Margaret of Baux

Female


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Generation: 1

  1. 1.  Margaret of Baux (daughter of Francis of Baux and Sueva Orsini).

    Margaret — Peter I, Count of Saint-Pol. [Group Sheet]

    Children:
    1. Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Countess Rivers was born 1415-1416, Palace of Westminster, London, England; died 30 May 1472.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  Francis of Baux

    Francis — Sueva Orsini. [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Sueva Orsini (daughter of Nicola Orsini and Jeanne de Sabran).
    Children:
    1. 1. Margaret of Baux


Generation: 3

  1. 6.  Nicola Orsini (son of Roberto Orsini and Sueva del Balzo).

    Nicola — Jeanne de Sabran. [Group Sheet]


  2. 7.  Jeanne de Sabran
    Children:
    1. 3. Sueva Orsini


Generation: 4

  1. 12.  Roberto Orsini was born 0___ 1295, (Italy) (son of Romano Orsini, Senator of Rome and Anastasia de Montfort, Countess of Nola); died 15 Jan 1345.

    Roberto — Sueva del Balzo. Sueva (daughter of Hugues de Balzo, Count of Solena and Jacopa della Marra) was born (Italy). [Group Sheet]


  2. 13.  Sueva del Balzo was born (Italy) (daughter of Hugues de Balzo, Count of Solena and Jacopa della Marra).
    Children:
    1. 6. Nicola Orsini


Generation: 5

  1. 24.  Romano Orsini, Senator of Rome was born 0___ 1268, (Italy); died 0___ 1327.

    Romano married Anastasia de Montfort, Countess of Nola 8 Jun 1293, (Italy). Anastasia (daughter of Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola and Margherita Aldobrandesca, Lady of Sovana) was born ~ 1274, (Siena) Italy. [Group Sheet]


  2. 25.  Anastasia de Montfort, Countess of Nola was born ~ 1274, (Siena) Italy (daughter of Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola and Margherita Aldobrandesca, Lady of Sovana).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Dame de Chailly
    • Also Known As: Dame de Longjumeau

    Notes:

    Anastasia de Montfort, Countess of Nola (born c.1274), was an Italian noblewoman and a wealthy heiress. She was the eldest daughter of Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola, himself the son of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester. She held the title suo jure Countess of Nola after her father's death in 1291. She also held the titles of suo jure Dame de Chailly and suo jure Dame de Longjumeau. She was the wife of Romano Orsini, Senator of Rome, by whom she had at least three children. English queen consort Elizabeth Woodville was among her numerous

    Anastasia de Montfort
    suo jure Countess of Nola
    suo jure Dame de Chailly
    suo jure Dame de Longjumeau
    Born c. 1274
    Italy
    Died before January 15, 1345
    Noble family House of Montfort
    Spouse(s) Romano Orsini, Senator of Rome
    Issue
    Roberto Orsini, Count of Nola
    Guido Orsini, Count of Pitigliano
    Giovanna Orsini
    Father Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola
    Mother Margherita Aldobrandeschi, suo jure Countess of Sovana and Pitigliano

    Family

    Anastasia was born in Italy in about 1274, the eldest daughter of Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola, and Margherita Aldobrandeschi, Countess of Sovana and Pitigliano (c. 1255-after 1313).[1] She had a younger sister, Tommasia, who married Pietro Vico, but the marriage was childless. Her paternal grandparents were Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and Eleanor of England, daughter of King John of England and Isabella of Angoulăeme. Her maternal grandparents were Ildebrandino Aldobrandeschi, Count of Sovana and Tommasia di Baschi.

    Her father, Guy, fled England in 1266 after he had escaped from prison, eventually arriving in Italy. He entered the service of Charles of Anjou who made him Count of Nola and Vicar-general of Tuscany. On 10 August 1270, Guy married Margherita Aldobrandeschi at Viterbo.[1] In 1271, her father was excommunicated for killing his cousin Henry of Almain inside San Silvestro church. Later he was captured by the Aragonese and died in a Sicilian prison in 1291.

    Upon his death, Anastasia became the suo jure Countess of Nola. In an effort to retain her lands, Anastasia's mother married four more times after Guy's death. Her four additional husbands were: Orsello Orsini, Loffredo Caetani, her cousin Guido Aldobrandeschi di Santa Fiora, and Nello de' Pannocchieschi.

    Marriage and issue

    On 8 June 1293 Anastasia married Romano Orsini (1268–1327), Senator of Rome and son of Gentile II Orsini, Senator of Rome and Claricia de Ruffo.[1] The marriage had been arranged by Cardinal Napoleon Orsini, who was her mother's guardian. Anastasia, being Margherita's eldest daughter and heiress, eventually brought the rich Aldobrandeschi and Sovana inheritances into the Orsini family.

    Together Romano and Anastasia had at least three children:

    Roberto Orsini, Count of Nola (1295- 15 January 1345), married Sueva del Balzo,[1] the daughter of Hugues del Balzo, Count of Soleto and Seneschal of Naples, and Jacopa della Marra, by whom he had issue.
    Guido Orsini, Count of Pitigliano (died after 1348), married Agostina della Gherardesca, by whom he had issue.
    Giovanna Orsini, married in 1334 Nicolo Caetani by whom she had issue.
    Anastasia died on an unknown date, which occurred sometime before her eldest son, Roberto's death on 15 January 1345 as he had succeeded her as Count of Nola. Her husband Romano died in 1327.

    Children:
    1. 12. Roberto Orsini was born 0___ 1295, (Italy); died 15 Jan 1345.

  3. 26.  Hugues de Balzo, Count of Solena was born (Italy).

    Hugues — Jacopa della Marra. Jacopa was born (Italy). [Group Sheet]


  4. 27.  Jacopa della Marra was born (Italy).
    Children:
    1. 13. Sueva del Balzo was born (Italy).


Generation: 6

  1. 50.  Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola was born 0___ 1244 (son of Simon de Montfort, V, Knight, 6th Earl of Leicester and Eleanor of Leicester); died 0___ 1288, Sicily.

    Notes:

    Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola (1244 – 1291) was the son of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and Eleanor of England.[1]

    Biography

    He participated in the Battle of Evesham against the royalist forces of his uncle, King Henry III of England, and his cousin, Prince Edward. Both his father and elder brother were traumatically killed during the disastrous battle, Guy de Montfort was extremely wounded and captured.[2]

    He was held at Windsor Castle until spring 1266, when he bribed his captors and escaped to France to rejoin his exiled family. Guy and his brother, Simon the younger, wandered across Europe for several years, eventually making their way to Italy.[2]

    Guy took service with Charles of Anjou, serving as his Vicar-General in Tuscany. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Tagliacozzo and was given Nola by Charles of Anjou.

    In 1271, Guy and Simon discovered that their cousin Henry of Almain (son of Richard, Earl of Cornwall) was in Viterbo at the church of San Silvestro.[3] In revenge for the deaths of their father and brother at Evesham, on 13 March, 1271, Guy and Simon murdered Henry while he clutched the altar, begging for mercy. "You had no mercy for my father and brothers", was Guy's reply. This murder was carried out in the presence of the Cardinals (who were conducting a papal Election), of King Philip III of France, and of King Charles of Sicily. For this crime the Montfort brothers were excommunicated, and Dante banished Guy to the river of boiling blood in the seventh circle of his Inferno (Canto XII).

    The news reached England, and King Edward I(Note: Edward didn't succeed to throne until 1272) dispatched a clerk of the royal household to inform the northern counties and Scotland about the excommunication.[2] Pope Gregory X wrote a letter (29 November, 1273) to King Edward from Lyons, where he was preparing for an ecumenical council, that Cardinal Riccardo Annibaldi and Cardinal Giovanni Orsini were still in Rome and had been ordered to find a secure place of imprisonment in the territories of the Church for Guy de Montfort.[4]

    Simon died later that year at Siena, "cursed by God, a wanderer and a fugitive". Guy was stripped of his titles and took service with Charles of Anjou again, but was captured off the coast of Sicily in 1287 by the Aragonese at the Battle of the Counts. He died in a Sicilian prison.[2]

    Family

    In Tuscany, he married an Italian noblewoman, Margherita Aldobrandesca, the Lady of Sovana.[5] With her he had two daughters:[6] Anastasia, who married Romano Orsini,[7] and Tomasina, who married Pietro di Vico.

    Among his direct descendants (via his elder daughter, Anastasia): late 15th century Kings of Naples, England's Queen-Consort Elizabeth Woodville, 16th century rulers of Poland, Dukes of Ferrera, and Dukes of Guise.

    end of biography

    Guy married Margherita Aldobrandesca, Lady of Sovana Tuscany, Italy. [Group Sheet]


  2. 51.  Margherita Aldobrandesca, Lady of Sovana
    Children:
    1. 25. Anastasia de Montfort, Countess of Nola was born ~ 1274, (Siena) Italy.
    2. Tomasina de Montfort was born (Siena) Italy.


Generation: 7

  1. 100.  Simon de Montfort, V, Knight, 6th Earl of LeicesterSimon de Montfort, V, Knight, 6th Earl of Leicester was born ~ 1208, Montfort-l'Amaury, France (son of Simon de Montfort, IV, 5th Earl of Leicester and Alix de Montmorency); died 4 Aug 1265, Evesham, Worcestershire, England; was buried Evesham Abbey, Evesham, Worcestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Simon de Munford

    Notes:

    Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (c.?1208 – 4 August 1265), also called Simon de Munford and sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from other Simons de Montfort, was a French-English nobleman who inherited the title and estates of the earldom of Leicester in England. He led the rebellion against King Henry III of England during the Second Barons' War of 1263–64, and subsequently became de facto ruler of England.[1] During his rule, Montfort called two famous parliaments. The first stripped the King of unlimited authority, the second included ordinary citizens from the towns.[1] For this reason, Montfort is regarded today as one of the progenitors of modern parliamentary democracy.[2] After a rule of just over a year, Montfort was killed by forces loyal to the King in the Battle of Evesham.[1]


    Family

    Montfort was a younger son of Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, a French nobleman and crusader, and Alix de Montmorency. His paternal grandmother was Amicia de Beaumont, the senior co-heiress to the Earldom of Leicester and a large estate owned by her brother Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester, in England.

    With the irrevocable loss of Normandy, King John refused to allow the elder Simon to succeed to the earldom of Leicester and instead placed the estates and title into the hands of Montfort senior's cousin Ranulf, the Earl of Chester. The elder Simon had also acquired vast domains during the Albigensian Crusade, but was killed during the Siege of Toulouse in 1218 and his eldest son Amaury was not able to retain them. When Amaury was rebuffed in his attempt to get the earldom back, he agreed to allow his younger brother Simon to claim it in return for all family possessions in France.

    Simon arrived in England in 1229, with some education but no knowledge of English, and received a sympathetic hearing from King Henry, who was well-disposed towards foreigners speaking French, then the language of the English court. Henry was in no position to confront the powerful Earl of Chester, so Simon approached the older, childless man himself and convinced him to cede him the earldom. It would take another nine years before Henry formally invested him with the title Earl of Leicester.

    Simon de Montfort shared various levels of consanguinuity and "by-marriage" connections with both English and French royal lineages. For instance, his ancestor Simon I de Montfort was father of Bertrade de Montfort who herself was a paternal great-grandmother of King Henry II. He was also descended from William the Conqueror through one of the numerous progeny of Henry I.

    Early life

    Relief of Simon de Montfort in the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives
    As a younger son, Simon de Montfort attracted little public attention during his youth, and the date of birth remains unknown. He is first mentioned when his mother made a grant to him in 1217.[3] As a boy, Montfort accompanied his parents during his father's campaigns against the Cathars. He was with his mother at the Siege of Toulouse in 1218, where his father died after being struck on the head by a stone pitched by a mangonel. In addition to Amaury, Simon had another older brother, Guy, who was killed at the siege of Castelnaudary in 1220. As a young man, Montfort probably took part in the Albigensian Crusades of the early 1220s. He and Amaury both took part in the Barons' Crusade.

    In 1229 the two surviving brothers (Amaury and Simon) came to an arrangement with King Henry whereby Simon gave up his rights in France and Amaury gave up his rights in England. Thus freed from any allegiance to the King of France, Montfort successfully petitioned for the English inheritance, which he received the next year, although he did not take full possession for several years, and did not win formal recognition as Earl of Leicester until February 1239.

    As Lord of Leicester, he expelled the small Jewish community from Leicester in 1231, banishing them "in my time or in the time of any of my heirs to the end of the world". They moved to the eastern suburbs, which were controlled by Montfort's great-aunt Margaret, Countess of Winchester. He justified his action as being "for the good of my soul, and for the souls of my ancestors and successors": inspiration may have come from the hostility his parents had shown to Jews in France, where his father was known for his devout Christianity, and where his mother had given the Jews of Toulouse a choice of conversion or expulsion; as well as from the intellectual arguments of the scholar Robert Grosseteste (at this date Archdeacon of Leicester). It was also a strategy to enhance his popularity in his new domains by banishing the practice of usury (widely associated with Jews).[4][5]

    Montfort became a favourite of King Henry III and even issued a charter as "Earl of Leicester" in 1236, despite having not yet been granted the title.[6]

    In that same year Simon tried to get Joan, Countess of Flanders to marry him. The idea of an alliance between the rich County of Flanders and a close associate of Henry III of England did not sit well with the French crown. The French Queen Dowager Blanche of Castile convinced Joan to marry Thomas II of Savoy instead.

    Royal marriage

    Eleanor of England, who married Montfort in 1238

    In January 1238, Montfort married Eleanor of England, daughter of King John and Isabella of Angoulăeme and sister of King Henry III. While this marriage took place with the King's approval, the act itself was performed secretly and without consulting the great barons, as a marriage of such importance warranted. Eleanor had previously been married to William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, and she swore a vow of perpetual chastity upon his death, when she was sixteen, which she broke by marrying Montfort. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Edmund Rich, condemned the marriage for this reason. The English nobles protested the marriage of the King's sister to a foreigner of modest rank. Most notably, the King's and Eleanor's brother Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, rose up in revolt when he learned of the marriage. King Henry eventually bought off Richard with 6,000 marks and peace was restored.

    The marriage brought the manor of Sutton Valence in Kent into Montfort's possession.[7] Relations between King Henry and Montfort were cordial at first. Henry lent him his support when Montfort embarked for Rome in March 1238 to seek papal approval for his marriage. When Simon and Eleanor's first son was born in November 1238 (despite rumours, more than nine months after the wedding), he was baptised Henry in honour of his royal uncle. In February 1239, Montfort was finally invested with the Earldom of Leicester. He also acted as the king's counsellor and was one of the nine godfathers of Henry's eldest son, Lord Edward, who would inherit the throne and become Edward I ("Longshanks").

    Crusade and turning against the King

    Shortly after Prince Edward's birth, however, there was a falling out between the brothers-in-law. Simon owed a great sum of money to Thomas II of Savoy, uncle of Queen Eleanor, and named King Henry as security for his repayment. The King evidently had not approved this, and was enraged when he discovered that Montfort had used his name. On 9 August 1239, Henry is reported to have confronted Montfort, called him an excommunicant and threatened to imprison him in the Tower of London. "You seduced my sister", King Henry said, "and when I discovered this, I gave her to you, against my will, to avoid scandal." Simon and Eleanor fled to France to escape Henry's wrath.

    Having announced his intention to go on crusade two years before, Simon raised funds and travelled to the Holy Land during the Barons' Crusade, but does not seem to have faced combat there. He was part of the crusading host which, under Richard of Cornwall, negotiated the release of Christian prisoners including Simon's older brother Amaury. In autumn 1241, he left Syria and joined King Henry's campaign against King Louis IX in Poitou. The campaign was a failure, and an exasperated Montfort declared that Henry should be locked up like King Charles the Simple. Like his father, Simon was a soldier as well as a capable administrator. His dispute with King Henry came about due to the latter's determination to ignore the swelling discontent within the country, caused by a combination of factors, including famine and a sense among the English Barons that King Henry was too quick to dispense favour to his Poitevin relatives and Savoyard in-laws.

    In 1248, Montfort again took the cross with the idea of following Louis IX of France to Egypt. But, at the repeated requests of King Henry, he gave up this project in order to act as viceroy in the unsettled and disaffected Duchy of Gascony. Bitter complaints were excited by the rigour with which Montfort suppressed the excesses of the Seigneurs and of contending factions in the great communes. Henry yielded to the outcry and instituted a formal inquiry into Simon's administration. Simon was formally acquitted on the charges of oppression, but his accounts were disputed by Henry and Simon retired to France in 1252. The nobles of France offered him the Regency of the kingdom, vacated by the death of Queen Blanche of Castile. The earl preferred to make his peace with Henry III, which he did in 1253, in obedience to the exhortations of the dying Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln. He helped the King deal with disaffection in Gascony, but their reconciliation was a hollow one. In the Parliament of 1254, Simon led the opposition in resisting a royal demand for a subsidy. In 1256–57, when the discontent of all classes was coming to a head, Montfort nominally adhered to the royal cause. He undertook, with Peter of Savoy, the Queen's uncle, the difficult task of extricating the King from the pledges which he had given to the Pope with reference to the Crown of Sicily; and Henry's writs of this date mention Montfort in friendly terms. But at the "Mad Parliament" of Oxford (1258) Montfort appeared with the Earl of Gloucester,[8] at the head of the opposition. He was part of the Council of Fifteen who were to constitute the supreme board of control over the administration. The King's success in dividing the barons and in fostering a reaction, however, rendered such projects hopeless. In 1261, Henry revoked his assent to the Provisions of Oxford and Montfort, in despair, left the country.

    War against the King

    Main article: Second Barons' War

    Simon de Montfort returned to England in 1263, at the invitation of the barons who were now convinced of the King's hostility to all reform and raised a rebellion with the avowed object of restoring the form of government which the Provisions had ordained. Henry quickly gave in and allowed Montfort to take control of the council. His son Edward, however, began using patronage and bribes to win over many of the barons. Their disruption of parliament in October led to a renewal of hostilities, which saw the royalists able to trap Simon in London. With few other options available, Montfort agreed to allow Louis IX of France to arbitrate their dispute. Simon was prevented from presenting his case to Louis directly on account of a broken leg, but little suspected that the King of France, known for his innate sense of justice, would completely annul the Provisions in his Mise of Amiens in January 1264. Civil war broke out almost immediately, with the royalists again able to confine the reformist army in London. In early May 1264, Simon marched out to give battle to the King and scored a spectacular triumph at the Battle of Lewes on 14 May 1264, capturing the King, Lord Edward, and Richard of Cornwall, Henry's brother and the titular King of Germany. Montfort used his victory to set up a government based on the provisions first established at Oxford in 1258. Henry retained the title and authority of King, but all decisions and approval now rested with his council, led by Montfort and subject to consultation with parliament. His Great Parliament of 1265 (Montfort's Parliament) was a packed assembly to be sure, but it can hardly be supposed that the representation which he granted to the towns was intended to be a temporary expedient.

    Montfort sent his summons, in the King's name, to each county and to a select list of boroughs, asking each to send two representatives. This body was not the first elected parliament in England. In 1254, Henry was in Gascony and in need of money. He gave instructions for his regent, Queen Eleanor, to summon a parliament consisting of knights elected by their shires to ask for this 'aid'. Montfort, who was in that parliament, took the innovation further by including ordinary citizens from the boroughs, also elected, and it was from this period that parliamentary representation derives. The list of boroughs which had the right to elect a member grew slowly over the centuries as monarchs granted charters to more English towns. (The last charter was given to Newark in 1674.)

    The right to vote in Parliamentary elections for county constituencies was uniform throughout the country, granting a vote to all those who owned the freehold of land to an annual rent of 40 shillings (‘Forty-shilling Freeholders’). In the Boroughs, the electoral franchise varied and individual boroughs had varying arrangements.

    The reaction against his government was baronial rather than popular. The Welsh Marcher Lords were friends and allies of Prince Edward, and when he escaped in May 1265, they rallied around his opposition. The final nail was the defection of Gilbert de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester, the most powerful baron and Simon's ally at Lewes. Clare had grown resentful of Simon's fame and growing power. When he and his brother Thomas fell out with Simon's sons Henry, Simon, and Guy, they deserted the reforming cause and joined Edward.

    Though boosted by Welsh infantry sent by Montfort's ally Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Simon's forces were severely depleted. Lord Edward attacked his cousin, his godfather's son Simon's forces at Kenilworth, capturing more of Montfort's allies. Montfort himself had crossed the Severn with his army, intending to rendezvous with his son Simon. When he saw an army approaching at Evesham, Montfort initially thought it was his son's forces. It was, however, Edward's army flying the Montfort banners they had captured at Kenilworth. At that point, Simon realised he had been outmaneuvered by Edward.

    Death

    A 13th-century cloth depiction of the mutilation of Montfort's body after the Battle of Evesham
    An ominous black cloud hung over the field of Evesham on 4 August 1265 as Montfort led his army in a desperate uphill charge against superior forces, described by one chronicler as the "murder of Evesham, for battle it was none".[9] On hearing that his son Henry had been killed, Montfort replied, "Then it is time to die."[10] During the battle, a twelve-man squad of Edward's men had stalked the battlefield independent of Edward's main army, their sole aim being to find the earl and cut him down. Montfort was hemmed in; Roger Mortimer killed Montfort by stabbing him in the neck with a lance.[11] Montfort's last words were said to have been "Thank God".[10] Also slain with Montfort were other leaders of his movement, including Peter de Montfort and Hugh Despenser.

    Montfort's body was mutilated in an unparalleled frenzy by the royalists. News reached the mayor and sheriffs of London that "the head of the earl of Leicester ... was severed from his body, and his testicles cut off and hung on either side of his nose";[11] and in such guise the head was sent to Wigmore Castle by Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer, as a gift to his wife, Maud.[12] His hands and feet were also cut off and sent to diverse places to enemies of his as a great mark of dishonour to the deceased.[13] Such remains as could be found were buried under the altar of Evesham Abbey by the canons. It was visited as holy ground by many commoners until King Henry caught wind of it. He declared that Montfort deserved no spot on holy ground and had his remains reburied under an insignificant tree. The remains of some of Montfort's soldiers who had fled the battlefield were found in the nearby village of Cleeve Prior.

    Montfort's niece, Margaret of England, later killed one of the soldiers responsible for his death, purposely or inadvertently.

    Matthew Paris reports that the Bishop of Lincoln, Robert Grosseteste, once said to Montfort's eldest son, Henry, "My beloved child, both you and your father will meet your deaths on one day, and by one kind of death, but it will be in the name of justice and truth.

    Legacy

    In the years that followed his death, Simon de Montfort's grave was frequently visited by pilgrims. Napoleon Bonaparte described Simon de Montfort as "one of the greatest Englishmen".[14] Today, Montfort is mostly remembered as one of the fathers of representative government.[2][15][16]

    Evesham Abbey and the site of Montfort's grave were destroyed with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century. In 1965 a memorial of stone from Montfort-l'Amaury was laid on the site of the former altar by Speaker of the House of Commons Sir Harry Hylton-Foster and Archbishop of Canterbury, Michael Ramsey.

    Statue of Montfort on the Haymarket Memorial Clock Tower in Leicester
    Various local honours were dedicated to his memory, and he has become eponymous several times over. De Montfort University in Leicester is named after him, as is the nearby De Montfort Hall, a concert venue. A statue of Montfort is one of four to adorn the Haymarket Memorial Clock Tower in Leicester. A relief of Montfort adorns the wall of the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives.

    Montfort's banner called the 'Arms of Honour of Hinckley', blazoned Per pale indented argent and gules, and displayed in stained glass in Chartres Cathedral, is especially used in the coat of arms of the town of Hinckley, part of his Earldom in Leicestershire, and by many of its local organizations. Combined with his personal Coat of Arms, the banner forms part of the club crest for the town's football club Hinckley A.F.C.[17]

    A school[18] and a bridge on the north east stretch of the A46 are named after him in Evesham.

    In fiction

    Sharon Penman's novel, Falls the Shadow, is a fictional retelling of Montfort's life from his arrival in England to his death. The Montfort story is the focus of the second part of The Brothers of Gwynedd Quartet by Edith Pargeter (who also wrote as Ellis Peters). The four books tell the story of Llewellyn Prince of Wales, who married Simon's daughter Eleanor, and his three brothers. More recently are the four speculative novels, Montfort, Vol. I-IV, by Katherine Ashe.[19] Simon de Montfort and (especially) his wife Eleanor feature in Doctor Mirabilis by James Blish, a semi-fictional novel about the medieval philosopher, Franciscan friar Roger Bacon.[citation needed]

    Descendants

    Simon de Montfort and Eleanor of Leicester had seven children, many of whom were notable in their own right:[20]

    Henry de Montfort (November 1238 – 1265)
    Simon the Younger de Montfort (April 1240 – 1271)
    Amaury de Montfort, Canon of York (1242/1243-1300)
    Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola (1244–1288). Elizabeth Woodville, Queen Consort of Edward IV of England, was one of Guy's descendants through his daughter, Anastasia de Montfort, Countess of Nola.
    Joanna de Montfort (born and died in Bordeaux between 1248 and 1251).
    Richard de Montfort (d.1266). Date of death is not certain.
    Eleanor de Montfort (1252–1282). She married Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales, honouring an agreement that had been made between Earl Simon and Llywelyn. Eleanor, Lady of Wales, died on 19 June 1282 at the royal Welsh home at Abergwyngregyn, on the north coast of Gwynedd, giving birth to a daughter, Gwenllian of Wales. After Llywelyn's death on 11 December 1282, Gwenllian was captured by King Edward I and spent the rest of her life in a convent.

    end of biography

    Simon married Eleanor of Leicester 7 Jan 1238. Eleanor (daughter of John I, King of England and Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England) was born 0___ 1215, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England; died 13 Apr 1275, Montargis Abbey, France; was buried Montargis Abbey, France. [Group Sheet]


  2. 101.  Eleanor of Leicester was born 0___ 1215, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England (daughter of John I, King of England and Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England); died 13 Apr 1275, Montargis Abbey, France; was buried Montargis Abbey, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Eleanor of England
    • Also Known As: Eleanor Plantagenet

    Notes:

    Eleanor of Leicester (also called Eleanor Plantagenet [1] and Eleanor of England) (1215 - 13 April 1275) was the youngest child of King John of England and Isabella of Angoulăeme.

    Early life

    Eleanor
    At the time of Eleanor's birth at Gloucester, King John's London was in the hands of French forces, John had been forced to sign the Magna Carta and Queen Isabella was in shame. Eleanor never met her father, as he died at Newark Castle when she was barely a year old. The French, led by Prince Louis the Lion, the future Louis VIII, were marching through the south. The only lands loyal to her brother, Henry III of England, were in the Midlands and southwest. The barons ruled the north, but they united with the royalists under William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, who protected the young king Henry, and Louis was defeated.

    Before William the Marshal died in 1219 Eleanor was promised to his son, also named William. They were married on 23 April 1224 at New Temple Church in London. The younger William was 34 and Eleanor only nine. He died in London on 6 April 1231, days before their seventh anniversary. There were no children of this marriage.

    Eleanor had brought a dowry of 10 manors and 200 pounds per year to this marriage. According to the law of the time, widows were allowed to retain one third of the estates of the marriage. However, her brother-in-law Richard took all of the estates and sold many, including her dowry, to pay William's debts. Eleanor strove for many years to try and recover her lost property.[2]

    The widowed Eleanor swore a holy oath of chastity in the presence of Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury.[3]

    Simon de Montfort

    Seven years later, she met Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester. According to Matthew Paris, Simon was attracted to Eleanor's beauty and elegance as well as her wealth and high birth. They fell in love and married secretly on 7 January 1238 at the King's chapel in Westminster Palace. Her brother King Henry later alleged that he only allowed the marriage because Simon had seduced Eleanor. The marriage was controversial because of the oath Eleanor had sworn several years before to remain chaste. Because of this, Simon made a pilgrimage to Rome seeking papal approval for their union. Simon and Eleanor had seven children:

    Henry de Montfort (November 1238 – 1265)
    Simon the younger de Montfort (April 1240 – 1271)
    Amaury de Montfort, Canon of York (1242/1243-1300)
    Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola (1244–1288)
    Joanna, born and died in Bordeaux between 1248 and 1251.
    Richard de Montfort (1252–1281)
    Eleanor de Montfort Princess of Wales (1258–1282)
    Simon de Montfort had the real power behind the throne, but when he tried to take the throne, he was defeated with his son at the Battle of Evesham on 4 August 1265. Eleanor fled to exile in France where she became a nun at Montargis Abbey, a nunnery founded by her deceased husband's sister Amicia, who remained there as abbess. There she died on 13 April 1275, and was buried there. She was well treated by Henry, retained her incomes, and her proctors were allowed to pursue her litigation concerning the Leicester inheritance in the English courts; her will and testament were executed without hindrance.[4]

    Through her son Guy, Eleanor was an ancestor of Elizabeth Woodville, queen consort of Edward IV.

    Eleanor's daughter, Eleanor de Montfort, was married, at Worcester in 1278, to Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales. She would die giving birth to their only child, Gwenllian of Wales. After the conquest of Wales, Gwenllian was imprisoned by Edward I of England, her mother's first cousin, at Sempringham priory, where she died 1337.

    Notes:

    Married:
    In January 1238, Montfort married Eleanor of England, daughter of King John and Isabella of Angoulăeme and sister of King Henry III.

    While this marriage took place with the King's approval, the act itself was performed secretly and without consulting the great barons, as a marriage of such importance warranted. Eleanor had previously been married to William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, and she swore a vow of perpetual chastity upon his death, when she was sixteen, which she broke by marrying Montfort.

    The Archbishop of Canterbury, Edmund Rich, condemned the marriage for this reason.

    The English nobles protested the marriage of the King's sister to a foreigner of modest rank. Most notably, the King's and Eleanor's brother Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, rose up in revolt when he learned of the marriage. King Henry eventually bought off Richard with 6,000 marks and peace was restored.

    Children:
    1. Henry de Montfort was born 0Nov 1238; died 0___ 1265.
    2. Simon de Montfort was born 0Apr 1240; died 0___ 1271, Siena, Italy.
    3. Amaury de Montfort was born 1242-1243; died 0___ 1300.
    4. 50. Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola was born 0___ 1244; died 0___ 1288, Sicily.
    5. Eleanor Montfort, Princess of Wales was born 0___ 1258; died 0___ 1282.


Generation: 8

  1. 200.  Simon de Montfort, IV, 5th Earl of Leicester was born 0___ 1175 (son of Simon de Montfort, IV, Lord of Montfort l'Amaury and Amicia de Beaumont, Countess of Leicester); died 25 Jun 1218, Touloise, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Simon de Montfort the elder

    Notes:

    Simon IV[1] of Montfort, lord of Montfort-l'Amaury, 5th earl of Leicester (c.?1175 – 25 June 1218), also known as Simon de Montfort the elder, was a French warlord who took part in the Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) and was a prominent leader of the Albigensian Crusade. He died at the siege of Toulouse in 1218.

    Early life

    He was the son of Simon IV de Montfort (d. 1188), lord of Montfort l'Amaury in France near Paris, and Amicia de Beaumont, daughter of Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester—the Montfort line itself descends from the House of Reginar. He succeeded his father as lord of Montfort in 1181; in 1190 he married Alix de Montmorency, the daughter of Bouchard III de Montmorency. She shared his religious zeal and would accompany him on his campaigns.[2]

    In 1199, while taking part in a tournament at Ecry-sur-Aisne, he took the cross in the company of Count Thibaud de Champagne. The crusade soon fell under Venetian control, and was diverted to Zara on the Adriatic Sea. Pope Innocent III had specifically warned the Crusaders not to attack fellow Christians; Simon opposed the attack and urged a waiting Zara delegation to not surrender, claiming the Frankish troops would not support the Venetians in this. As a result, the delegation returned to Zara and the city resisted.[3] Since most Frankish lords were in debt to the Venetians, they did support the attack and the city was sacked in 1202. Simon did not participate in this action and was one of its most outspoken critics. He and his associates, including Abbot Guy of Vaux-de-Cernay, left the crusade when the decision was taken to divert once more to Constantinople to place Alexius IV Angelus on the throne. Instead, Simon and his followers travelled to the court of King Emeric of Hungary and thence to Acre.[4]

    His mother was the eldest daughter of Robert of Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester. After the death of her brother Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester without children in 1204, she inherited half of his estates, and a claim to the Earldom of Leicester. The division of the estates was effected early in 1207, by which the rights to the earldom were assigned to Amicia and Simon. However, King John of England took possession of the lands himself in February 1207, and confiscated its revenues. Later, in 1215, the lands were passed into the hands of Simon's cousin, Ranulph de Meschines, 4th Earl of Chester.

    Later life

    Simon remained on his estates in France before taking the cross once more, this time against Christian dissidence. He participated in the initial campaign of the Albigensian Crusade in 1209, and after the fall of Carcassonne, was elected leader of the crusade and viscount of the confiscated territories of the Raymond-Roger Trencavel family.

    Simon was rewarded with the territory conquered from Raymond VI of Toulouse, which in theory made him the most important landowner in Occitania. He became feared for his ruthlessness. In 1210 he burned 140 Cathars in the village of Minerve who refused to recant - though he spared those who did. In another widely reported incident, prior to the sack of the village of Lastours, he brought prisoners from the nearby village of Bram and had their eyes gouged out and their ears, noses and lips cut off. One prisoner, left with a single good eye, led them into the village as a warning.

    Simon's part in the crusade had the full backing of his feudal superior, the King of France, Philip Augustus. But historian Alistaire Horne, in his book Seven Ages of Paris, states that Philip "turned a blind eye to Simon de Montfort's crusade...of which he disapproved, but readily accepted the spoils to his exchequer". Following the latter's success in winning Normandy from John Lackland of England, he was approached by Innocent III to lead the crusade but turned this down. He was heavily committed to defend his gains against John and against the emerging alliance among England, the Empire and Flanders.

    But, Philip claimed full rights over the lands of the house of St Gilles; some historians believe his dispatch of de Montfort and other northern barons to be, at the very least, an exploratory campaign to reassert the rights of the French Crown in Le Midi. Philip may well also have wanted to appease the papacy after the long dispute over his marriage, which had led to excommunication. He also sought to counter any adventure by John of England, who had marriage and fealty ties also with the Toulouse comtal house. Meanwhile, others have assessed Philip's motives to include removing over-mighty subjects from the North, and distracting them in adventure elsewhere, so they could not threaten his increasingly successful restoration of the power of the French crown in the north.

    Simon is described as a man of unflinching religious orthodoxy, deeply committed to the Dominican order and the suppression of heresy. Dominic Guzman, later Saint Dominic, spent several years during the war in the Midi at Fanjeau, which was Simon's headquarters, especially in the winter months when the crusading forces were depleted. Simon had other key confederates in this enterprise, which many historians view as a conquest of southern lands by greedy men from the north. Many of them had been involved in the Fourth Crusade. One was Guy Vaux de Cernay, head of a Cistercian abbey not more than twenty miles from Simon's patrimony of Montfort Aumary, who accompanied the crusade in the Languedoc and became bishop of Carcassonne. Meanwhile, Peter de Vaux de Cernay, the nephew of Guy, wrote an account of the crusade. Historians generally consider this to be propaganda to justify the actions of the crusaders; Peter justified their cruelties as doing "the work of God" against morally depraved heretics. He portrayed outrages committed by the lords of the Midi as the opposite.

    Simon was an energetic campaigner, rapidly moving his forces to strike at those who had broken their faith with him - and there were many, as local lords switched sides whenever the moment seemed propitious. The Midi was a warren of small fortified places, as well as home to some highly fortified cities, such as Toulouse, Carcassonne and Narbonne. Simon showed ruthlessness and daring as well as being particularly brutal with those who betrayed their pledges - as for example, Martin Algai, lord of Biron.[5] In 1213 Simon defeated Peter II of Aragon at the Battle of Muret. This completed the defeat of the Albigensians, but Simon carried on the campaign as a war of conquest. He was appointed lord over all the newly acquired territory as Count of Toulouse and Duke of Narbonne (1215). He spent two years in warfare in many parts of Raymond's former territories; he besieged Beaucaire, which had been taken by Raymond VII of Toulouse, from 6 June 1216 to 24 August 1216.


    Plaque commemorating the death of Simon de Montfort
    Raymond spent most of this period in the Crown of Aragon, but corresponded with sympathisers in Toulouse. There were rumours in September 1216 that he was on his way to Toulouse. Abandoning the siege of Beaucaire, Simon partially sacked Toulouse, perhaps intended as punishment of the citizens. Raymond returned in October 1217 to take possession of Toulouse. Simon hastened to besiege the city, meanwhile sending his wife, Alix de Montmorency, with bishop Foulques of Toulouse and others, to the French court to plead for support. After maintaining the siege for nine months, Simon was killed on 25 June 1218 while combating a sally by the besieged. His head was smashed by a stone from a mangonel, operated, according to one source, by the donas e tozas e mulhers ("ladies and girls and women") of Toulouse.[6] He was buried in the Cathedral of Saint-Nazaire at Carcassonne.[7] His body was later moved by one of his sons to be reinterred at Montfort l'Amaury. A tombstone in the South Transept of the Cathedral is inscribed "of Simon de Montfort".

    Legacy

    Simon left three sons: his French estates passed to his eldest son, Amaury VI de Montfort, while his younger son, Simon, eventually gained possession of the earldom of Leicester and played a major role in the reign of Henry III of England. He led the barons' rebellion against Henry during the Second Barons' War, and subsequently became de facto ruler of England. During his rule, de Montfort called the first directly elected parliament in medieval Europe. For this reason, de Montfort is regarded today as one of the progenitors of modern parliamentary democracy. Another son, Guy, was married to Petronille, Countess of Bigorre, on 6 November 1216, but died at the siege of Castelnaudary on 20 July 1220. His daughter, Petronilla, became an abbess at the Cistercian nunnery of St. Antoine's. Another daughter, Amicia, founded the convent at Montargis and died there in 1252.

    Notes

    Jump up ^ Complete Peerage, vii p. 716
    Jump up ^ Maddicott, John Robert (1994). Simon de Montfort. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 5.
    Jump up ^ Crowley, Roger (2011). City of Fortune: How Venice won and lost a Naval Empire. London: Bloomsberry House. p. 54.
    Jump up ^ Phillips, Jonathan. The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople, 2004. page 137.
    Jump up ^ Sumption, Jonathan (1978). The Albigensian Crusade (1999 paperback ed.). Faber. p. 149. ISBN 0-571-20002-8.
    Jump up ^ Chanson de la Croisade Albigeoise laisse 205.
    Jump up ^ Chanson de la Croisade Albigeoise laisse 206; Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay, Historia Albigensis 615.

    References

    Sumption, Jonathan. The Albigensian Crusade, 2000
    Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Simon de Montfort". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

    Simon married Alix de Montmorency 0___ 1190. [Group Sheet]


  2. 201.  Alix de Montmorency
    Children:
    1. 100. Simon de Montfort, V, Knight, 6th Earl of Leicester was born ~ 1208, Montfort-l'Amaury, France; died 4 Aug 1265, Evesham, Worcestershire, England; was buried Evesham Abbey, Evesham, Worcestershire, England.

  3. 202.  John I, King of EnglandJohn I, King of England was born 24 Dec 1166, Beaumont Palace, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England (son of Henry II, King of England and Eleanore de Aquitaine, Queen of England); died 19 Oct 1216, Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 19 Oct 1216, Worcester Cathedral, Worcester, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Johan sanz Terre
    • Also Known As: John de Normandie, King of England
    • Also Known As: John I, King of England
    • Also Known As: John Lackland
    • Also Known As: John Plantagenet, King of England

    Notes:

    John (24 December 1166 - 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre),[1] was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216.

    Following the battle of Bouvines, John lost the duchy of Normandy to King Philip II of France, which resulted in the collapse of most of the Angevin Empire and contributed to the subsequent growth in power of the Capetian dynasty during the 13th century.

    The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered to be an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.

    more on King John ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John,_King_of_England

    More images of King John ...

    https://www.google.com/search?q=john+lackland+coat+of+arms&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=810&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiNnKWp6aPPAhULXB4KHb1qCnQQsAQIKw&dpr=1#imgrc=F8SAOkDV1jsAEM%3A

    *

    Baronial Order of Magna Charta:

    The Baronial Order of Magna Charta ("BOMC") is a scholarly, charitable, and lineage society founded in 1898. The BOMC was originally named the Baronial Order of Runnemede, but the name was subsequently changed to better reflect the organization's purposes relating to the Magna Charta and the promulgation of "freedom of man under the rule of law." view its membership list: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baronial_Order_of_Magna_Charta

    These 25 barons were Sureties for the concessions made by John, King of England, d. 18 Oct 1216.

    1. William d'Albini, Lord of Belvoir Castle, d. 1236.
    ((26th, 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    24th, 25th & 26th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=12&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46884

    2. Roger Bigod, (43132) Earl of Norfolk and Suffolk, d. 1220.
    (26th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I43132

    3. Hugh Bigod, (43271) heir to the earldoms of Norfolk and Suffolk, d. 1225.
    (25th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I43271

    4. Henry de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, (46127) d. 1220.
    (26th, 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    25th & 26th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46127


    5. Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford, (46129) d. 1217.
    (25th, 26th & 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46129

    6. Gilbert de Clare, heir to the earldom of Hertford, (45550) d. 1230.
    (24th, 26th & 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    25th & 27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars;
    24th & 25th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=16&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I45550

    John FitzRobert, Lord of Warkworth Castle, Northumberland, d. 1240.

    7. Robert FitzWalter, Lord of Dunmow Castle, Essex, d. 1234.
    (28th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars)

    William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, d. 1241, no great-grandchildren.
    William Hardell, Mayor of the City of London, d. after 1216, no known issue.
    William de Huntingfield, Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, d. 1220.
    John de Lacie, Lord of Pontefract Castle, d. 1240.
    William de Lanvallei, Lord of Standway Castle, Essex, d. 1217.
    William Malet, Sheriff of Somerset and Dorset, d. about 1217.
    Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex and Gloucester, d. 1216, d.s.p..

    William Marshall jr, heir to the earldom of Pembroke, d. 1231, (43947) d.s.p..
    A cousin to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars & Perry Green "Pop" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I43947

    Roger de Montbegon, Lord of Hornby Castle, Lancashire, d. 1226, d.s.p..
    Richard de Montfichet, Baron, d. after 1258, d.s.p..

    8.. William de Mowbray, Lord of Axholme Castle, Lincolnshire, (46138) d. 1223
    (24th & 26th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46138

    Richard de Percy, Baron, Yorkshire, d. 1244, d.s.p..

    9.Saire de Quincey, Earl of Winchester, (46162) d. 1219.
    (25th & 27th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    25th & 26th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee;
    27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=6&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46162

    10. Robert de Roos, Lord of Hamlake Castle, Yorkshire, (46148)d. 1226.
    (25th, 26th & 27th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars: http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=12&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46148

    Geoffrey de Saye, Baron, d. 1230.

    11. Robert de Vere, heir to the earldom of Oxford, d. 1221.
    (25th, 27th great grandfather to the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell "Ma" Byars;
    25th, 26th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Jesse D Hennessee;
    27th great grandfather of the grandchildren of Perry Green "Pop" Byars; http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=&secondpersonID=I3&maxrels=12&disallowspouses=1&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I46155

    Eustace de Vesci, Lord of Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, d. 1216 d.s.p..

    Birth:
    Beaumont Palace, built outside the north gate of Oxford, was intended by Henry I about 1130 to serve as a royal palace conveniently close to the royal hunting-lodge at Woodstock (now part of the park of Blenheim Palace). Its former presence is recorded in Beaumont Street, Oxford. Set into a pillar on the north side of the street, near Walton Street, is a stone with the inscription: "Near to this site stood the King's Houses later known as Beaumont Palace. King Richard I was born here in 1157 and King John in 1167". The "King's House" was the range of the palace that contained the king's lodgings.

    Henry passed Easter 1133 in the nova aula, his "new hall" at Beaumont in great pomp, celebrating the birth of his grandson, the future Henry II.[1] Edward I was the last king to sojourn in Beaumont officially as a palace, and in 1275 he granted it to an Italian lawyer, Francesco Accorsi, who had undertaken diplomatic missions for him.[2] When Edward II was put to flight at the battle of Bannockburn in 1314, he is said to have invoked the Virgin Mary and vowed to found a monastery for the Carmelites (the White Friars) if he might escape safely. In fulfilment of his vow he remanded Beaumont Palace to the Carmelites in 1318.

    In 1318, the Palace was the scene for the beginnings of the John Deydras affair, in which a royal pretender, arguing that he was the rightful king of England, claimed the Palace for his own. John Deydras was ultimately executed for sedition.[3]


    When the White Friars were disbanded at the Reformation, most of the structure was dismantled and the building stone reused in Christ Church and St John's College.[4] An engraving of 1785[5] shows the remains of Beaumont Palace, the last of which were destroyed in the laying out of Beaumont Street in 1829.[6]

    Drawings, Sketches & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beaumont_Palace

    Buried:
    Worcester Cathedral, before the English Reformation known as Worcester Priory, is an Anglican cathedral in Worcester, England; situated on a bank overlooking the River Severn. It is the seat of the Bishop of Worcester. Its official name is The Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Mary the Virgin of Worcester. Built between 1084 and 1504, Worcester Cathedral represents every style of English architecture from Norman to Perpendicular Gothic.

    It is famous for its Norman crypt and unique chapter house, its unusual Transitional Gothic bays, its fine woodwork and its "exquisite" central tower,[1] which is of particularly fine proportions.

    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Worcester_Cathedral

    Died:
    Newark Castle, in Newark, in the English county of Nottinghamshire was founded in the mid 12th century by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln. Originally a timber castle, it was rebuilt in stone towards the end of the century. Dismantled in the 17th century after the English Civil War, the castle was restored in the 19th century, first by Anthony Salvin in the 1840s and then by the corporation of Newark who bought the site in 1889. The Gilstrap Heritage Centre is a free-admission museum in the castle grounds about the history of the town of Newark.

    Images & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newark_Castle,_Nottinghamshire

    John married Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England 26 Aug 1200, Cathedral of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. Isabelle was born 0___ 1188, Angouleme, France; died 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France; was buried 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France. [Group Sheet]


  4. 203.  Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of EnglandIsabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England was born 0___ 1188, Angouleme, France; died 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France; was buried 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Angouleme
    • Also Known As: Isabella de Taillefer, Queen of England
    • Alt Birth: Abt 1173
    • Alt Death: 14 Oct 1217
    • Alt Death: 4 Jun 1246

    Notes:

    Isabel of Gloucester (c. 1173 - 14 October 1217) was the first wife of John of England . She is known by an exceptionally large number of alternative names: Hadwisa, Hawisia, Hawise, Joan, Eleanor, Avise and Avisa.

    *

    Isabella of Angoulăeme (French: Isabelle d'Angoulăeme, IPA: [izab?l d?~gul?m]; c.1188 – 4 June 1246) was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216. She was also reigning Countess of Angoulăeme from 1202 until 1246.

    She had five children by the king including his heir, later Henry III. In 1220, Isabella married Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche, by whom she had another nine children.

    Some of her contemporaries, as well as later writers, claim that Isabella formed a conspiracy against King Louis IX of France in 1241, after being publicly snubbed by his mother, Blanche of Castile for whom she had a deep-seated hatred.[1] In 1244, after the plot had failed, Isabella was accused of attempting to poison the king. To avoid arrest, she sought refuge in Fontevraud Abbey where she died two years later, but none of this can be confirmed.

    Queen of England

    She was the only daughter and heir of Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angoulăeme, by Alice of Courtenay, who was sister of Peter II of Courtenay, Latin Emperor of Constantinople and granddaughter of King Louis VI of France.

    Isabella became Countess of Angoulăeme in her own right on 16 June 1202, by which time she was already queen of England. Her marriage to King John took place on 24 August 1200, in Angoulăeme,[2] a year after he annulled his first marriage to Isabel of Gloucester. She was crowned queen in an elaborate ceremony on 8 October at Westminster Abbey in London. Isabella was originally betrothed to Hugh IX le Brun, Count of Lusignan,[3] son of the then Count of La Marche. As a result of John's temerity in taking her as his second wife, King Philip II of France confiscated all of their French lands, and armed conflict ensued.

    At the time of her marriage to John, the blonde and blue-eyed 12-year-old Isabella was already renowned by some for her beauty[4] and has sometimes been called the Helen of the Middle Ages by historians.[5] Isabella was much younger than her husband and possessed a volatile temper similar to his own. King John was infatuated with his young, beautiful wife; however, his acquisition of her had as much, if not more to do with spiting his enemies, than romantic love. She was already engaged to Hugh IX le Brun, when she was taken by John. It had been said that he neglected his state affairs to spend time with Isabella, often remaining in bed with her until noon. However, these were rumors, ignited by John's enemies to discredit him as being a weak and grossly irresponsible ruler. Given that at the time they were made John was engaging in a desperate war with King Phillip of France to hold on to the remaining Plantagenet dukedoms. The common people began to term her a "siren" or "Messalina", which spoke volumes as to common opinion .[6] Her mother-in-law, Eleanor of Aquitaine readily accepted her as John's wife.[7]

    On 1 October 1207 at Winchester Castle, Isabella gave birth to a son and heir who was named Henry after the King's father, Henry II. He was quickly followed by another son, Richard, and three daughters, Joan, Isabel, and Eleanor. All five children survived into adulthood, and would make illustrious marriages; all but Joan would produce offspring of their own.

    Second marriage

    When King John died in October 1216, Isabella's first act was to arrange the speedy coronation of her nine-year-old son at the city of Gloucester on 28 October. As the royal crown had recently been lost in The Wash, along with the rest of King John's treasure, she supplied her own golden circlet to be used in lieu of a crown.[8] The following July, less than a year after his crowning as King Henry III of England, she left him in the care of his regent, William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and returned to France to assume control of her inheritance of Angoulăeme.

    In the spring of 1220, she married Hugh X of Lusignan, "le Brun", Seigneur de Luisignan, Count of La Marche, the son of her former fiancâe, Hugh IX, to whom she had been betrothed before her marriage to King John. It had been previously arranged that her eldest daughter Joan should marry Hugh, and the little girl was being brought up at the Lusignan court in preparation for her marriage. Hugh, however, upon seeing Isabella, whose beauty had not diminished,[9] preferred the girl's mother. Princess Joan was provided with another husband, King Alexander II of Scotland, whom she wed in 1221.

    Isabella had married Hugh without waiting to receive the consent of the King's council in England, which was the required procedure for a former Queen of England, as the Council had the power to not only choose the Queen Dowager's second husband, but to decide whether or not she should be allowed to marry at all. Isabella's flouting of this law caused the Council to confiscate her dower lands and stop the payment of her pension.[10] Isabella and her husband retaliated by threatening to keep Princess Joan, who had been promised in marriage to the King of Scotland, in France. The council first responded by sending furious letters, signed in the name of young King Henry, to the Pope, urging him to excommunicate Isabella and her husband, but then decided to come to terms with Isabella, as to avoid conflict with the Scottish king, who was eager to receive his bride. Isabella was granted, in compensation for her dower lands in Normandy, the stannaries in Devon and the revenue of Aylesbury for a period of four years. She also received ą3000 as payment for arrears in her pension.[11]

    By Hugh X, Isabella had nine more children. Their eldest son Hugh XI of Lusignan succeeded his father as Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulăeme in 1249.

    Isabella's children from her past marriage continued their lives in England.

    Rebellion and death[edit]
    Described by some contemporaries as "vain, capricious, and troublesome,"[12] Isabella could not reconcile herself with her less prominent position in France. Though Queen dowager of England, Isabella was now mostly regarded as a mere Countess of La Marche and had to give precedence to other women.[13] In 1241, when Isabella and Hugh were summoned to the French court to swear fealty to King Louis IX of France's brother, Alphonse, who had been invested as Count of Poitou, their mother, the Queen Dowager Blanche openly snubbed her. This so infuriated Isabella, who had a deep-seated hatred of Blanche due to the latter having fervently supported the French invasion of England during the First Barons' War in May 1216, that she began to actively conspire against King Louis. Isabella and her husband, along with other disgruntled nobles, including her son-in-law Raymond VII of Toulouse, sought to create an English-backed confederacy which united the provinces of the south and west against the French king.[14] She encouraged her son Henry in his invasion of Normandy in 1230, but then did not provide him the support she had promised.[15]

    In 1244, after the confederacy had failed and Hugh had made peace with King Louis, two royal cooks were arrested for attempting to poison the King; upon questioning they confessed to having been in Isabella's pay.[16] Before Isabella could be taken into custody, she fled to Fontevraud Abbey, where she died on 4 June 1246.[17]

    By her own prior arrangement, she was first buried in the Abbey's churchyard, as an act of repentance for her many misdeeds. On a visit to Fontevraud, her son King Henry III of England was shocked to find her buried outside the Abbey and ordered her immediately moved inside. She was finally placed beside Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Afterwards, most of her many Lusignan children, having few prospects in France, set sail for England and the court of Henry, their half-brother.

    Issue

    With King John of England: 5 children, all of whom survived into adulthood, including:
    King Henry III of England (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272). Married Eleanor of Provence, by whom he had issue, including his heir, King Edward I of England.
    Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272). Married firstly Isabel Marshal, secondly Sanchia of Provence, and thirdly Beatrice of Falkenburg. Had issue.
    Joan (22 July 1210 – 1238), the wife of King Alexander II of Scotland. Her marriage was childless.
    Isabella (1214–1241), the wife of Emperor Frederick II, by whom she had issue.
    Eleanor (1215–1275), who would marry firstly William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke; and secondly Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, by whom she had issue.

    With Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche: nine children, all of whom survived into adulthood, including:

    Hugh XI of Lusignan (1221–1250), Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulăeme. Married Yolande de Dreux, Countess of Penthiáevre and of Porhoet, by whom he had issue.
    Aymer of Lusignan (1222–1260), Bishop of Winchester
    Agnáes de Lusignan (1223–1269). Married William II de Chauvigny (d. 1270), and had issue.
    Alice of Lusignan (1224 – 9 February 1256). Married John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, by whom she had issue.
    Guy of Lusignan (c. 1225 – 1264), killed at the Battle of Lewes. (Tufton Beamish maintains that he escaped to France after the Battle of Lewes and died there in 1269).
    Geoffrey of Lusignan (c. 1226 – 1274). Married in 1259 Jeanne, Viscountess of Chăatellerault, by whom he had issue.
    Isabella of Lusignan (c.1226/1227 14 January 1299). Married firstly before 1244 Maurice IV, seigneur de Craon (1224–1250),[18] by whom she had issue; she married secondly, Geoffrey de Rancon.[19]
    William of Lusignan (c. 1228 – 1296). 1st Earl of Pembroke. Married Joan de Munchensi, by whom he had issue.
    Marguerite de Lusignan (c. 1229 – 1288). Married firstly in 1243 Raymond VII of Toulouse; secondly c. 1246 Aimery IX de Thouars, Viscount of Thouars and had issue

    Birth:
    Aquitaine, Charente department...

    Notes:

    Married:
    Bordeaux Cathedral (Cathâedrale Saint-Andrâe de Bordeaux) is a Roman Catholic cathedral, seat of the Archbishop of Bordeaux-Bazas, located in Bordeaux.

    The cathedral was consecrated by Pope Urban II in 1096. Of the original Romanesque edifice, only a wall in the nave remains. The Royal Gate is from the early 13th century, while the rest of the construction is mostly from the 14th-15th centuries. The building is a national monument of France.

    In this church in 1137 the 13-year-old Eleanor of Aquitaine married the future Louis VII, a few months before she became Queen.


    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bordeaux_Cathedral

    Children:
    1. Henry III, King of England was born 1 Oct 1207, Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom; was christened 0___ 1207, Bermondsey, London, Middlesex, England; died 16 Nov 1272, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was buried 20 Nov 1272, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. Richard Plantagenet, Knight, 1st Earl of Cornwall was born 5 Jan 1209, Winchester Castle, Castle Ave, Winchester, Hampshire SO23 8PJ, United Kingdom; was christened 0___ 1214, Winchester Castle, Castle Ave, Winchester, Hampshire SO23 8PJ, United Kingdom; died 2 Apr 1272, Berkhamsted Castle, Hertfordshire, England; was buried 13 Apr 1272, Hailes Abbey, Winchcombe, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire - GL54 5PB, England.
    3. Isabella Plantagenet was born 0___ 1214; died 0___ 1241.
    4. 101. Eleanor of Leicester was born 0___ 1215, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England; died 13 Apr 1275, Montargis Abbey, France; was buried Montargis Abbey, France.