons. Some class Henry II to be the first Plantagenet King of England; others refer to Henry, Richard and John as the Angevin dynasty, and consider Henry III to be the first Plantagenet ruler.

    Buried:
    at the Abbey of Santa Marâia la Real de Las Huelgas...

    Children:
    1. 125. Berengaria of Castile, Queen of Castile was born 1179-1180, Burgos, Spain; died 8 Nov 1246, Las Huelgas, Spain.