Elizabeth Brooke

Female 1503 - 1560  (~ 57 years)


Generations:      Standard    |    Vertical    |    Compact    |    Box    |    Text    |    Ahnentafel    |    Media    |   Map

Generation: 1

  1. 1.  Elizabeth Brooke was born 0___ 1503 (daughter of Thomas Brooke, 8th Baron Cobham and Dorothy Heydon); died 0Aug 1560, Cobham, Kent, England.

    Notes:

    Elizabeth Brooke (1503–1560) was the wife of Thomas Wyatt, the poet, and the mother of Thomas Wyatt the younger who led Wyatt's Rebellion against Mary I. Her parents were Thomas Brooke, 8th Baron Cobham and Dorothy Heydon, the daughter of Sir Henry Heydon.[1] She was the sister of George Brooke, 9th Baron Cobham and was considered a possible candidate for the sixth wife of Henry VIII of England.

    Marriage and issue
    Elizabeth married twice.

    First Marriage

    Sir Thomas Wyatt, (1503–1542) Hans Holbein the Younger
    In 1520, Elizabeth married Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503-6 Oct 1542) and a year later, bore him a son:[1][3]

    Sir Thomas (1521–1554), who led an unsuccessful rebellion against Mary I in 1554. The aim of the rebellion was to replace the Catholic Queen Mary with her Protestant half-sister, Elizabeth.[4]

    Sir Thomas Wyatt (1521–1554)
    Early in the marriage, marital difficulties arose, with Wyatt claiming they were 'chiefly' her fault. He repudiated her as an adulteress, although there is no record linking her with any specific man. Elizabeth separated from Thomas Wyatt in 1526 and he supported her until around 1537, when he refused to do so any longer and sent her to live with her brother, Lord Cobham. In that same year, Lord Cobham attempted to force Wyatt to continue his financial support. He refused.[5] It wasn't until 1541, when Wyatt, accused of treason, was arrested and his properties confiscated, that the Brooke family was able to force a reconciliation as a condition for Wyatt’s pardon.[6]

    In a letter to Charles V, the imperial ambassador, Eustace Chapuys wrote that Wyatt had been released from the Tower at the request of Catherine Howard. Chapuys noted that the king had imposed two conditions; that Wyatt 'confess his guilt' and that 'he should take back his wife from whom he had been separated upwards of 15 years, on pain of death if he be untrue to her henceforth.' [7][8] It is unclear, however, whether this provision was ever enforced. After pursuing Anne Boleyn, before her relationship with the King, Wyatt had begun a long-term affair with Elizabeth Darrell and he continued his association with his mistress.[6]

    On February 14, 1542 the night after Catherine Howard had been condemned to death for adultery, Henry VIII held a dinner for many men and women. The king was said to pay great attention to Elizabeth and to Anne Bassett and both were thought to be possible choices for his sixth wife.[2] In early 1542, more than a year before Wyatt’s death, Elizabeth Brooke's name appeared in Spanish dispatches as one of three ladies in whom Henry VIII was said to be interested as a possible sixth wife.[2]

    The imperial ambassador, Chapuys, wrote that the lady for whom the king 'showed the greatest regard was a sister of Lord Cobham, whom Wyatt, some time ago, divorced for adultery. She is a pretty young creature, with wit enough to do as badly as the others if she were to try.' It would appear that the ambassador was mistaken, as at the time, Elizabeth Brooke was nearly forty years old. It is probable that Elizabeth Brooke had been confused with her beautiful young niece, Elisabeth Brooke, the eldest daughter of George Brooke, 9th Baron Cobham, who married William Parr, 1st Marquess of Northampton. Elisabeth Brooke, Lord Cobham’s daughter, may have been at court on this occasion, since she was definitely there the following year. She would have been nearly sixteen in January 1542 and in later years was accounted one of the most beautiful women of her time. More important to a king who had just rid himself of a wife (Catherine Howard) who had committed adultery, this second Elisabeth had a spotless reputation.[6]

    Second marriage

    Following Wyatt’s death, Elizabeth Brooke married Sir Edward Warner (1511–1565), of Polstead Hall and Plumstead, Norfolk, Lord Lieutenant of the Tower. The couple had three sons:[9]

    Edward, who died in infancy
    Thomas
    Henry
    Warner was removed from his position on July 28, 1553, at the start of the reign of Mary I, and was arrested on suspicion of treason the following January at his house in Carter Lane when Thomas Wyatt the younger rebelled against the Crown. Warner was held for nearly a year. Elizabeth’s son was executed. Edward, the son she had with Warner, died young. Two other sons died in infancy. The family fortunes were restored under Elizabeth I and Warner reclaimed his post at the Tower of London. His wife died there in August 1560 and was buried within its precincts.[6]

    Ancestry[edit]
    [hide]Ancestors of Elizabeth Brooke (1503–1560)


    end of biography

    Elizabeth married Thomas Wyatt, Knight 0___ 1520. Thomas (son of Henry Wyatt and Anne Skinner) was born 0___ 1503, Allington Castle, Maidstone, Kent, England; died 6 Oct 1542, Sherborne, Dorset, England; was buried Sherborne, Dorset, England. [Group Sheet]

    Children:
    1. Thomas Wyatt was born ~ 1522, Allington Castle, Maidstone, Kent, England; died 11 Apr 1554, Tower Hill, London, England.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  Thomas Brooke, 8th Baron Cobham was born 0___ 1465, (Cowling, Kent, England) (son of John Brooke, 7th Baron Cobham and Margaret Neville); died 19 Jul 1529, Cowling, Kent, England; was buried Cobham, Kent, England.

    Notes:

    Thomas Brooke, 8th Baron Cobham (died 19 July 1529) was a Tudor baron in England.

    Thomas Brooke was the son and heir of Sir John Brooke, 7th Baron Cobham (-1512) and Margaret Neville (-1506).,[1] daughter of Edward Neville, 3rd Baron Bergavenny, and his second wife, Catherine Howard.

    Career[edit]
    Thomas took part in the wars with France and was at the Siege of Tournay in 1513, and fought at the Battle of the Spurs on 16 August 1513.

    He was made Knight Banneret by King Henry VIII in 1514, and attended the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.

    He was summoned to Parliament from 1514 to 1523.

    In 1521 he was one of the twelve Barons for the trial of the Duke of Buckingham.[2]

    Family[edit]
    Thomas Brooke married Dorothy Heydon, daughter of Sir Henry Heydon of Baconsthorpe and Anne, daughter of Sir Geoffrey Boleyn and Anne Hoo.[3] They had seven sons and six daughters. His daughter, Elizabeth Brooke, married Sir Thomas Wyatt.

    He was twice widowed. He married secondly Elizabeth Fowthewel[4] widow of Robert Southwell[5] and thirdly Elizabeth Hart, and had no issue from them.[6]

    Thomas Brooke died on 19 July 1529 and was buried at St Mary Magdalene New Churchyard, Cobham, Kent.

    end of biography

    Buried:
    was buried at St Mary Magdalene New Churchyard...

    Thomas — Dorothy Heydon. Dorothy (daughter of Henry Heydon and Anne Boleyn) was born 0___ 1470; died 29 Mar 1566, Norfolk, Norfolkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Dorothy Heydon was born 0___ 1470 (daughter of Henry Heydon and Anne Boleyn); died 29 Mar 1566, Norfolk, Norfolkshire, England.
    Children:
    1. 1. Elizabeth Brooke was born 0___ 1503; died 0Aug 1560, Cobham, Kent, England.


Generation: 3

  1. 4.  John Brooke, 7th Baron Cobham was born 10 Dec 1447, Cowling, Kent, England (son of Edward Brooke, 6th Baron Cobham and Elizabeth Touchet); died 9 Mar 1512, Cowling, Kent, England; was buried Colegiate Church, Cobham, Kent, England.

    Notes:

    About John Brooke 7th Lord Cobham of Kent
    8th Lord of Cobham -------------------- 7th Ld Cobham. Of Weycroft, Devon and Cooling, Kent. Succeeded to the title on 19 Aug 1472. From 1491 to 1492 he was in an expedition to Flanders with King Henry VII. He fought in the Cornish insurrection at Blackheath on 24 Jun 1497, with Lord Abergavenny. There exists reasonably strong evidence of a special relationship between Thomas Phelips and the Brooke-Cobham family, seated at Cooling, Kent. The Brooke family has West Country origins and, if Thomas Phelips had been the administator or surveyor of at least some of the Booke-Cobham estates, his migration from Kent to Somerset is easily explained. Such a relationship would also explain the presence of Brooke estate documents among the Phelips family papers in the Somerset County Record Office. Further, such an influencial connection, could explain his rise in rank form yeoman in 1460 to gentleman by 1466 and his appointment to the office of Escheator fro Somerset & Dorset in 1471 and 1478. [Ref.: Ibid, p. 3-4}. Further evidence of a relationship derives from a lease extant in the Kent County Record Office in which John, Lord Cobham leased his manor of Brooke Montacute to "Jane Phillip , widow." [ Ref.: Ibid p. 3, citing Kent County Record Office ref. U601 T202].

    ______________________
    http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p2148.htm#i64565
    'Sir John Brooke, 7th Lord Cobham1,2,3
    'M, b. circa 1450, d. 9 March 1512
    Father Sir Edward Brooke, 6th Lord Cobham4,2,3 b. c 1415, d. c 7 Jul 1464
    Mother Elizabeth Touchet4,2,3 b. c 1420, d. a 8 Nov 1464
    ' Sir John Brooke, 7th Lord Cobham was born circa 1450 at of Cooling & Cobham, Kent, England; Still a minor in 1467.2,3 He married Margaret Neville, daughter of Sir Edward Neville, 1st Baron Abergavenny and Katherine Howard, circa 1475; They had 8 sons (including Thomas, Edward, George, & Leonard) and 10 daughters (including Mary & Faith).1,5,6,2,3 Sir John Brooke, 7th Lord Cobham died on 9 March 1512; Buried at Cobham, Kent.1,2,3
    'Family Margaret Neville b. c 1450, d. 30 Sep 1506
    Child
    ?Sir Thomas Brooke, 8th Lord Cobham+7,8,2 d. 19 Jul 1529
    Citations
    1.[S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. III, p. 346-347.
    2.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 777.
    3.[S15] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, p. 904.
    4.[S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. III, p. 346.
    5.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 93.
    6.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 235.
    7.[S15] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, p. 904-905.
    8.[S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. III, p. 347.
    ____________________
    http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/BROOKE1.htm#John BROOKE (2° B. Cobham)
    'John BROOKE (2° B. Cobham)
    'Born: 10 Dec 1447, Cowling, Kent, England
    'Died: 9 Mar 1511/12
    'Buried: 9 Mar 1511, Colegiate Church, Cobham, Kent, England
    'Notes: 7th Ld Cobham. Of Weycroft, Devon and Cooling, Kent. Succeeded to the title on 19 Aug 1472. From 1491 to 1492 he was in an expedition to Flanders with King Henry VII. He fought in the Cornish insurrection at Blackheath on 24 Jun 1497, with Lord Abergavenny. There exists reasonably strong evidence of a special relationship between Thomas Phelips and the Brooke-Cobham family, seated at Cooling, Kent. The Brooke family has West Country origins and, if Thomas Phelips had been the administator or surveyor of at least some of the Booke-Cobham estates, his migration from Kent to Somerset is easily explained. Such a relationship would also explain the presence of Brooke estate documents among the Phelips family papers in the Somerset County Record Office. Further, such an influencial connection, could explain his rise in rank form yeoman in 1460 to gentleman by 1466 and his appointment to the office of Escheator fro Somerset & Dorset in 1471 and 1478. [Ref.: Ibid, p. 3-4}. Further evidence of a relationship derives from a lease extant in the Kent County Record Office in which John, Lord Cobham leased his manor of Brooke Montacute to "Jane Phillip , widow." [ Ref.: Ibid p. 3, citing Kent County Record Office ref. U601 T202].
    Father: Edward BROOKE (1° B. Cobham)
    Mother: Elizabeth TOUCHET (B. Cobham)
    'Married 1: Margaret NEVILLE (B. Cobham)
    Children:
    1. Thomas BROOKE (3° B. Cobham)
    2. Mary BROOKE
    3. Edward BROOKE (Sir)
    4. Richard BROOKE
    5. Alelye BROOKE
    6. Edward BROOKE
    7. Peter BROOKE
    8. Faith BROOKE
    9. George BROOKE
    10. Dorothy BROOKE
    'Married 2: Eleanor AUSTELL (B. Cobham) AFT Sep 1506
    ________________________
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p1181.htm#i11808
    'John Brooke, 7th Lord Cobham (of Kent)1
    'M, #11808, b. after 1446, d. 9 March 1511/12
    Last Edited=9 Sep 2007
    Consanguinity Index=0.02%
    ' John Brooke, 7th Lord Cobham (of Kent) was born after 1446.2 He was the son of Edward Brooke, 6th Lord Cobham (of Kent) and Elizabeth Tuchet.1 He married, firstly, Eleanor Austell.2 He married, secondly, Margaret Neville, daughter of Sir Edward Neville, 1st Lord Abergavenny and Katherine Howard, before 1481.3 He died on 9 March 1511/12.
    ' John Brooke, 7th Lord Cobham (of Kent) succeeded to the title of 7th Lord Cobham [E., 1313] on 19 August 1472.1 From 1491 to 1492 he was in an expedition to Flanders with King Henry VII.2 He fought in the Cornish insurrection at Blackheath on 24 June 1497, with Lord Abergavenny.2
    'Child of John Brooke, 7th Lord Cobham (of Kent) and Margaret Neville
    1.Thomas Brooke, 8th Lord Cobham (of Kent)+1 d. 19 Jul 1529
    Citations
    1.[S21] L. G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms (London, U.K.: Heraldry Today, 1972), page 78. Hereinafter cited as The New Extinct Peerage.
    2.[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume III, page 346. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
    3.[S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 17. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    _____________________
    JOHN BROOKE 7th Baron of Cobham 10 Dec 1447 - 9 Mar 1511 ID Number: I74199 RESIDENCE: ENG BIRTH: 10 Dec 1447 DEATH: 9 Mar 1511 BURIAL: Colegiate Church, Cobham, Kent, England RESOURCES: See: [S1877] Family 1 : MARGARET NEVILLE +THOMAS BROOKE Baron of Cobham

    http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mysouthernfamily/myff/d0067/g0000049.html -------------------- John Brooke, 7th Baron Cobham (of Kent) (after 1446 - 9 March 1511/1512) was an English aristocrat. His parents were Edward Brooke, 6th Baron Cobham, who he succeeded on 19 August 1472, and Elizabeth Tuchet. From 1491 to 1492 he was in an expedition to Flanders with King Henry VII and fought in the Cornish insurrection at Blackheath on 24 June 1497, with his half-brother-in-law's son and son-in-law Lord Bergavenny, who was married firstly to his daughter Mary Brooke. He married firstly Eleanor Austell, from Suffolk, who died without issue. He married secondly before 1481 Margaret Nevill, who died on 30 September 1506 and was buried at Cobham, Kent, daughter of Sir Edward Nevill, 3rd Baron Bergavenny and second wife Katherine Howard. He was succeeded by their son Thomas Brooke, 8th Baron Cobham.

    John married Margaret Neville ~ 1475. Margaret (daughter of Edward Neville, 3rd Baron of Abergavenny and Catherine Howard, Baroness of Abergavenny) was born ~ 1450, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 30 Sep 1506. [Group Sheet]


  2. 5.  Margaret Neville was born ~ 1450, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England (daughter of Edward Neville, 3rd Baron of Abergavenny and Catherine Howard, Baroness of Abergavenny); died 30 Sep 1506.
    Children:
    1. 2. Thomas Brooke, 8th Baron Cobham was born 0___ 1465, (Cowling, Kent, England); died 19 Jul 1529, Cowling, Kent, England; was buried Cobham, Kent, England.

  3. 6.  Henry Heydon was born Baconsthorpe, England (son of John Heydon and Eleanor Winter); died 0___ 1504, Baconsthorpe, England; was buried Norwich Cathedral, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Lawyer

    Notes:

    Thomas Brooke married Dorothy Heydon, daughter of Sir Henry Heydon of Baconsthorpe and Anne, daughter of Sir Geoffrey Boleyn and Anne Hoo.[3] They had seven sons and six daughters. His daughter, Elizabeth Brooke, married Sir Thomas Wyatt.

    end of note

    Sir Henry Heydon
    Died 1504
    Baconsthorpe, Norfolk
    Buried Norwich Cathedral
    Spouse(s) Anne Boleyn

    Issue

    John Heydon
    Henry Heydon
    William Heydon
    Dorothy Heydon
    Bridget Heydon
    Anne Heydon
    Elizabeth Heydon
    Amy Heydon

    Father John Heydon
    Mother Eleanor Winter

    Sir Henry Heydon (died 1504) was the son of John Heydon of Baconsthorpe, Norfolk, 'the well-known opponent of the Paston family'.[1][2] He married Anne Boleyn, the daughter of Sir Geoffrey Boleyn, great-grandfather of Henry VIII's queen Anne Boleyn.

    Career

    Henry Heydon was the son of John Heydon (d.1479) of Baconsthorpe, Norfolk, and Eleanor Winter, the daughter of Edmund Winter (d.1448) of Barningham, Norfolk. Trained as a lawyer, he frequently advised other Norfolk landowners and acted for them as a feoffee and arbitrator. He served as a Justice of the Peace in Norfolk from 1473, and on various commissions in that county and elsewhere.[1]

    His inheritance from his father included at least sixteen manors, and he added to his holdings through the purchase of lands in both Norfolk and Kent. One of his purchases in Kent was West Wickham, and after establishing himself as a Kent landowner he served as Justice of the Peace there in the late 1480s and in the 1490s. Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, was a trustee for his land purchases in Kent, and Heydon subsequently acted as steward in Norfolk to Buckingham's widow, Catherine Woodville, Duchess of Buckingham, in the 1490s. He was a supervisor of the will of Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, and served as her steward of household and chief bailiff of the Honour of Eye.[1]

    Although he was knighted at the coronation of Henry VII, and was among those present at the reception of Catherine of Aragon when she arrived in England in 1501, he was 'primarily a local servant of the crown rather than a courtier'.[1]

    Some of the wealth he accumulated as a sheep farmer was expended in building projects. In Norfolk he completed the castle begun by his father at Baconsthorpe, restored the parish church at Kelling and built a new church at Salthouse, and constructed a causeway between Thursford and Walsingham. In Kent he rebuilt the church at West Wickham, and built a fortified manor house there.[1][3]

    He died at Baconsthorpe between 20 February and 22 May 1504, and was buried beside his father in the Heydon family chapel which then existed at Norwich Cathedral. A memorial window, said to be his, in the church at West Wickham depicts a kneeling human skeleton, with the Heydon arms.[1][3]

    Marriage and issue

    He married, likely after 1463, Anne Boleyn,[4] second daughter of Sir Geoffrey Boleyn, Lord Mayor of London, by whom he had three sons and five daughters:[1][5]

    John Heydon, eldest son and heir, a leading member of the Norfolk gentry during the reign of Henry VIII, who married Katherine Willoughby, the daughter of Sir Christopher Willoughby of Parham, Suffolk, and Margaret Jenny.[6][7][5]
    Henry Heydon, esquire, who married Anne, the daughter of John Armstrong.[5]
    William Heydon, slain during Kett's Rebellion, and buried in the church of St Peter Mancroft, Norwich.[5][8]
    Dorothy Heydon, who married, as his first wife, Thomas Brooke, 8th Baron Cobham (d.1529), by whom she had seven sons, including John, George Brooke, 9th Baron Cobham, Thomas, William and Edward, and six daughters, including Margaret, who married Sir John Fogge (d.1564); Faith, who married William Ockenden; and Elizabeth (d.1560), who married firstly the poet Sir Thomas Wyatt (d. 10 October 1542), and secondly Sir Edward Warner.[9][10][11][12][5]
    Bridget Heydon, who married Sir William Paston (c.1479 – 1554), son of Sir John Paston and his first wife, Margery Brewes.[1][13][12][5] Bridget was the mother of Eleanor Paston, Countess of Rutland and grandmother of Bridget Chaworth.
    Anne Heydon (died c.1521), who married firstly William Gurney of Instead, Norfolk, and secondly Sir Lionel Dymoke (d. 17 August 1519) of Ashby, Lincolnshire.[14][12][5]
    Elizabeth Heydon, who married Sir Walter Hobart, esquire, of Hales Hall.[12][5]
    Amy Heydon, who married Sir Roger L'Estrange of Hunstanton, Norfolk.[12][5]

    end of biography

    Henry married Anne Boleyn > 1463. Anne (daughter of Geoffrey Boleyn and Anne Hoo) was born 1438-1440, (Norfolkshire) England; died ~ 1509. [Group Sheet]


  4. 7.  Anne Boleyn was born 1438-1440, (Norfolkshire) England (daughter of Geoffrey Boleyn and Anne Hoo); died ~ 1509.
    Children:
    1. 3. Dorothy Heydon was born 0___ 1470; died 29 Mar 1566, Norfolk, Norfolkshire, England.


Generation: 4

  1. 8.  Edward Brooke, 6th Baron Cobham was born ~ 1411-1415, Brooke, Somerset, England; died 6 Jun 1464, Cobham, Kent, England; was buried Cobham, Kent, England.

    Other Events:

    • Military:
    • Occupation: 0___ 1442; Member of Parliament

    Notes:

    About Edward Brooke, 6th Baron Cobham
    6º B. Cobham of Olditch. Succeeded to the title in 1442. Staunch Yorkist. He fought in the Battle of St. Albans on 23 May 1455. He fought in the Battle of Northampton on 10 Jul 1460.

    _____________________
    'Sir Edward Brooke, 6th Lord Cobham1,2,3
    'M, b. circa 1415, d. circa 7 July 1464
    Father Sir Thomas Brooke, Sheriff of Devonshire1,4,3 b. c 1392, d. 12 Aug 1439
    Mother Joan Braybrooke1,4,3 b. c 1396, d. 25 Nov 1442
    ' Sir Edward Brooke, 6th Lord Cobham was born circa 1415 at of Cobham, Kent, England; Age 24 in 1439.2,3 He married Elizabeth Touchet, daughter of Sir James Touchet, 5th Lord Audley and Margaret Roos, before 2 February 1437.1,5,2 Sir Edward Brooke, 6th Lord Cobham died circa 7 July 1464.1,2,3
    'Family Elizabeth Touchet b. c 1420, d. a 8 Nov 1464
    Children

    Elizabeth Brooke+2,3 b. c 1439, d. 26 Aug 1503
    Sir John Brooke, 7th Lord Cobham+1,2,3 b. c 1450, d. 9 Mar 1512

    Citations

    1.[S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. III, p. 346.
    2.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 777.
    3.[S15] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, p. 904.
    4.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 776-777.
    5.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 722-723.
    http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p2696.htm#i81018
    ______
    'Edward Brooke, 6th Lord Cobham (of Kent)1
    'M, #11771, d. 6 June 1464
    Last Edited=20 Feb 2011
    ' Edward Brooke, 6th Lord Cobham (of Kent) was the son of Sir Thomas Brooke and Joan Braybroke, Baroness Cobham (of Kent).1 He married Elizabeth Tuchet, daughter of James Tuchet, 5th Lord Audley (of Heleigh) and Eleanor de Holland.1 He died on 6 June 1464.
    ' He held the office of Member of Parliament (M.P.) for Somerset in 1442.2 He succeeded to the title of 6th Lord Cobham [E., 1313] in 1442.1 He fought in the Battle of St. Albans on 23 May 1455, for the Yorkists.1,2 He fought in the Battle of Northampton on 10 July 1460.2
    'Child of Edward Brooke, 6th Lord Cobham (of Kent) and Elizabeth Tuchet
    1.John Brooke, 7th Lord Cobham (of Kent)+1 b. a 1446, d. 9 Mar 1511/12
    Citations
    1.[S21] L. G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms (London, U.K.: Heraldry Today, 1972), page 78. Hereinafter cited as The New Extinct Peerage.
    2.[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume III, page 346. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p1178.htm#i11771
    ______
    'Edward Brooke, 6th Baron Cobham (of Kent)[1] (died 6 June 1464) was a late medieval aristocrat.
    'His parents were Sir Thomas Brooke and Joan Braybroke, 5th Baroness Cobham[2].
    'He was a Member of Parliament for Somerset in 1442[3], the same year he succeeded to his mother's title[4]. An ardent supporter of Richard Duke of York, he fought on the Yorkist side at the First Battle of St Albans on 23 May 1455[5][6] and at the Battle of Northampton on 10 July 1460[7].
    'He married Elizabeth Touchet, born c. 1433, daughter of James Touchet, 5th Baron Audley and second wife Eleanor de Holland, and had at least two children, John Brooke, 7th Baron Cobham and Elizabeth Brooke, married to Robert Tanfield; their son, also named Robert Tanfield, born in 1461, married Catherine Nevill, born before 1473, daughter of Edward Nevill, 1st Baron Bergavenny and second wife Katherine Howard, and had issue. His widow remarried Christopher Worsley, before 8 November 1464.[8]
    References
    1.^ L. G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms (London, U.K.: Heraldry Today, 1972), page 78.
    2.^ L. G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms (London, U.K.: Heraldry Today, 1972), page 78.
    3.^ G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume III, page 346.
    4.^ L. G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms (London, U.K.: Heraldry Today, 1972), page 78.
    5.^ L. G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms (London, U.K.: Heraldry Today, 1972), page 78.
    6.^ G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume III, page 346.
    7.^ G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume III, page 346.
    8.^ L. G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms (London, U.K.: Heraldry Today, 1972), page 78.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Brooke,_6th_Baron_Cobham
    ___________________
    QUANTOCK, later QUANTOCK DURBOROUGH, was held in 1066 by Alwig Banneson and in 1086 by Robert of Alfred d'Epaignes. (fn. 90) John Durburgh held it of Spaxton manor in 1328, probably in succession to his father Walter (d. by 1313), (fn. 91) and the land descended in the Durburgh family with Stogursey Hadley manor (fn. 92) until 1384 or later. (fn. 93) By 1412 and probably by 1399 it was held by Sir Thomas Brooke. (fn. 94) Sir Thomas died in 1418 and his widow Joan in 1437. Their son Sir Thomas (d. 1439) (fn. 95) was succeeded by his son 'Edward, Lord Cobham (d. 1464). Edward probably settled the manor on his daughter' Elizabeth for her marriage to Robert Tanfield. Elizabeth (d. 1502) (fn. 96) was followed in turn by her grandson William Tanfield (d. 1529) (fn. 97) and by her great-grandson Francis Tanfield (d. 1558). Francis left two young sons, John and Clement, both of whom probably died childless. Clement's widow Anne was in possession in 1588, (fn. 98) and there is no further reference to lordship. The land had become part of the Enmore estate by 1720 (fn. 99) and some was absorbed into Enmore park.
    In 1384 Sir Hugh Durburgh gave rents and reversions to William Taillour of Dunster. (fn. 1) The estate came to be called Little Quantock, and by 1476 it had been acquired by William Dodesham. (fn. 2) In 1560 it was held by one of his heirs, Joan Coombe, and from her passed to the Halswell family. They held it until 1754 (fn. 3) when it was sold to John Perceval, earl of Egmont, and was absorbed into the Enmore estate. (fn. 4) A small holding at Quantock Durborough formed part of Williton Hadley manor by 1542 (fn. 5) and descended like that manor in the Wyndham family. Before 1763 Charles Wyndham, earl of Egremont (d. 1763), sold it to the earl of Egmont. (fn. 6) There is no record of a manor house at Quantock Durborough.
    From: 'Spaxton: Manors and other estates', A History of the County of Somerset: Volume 6: Andersfield, Cannington, and North Petherton Hundreds (Bridgwater and neighbouring parishes) (1992), pp. 113-118. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=18589 Date accessed: 27 March 2011.
    ______________________
    'Proceedings ([n.d.])
    http://www.archive.org/details/proceedings43socigoog
    http://www.archive.org/stream/proceedings43socigoog#page/n128/mode/1up/search/Brook
    VI.— Thomas de Brook. He is included by Pole among "the men of best worth in Devon," during the reigns of Rich. II, Henry IV, and Henry V (1377-1413), and styles him Sir Thomas Brooke, de Holditch, Knt. In him we reach the most important member of the family while resident in the west, owing in large measure to his marriage with the wealthy widow of Robert Chedder, which gave him considerable influence in the counties of Somerset and Devon.
    Sir Thomas Brook married Johanna, second daughter and coheiress of Simon Hanap, or Hanham, of Gloucestershire (according to Hutchins so denominated from a place of that name, situate a short distance east of Bristol) and widow of Robert Chedder, Mayor of that city in 1360-1, who died 1382-4 ; and by whom she had four sons. She held in dower extensive landed possessions, and several advowsons, in Somerset, Gloucester, and Dorset, which passed at her death to Thomas Chedder, her only surviving son by this marriage. This family of Chedder will be further referred to.*
    http://www.archive.org/stream/proceedings43socigoog#page/n134/mode/1up/search/Brook
    VII.— Sir Thomas Brook, the son of Sir Thomas Brook and the Lady Johanna, was born about 1391, he being twenty- six years of age at the death of his father, 23rd January, 1417-8. He was Knight of the Shire for Dorset, 1 Henry V (1413-4) : for the county of Somerset, 8 Henry V (1420-1),
    http://www.archive.org/stream/proceedings43socigoog#page/n135/mode/1up/search/Brook
    His marriage with Joan, only surviving child and sole heiress of Joan de la Pole, Lady of Cobham, by her second husband Sir Reginald Braybroke, took place in 1409-10, and she proved a prolific mother, bringing him ten sons and four daughters. Of the sons '(1) Edward, eldest son and heir was summoned to Parliament as a Baron by writs from 13th January, 1444-5 (23 Henry VI), to 28th February, 1462-3 (2 Edw. IV), as Edward Broke de Cobham, Chivalier.' He was a strong adherent of the House of York, and as previously related, had his mansion at Olditch sacked by the Lancastrian Earl of Ormond ; was present at the first battle of St. Alban's, 23rd May, 1455 ; took part in the solemn procession to St. Paul's, London ; and commanded the left wing of the Yorkshire men at the battle of Northampton, 10th July, 1460, He married Elizabeth, daughter of James Touchet, Lord Audley, and died in 1464.' (2) Reginald, was of Aspall, in Suffolk, with descent still in existence. (3) Hugh : he married Petronel .... and his descendants settled in Somerset. John, his son, Sergeant-at-law to Henry VIII, married a daughter of Mericke, of Bristol, and had three sons : Thomas, married Joan Speke, and had issue ; Hugh, of Long Ashton ; Arthur, whose son Edward, was of Barrow-Gumey, and he had issue Hugh, who married Dorothy Preston, of Glastonbury, ; Thomas, also of Glastonbury Abbey (1623), who married Rebecca, daughter and co-heir of John Wyke, of Ninehead, ; and Sir Davy or David Brook, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, Knighted 1 Mary (1553), who married Catherine, sister of John Bridges, Lord Chandois — this descent is given in the Somerset Visitation for 1623. (4) Thomas; (5) John; (6) Robert ; (7) Peter ; (8) Christopher ; (9) Henry ; (10) Morgan ; all died without issue. Of the daughters: (1) Margaret; (2) Christian, died without issue; (3) Joan, or query Isabel, married John Carrant ; (4) Elizabeth, John St, Maure, whose
    http://www.archive.org/stream/proceedings43socigoog#page/n136/mode/1up/search/Brook
    daughter Joan married John Blewitt, of Holcombe-Rogus, whose son Nicholas, ob. 22nd August, 1523.
    Although his wife styled herself Lady of Cobham, her husband was never summoned to Parliament as a Baron — the title remaining in abeyance thirty-two years, from 22nd March, 1413, temp. Sir John Oldcastle, until Sir Thomas Brook's son, Sir Edward Brook, had summons, 13th January, 1445. He survived his mother seven years, his mother-in-law five years only, and died in 1429. A continuation of the descent of Brook, will be given.
    ___________________
    -------------------- ' He held the office of Member of Parliament (M.P.) for Somerset in 1442. He succeeded to the title of 6th Lord Cobham [E., 1313] in 1442. He fought in the Battle of St. Albans on 23 May 1455, for the Yorkists. He fought in the Battle of Northampton on 10 July 1460.2 'Child of Edward Brooke, 6th Lord Cobham (of Kent) and Elizabeth Tuchet

    1.John Brooke, 7th Lord Cobham (of Kent)+1 b. a 1446, d. 9 Mar 1511/12
    -------------------- Edward Brooke Gender: Male Birth: Circa 1411 Brooke, Somerset Marriage: Heleigh, Staffordshire Death: Aug 12 1439 Cobham, Kent Father: Thomas Brooke Mother: Joan Brooke (born Braybrooke) Wife: Elizabeth Tuchet Siblings: Reginald Brooke Christian Brooke Elizabeth Brooke John Brooke Hugh Brooke Christopher Brooke Peter Brooke Robert Brooke Joan Brooke Henry Brooke Morgan Brooke Margaret Brooke Thomas Brooke Source: View full record on WikiTree website (wikitree.com)

    end of biography

    Military:
    An ardent supporter of Richard Duke of York, he fought on the Yorkist side at the First Battle of St Albans on 23 May 1455[ and at the Battle of Northampton on 10 July 1460

    Edward — Elizabeth Touchet. Elizabeth (daughter of James Touchet, Knight, 5th Baron Audley and Margaret de Ros) was born ~ 1420-1433, Heleigh Castle, Madeley, Staffordshire, England; died 8 Nov 1464. [Group Sheet]


  2. 9.  Elizabeth Touchet was born ~ 1420-1433, Heleigh Castle, Madeley, Staffordshire, England (daughter of James Touchet, Knight, 5th Baron Audley and Margaret de Ros); died 8 Nov 1464.

    Notes:

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Arms of Tuchet: Ermine, a chevron gules
    James Tuchet, 5th Baron Audley, 2nd Baron Tuchet (c. 1398–1459) was an English peer.

    James Tuchet, 5th Baron Audley, son of John Tuchet, 4th Baron Audley and his wife Elizabeth, was a distinguished veteran of the Hundred Years' War. In the opening phase of the Wars of the Roses he raised troops from his estates in Cheshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire and Derbyshire and commanded the Lancastrian force that moved to block the Yorkist Earl of Salisbury's route to Ludlow where he intended linking up with the rest of the Yorkist army.

    The two forces clashed in the Battle of Blore Heath on 23 September 1459 and Audley was killed by Sir Roger Kynaston of Stocks near Ellesmere (Kynaston incorporated emblems of the Audley coat-of-arms into his own). He was beheaded after the battle. Audley's Cross still stands on the battlefield to this day, and marks the spot where he died.

    Audley was buried in Darley Abbey, north of Derby, about 40 miles away from Blore Heath. Unfortunately, the Abbey no longer stands, so his final resting place is no longer marked.

    Marriages and children

    Audley and Margaret de Ros (c. 1400 - before 14 February 1430), daughter of William de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros and Margaret FitzAlan (D'Arundel), obtained a marriage license on 24 February 1415. They were granted a Papal Dispensation for being related in the 3rd and 4th degrees of kindred.[1][2][3]

    They were parents to three children:[1][2][3]

    Elizabeth Touchet (c. 1420 - before 8 November 1464), married Edward Brooke, 6th Baron Cobham.[1][2][3]
    Anne Touchet (c. 1424 - 1503), married Sir Thomas Dutton, who died at Blore Heath along with his father-in-law.[1][2][3]
    John Tuchet, 6th Baron Audley (c. 1426 - 26 September 1490).[1][2][3]
    Audley was married second to Eleanor de Holland, an illegitimate daughter of Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent by Constance of York, daughter of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York and Infanta Isabella of Castile. Audley and Eleanor obtained a marriage license on 14 September 1430. They were also granted a Papal Dispensation, they being related in the 3rd and 3rd degrees of affinity.[1][2][3]

    They were parents to seven children:[1][2][3]

    Margaret Touchet (c. 1431 - before 2 February 1481), married Richard Grey, 3rd Earl of Tankerville, son of Sir Henry Grey, 2nd Earl of Tankerville and Antigone Plantagenet, before 12 January 1459.[1][2][3]
    Constance Touchet (c. 1432), who married in 1464 Sir Robert Whitney (born 1436 - aft. 1467), son of Eustace Whitney and Jennet Trussell.[1][2][3]
    Sir Humphrey Touchet (c. 1434 - 6 May 1471), who married Elizabeth Courtenay, widow of Sir James Luttrell.[1][2][3] Like his father, he supported the House of Lancaster. He was taken prisoner at the battle of Tewkesbury and tried before Richard, Duke of Gloucester and the Duke of Norfolk. Executed with other Lancastrian leaders in the Market Square he was buried under the pavement in the Chapel of St Nicolas, in the Abbey Church of St Mary the Virgin.
    Thomas Touchet (c. 1440 - June 1507),[1][2][3] who married Catherine.[citation needed]
    Eleanor Touchet (born circa 1442), married Humphrey Grey, son of Sir Henry Grey, 2nd Earl of Tankerville and Antigone Plantagenet, in 1460.[1][2][3]
    Edmund Audley (c. 1443 - 23 August 1524), who became successively Bishop of Rochester, Bishop of Hereford and Bishop of Salisbury.[1][2][3]
    Anne Touchet (born circa 1446), married Sir Richard Delabere.[1][2][3]

    Birth:
    Heighley Castle (or Heleigh Castle) is a ruined medieval castle near Madeley, Staffordshire. The castle was completed by the Audley family in 1233 and for over 300 years was one of their ancestral homes. It was held for Charles I during the English Civil War and was destroyed by Parliamentary forces in the 1640s. The ruinous remains comprise masonry fragments, mostly overgrown by vegetation. The site is protected by Grade II listed building status and is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The castle is privately owned and is not open to visitors.

    Children:
    1. 4. John Brooke, 7th Baron Cobham was born 10 Dec 1447, Cowling, Kent, England; died 9 Mar 1512, Cowling, Kent, England; was buried Colegiate Church, Cobham, Kent, England.
    2. Elizabeth Brooke was born ~ 1448, Cobham, Kent, England; died 26 Aug 1503.

  3. 10.  Edward Neville, 3rd Baron of AbergavennyEdward Neville, 3rd Baron of Abergavenny was born 0___ 1414, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England (son of Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland and Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland); died 18 Oct 1476, (Raby-Keverstone Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).

    Other Events:

    • Military: a captain in Edward IV's army in the North

    Notes:

    NEVILLE, EDWARD (d. 1476), Baron of Bergavenny or Abergavenny (a form which appeared in the sixteenth century and was not definitely adopted until 1730), was the sixth and youngest son of Ralph Neville, first earl of Westmoreland [q. v.], by his second wife, Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. His father had arranged, before his death in 1425, the match which made his youngest son the founder of the house which alone among the Neville branches has been continued in the male line to our own day, and is now represented by the Marquis of Abergavenny (Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc. i. 71). The lady was Elizabeth Beauchamp, only child and heiress of Richard, earl of Worcester, who died in April 1422 of wounds received at the siege of Meaux. Worcester's father, William Beauchamp, fourth son of Thomas Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (d. 1369), by Catherine, daughter of Roger Mortimer, first earl of March [q. v.], inherited the castle and lands of Bergavenny or Abergavenny on Usk on the death of the last Hastings, earl of Pembroke, whose father, being on the maternal side a nephew of William Beauchamp's mother, had (15 April 1372) placed his cousin next in the entail (Nicolas, Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope; Complete Peerage, ed. G. E. C. p. 14). In 1392 he was summoned to parliament as a baron, under the title either of Lord Bergavenny or (perhaps more probably) of Lord Beauchamp of Bergavenny. Elizabeth Beauchamp's mother was Isabel le Despenser, daughter, and eventually sole heir, of Thomas, sixth baron le Despenser, lord of Glamorgan and Morgannoc, and for a moment earl of Gloucester, whose dignities were forfeited by rebellion in 1400. Worcester married her in July 1411, two months after his father's death, when he was still simply Richard Beauchamp, lord Bergavenny or Beauchamp of Bergavenny, and Elizabeth was born at Hanley Castle, Worcestershire, on 16 Dec. 1415 (Dugdale, Baronage, i. 242). On the death of her mother, who held them in jointure, Edward Neville in 1436 obtained possession of her father's lands, with the exception of the castle and lordship of Abergavenny, which was occupied, under an entail created in 1396 by Worcester's father, by his cousin Richard, earl of Warwick (d. 1439), who also by papal dispensation married his cousin's widow, Isabel. But Neville was known as lord of Bergavenny, and when, after the death of Henry, duke of Warwick, son of Richard, earl of Warwick, and Isabel le Despenser in 1445, the Warwick inheritance devolved upon his infant daughter, Anne Beauchamp, who was a ward of the crown, Neville and his wife forcibly entered on the castles and lands, but were driven out (Complete Peerage, p. 16). It was not until after the death of Anne Beauchamp on 3 June 1449 that Neville obtained the royal license (14 July 1449) to enter on the lands, &c., of Abergavenny (Doyle, Official Baronage; Ord. Privy Council, v. 283; Dugdale, i. 309). Nevertheless he did not get possession of them, for they passed into the hands of his nephew, Richard Neville, who succeeded to the Warwick estates in right of his wife, Anne Beauchamp, sister of Henry, duke of Warwick, and called himself Lord of Bergavenny (Dugdale, i. 307). Edward Neville was summoned to parliament as baron of Bergavenny in September 1450, but it was not until the time of his grandson that the castle and lord- ship were definitely acquired by the holder of the title (Swallow, De Nova Villa, pp. 229–30; Historic Peerage, p. 16; Inq. post mortem, iv. 406). Henry VIII restored them to George Neville, third baron Bergavenny. The history of the barony of Abergavenny is marked by more than one anomaly, but, if those were right who have maintained that it was held by the tenure of the castle, this would be the greatest.

    Edward Neville was the first person who was undoubtedly summoned to parliament under the express style of ‘Lord of Bergavenny,’ and Sir Harris Nicolas was inclined to think that he ought to be considered the first holder of the Abergavenny barony (Historic Peerage). He made very little figure in the stormy times in which some of his brothers and nephews were so prominent. In 1449 he had seen some military service in Normandy, and his son had been one of the hostages for the performance of the conditions on which the English were allowed to march out of Rouen in October of that year (Stevenson, Wars in France, ii. 611–12, 628). In the civil strife he followed the lead of the heads of his family. When, in 1454, his brother-in-law, the Duke of York, became protector of the kingdom, and his eldest brother, the Earl of Salisbury, chancellor, Abergavenny, with other Neville peers, sat pretty regularly in the privy council (Ord. Privy Council, vol. v.). Northampton is the only battle of the civil war in which his presence is mentioned (Chron. ed. Davies). When Edward IV became king, Abergavenny served in the north under his nephews against the Lancastrians in the autumn of 1462, and more than once occurs as a commissioner of array in Kent, where he probably resided at his first wife's manor of Birling, close to Maidstone (Doyle; Swallow, p. 287). Abergavenny did not change his king with his nephew Warwick, died on 18 Oct. 1476, and apparently was buried in the priory church at Abergavenny, where there is a monument of a warrior, at whose feet is a bull, the crest of Neville (ib. p. 230). By his first wife, Elizabeth Beauchamp, he had two sons and three daughters. The eldest son, Richard, died during his father's lifetime, and was buried in Staindrop Church, the ancient Neville mausoleum by the gates of Raby Castle (Surtees, iv. 130; cf. Dugdale, i. 309). Raby was now in the hands of the elder family of Ralph, earl of Westmorland, which was, by 1440, on the worst of terms with the younger. But George, the second son who succeeded his father as baron of Abergavenny, is said to have been born at Raby. The direct male line of Edward Neville ended with his great-grandson, Henry Neville, who died in 1587, leaving only a daughter, married to Sir Thomas Fane. Henry Neville's cousin, Edward Neville (d. 1589), obtained the castle and lordship of Abergavenny under an entail created by Henry's father. Edward Neville's son and namesake claimed the barony in 1598 as heir male, but a counter-claim was raised by Lady Fane as heir-general. The matter was settled by a compromise in 1604, when Lady Fane was allowed the barony of Le Despenser and the barony of Abergavenny was confirmed to Edward Neville, whose male descendant in the ninth generation now holds the dignity. The arrangement was a most anomalous one. According to all modern peerage law the writ of 1604 must have created a new barony. The four subsequent occasions on which the barony has been allowed to go to heirs male would in strictness equally constitute new creations (Complete Peerage, pp. 20–4). The present Marquis of Abergavenny is the fourteenth holder of the barony (which has twice gone to cousins) from Edward Neville, who died in 1622 (Historic Peerage). He also represents an unbroken Neville descent in the male line of twenty-one generations, from Geoffrey de Neville in the reign of Henry III, and a still longer one through Geoffrey's father, Robert Fitz-Maldred, a pedigree without parallel among English noble families [see under Neville, Robert de, d. 1282].

    Abergavenny's second wife was Catherine Howard, daughter of Sir Robert Howard, and sister of John Howard, first duke of Norfolk. His first wife is said to have died on 18 June 1448 (Doyle; Swallow, p. 231), and he then married Catherine Howard. But he was excommunicated for doing so on the ground that they had had illicit relations during his wife's lifetime, and were within the third degree of consanguinity. Pope Nicholas V was, however, persuaded to grant a dispensation for the marriage. Dugdale gives 15 Oct. 1448 as the date of the bull, which, supposing the date of Elizabeth Beauchamp's death to be correct, does not leave much time for the intermediate proceedings. Both dates are irreconcileable with the age (twenty-six) which Dugdale (from the Escheat Roll) gives to her second son at his father's death in 1476. Sir Harris Nicolas gives thirty-six as his age, and, if this is a correction and not an error, it will remove the worst difficulty. It is certainly most unlikely that George Neville should have been born at Raby Castle in 1450 (cf. Paston Letters, i. 397).

    The children of the second marriage were two sons, Ralph and Edward, who died without issue, and three daughters: Margaret, who married John Brooke, baron Cobham (d. 1506); Anne, who married Lord Strange (d. 1497), father of the second Earl of Derby; and Catherine, who married Robert Tanfield. Besides his manors in Kent, Abergavenny left lands in Sussex, Norfolk, Suffolk, and other counties. The family now own about fifteen thousand acres in Sussex, about six thousand in Kent, and about seven thousand in Worcestershire, Warwickshire, Monmouthshire, and Herefordshire (Complete Peerage).

    [Inquisitiones post mortem, ed. Record Commission; Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas; Stevenson's Wars of the English in France (Rolls Ser.); English Chron. 1377–1461, ed. Davies for Camd. Soc.; Mathieu d'Escouchy, ed. Beaucourt for Sociâetâe de l'Histoire de France; Dugdale's Baronage; Harris Nicolas's Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope; Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, &c., ed. by G. E. C[ockayne]; Doyle's Official Baronage; Rowland's Account of the Family of Nevill, 1830; Surtees's History of Durham; Swallow's De Nova Villa, Newcastle, 1885.]

    end

    Career:

    Neville was knighted sometime after 1426.[6]

    In 1438, Bergavenny, as he was now styled, was a justice of the peace for Durham .[6]
    He was a captain in the embattled Duchy of Normandy in 1449.[6] His eldest son Richard was one of the hostages given to the French when the English surrendered the city of Rouen in that year.

    After the death of his first wife, he was summoned to Parliament in 1450 as "Edwardo Nevyll de Bergavenny", by which he is held to have become Baron Bergavenny. At the time, however, this was considered to be a summons by right of his wife, and so he was considered the 3rd, rather than the 1st, Baron.

    In 1454, he was appointed to the Privy Council assembled by the Duke of York as Lord Protector, along with his more prominent Neville kinsmen. He was a commissioner of array in Kent in 1461, and was a captain in Edward IV 's army in the North the following year. He was again a commissioner of array in 1470, remaining loyal to Edward IV, unlike his nephew, the Earl of Warwick [6

    end

    Family

    He was the 7th. son [2] of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, and Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, daughter of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford).

    In 1436 he married Lady Elizabeth de Beauchamp (d. 18 June 1448), daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, and the former Lady Isabel le Despenser, who later succeeded as de jure 3rd Baroness Bergavenny. They had four children. Their two sons were Richard Nevill bef. (1439 – bef. 1476) and Sir George Nevill (c.1440–1492), who would become 4th and 2nd Baron Bergavenny upon his father's death. Through George Nevill, Edward Neville is an ancestor to Mary Ball, mother of George Washington.[3] His daughters Alice and Catherine (b.c. 1444) married Sir Thomas Grey and John Iwardby respectively.

    Shortly after his first wife's death, in the summer or fall of 1448, he married Katherine Howard, daughter of Robert Howard and sister of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk. His second wife bore him three additional daughters. Catherine Nevill (b. c. 1452/bef. 1473) married Robert Tanfield (b. 1461), son of Robert Tanfield and Elizabeth Brooke, daughter of Edward Brooke, 6th Baron Cobham, and Elizabeth Touchet, born c. 1433, and had children. Their son William was ancestor of Thomas Jefferson.[4][5] His daughter Margaret (b.bef. 1476-1506), married John Brooke, 7th Baron Cobham. John and Margaret are the grandparents of Elizabeth Brooke, Lady Wyatt. Daughter Anne (b.bef 1476-1480/81) did not long survive her father.

    Career

    Neville was knighted sometime after 1426.[6]

    In 1438, Bergavenny, as he was now styled, was a justice of the peace for Durham.[6]

    He was a captain in the embattled Duchy of Normandy in 1449.[6] His eldest son Richard was one of the hostages given to the French when the English surrendered the city of Rouen in that year.

    After the death of his first wife, he was summoned to Parliament in 1450 as "Edwardo Nevyll de Bergavenny", by which he is held to have become Baron Bergavenny. At the time, however, this was considered to be a summons by right of his wife, and so he was considered the 3rd, rather than the 1st, Baron.

    In 1454, he was appointed to the Privy Council assembled by the Duke of York as Lord Protector, along with his more prominent Neville kinsmen. He was a commissioner of array in Kent in 1461, and was a captain in Edward IV's army in the North the following year. He was again a commissioner of array in 1470, remaining loyal to Edward IV, unlike his nephew, the Earl of Warwick[6]

    end

    Edward married Catherine Howard, Baroness of Abergavenny 15 Oct 1448, Raby, Staindrop, Durham, England. Catherine (daughter of Robert Howard, Duke of Norfolk and Margaret Mowbray, Duchess of Norfolk) was born Abt 1414, Norfolk, England; died Aft 29 Jun 1478, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 11.  Catherine Howard, Baroness of Abergavenny was born Abt 1414, Norfolk, England (daughter of Robert Howard, Duke of Norfolk and Margaret Mowbray, Duchess of Norfolk); died Aft 29 Jun 1478, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Katherine Howard

    Notes:

    Katherine Howard, daughter of Robert Howard and sister of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk...

    Katherine Howard, daughter of Robert Howard and sister of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk .

    His second wife bore him three additional daughters. Catherine Nevill (b. c. 1452/bef. 1473) married Robert Tanfield (b. 1461), son of Robert Tanfield and Elizabeth Brooke, daughter of Edward Brooke, 6th Baron Cobham , and Elizabeth Touchet, born c. 1433, and had children.

    Their son William was ancestor of Thomas Jefferson .[4][5]

    His daughter Margaret (b.bef. 1476-1506), married John Brooke, 7th Baron Cobham .

    John and Margaret are the grandparents of Elizabeth Brooke, Lady Wyatt . Daughter Anne (b.bef 1476-1480/81) did not long survive her father.

    he married Katherine Howard, daughter of Robert Howard and sister of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk. His second wife bore him three additional daughters. Catherine Nevill (b. c. 1452/bef. 1473) married Robert Tanfield (b. 1461), son of Robert Tanfield and Elizabeth Brooke, daughter of Edward Brooke, 6th Baron Cobham, and Elizabeth Touchet, born c. 1433, and had children. Their son William was ancestor of Thomas Jefferson.[4][5] His daughter Margaret (b.bef. 1476-1506), married John Brooke, 7th Baron Cobham. John and Margaret are the grandparents of Elizabeth Brooke, Lady Wyatt. Daughter Anne (b.bef 1476-1480/81) did not long survive her father.

    Children:
    1. Catherine Neville was born 1452-1459, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died Bef 1473, Gayton, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Ashby-de-La-Zouch, Leicestershire, England.
    2. 5. Margaret Neville was born ~ 1450, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 30 Sep 1506.

  5. 12.  John Heydon was born Baconsthorpe, England (son of William Heydon and Joan Longford); died 0___ 1479.

    John — Eleanor Winter. Eleanor (daughter of Edward Winter and Oliva Hampton) died 0___ 1448. [Group Sheet]


  6. 13.  Eleanor Winter (daughter of Edward Winter and Oliva Hampton); died 0___ 1448.
    Children:
    1. 6. Henry Heydon was born Baconsthorpe, England; died 0___ 1504, Baconsthorpe, England; was buried Norwich Cathedral, England.

  7. 14.  Geoffrey Boleyn was born 0___ 1406, Salle, Norfolk, England (son of Geoffrey Boleyn and Alice LNU); died 0___ 1463; was buried London, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Lord Mayor of London

    Notes:

    Sir Geoffrey or Jeffery Boleyn (1406-1463) was a London merchant and Lord Mayor of London.

    Life

    Hever Castle.

    Blickling Hall as it is today.
    Geoffrey Boleyn was the son of Geoffrey Boleyn (d. 1440) yeoman of Salle, Norfolk, and Alice,[1] and grandson of Thomas Boleyn (d. 1411) of Salle and Anne, an heiress, daughter of Sir John Bracton, a Norfolk knight. He went to London, was apprenticed to a hatter, and became a freeman of the city through the Hatter’s Company in 1428. In 1429 he transferred to a grander livery company, the Mercers’ Company, of which he became master in 1454.[2] As a wealthy mercer he served as a Sheriff of London in 1447, as member of parliament for the city in 1449, as alderman in 1452, and Lord Mayor of London in 1457/8,[3] and was knighted[4] by King Henry VI.[5] He purchased the manor of Blickling in Norfolk from Sir John Fastolf in 1452, and Hever Castle in Kent in 1462.[5]

    He was buried in the church of St Lawrence Jewry in the City of London.[5]

    Siblings

    The brasses of five sons and four daughters were still in situ in Salle's parish church in 1730.[6][7]

    William Boleyn.[8][note 1]
    John Boleyn.[8]
    Thomas, prebendary of St. Stephen’s, Westminster, precentor and sub-dean of Wells, Master of Gonville Hall, Cambridge, and Master of the college at Maidstone,d.1472.[11](executor to Geoffrey's will).
    one unknown brother.
    Cecily (1408–26 June 1458[12]), died unmarried at Blickling.
    three unknown sisters.
    Relatives[edit]
    Simon, parochial chaplain of Salle, Norfolk died 3 August 1482.
    James of Gunthorpe, Norfolk, died 1493 (executor to Simon's will).
    Thomas of Gunthorpe, Norfolk (executor to Simon's will).
    Joan named in her brother's (Simon) will., married to Alan Roos[note 2] of Salle, died 1463, he was the receiver (responsible for collecting rents) to Margaret Paston's (nâee Mauteby d. 1484) properties in Salle.[15] Secondly she was married to Robert Aldrych, died 1474.
    According to British historian and author, Elizabeth Norton, Geoffrey Boleyn who died in 1440 was their great-uncle.[16]

    Marriage and issue

    Boleyn married Anne Hoo (1424 - 1484), the only child of Thomas Hoo, Baron Hoo and Hastings (d. 13 February 1455), by his first wife Elizabeth Wychingham, by whom he had two sons and five daughters:

    Sir Thomas Boleyn (d. 1471/2).
    Sir William Boleyn (d.1505), mercer, who married Margaret Butler, daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Butler, 7th Earl of Ormond.[17]
    Isabella (1434–85) who married Henry Aucher (1410–60).
    Alice Boleyn b.abt.1438 d. abt. 1480 m. Sir John Fortescue of Punsborne, Hatfield, Herts d. 1500.
    Anne Boleyn (born c.1440),[citation needed] second daughter, who married Sir Henry Heydon (d.1504), by whom she had eight children. She died c.1509.[18]
    Cecily Boleyn b.abt.1442.
    Elizabeth Boleyn b.abt.1459.
    Sir Geoffrey Boleyn died in 1471.[5] He and his wife Anne were the great-grandparents of Queen Anne Boleyn.[19]

    Arms of Geoffrey Boleyn

    The arms are Boleyn, Argent, a chevron gules,between three bulls heads couped Sable, quarterly with arms of Bracton, Azure, three mullets, a chief dauncette or.[note 3]

    end of biography

    Geoffrey — Anne Hoo. Anne (daughter of Thomas Hoo, Baron Hoo and Hastings and Elizabeth Wychingham) was born 1424, (England); died 1484. [Group Sheet]


  8. 15.  Anne Hoo was born 1424, (England) (daughter of Thomas Hoo, Baron Hoo and Hastings and Elizabeth Wychingham); died 1484.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Anne Hoo

    Children:
    1. 7. Anne Boleyn was born 1438-1440, (Norfolkshire) England; died ~ 1509.
    2. William Boleyn was born 0___ 1451, Blickling Hall, Blickling, Norfolk, England; died 10 Oct 1505.


Generation: 5

  1. 18.  James Touchet, Knight, 5th Baron AudleyJames Touchet, Knight, 5th Baron Audley was born ~ 1398, of Heleigh Castle, Heleigh, Stafford, England (son of John Touchet, III, Knight, 4th Lord Audley and Elizabeth Stafford); died 23 Sep 1459, Blore Heath, Staffordshire, England; was buried Darley Abbey, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Lord Audley
    • Military: Battle of Blore Heath, Staffordshire, England

    Notes:

    James Tuchet, 5th Baron Audley, 2nd Baron Tuchet (c. 1398-1459) was an English peer.

    James Tuchet, 5th Baron Audley, son of John Tuchet, 4th Baron Audley and his wife Elizabeth, was a distinguished veteran of the Hundred Years' War. In the opening phase of the Wars of the Roses he raised troops from his estates in Cheshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire and Derbyshire and commanded the Lancastrian force that moved to block the Yorkist Earl of Salisbury's route to Ludlow where he intended linking up with the rest of the Yorkist army.

    The two forces clashed in the Battle of Blore Heath on 23 September 1459 and Audley was killed by Sir Roger Kynaston of Stocks near Ellesmere (Kynaston incorporated emblems of the Audley coat-of-arms into his own). He was beheaded after the battle. Audley's Cross still stands on the battlefield to this day, and marks the spot where he died.

    Audley was buried in Darley Abbey, north of Derby, about 40 miles away from Blore Heath. Unfortunately, the Abbey no longer stands, so his final resting place is no longer marked.

    Marriages and children

    Audley and Margaret de Ros (c. 1400 - before 14 February 1430), daughter of William de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros and Margaret FitzAlan (D'Arundel), obtained a marriage license on 24 February 1415. They were granted a Papal Dispensation for being related in the 3rd and 4th degrees of kindred.[1][2][3]

    They were parents to three children:[1][2][3]

    Elizabeth Touchet (c. 1420 - before 8 November 1464), married Edward Brooke, 6th Baron Cobham.[1][2][3]
    Anne Touchet (c. 1424 - 1503), married Sir Thomas Dutton, who died at Blore Heath along with his father-in-law.[1][2][3]
    John Tuchet, 6th Baron Audley (c. 1426 - 26 September 1490).[1][2][3]
    Audley was married second to Eleanor de Holland, an illegitimate daughter of Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent by Constance of York, daughter of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York and Infanta Isabella of Castile. Audley and Eleanor obtained a marriage license on 14 September 1430. They were also granted a Papal Dispensation, they being related in the 3rd and 3rd degrees of affinity.[1][2][3]

    They were parents to seven children:[1][2][3]

    Margaret Touchet (c. 1431 - before 2 February 1481), married Richard Grey, 3rd Earl of Tankerville, son of Sir Henry Grey, 2nd Earl of Tankerville and Antigone Plantagenet, before 12 January 1459.[1][2][3]
    Constance Touchet (c. 1432), who married in 1464 Sir Robert Whitney (born 1436 - aft. 1467), son of Eustace Whitney and Jennet Trussell.[1][2][3]
    Sir Humphrey Touchet (c. 1434 - 6 May 1471), who married Elizabeth Courtenay, widow of Sir James Luttrell.[1][2][3] Like his father, he supported the House of Lancaster. He was taken prisoner at the battle of Tewkesbury and tried before Richard, Duke of Gloucester and the Duke of Norfolk. Executed with other Lancastrian leaders in the Market Square he was buried under the pavement in the Chapel of St Nicolas, in the Abbey Church of St Mary the Virgin.
    Thomas Touchet (c. 1440 - June 1507),[1][2][3] who married Catherine.[citation needed]
    Eleanor Touchet (born circa 1442), married Humphrey Grey, son of Sir Henry Grey, 2nd Earl of Tankerville and Antigone Plantagenet, in 1460.[1][2][3]
    Edmund Audley (c. 1443 - 23 August 1524), who became successively Bishop of Rochester, Bishop of Hereford and Bishop of Salisbury.[1][2][3]
    Anne Touchet (born circa 1446), married Sir Richard Delabere.[1][2][3]

    Buried:
    Audley was buried in Darley Abbey, north of Derby, about 40 miles away from Blore Heath. Unfortunately, the Abbey no longer stands, so his final resting place is no longer marked.

    Died:
    died with son-in-law, Sir Thomas Dutton

    James married Margaret de Ros ~ 1415. Margaret (daughter of William de Ros, Knight, 6th Baron de Ros of Helmsley and Margaret FitzAlan) was born ~ 1400, of Hamlake, North Riding, Yorkshire, England; died Aft 1423, Heleigh Castle, Staffordshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 19.  Margaret de Ros was born ~ 1400, of Hamlake, North Riding, Yorkshire, England (daughter of William de Ros, Knight, 6th Baron de Ros of Helmsley and Margaret FitzAlan); died Aft 1423, Heleigh Castle, Staffordshire, England.
    Children:
    1. 9. Elizabeth Touchet was born ~ 1420-1433, Heleigh Castle, Madeley, Staffordshire, England; died 8 Nov 1464.
    2. Anne Touchet was born ~ 1424, Heleigh Castle, Madeley, Staffordshire, England; died 0___ 1503.

  3. 20.  Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of WestmorlandRalph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland was born 0___ 1364, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England (son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby and Maud Percy); died 21 Oct 1425, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; was buried 0Oct 1425, St. Mary's Church, Staindrop, Durham, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 4th Lord Neville of Raby
    • Also Known As: Earl of Westmorland
    • Also Known As: Lord of Richmond

    Notes:

    Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, 4th Baron Neville de Raby,[a] Earl Marshal, KG, PC (c. 1364 – 21 October 1425), was an English nobleman of the House of Neville.

    Family

    Ralph Neville was born about 1364, the son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, and The Hon Maud Percy (d. before 18 February 1379), daughter of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick, Northumberland, by Idoine de Clifford, daughter of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford.[1] Neville had a younger brother, and five sisters:[2]

    Thomas Neville, 5th Baron Furnivall, who married Joan Furnival.
    Lady Alice Neville, who married Sir Thomas Gray.
    Lady Maud Neville
    Lady Idoine Neville
    Lady Eleanor Neville, who married Ralph de Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley.
    Lady Elizabeth Neville, who became a nun.
    Neville's father married secondly, before 9 October 1381, Elizabeth Latimer (d. 5 November 1395), daughter of William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer. By his father's second marriage Neville had a brother and sister of the half blood:[3]

    John Neville, 6th Baron Latimer (c.1382 – 10 December 1430), who married firstly, Maud Clifford (c. 26 August 1446), daughter of Thomas Clifford, 6th Baron Clifford, whom he divorced before 1413-17, and by whom he had no issue. She married secondly, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, beheaded 5 August 1415 for his part in the Southampton Plot.[4]
    Lady Elizabeth Neville, who married Sir Thomas Willoughby.
    Career[edit]
    Neville's first military service was in Brittany under King Richard II's uncle, Thomas of Woodstock, who knighted him at Saint-Omer in July 1380. On 14 November 1381 he and his cousin, Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, were commissioned to preside over a duel between an Englishman and a Scot, and on 1 December 1383 he and his father were commissioned to receive from the Scots 24,000 marks for the ransom of King David. On 26 October 1385 he was appointed joint governor of Carlisle with Sir Thomas Clifford, and on 27 March 1386 was appointed, together with Clifford, joint Warden of the West March.[5]

    Neville inherited the title at the age of 24 after his father's death on 17 October 1388, and was summoned to Parliament from 6 December 1389 to 30 November 1396 by writs directed to Radulpho de Nevyll de Raby. On 25 October 1388 he was appointed, with others, to survey the fortifications on the Scottish border, and on 24 May 1389 was made keeper for life of the royal forests north of the Trent. In 1393 and 1394 he was employed in peace negotiations with Scotland.[6]

    In 1397 Neville supported King Richard's proceedings against Thomas of Woodstock and the Lords Appellant, and by way of reward was created Earl of Westmorland on 29 September of that year. However his loyalty to the King was tested shortly thereafter. His first wife, Margaret Stafford, had died on 9 June 1396, and Neville's second marriage to Joan Beaufort before 29 November 1396 made him the son-in-law of King Richard's uncle, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster. Thus, when King Richard banished John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, on 16 September 1398, and confiscated Bolingbroke's estates after John of Gaunt's death on 3 February 1399, Westmorland was moved to support his brother-in-law. Bolingbroke landed with a small force at Ravenspur in July 1399. Westmorland and the Earl of Northumberland were in the deputation at the Tower which received King Richard's abdication, and Westmorland bore the small sceptre called the 'virge' at Bolingbroke's coronation as King Henry IV on 13 October 1399.[7]

    For his support of the new King, Westmorland was rewarded with a lifetime appointment as Earl Marshal on 30 September 1399 (although he resigned the office in 1412), a lifetime grant of the honour of Richmond on 20 October (although the grant was not accompanied by a grant of the title Earl of Richmond), and several wardships.[8] Before 4 December he was appointed to the King's council. In March 1401, Westmorland was one of the commissioners who conducted negotiations for a marriage between the King's eldest daughter, Blanche of England, and Louis, son of Rupert, King of the Romans, and in 1403 was made a Knight of the Garter, taking the place left vacant by the death of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York.[8]

    According to Tuck, Westmorland had little influence on the Scottish borders in the first years of Henry IV's reign, where the wardenships of the marches were monopolised by the Percys, leading to a growing rivalry between the two families. However in 1403 the Percys, spurred on by various grievances, took up arms against the King, and suffered defeat at the Battle of Shrewsbury on 21 July 1403. Northumberland's son, Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, was slain at Shrewsbury, and Northumberland's brother, the Earl of Worcester, was beheaded two days later. After Shrewsbury, King Henry ordered Westmorland to raise troops and prevent Northumberland's army, which was still in the north, from advancing south. On 6 August 1403,as a reward for his service in driving Northumberland back to Warkworth Castle, Westmorland was granted the wardenship of the West March which Northumberland had held since 1399, the wardenship of the East March, formerly held by Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, being granted to the King's 14-year-old son, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford.[8]

    Two years later Northumberland, joined by Lord Bardolf, again took up arms against the King. It had been Northumberland's plan to capture the earl by surprise at the outset, and in early May 1405, with 400 men, Northumberland made a surprise attack at the castle of Witton-le-Wear, where he had been staying. The attempt failed, as Westmorland had already fled. The earl speedily gathered an army, defeated a force of Percy allies at Topcliffe, and then marched towards York with Henry IV's son, John of Lancaster, to confront a force of some 8000 men gathered on Shipton Moor under the leadership of Archbishop Richard Scrope, Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk, and Scrope's nephew, Sir William Plumpton. Outnumbered by Scrope's forces, Westmorland resorted to trickery,[9] and led Scrope and his allies to believe that their demands would be accepted and their personal safety guaranteed. Once Scrope's army had been disbanded on 29 May, Scrope, Mowbray and Plumpton were arrested, summarily condemned to death for treason, and beheaded outside the walls of York on 8 June 1405. Although Westmorland handed Scrope and his allies over to the King at Pontefract, he played no role in their hasty and irregular trial and execution, having been sent north by the King on 4 June to seize Northumberland's castles. It is unclear whether Northumberland had initially planned to rebel openly in concert with Scrope, but in the event he gave Scrope no support, and fled to Scotland after his failed attempt to capture Westmorland. His estates were subsequently forfeited to the crown, and Ralph, earl of Westmorland, as a reward for his quelling of the 1405 rebellion without significant bloodshed, received a large grant of former Percy lands in Cumberland and Northumberland in June 1405.[10]

    After the death of Henry IV Westmorland was mainly engaged in the defence of the northern border in his capacity as Warden of the West March (1403–1414). In 1415 he decisively defeated an invading Scottish army at the Battle of Yeavering.[1] Westmorland played no part in King Henry V's French campaigns, and Tuck notes that his relationship with Henry V was not close, perhaps partly because of the involvement of Westmorland's son-in-law, Sir Thomas Grey of Heaton, in the Southampton Plot.[11] After Henry V's death, Westmorland was a member of the Council of Regency during the minority of King Henry VI.[12]

    According to Tait, Westmorland was 'no inconsiderable builder', citing his rebuilding of Sheriff Hutton Castle on a scale so magnificent that Leland saw 'no house in the north so like a princely lodging', his doubling of the entrance gateway of Raby Castle and the corresponding tower, and possibly his responsibility for the 'tall and striking tower' of Richmond parish church. On 1 November 1410 Westmorland was granted licence to found a college for a master, six clerks, six 'decayed gentlemen' and others at Staindrop, towards the completion of which he left a bequest in his will.[12] He was probably responsible for the building of Penrith castle in Cumberland c. 1412-13.[13]

    Marriages and issue

    Miniature of the Earl of Westmorland with twelve of his children by Pol de Limbourg. A second miniature (not pictured) features his second wife, Lady Joan, with the rest of his children.

    Effigy of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland and his two wives, Staindrop Church

    Neville married firstly, Margaret Stafford (d. 9 June 1396), the eldest daughter of Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, and Philippa Beauchamp, the daughter of Thomas Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, by Katherine Mortimer, the daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March.[14] They had two sons and six daughters:

    Sir John Neville (c.1387 – before 20 May 1420), who married Elizabeth Holland, fifth daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, and Alice FitzAlan, and by her had three sons, Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland, John Neville, Baron Neville, and Sir Thomas Neville, and a daughter, Margaret Neville.[15]
    Sir Ralph Neville (d. 25 Feb 1458), who married, before 1411, his stepsister, Mary Ferrers, daughter of Robert Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers, and Joan Beaufort.[16]
    Maud Neville (d. October 1438), who married Peter de Mauley, 5th Baron Mauley.[15]
    Alice Neville, who married firstly Sir Thomas Grey, beheaded 2 August 1415 for his part in the Southampton Plot, and secondly Sir Gilbert Lancaster.[17]
    Philippa Neville, who married, before 20 July 1399, Thomas Dacre, 6th Baron Dacre of Gilsland (d. 5 January 1458).[18]
    Elizabeth Neville, who became a nun.
    Anne Neville (b. circa 1384), who married, before 3 February 1413, Sir Gilbert Umfraville, son of Sir Thomas Umfreville (d. 12 February 1391) and Agnes Grey (d. 25 October 1420), daughter of Sir Thomas Grey of Heaton (d. before 22 October 1369). He was slain at the Battle of Baugâe in Anjou on 22 March 1421.[19]
    Margaret Neville (d. 1463/4), who married firstly, before 31 December 1413, Richard Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Bolton, and secondly, William Cressener, esquire.[20]
    Neville married secondly, before 29 November 1396, at Chãateau de Beaufort, Maine-et-Loire, Anjou, Joan Beaufort, the widow of Robert Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers.[21] Joan was the legitimated daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, by his mistress and later third wife, Katherine Swynford.

    They had nine sons and five daughters:[22]

    Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460), married Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury. Their son was Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (1428–1471), 'The Kingmaker'.
    Henry Neville.
    Thomas Neville.
    Cuthbert Neville.
    Robert Neville, Bishop of Salisbury and Durham.
    William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent.
    John Neville.
    George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer.
    Edward Neville, 3rd Baron Bergavenny.
    Joan Neville, who became a nun.
    Katherine Neville, married firstly, on 12 January 1411 to John Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, secondly to Sir Thomas Strangways, thirdly to John Beaumont, 1st Viscount Beaumont, fourthly to Sir John Woodville (d. 12 August 1469).
    Eleanor Neville (1398–1472), married firstly to Richard le Despencer, 4th Baron Burghersh, secondly to Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland.
    Anne Neville (1414–1480), married firstly to Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, secondly to Walter Blount, 1st Baron Mountjoy.
    Cecily Neville (1415–1495), married to Richard, 3rd Duke of York. She was the mother of King Edward IV and King Richard III.
    Death[edit]


    The two wives of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, from his monumental effigy, Staindrop Church. His first wife, left, on his right-hand side
    Westmorland died on 21 October 1425. He was buried in the choir of his collegiate church of St. Mary at Staindrop. The magnificent alabaster tomb with effigies of himself and his two wives there has been termed the finest sepulchral monument in the north of England.[1] Neither of his wives is buried with him. His first wife, Margaret Stafford, was buried at Brancepeth, Durham, while his second wife, Joan Beaufort, was buried with her mother under a carved stone canopy in the sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral.[23]

    Westmorland was predeceased by his eldest son, Sir John Neville, and was succeeded in the title by his grandson, Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland.[24]

    Westmorland is portrayed in Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1, Henry IV, Part 2, and Henry V.

    In the opening scene of Henry IV, Part 1, Westmorland is presented historically as an ally of King Henry IV against the Percys, and in the final scenes of the play as being dispatched to the north of England by the King after the Battle of Shrewsbury to intercept the Earl of Northumberland.[25]

    In Act IV of Henry IV, Part 2, Westmorland is portrayed historically as having been principally responsible for quelling the Percy rebellion in 1405 by Archbishop Scrope almost without bloodshed by successfully parleying with the rebels on 29 May 1405 at Shipton Moor.[25]

    However in Henry V Westmorland is unhistorically alleged to have resisted the arguments made in favour of war with France by Archbishop Chichele in the Parliament which began at Leicester on 30 April 1414. Following Hall and Holinshed, Shakespeare attributes these arguments to Chichele[26] at a time when Chichele was not yet formally Archbishop, although he had been appointed by the King immediately following the death of Archbishop Arundel on 14 February 1414. Moreover, it is said that the Parliamentary rolls do not record Chichele's presence, and according to Tait the question of war with France was not discussed. In addition, Westmorland's speech urging the advantages of war against Scotland rather than France is said to be adapted from a work by the Scottish historian, John Major, who was not born until half a century after the 1414 Parliament.[12]

    The First Folio text of Henry V also unhistorically gives these lines to Westmorland on the eve of Agincourt:

    O that we now had here
    But one ten thousand of those men in England
    That do no work today. (Henry V, IV.iii)

    Westmorland was not with King Henry V on the 1415 campaign in France. On 17 April 1415 he was appointed to the Council of Regency which was to govern England under the King's brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, during the King's absence in France, with special responsibility for the Scottish Marches.[27] In the first quarto text of the play, the foregoing lines are assigned to the Earl of Warwick.[25]

    It has been claimed by Brenda James and Professor William Rubinstein that Neville's great-great-grandson Sir Henry Neville wrote the works of William Shakespeare.

    *

    NEVILLE, RALPH, sixth Baron Neville of Raby and first Earl of Westmorland (1364-1425), was the eldest son of John de Neville, fifth baron Neville of Raby [q. v.], by his first wife, Maud, daughter of Henry, lord Percy (d. 1352) [q. v.], and aunt of the first earl of Northumberland (Swallow, De Nova Villa, p. 34; Dugdale, Baronage, i. 297).

    He first saw service in the French expedition of July 1380 under the king's uncle Thomas of Woodstock, earl of Buckingham, afterwards duke of Gloucester, who knighted him (Froissart, vii. 321, ed. Lettenhove). Doubtless spending the winter with the earl in Brittany, and returning with him in the spring of 1381, Ralph Neville, towards the close of the year, presided with his cousin Henry Percy, the famous Hotspur (whose mother was a Neville), over a duel between a Scot and an Englishman (Fœdera, xi. 334–5). In 1383 or 1384 he was associated with his father in receiving payment of the final instalments of David Bruce's ransom (Dugdale, i. 297). In the autumn of 1385 (26 Oct.), after the king's invasion of Scotland, he was appointed joint governor of Carlisle with the eldest son of his relative, Lord Clifford of Skipton in Craven, and on 27 March 1386 warden of the west march with the same colleague (Doyle, Official Baronage; Fœdera, vii. 538). On the death of his father (who made him one of his executors) at Newcastle, on 17 Oct. 1388, Ralph Neville at the age of twenty-four became Baron Neville of Raby, and was summoned to parliament under that title from 6 Dec. 1389 (Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc. i. 42; Nicolas, Historic Peerage).

    A few days afterwards the new baron was appointed, with others, to survey the border fortifications, and in the spring of the next year his command in the west march was renewed for a further term (Doyle). He was made warden for life of the royal forests north of Trent (24 May 1389), and got leave to empark his woods at Raskelf, close to York and his castle of Sheriff-Hutton. The king also gave him a charter for a weekly market at Middleham, and a yearly fair on the day of St. Alkelda, the patron saint of the church (Dugdale). In July 1389, and again in June 1390, he was employed in negotiations with Scotland (Doyle); Fœdera, vii. 672). In June 1391 he obtained a license, along with Sir Thomas Colville of the Dale and other northern gentlemen, to perform feats of arms with certain Scots (Fœdera, vii. 703). The Duke of Gloucester taking the cross in this year, commissioners, headed by Lord Neville, were appointed (4 Dec.) to perform the duties of constable of England (Doyle)). In the summers of 1393 and 1394 he was once more engaged in negotiations for peace with Scotland, and rather later (20 Richard II, 1396–1397) he got possession of the strong castle of Wark on Tweed by exchange with Sir John de Montacute [q. v.], afterwards third earl of Salisbury.

    Neville's power was great in the North country, where he, as lord of Raby and Brancepeth in the bishopric of Durham, and Middleham and Sheriff-Hutton in Yorkshire, was fully the equal, simple baron though he was, of his cousin the head of the Percies. His support was therefore worth securing by King Richard when, in 1397, he took his revenge upon the Duke of Gloucester and other lords appellant of nine years before. The lord of Raby was already closely connected with the crown and the court party by marriage alliances. He had secured for his eldest son, John, the hand of Elizabeth, daughter of the king's stepbrother, Thomas Holland, earl of Kent, who was deep in Richard's counsels, and he himself had taken for his second wife Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, the king's uncle (Dugdale, i. 297; Doyle). When the Earl of Arundel, one of the leading lords appellant, was put on his trial before parliament on Friday, 21 Sept. 1397, Neville, at the command of his father-in-law Lancaster, who presided as seneschal of England, removed the accused's belt and scarlet hood (Adam of Usk, p. 13; Ann. Ricardi II, p. 214). He was no doubt acting as constable, an office of Gloucester's. The Earl of Warwick was also in his custody (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 307). In the distribution of rewards among the king's supporters on 29 Sept., Neville was made Earl of Westmorland (Rot. Parl. iii. 355). He held no land in that county, but it was the nearest county to his estates not yet titularly appropriated, and the grant of the royal honour of Penrith gave him a footing on its borders (Dugdale). He took an oath before the shrine of Edward the Confessor in Westminster Abbey on Sunday, 30 Sept., to maintain what had been done in this ‘parliamentum ferale’ (Rot. Parl. iii. 355).

    But when Richard drove his brother-in-law Henry, earl of Derby, out of the realm, and refused him possession of the Lancaster estates on John of Gaunt's death, Westmorland took sides against the king, and was one of the first to join Henry when he landed in Yorkshire in July 1399 (Adam of Usk, p. 24). He and his relative Northumberland, who had joined Henry at the same time, represented the superior lords temporal in the parliamentary deputation which on 29 Sept. received in the Tower the unfortunate Richard's renunciation of the crown, and next day he was granted for life the office of marshal of England, which had been held by the banished Duke of Norfolk (Rot. Parl. iii. 416; Fœdera, viii. 89, 115). With Northumberland he conveyed Richard's message to convocation on 7 Oct. (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 289). At Henry IV's coronation (13 Oct.) Westmorland bore the small sceptre called the virge, or rod with the dove, his younger half-brother, John Neville, lord Latimer, who was still a minor, carrying the great sceptre royal (Adam of Usk, p. 33; Taylor, Glory of Regality, p. 66) [see under Neville, John, fifth Baron of Raby]. The grant a week later (20 Oct.) of the great honour and lordship of Richmond, forfeited in the late reign by John, duke of Brittany, united his Teesdale and his Wensleydale lands into a solid block of territory, and gave him besides a vast number of manors and fees scattered over great part of England (Doyle; Rot. Parl. iii. 427). The grant, however, was only made for his life, and clearly did not carry with it the title of Earl of Richmond, which was never borne by him, and was granted during his lifetime (1414) to John, duke of Bedford, with the reversion of the castle and lands on Westmorland's death (Third Report of the Lords on the Dignity of a Peer, pp. 96 et seq.). When the earl was in London he sat in the privy council, but as a great northern magnate he was chiefly employed upon the Scottish border (Ord. Privy Council, i. 100 et seq.; Fœdera, viii. 133). In March 1401, however, he was one of the royal commissioners who concluded with the ambassadors of Rupert, king of the Romans, a marriage between Henry's eldest daughter and Rupert's son Louis (ib. pp. 176, 178), and spent the summer in London (Ord. Privy Council, i. 144, 157). But in September he was employed on another Scottish mission, and in the March following was appointed captain of Roxburgh Castle (ib. p. 168; Fœdera, viii. 251; Doyle).

    The garter vacated by the death of Edmund, duke of York, in August 1402 was bestowed upon him. In July 1403 his relatives, the Percies, revolted, and Westmorland found an opportunity of weakening the great rival house in the north. One of Hotspur's grievances was the transference of his captaincy of Roxburgh Castle to Westmorland in the previous March (Rot. Scot. ii. 161). The day after the battle of Shrewsbury, in which Hotspur was slain, Henry wrote to Westmorland and other Yorkshire magnates charging them to levy troops and intercept the Earl of Northumberland, who was marching southward (Fœdera, viii. 319). Westmorland drove the old earl back to Warkworth, and sent an urgent message to Henry, advising him to come into the north, where reports of his death were being circulated by the Percies (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 371). The king arrived at Pontefract on 3 Aug., and three days later transferred the wardenship of the west marches, which Northumberland had held since 1399, to Westmorland (Doyle). Hotspur was replaced as warden of the east march by the king's second son, John, a lad of fourteen, who must necessarily have been much under the influence of the experienced earl. On his return south, Henry directed Westmorland and his brother Lord Furnival to secure the surrender of the Percy castles (Ord. Privy Council, i. 213). But the order was more easily given than executed, and in the parliament of the following February Northumberland was pardoned by the king and publicly reconciled to Westmorland (Rot. Parl. iii. 525). Westmorland and Somerset were the only earls in the council of twenty-two whom the king was induced by the urgency of the commons to designate in parliament (1 March 1404) as his regular advisers (ib. p. 530).

    Northumberland's reconciliation was a hollow one, and in the spring of 1405 he was again in revolt. Remembering how his plans had been foiled by Westmorland two years before, he began with an attempt to get his redoubtable cousin into his power by surprise. In April or May Westmorland happened to be staying in a castle which Mr. Wylie identifies with that of Witton-le-Wear, belonging to Sir Ralph Eure. It was suddenly beset one night by Northumberland at the head of four hundred men. But Westmorland had received timely warning, and was already flown (Ann. Hen. IV p. 400). Towards the close of May the flame of rebellion had broken out at three distinct points. Northumberland was moving southwards to effect a junction with Sir John Fauconberg, Sir John Colville of the Dale, and other Cleveland connections of the Percies and Mowbrays who were in arms near Thirsk, and with the youthful Thomas Mowbray, earl marshal [q. v.], and Archbishop Scrope, who raised a large force in York and advanced northwards. One of Mowbray's grievances was that the office of marshal of England had been given to Westmorland, leaving him only the barren title. Westmorland therefore had an additional spur to prompt action against this threatening combination. Taking with him the young prince John and the forces of the marches, he threw himself by a rapid march between the two main bodies of rebels, routed the Cleveland force at Topcliffe by Thirsk, capturing their leaders, and intercepted the archbishop and Mowbray at Shipton Moor, little more than five miles north of York (Rot. Parl. iii. 604; Eulogium, iii. 405; Ann. Hen. IV, p. 405). Westmorland, finding himself the weaker in numbers, had recourse to guile. Explanations were exchanged between the two camps, and Westmorland, professing approval of the articles of grievance submitted to him by Scrope, invited the archbishop and the earl marshal to a personal conference (ib. p. 406). They met, with equal retinues, between the two camps. Westmorland again declared their demands most reasonable, and promised to use his influence with the king. They then joyfully shook hands over the understanding, and, at Westmorland's suggestion, ratified it with a friendly cup of wine. The unsuspecting archbishop was now easily induced to send and dismiss his followers with the cheerful news. As soon as they had dispersed Westmorland laid hands upon Scrope and Mowbray, and carried them off to Pontefract Castle, where he handed them over to the king a few days later. Unless the consensus of contemporary writers does injustice to Westmorland, he was guilty of a very ugly piece of treachery (ib. p. 407; Chron. ed. Giles, p. 45; Eulogium, iii. 406). Their account is not indeed free from improbabilities, and Otterbourne (i. 256) maintained that Scrope and Mowbray voluntarily surrendered. Their forces were perhaps not wholly trustworthy, and they might have been discouraged by the fate of the Cleveland knights; but the authority of Otterbourne, who wrote under Henry V, can hardly be allowed to outweigh the agreement of more strictly contemporary writers. Westmorland, at all events, had no hand in the hasty and irregular execution of the two unhappy men, for he was despatched northwards from Pontefract on 4 June to seize Northumberland's castles and lands, and his brother-in-law, Thomas Beaufort, was appointed his deputy as marshal for the trial (Fœdera, viii. 399).

    This crisis over, Westmorland returned to his usual employments as warden of the march (in which his eldest son, John, was presently associated with him), and during the rest of the reign was pretty constantly occupied in negotiations with Scotland, whose sympathy with France and reception of Northumberland were counterbalanced by the capture of the heir to the throne (Fœdera, viii. 418, 514, 520, 678, 686, 737). He had made himself one of the great props of his brother-in-law's throne. Two of his brothers—Lord Furnival, who for a time was war treasurer, and Lord Latimer—were peers, and towards the close of the reign he began to make those fortunate marriages for his numerous family by his second wife which enabled the younger branch of Neville to play so decisive a part in after years. One of the earliest of these marriages was that of his daughter Catherine in 1412 to the young John Mowbray, brother and heir of the unfortunate earl marshal who had been entrusted to his guardianship by the king (Testamenta Eboracensia, iii. 321). Shortly after Henry V's accession Westmorland must have resigned the office of marshal of England into the hands of his son-in-law, in whose family it was hereditary (Fœdera, ix. 300).

    Thanks to Shakespeare, Westmorland is best known as the cautious old statesman who is alleged to have resisted the interested incitements of Archbishop Chichele and the clergy to war with France in the parliament at Leicester in April 1414, and was chidden by Henry for expressing a de- spondent wish the night before Agincourt that they had there

    But one ten thousand of those men in England

    That do no work to-day.

    But neither episode has any good historical warrant. They are first met with in Hall (d. 1547), from whom Shakespeare got them through Holinshed (Hall, Chronicle, p. 50). Chichele was not yet archbishop at the time of the Leicester parliament; the question of war was certainly not discussed there, and the speeches ascribed to Chichele and Westmorland are obviously of later composition. Westmorland, in urging the superior advantages of war upon Scotland, if war there must be, is made to quote from the Scottish historian John Major [q. v.], who was not born until 1469. The famous ejaculation before Agincourt was not made by Westmorland, for he did not go to France with the king. He was left behind to guard the Scottish marches and assist the regent Bedford as a member of his council (Ord. Privy Council, ii. 157). Henry had also appointed him one of the executors of the will which he made (24 July) before leaving England (Fœdera, ix. 289). The author of the ‘Gesta Henrici’ (p. 47), who was with the army in France, tells us that it was Sir Walter Hungerford [q. v.] who was moved by the smallness of their numbers to long openly for ten thousand English archers. The attitude imputed to Westmorland in these anecdotes is, however, sufficiently in keeping with his advancing age and absorption in the relations of England to Scotland, and may just possibly preserve a genuine tradition of opposition on his part to the French war. In any case, he never went to France, devoting himself to his duties on the borders, and leaving the hardships and the glory of foreign service to his sons. He was one of the executors of Henry's last will, and a member of the council of regency appointed to rule in the name of his infant son (Rot. Parl. iv. 175, 399). As late as February 1424 he was engaged in his unending task of negotiating with Scotland (Ord. Privy Council, iii. 139). On 21 Oct. in the following year he died, at what, in those days, was the advanced age of sixty-two, and was buried in the choir of the Church of Staindrop, at the gates of Raby, in which he had founded three chantries in 1343 (Swallow, p. 314). His stately and finely sculptured tomb of alabaster, in spite of the injuries it has received since its removal to the west end to make way for the tombs of the Vanes, remains the finest sepulchral monument in the north of England. It has been figured by Gough in his ‘Sepulchral Monuments’ (1786), by Stothard in his ‘Monumental Effigies’ (1817), and by Surtees in his ‘History of Durham.’ It bears recumbent effigies of Westmorland and his two wives. His features, so far as they are revealed by the full armour in which he is represented, are too youthful and too regular to allow us to regard it as a portrait (Swallow, De Nova Villa, p. 311; Oman, Warwick the Kingmaker, p. 17). The skeleton of the earl, which was discovered during some excavations in the chancel, is said to have been that of a very tall man with a diseased leg ({{sc|Swallow}, p. 315).

    In his will, made at Raby, 18 Oct. 1424, besides bequests to his children and the friars, nuns, and anchorites of the dioceses of York and Durham, he left three hundred marks to complete the college of Staindrop, and a smaller sum towards the erection of bridges over the Ure, near Middleham, and the Tees at Winston, near Raby (Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc., i. 68–74). Westmorland was, in fact, no inconsiderable builder. He rebuilt the castle of Sheriff-Hutton, twelve miles north-east of York, on the ridge between Ouse and Derwent, on a scale so magnificent that Leland saw ‘no house in the north so like a princely lodging,’ and the Neville saltire impaling the arms of England and France for his second wife may still be seen on its crumbling and neglected ruins. The church of Sheriff-Hutton has had inserted some of those curious flat-headed windows which are peculiar to the churches on the Neville manors, and they may very well be Westmorland's additions (Murray, Yorkshire, under Staindrop, Well, and Sheriff-Hutton). At Staindrop he added the chamber for the members of his new college on the north side of the choir, and the last bay of the nave in which his tomb now lies. The license to establish a college for a master or warden, six clerks, six decayed gentlemen, six poor officers, and other poor men, for whose support the advowson of the church was set aside with two messuages and twelve acres of land for their residence, was granted on 1 Nov. 1410 (Monasticon Anglicanum, vi. 1401; cf. {{sc|Swallow}, p. 314). Westmorland doubled the entrance gateway of Raby Castle, and threw forward the south-western tower, now called Joan's tower, to correspond (see Pritchett in the Reports and Journal of the British Archµological Association, 1886, 1887, 1889). He is also said to have been the builder of the tall and striking tower of Richmond parish church.

    Westmorland was twice married: first (before 1370) to Margaret, daughter of Hugh, second earl of Stafford (d. 1386); and, secondly (before 20 Feb. 1397), to Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by Catherine Swynford, and widow of Sir Robert Ferrers. She survived him, dying on 13 Nov. 1440 and being buried in Lincoln Cathedral, though her effigy is also on her husband's tomb at Staindrop. The inscription on her monument is quoted by Swallow (p. 137). Joan had some taste for literature. Thomas Hoccleve [q. v.] dedicated a volume of his works to her, and we hear of her lending the ‘Chronicles of Jerusalem’ and the ‘Voyage of Godfrey Bouillon’ to her nephew, Henry V (Fœdera, x. 317).

    The Nevilles were a prolific race, but Westmorland surpassed them all. He had no less than twenty-three children by his two wives—nine by the first, and fourteen by the second. The children of the first marriage, seven of whom were females, were thrown into the shade by the offspring of his more splendid second alliance which brought royal blood into the family. Westmorland devoted himself indefatigably to found the fortunes of his second family by a series of great matches, and a good half of the old Neville patrimony, the Yorkshire estates, was ultimately diverted to the younger branch.

    Thus the later earls of Westmorland had a landed position inferior to that of their ancestors, who were simple barons, and the real headship of the Neville house passed to the eldest son of the second family. Westmorland's children by his first wife were: (1) John, who fought in France and on the Scottish borders, and died before his father (1423); he married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Holland, earl of Kent, and their son Ralph succeeded his grandfather as second Earl of Westmorland in 1425 (see below). (2) Ralph of Oversley, near Alcester, in Warwickshire, in right of his wife Mary (b. 1393), daughter and coheiress of Robert, baron Ferrers of Wem in Shropshire. (3) Mathilda married Peter, lord Mauley (d. 1414). (4) Philippa married Thomas, lord Dacre of Gillsland (d. 1457). (5) Alice married, first, Sir Thomas Grey of Heton; and, secondly, Sir Gilbert Lancaster. (6) Elizabeth, who became a nun in the Minories. (7) Anne, who married Sir Gilbert Umfreville of Kyme. (8) Margaret, who married, first, Richard, lord le Scrope of Bolton in Wensleydale (d. 1420), and, secondly, William Cressener, dying in 1463; and (9) Anastasia.

    By his second wife Neville had nine sons and five daughters: (1) Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury [q. v.] (2) William, baron Fauconberg [q. v.] (3) George, summoned to parliament as Baron Latimer, 1432-69, his father having transferred to him that barony which he had bought from his childless half-brother John, who inherited it from his mother [see under Neville, John, d. 1388)]. George Neville's male descendants held the barony of Latimer till 1577, when it fell into abeyance [see Neville, John, third Baron Latimer]. (5) Robert [q. v.], bishop successively of Salisbury and Durham. (6) Edward, baron of Bergavenny [q. v.] (7–9) Three sons who died young. (10) Joan, a nun. (11) Catherine, married, first, John Mowbray, second duke of Norfolk [q. v.]; secondly, Thomas Strangways; thirdly, Viscount Beaumont (d. 1460); and, fourthly, John Wydeville, brother-in-law of Edward IV. (12) Anne, married, first, Humphrey, first duke of Buckingham (d. 1460) [q. v.]; and, secondly, Walter Blount, first baron Mountjoy (d. 1474). (13) Eleanor, married, first, Richard, lord le Despenser (d. 1414); and, secondly, Henry Percy, second earl of Northumberland (d. 1455). (14) Cicely, who married Richard Plantagenet, duke of York, and was mother of Edward IV.

    Ralph Neville, second Earl of Westmorland (d. 1484), son of John, the eldest son of the first earl by his first wife, married a daughter of Hotspur, and left active Lancastrian partisanship to his younger brothers. He died in 1484. His only son having perished at the battle of St. Albans in 1455, he was succeeded as third Earl of Westmorland by his nephew, Ralph (1456–1523), son of his brother John. This John Neville was a zealous Lancastrian. He took a prominent part in the struggle with the younger branch of the Nevilles for the Yorkshire lands of the first Earl of Westmorland, was summoned to parliament as Lord Neville after the Yorkist collapse in 1459, and was rewarded for his services at Wakefield in December 1460 with the custody of the Yorkshire castles of his uncle and enemy, Salisbury, who was slain there (see under Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury;Nicolas, Historic Peerage, p. 345; Chron. ed. Davies, p. 106). A Yorkist chronicler accuses him of treacherously getting York's permission to raise troops, which he then used against him (ib.) A few months later he was slain at Towton (30 March 1461). When his son Ralph became third Earl of Westmorland, the barony of Neville merged in the earldom of Westmorland, which came to an end with the attainder of Charles Neville, sixth earl [q. v.], in 1571.

    [Rotuli Parliamentorum; Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas; Rymer's Fœdera, original edition; Lords' Report on the Dignity of a Peer; Adam of Usk. ed. Maunde Thompson; Annales Ricardi II et Hen- rici IV with Trokelowe in Rolls Ser.; Gesta Henrici V, ed. Williams for English Historical Society; Otterbourne's Chronicle, ed. Hearne; Testamenta Eboracensia and Wills and Inventories, published by the Surtees Soc.; Hall's Chronicle, ed. Ellis; Dugdale's Baronage and Monasticon Anglicanum, ed. Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel; Rowland's Account of the Noble Family of Nevill, 1830; Swallow, De Nova Villa, 1885; Nicolas's Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope; Wylie's Hist. of Henry IV; Ramsay's Lancaster and York; other authorities in the text.]

    *

    Westmorland was twice married: first (before 1370) to Margaret, daughter of Hugh, second earl of Stafford (d. 1386); and, secondly (before 20 Feb. 1397), to Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by Catherine Swynford, and widow of Sir Robert Ferrers. She survived him, dying on 13 Nov. 1440 and being buried in Lincoln Cathedral, though her effigy is also on her husband's tomb at Staindrop.

    The inscription on her monument is quoted by Swallow (p. 137). Joan had some taste for literature. Thomas Hoccleve [q. v.] dedicated a volume of his works to her, and we hear of her lending the 'Chronicles of Jerusalem' and the 'Voyage of Godfrey Bouillon' to her nephew, Henry V (Fœdera, x. 317).

    *

    Buried:
    Images of St. Mary's ... https://www.google.com/search?q=staindrop+church&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=815&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjzxuiz6Z_LAhUKPCYKHQf1AA4QsAQIOA

    Died:
    Images and history of Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raby_Castle

    Ralph married Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland Bef 29 Nov 1396, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France. Joan (daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster) was born ~ 1379, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France; died 13 Nov 1440, Howden, Yorkshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 21.  Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland was born ~ 1379, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France (daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster); died 13 Nov 1440, Howden, Yorkshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

    Notes:

    Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland (c. 1379 - 13 November 1440), was the fourth of the four children (and only daughter) of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his mistress, later wife, Katherine Swynford. In her widowhood, she was a powerful landowner in the North of England.

    Early life and marriages

    She was probably born at the Swynford manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire. Her surname probably reflects her father's lordship of Beaufort in Champagne, France, where she might also have been born.[2] In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married at Beaufort-en-Vallâee, Anjou, Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, and they had two daughters before he died in about 1395.

    Legitimation

    Along with her three brothers, Joan had been privately declared legitimate by their cousin Richard II of England in 1390. Her parents were married in Lincoln Cathedral in February 1396.[3] Joan was already an adult when she was legitimized by the marriage of her mother and father with papal approval. The Beauforts were later barred from inheriting the throne by a clause inserted into the legitimation act by their half-brother, Henry IV of England, although it is not clear that Henry IV possessed sufficient authority to alter an existing parliamentary statute by himself, without the further approval of Parliament. Soon after the legitimation, on 3 February 1397, when she was eighteen, Joan married Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, who had also been married once before.

    Inheritance

    When Ralph de Neville died in 1425, his lands and titles should, by law of rights, have passed on to his grandson through his first marriage, another Ralph Neville. Instead, while the title of Earl of Westmorland and several manors were passed to Ralph, the bulk of his rich estate went to his wife, Joan Beaufort. Although this may have been done to ensure that his widow was well provided for, by doing this Ralph essentially split his family into two and the result was years of bitter conflict between Joan and her stepchildren who fiercely contested her acquisition of their father's lands. Joan however, with her royal blood and connections, was far too powerful to be called to account, and the senior branch of the Nevilles received little redress for their grievances. Inevitably, when Joan died, the lands would be inherited by her own children.

    Death

    Joan died on 13 November 1440 at Howden in Yorkshire.[3] Rather than be buried with her husband Ralph (who was not buried with his first wife, though his monument has effigies of himself and his two wives) she was entombed next to her mother in the magnificent sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral. Joan's is the smaller of the two tombs; both were decorated with brass plates – full-length representations of them on the tops, and small shields bearing coats of arms around the sides — but those were damaged or destroyed in 1644 by Roundheads during the English Civil War. A 1640 drawing of them survives, showing what the tombs looked like when they were intact, and side-by-side instead of end-to-end, as they are now.

    Descendants

    Joan Beaufort was mother to Cecily, Duchess of York and thus grandmother of Edward IV of England, and of Richard III of England, whom Henry VII defeated to take the throne. Henry then married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, and their son became Henry VIII of England. Henry VIII's sixth wife, Catherine Parr, was also a descendant through Joan and Ralph's eldest son, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and thus Henry's third cousin. The Earl of Salisbury was father to Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, "the Kingmaker" (father of Queen consort Anne Neville).

    Children of Joan Beaufort and Robert Ferrers

    In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, at Beaufort-en-Vallâee, Anjou. They had 2 children:

    Elizabeth Ferrers, 6th Baroness Boteler of Wem (1393–1474). She is buried at Black Friars Church, York. She married John de Greystoke, 4th Baron Greystoke (1389–1436), on 28 October 1407 in Greystoke Castle, Greystoke, Cumberland, and had issue.
    Margaret (or Mary) Ferrers (1394 – 25 January 1457/1458). She married her stepbrother, Sir Ralph Neville, son of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland, c. 1413 in Oversley, Warwickshire, and had issue

    Children of Joan Beaufort and Ralph Neville

    They had 14 children:

    Lady Katherine Neville, married first on 12 January 1411 John Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk; married second Sir Thomas Strangways; married third John Beaumont, 1st Viscount Beaumont; married fourth Sir John Woodville (d. 12 August 1469).
    Lady Eleanor Neville (d. 1472), married first Richard le Despenser, 4th Baron Burghersh, married second Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland
    Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460), married Alice Montacute, suo jure 5th Countess of Salisbury. Had issue. Their descendants include Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick; queen consort Anne Neville, wife of Richard III; and queen consort Catherine Parr, sixth wife of King Henry VIII (great-grandson of Richard's sister, Cecily).
    Robert Neville (d. 1457), Bishop of Durham
    William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent (c.1410–1463)
    Lady Anne Neville (?1411–20 September 1480), married Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham
    Edward Neville, 3rd Baron Bergavenny (d. 1476)
    Lady Cecily Neville (1415–1495) ("Proud Cis"), married Richard, 3rd Duke of York, and mothered Kings Edward IV of England and Richard III of England
    George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer (d. 1469)
    Joan Neville, became a nun
    John Neville, died young
    Cuthbert Neville, died young
    Thomas Neville, died young
    Henry Neville, died young

    Birth:
    She was probably born at the Swynford manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire. Her surname probably reflects her father's lordship of Beaufort in Champagne, France, where she might also have been born.[2] In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, at Beaufort-en-Vallâee, Anjou. They had two daughters before he died in about 1395.

    Buried:
    St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London. Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604.[1] The present church, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren. Its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London.[2]

    The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, dominated the skyline for 300 years.[3] At 365 feet (111 m) high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1962. The dome is among the highest in the world. St Paul's is the second largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral.

    St Paul's Cathedral occupies a significant place in the national identity.[4] It is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz.[4] Services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Winston Churchill; Jubilee celebrations for Queen Victoria; peace services marking the end of the First and Second World Wars; the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer, the launch of the Festival of Britain and the thanksgiving services for the Golden Jubilee, the 80th Birthday and the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.

    St Paul's Cathedral is a working church with hourly prayer and daily services.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral

    Notes:

    Married:
    by Papal Dispensation...

    Children:
    1. Eleanor Neville, Countess of Northumberland was born 1397-1399, Raby, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 0___ 1472.
    2. Richard Neville, I, Knight, 5th Earl of Salisbury was born Abt 1400, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 30 Dec 1460, Wakefield, St. John, West Riding, Yorkshire, England; was buried 15 Jan 1461.
    3. Katherine Neville was born ~ 1400; died Aft 1483.
    4. Robert Neville was born 0___ 1404, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 8 Jul 1457.
    5. George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer was born 1407-1414, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 30 Dec 1469; was buried 31 Dec 1469.
    6. 10. Edward Neville, 3rd Baron of Abergavenny was born 0___ 1414, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 18 Oct 1476, (Raby-Keverstone Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).
    7. Cecily Neville, Duchess of York was born 3 May 1415, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 31 May 1495, Berkhamsted Castle, Berkhamsted, England; was buried Church of St Mary and All Saints, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire, England.
    8. Ralph Neville
    9. Anne Neville died 0___ 1480.
    10. William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent was born ~1405; died 9 Jan 1463.

  5. 22.  Robert Howard, Duke of Norfolk was born 0___ 1385, Tendring, Essex, England (son of John Howard, Knight, Duke of Norfolk and Alice Tendring); died 1 Apr 1437.

    Robert married Margaret Mowbray, Duchess of Norfolk Abt 1411, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England. Margaret (daughter of Thomas de Mowbray, Knight, 1st Duke of Norfolk and Elizabeth FitzAlan, Duchess of Norfolk) was born Abt 1387, Axholme, Lincoln, England; died 8 Jul 1425. [Group Sheet]


  6. 23.  Margaret Mowbray, Duchess of Norfolk was born Abt 1387, Axholme, Lincoln, England (daughter of Thomas de Mowbray, Knight, 1st Duke of Norfolk and Elizabeth FitzAlan, Duchess of Norfolk); died 8 Jul 1425.

    Notes:

    Married:
    arranged marriage...

    Children:
    1. 11. Catherine Howard, Baroness of Abergavenny was born Abt 1414, Norfolk, England; died Aft 29 Jun 1478, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.
    2. John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk was born ~ 1425, Tendring, Essex, England; died 22 Aug 1485, Market Bosworth, Leicestershire, England.

  7. 24.  William Heydon was born (England).

    William — Joan Longford. Joan was born (England). [Group Sheet]


  8. 25.  Joan Longford was born (England).
    Children:
    1. 12. John Heydon was born Baconsthorpe, England; died 0___ 1479.

  9. 26.  Edward Winter was born (England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edmund Winter

    Edward — Oliva Hampton. Oliva was born (England). [Group Sheet]


  10. 27.  Oliva Hampton was born (England).
    Children:
    1. 13. Eleanor Winter died 0___ 1448.

  11. 28.  Geoffrey Boleyn was born ~ 1380, Salle, Norfolk, England (son of Thomas Boleyn and Anne Bracton); died 0___ 1440.

    Geoffrey — Alice LNU. Alice was born 0___ 1390, (Norfolkshire, England). [Group Sheet]


  12. 29.  Alice LNU was born 0___ 1390, (Norfolkshire, England).
    Children:
    1. 14. Geoffrey Boleyn was born 0___ 1406, Salle, Norfolk, England; died 0___ 1463; was buried London, England.

  13. 30.  Thomas Hoo, Baron Hoo and Hastings was born (England); died 13 Feb 1455.

    Thomas — Elizabeth Wychingham. Elizabeth was born (England). [Group Sheet]


  14. 31.  Elizabeth Wychingham was born (England).
    Children:
    1. 15. Anne Hoo was born 1424, (England); died 1484.


Generation: 6

  1. 36.  John Touchet, III, Knight, 4th Lord AudleyJohn Touchet, III, Knight, 4th Lord Audley was born 23 Apr 1371, Heleigh, Staffordshire, England (son of John Touchet, Lord of Markeaton and Margery de Mortimer); died 19 Dec 1408, Heleigh, Staffordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 1st Baron Tuchet
    • Also Known As: John Touchet

    Notes:

    John Tuchet, 4th Lord Audley (of Heleigh)1

    M, #47278, b. 23 April 1371, d. 19 December 1408
    Last Edited=12 May 2007
    John Tuchet, 4th Lord Audley (of Heleigh) was born on 23 April 1371.1 He was the son of John Tuchet.1 He married Isabel (?).1 He died on 19 December 1408 at age 37.1
    He succeeded to the title of 4th Lord Audley, of Heleigh [E., 1313] on 20 October 1403, by writ.1,2
    Child of John Tuchet, 4th Lord Audley (of Heleigh) and Isabel (?)

    James Tuchet, 5th Lord Audley (of Heleigh)+1 b. c 1398, d. 23 Sep 1459
    Citations

    [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 340. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
    [S2] Peter W. Hammond, editor, The Complete Peerage or a History of the House of Lords and All its Members From the Earliest Times, Volume XIV: Addenda & Corrigenda (Stroud, Gloucestershire, U.K.: Sutton Publishing, 1998), page 50. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage, Volume XIV.
    John Tuchet1

    M, #47279
    Last Edited=22 May 2004
    John Tuchet is the son of Sir John Tuchet and Joan Audley.1
    Child of John Tuchet

    John Tuchet, 4th Lord Audley (of Heleigh)+1 b. 23 Apr 1371, d. 19 Dec 1408
    Citations

    [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 340. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.

    end

    John married Elizabeth Stafford ~ 1391, Heleigh, Staffordshire, England. Elizabeth (daughter of Humphrey Stafford and Alice Grenville) was born 0___ 1375, Stourbridge, Staffordshire, England; died Aft 1404, Heleigh, Staffordshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 37.  Elizabeth Stafford was born 0___ 1375, Stourbridge, Staffordshire, England (daughter of Humphrey Stafford and Alice Grenville); died Aft 1404, Heleigh, Staffordshire, England.
    Children:
    1. 18. James Touchet, Knight, 5th Baron Audley was born ~ 1398, of Heleigh Castle, Heleigh, Stafford, England; died 23 Sep 1459, Blore Heath, Staffordshire, England; was buried Darley Abbey, England.

  3. 38.  William de Ros, Knight, 6th Baron de Ros of Helmsley was born ~ 1370, Helmsley, Yorkshire, England (son of Thomas de Ros, Knight, 4th Baron de Ros and Beatrice Stafford); died 1 Sep 1414.

    Notes:

    William de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros of Helmsley, KG (c.1370 - 1 September 1414) was Lord Treasurer of England.

    He was a son of Thomas de Ros, 4th Baron de Ros and Beatrice Stafford, daughter of Ralph Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford. He was also a younger brother of John de Ros, 5th Baron de Ros.

    His older brother died without issue in Paphos, Cyprus during 1394. William was already a Knight and inherited the rank and privileges of his deceased brother. He was first summoned to the Parliament of England on November 20 of the same year. He would regularly attend sessions till 1413.

    His first assignment from Richard II of England was to join Walter Skirlaw, Bishop of Durham, Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland and others in negotiating for a peace treaty with Robert III of Scotland.

    Richard favored William with a position in his Privy council. In 1396, William accompanied the King to Calais for his marriage to his second Queen consort Isabella of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria.

    When Henry of Bolingbroke started his revolt against Richard II, William was among the first to support him. He was present for the abdication of Richard II and the declaration of Henry IV as the new King. He retained his position in the Privy council for the rest of his life.

    He seems to have been a special favourite with the first monarch of the House of Lancaster and was employed him in various civil affairs of great importance. He served as Lord Treasurer of England from 1403 to 1404. He was created a Knight of the Garter in 1403 along with Edmund de Holand, 4th Earl of Kent and Richard Grey, 4th Baron Grey of Codnor.

    William was in charge of investigating the activities of Lollards in Derbyshire, Middlesex and Nottinghamshire from 1413 to his death.

    Marriage and issue

    William de Ros married, by licence dated 9 October 1394, Margaret Fitzalan (d. 3 July 1438), the daughter of John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel, by Eleanor Maltravers (c.1345 – 12 January 1405), younger daughter and coheir of Sir John Maltravers (d. 22 January 1349) and his wife Gwenthlian, by whom he had five sons and four daughters:[2]

    John de Ros, 7th Baron de Ros.
    William de Ros.
    Thomas de Ros, 8th Baron de Ros.
    Sir Robert de Ros, who married Anne Halsham.
    Sir Richard de Ros.
    Alice de Ros.
    Margaret De Ros, who married James Tuchet, 5th Baron Audley about 1415.
    Beatrice de Ros (a nun).
    Elizabeth de Ros, who married Robert de Morley, 6th Baron Morley.

    William married Margaret FitzAlan 9 Oct 1394. Margaret (daughter of John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel and Eleanor Maltravers, 2nd Baroness Maltravers) was born ~ 1370; died 3 Jul 1438. [Group Sheet]


  4. 39.  Margaret FitzAlan was born ~ 1370 (daughter of John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel and Eleanor Maltravers, 2nd Baroness Maltravers); died 3 Jul 1438.
    Children:
    1. 19. Margaret de Ros was born ~ 1400, of Hamlake, North Riding, Yorkshire, England; died Aft 1423, Heleigh Castle, Staffordshire, England.

  5. 40.  John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de RabyJohn Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby was born 1337-1340, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England (son of Ralph Neville, 4th Baron Neville de Raby and Alice de Audley); died 17 Oct 1388, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: John de Neville

    Notes:

    John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, KG c.1337 - 17 October 1388) was an English peer and soldier.[a]

    John Neville, born at Raby Castle, Durham, between 1337 and 1340, was the eldest son of Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby, and Alice Audley. He had five brothers, including Alexander Neville, Archbishop of York, and four sisters.[1]

    Cokayne notes that Neville's public career was as active as his father's had been. He fought against the Scots at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 as a captain under his father, was knighted about 1360 after a skirmish near Paris while serving under Sir Walter Manny , and fought in Aquitaine in 1366, and again in 1373-4.

    At his father's death on 5 August 1367 he succeeded to the title, and had livery of his lands in England and Scotland in October of that year.

    From 1367 on he had numerous commissions issued to him, and in 1368 served as joint ambassador to France.[2] He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1369.[3]

    In July 1370 he was Admiral of the North, and in November of that year a joint commissioner to treat with Genoa . He was Steward of the King's Household in 1372, and in July of that year was part of an expedition to Brittany . For the next several years he served in Scotland and the Scottish Marches . In 1378 he had licence to fortify Raby Castle, and in June of the same year was in Gascony, where he was appointed Keeper of Fronsac Castle and Seneschal of Gascony .

    He spent several years in Gascony, and was among the forces which raised the siege of Mortaigne in 1381. On his return to England he was again appointed Warden of the Marches. In May 1383 and March 1387 he was a joint commissioner to treat of peace with Scotland, and in July 1385 was to accompany the King to Scotland.[4]

    Neville died at Newcastle upon Tyne on 17 October 1388. In his will he requested burial in Durham Cathedral by his first wife, Maud. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland .[5]

    Marriages and issue

    Neville married, before 1362, firstly, Maud Percy (d. before 18 February 1379), daughter of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick, Northumberland, and Idoine de Clifford, daughter of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford, by whom he had two sons and five daughters:[6]

    Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland.
    Sir Thomas Neville of Brancepeth, who married Maud Stanhope.
    Alice Neville, who married William Deincourt, 3rd Baron Deincourt.
    Maud Nevile.
    Idoine Neville.
    Eleanor Neville, who married Ralph de Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley.
    Elizabeth Neville, who became a nun.
    After his first wife Maud's death in 1379 Neville married secondly, before 9 October 1381, Elizabeth Latimer (d. 5 November 1395), daughter of William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, by whom he had a son and a daughter:[7]

    John Neville, 6th Baron Latimer (c.1382 – 10 December 1430), who married firstly, Maud Clifford (c.26 August 1446), daughter of Thomas de Clifford, 6th Baron de Clifford, whom he divorced before 1413x17, and by whom he had no issue. She married secondly, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge.[8]
    Elizabeth Neville, who married, before 27 May 1396, Sir Thomas Willoughby (died shortly before 20 August 1417) son of Robert Willoughby, 4th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (c.1348-50 – 9 August 1396), by whom she had one child, Sir John Willoughby (c.1400 – 24 February 1437).[9]
    After Neville's death, his widow, Elizabeth, married, as his second wife, Robert Willoughby, 4th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (c.1348-50 – 9 August 1396), by whom she had a daughter, Margaret Willoughby.[10]

    Birth:
    Raby Castle - history & images of this Neville Family Home ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raby_Castle

    John married Maud Percy 0Jul 1357, Alnwick, Northumberland, England. Maud (daughter of Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick and Idonia Clifford) was born Abt 1335, Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; died 18 Feb 1378; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 41.  Maud Percy was born Abt 1335, Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England (daughter of Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick and Idonia Clifford); died 18 Feb 1378; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Maud de Percy

    Notes:

    Maud's ahnentafel: https://histfam.familysearch.org//ahnentafel.php?personID=I1058&tree=EuropeRoyalNobleHous&parentset=0&generations=4

    Children:
    1. 20. Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland was born 0___ 1364, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; died 21 Oct 1425, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; was buried 0Oct 1425, St. Mary's Church, Staindrop, Durham, England.
    2. Eleanor de Neville, Baroness of Lumley was born ~ 1379, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died ~ 1441, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.

  7. 42.  John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of LancasterJohn of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster was born 6 Mar 1340, St. Bavo's Abbey, Ghent, Belgium (son of Edward III, King of England and Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England); died 3 Feb 1399, Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire, England; was buried 15 Mar 1399, St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Middlesex, England..

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Duke of Aquitaine
    • Also Known As: King of Castile

    Notes:

    John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then rendered in English as Gaunt. When he became unpopular later in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury.[2]

    As a younger brother of Edward, Prince of Wales (Edward, the Black Prince), John exercised great influence over the English throne during the minority of Edward's son, who became King Richard II, and the ensuing periods of political strife. Due to some generous land grants, John was one of the richest men in his era. He made an abortive attempt to enforce a claim to the Crown of Castile that came courtesy of his second wife Constance, who was an heir to the Castillian Kingdom, and for a time styled himself as such.

    John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, include Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. His other legitimate descendants include his daughters Queen Philippa of Portugal and Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter (by his first wife Blanche of Lancaster), and Queen Catherine of Castile (by his second wife Constance of Castile). John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The children of Katherine Swynford, surnamed "Beaufort," were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396. Descendants of this marriage include Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, a grandmother of Kings Edward IV and Richard III; John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, a great-grandfather of King Henry VII; and Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots, from whom are descended all subsequent sovereigns of Scotland beginning in 1437 and all sovereigns of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom from 1603 to the present day. The three houses of English sovereigns that succeeded the rule of Richard II in 1399 — the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor — were all descended from John's children Henry IV, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively. In addition, John's daughter Catherine of Lancaster was married to King Henry III of Castile, which made him the grandfather of King John II of Castile and the ancestor of all subsequent monarchs of the Crown of Castile and united Spain. Through John II of Castile's great-granddaughter Joanna the Mad, John of Gaunt is also an ancestor of the Habsburg rulers who would reign in Spain and much of central Europe.

    John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, the son of his first wife Blanche of Lancaster, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398 as resolution to a dispute between Henry and Thomas de Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk.[3] When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown, since King Richard II had named Henry a traitor and changed his sentence to exile for life.[3] Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England (1399–1413), the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England.

    Duke of Lancaster

    Kenilworth Castle, a massive fortress extensively modernised and given a new Great Hall by John of Gaunt after 1350
    John was the fourth son of King Edward III of England. His first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was also his third cousin, both as great-great-grandchildren of King Henry III. They married in 1359 at Reading Abbey as a part of the efforts of Edward III to arrange matches for his sons with wealthy heiresses. Upon the death of his father-in-law, the 1st Duke of Lancaster, in 1361, John received half his lands, the title "Earl of Lancaster", and distinction as the greatest landowner in the north of England as heir of the Palatinate of Lancaster. He also became the 14th Baron of Halton and 11th Lord of Bowland. John inherited the rest of the Lancaster property when Blanche's sister Maud, Countess of Leicester (married to William V, Count of Hainaut), died without issue on 10 April 1362.

    John received the title "Duke of Lancaster" from his father on 13 November 1362. By then well established, he owned at least thirty castles and estates across England and France and maintained a household comparable in scale and organisation to that of a monarch. He owned land in almost every county in England, a patrimony that produced a net income of between ¹8,000 and ¹10,000 a year.[4]

    After the death in 1376 of his older brother Edward of Woodstock (also known as the "Black Prince"), John of Gaunt contrived to protect the religious reformer John Wycliffe, possibly to counteract the growing secular power of the church.[5] However, John's ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. At a time when English forces encountered setbacks in the Hundred Years' War against France, and Edward III's rule was becoming unpopular due to high taxation and his affair with Alice Perrers, political opinion closely associated the Duke of Lancaster with the failing government of the 1370s. Furthermore, while King Edward and the Prince of Wales were popular heroes due to their successes on the battlefield, John of Gaunt had not won equivalent military renown that could have bolstered his reputation. Although he fought in the Battle of Nâajera (1367), for example, his later military projects proved unsuccessful.

    When Edward III died in 1377 and John's ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, John's influence strengthened. However, mistrust remained, and some[who?] suspected him of wanting to seize the throne himself. John took pains to ensure that he never became associated with the opposition to Richard's kingship. As de facto ruler during Richard's minority, he made unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, when the rebels destroyed his home in London, the Savoy Palace. Unlike some of Richard's unpopular advisors, John was away from London at the time of the uprising and thus avoided the direct wrath of the rebels.

    In 1386 John left England to seek the throne of Castile, claimed in Jure uxoris by right of his second wife, Constance of Castile, whom he had married in 1371. However, crisis ensued almost immediately in his absence, and in 1387 King Richard's misrule brought England to the brink of civil war. Only John, on his return to England in 1389, succeeded in persuading the Lords Appellant and King Richard to compromise to usher in a period of relative stability. During the 1390s, John's reputation of devotion to the well-being of the kingdom was largely restored.

    Sometime after the death of Blanche of Lancaster in 1368 and the birth of their first son, John Beaufort, in 1373, John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford, the daughter of an ordinary knight, entered into an extra-marital love affair that would produce four children for the couple. All of them were born out of wedlock, but legitimized upon their parents' eventual marriage. The adulterous relationship endured until 1381, when it was broken out of political necessity.[6] On 13 January 1396, two years after the death of Constance of Castile, Katherine and John of Gaunt married in Lincoln Cathedral. The children bore the surname "Beaufort" after a former French possession of the duke. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married. A later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne, the phrase excepta regali dignitate ("except royal status"), was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV.

    John died of natural causes on 3 February 1399 at Leicester Castle, with his third wife Katherine by his side.

    Military commander in France

    Because of his rank, John of Gaunt was one of England's principal military commanders in the 1370s and 1380s, though his enterprises were never rewarded with the kind of dazzling success that had made his elder brother Edward the Black Prince such a charismatic war leader.

    On the resumption of war with France in 1369, John was sent to Calais with the Earl of Hereford and a small English army with which he raided into northern France. On 23 August, he was confronted by a much larger French army under Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Exercising his first command, John dared not attack such a superior force and the two armies faced each other across a marsh for several weeks until the English were reinforced by the Earl of Warwick, at which the French withdrew without offering battle. John and Warwick then decided to strike Harfleur, the base of the French fleet on the Seine. Further reinforced by German mercenaries, they marched on Harfleur, but were delayed by French guerilla operations while the town prepared for a siege. John invested the town for four days in October, but he was losing so many men to dysentery and bubonic plague that he decided to abandon the siege and return to Calais. During this retreat, the army had to fight its way across the Somme at the ford of Blanchetaque against a French army led by Hugh de Chãatillon, who was captured and sold to Edward III. By the middle of November, the survivors of the sickly army returned to Calais, where the Earl of Warwick died of plague. Though it seemed an inglorious conclusion to the campaign, John had forced the French king, Charles V, to abandon his plans to invade England that autumn.[7]

    In the summer of 1370, John was sent with a small army to Aquitaine to reinforce his ailing elder brother, the Black Prince, and his younger brother Edmund of Langley, Earl of Cambridge. With them, he participated in the Siege of Limoges (September 1370). He took charge of the siege operations and at one point engaging in hand-to-hand fighting in the undermining tunnels.[8] After this event, the Black Prince surrendered his lordship of Aquitaine and sailed for England, leaving John in charge. Though he attempted to defend the duchy against French encroachment for nearly a year, lack of resources and money meant he could do little but husband what small territory the English still controlled, and he resigned the command in September 1371 and returned to England.[9] Just before leaving Aquitaine, he married the Infanta Constance of Castile on September 1371 at Roquefort, near Bordeaux, Guienne. The following year he took part with his father, Edward III, in an abortive attempt to invade France with a large army, which was frustrated by three months of unfavourable winds.

    Probably John's most notable feat of arms occurred in August–December 1373, when he attempted to relieve Aquitaine by the landward route, leading an army of some 9,000 mounted men from Calais on a great chevauchâee from north-eastern to south-western France on a 900 kilometre raid. This four-month ride through enemy territory, evading French armies on the way, was a bold stroke that impressed contemporaries but achieved virtually nothing. Beset on all sides by French ambushes and plagued by disease and starvation, John of Gaunt and his raiders battled their way through Champagne, east of Paris, into Burgundy, across the Massif Central, and finally down into Dordogne. Unable to attack any strongly fortified forts and cities, the raiders plundered the countryside, which weakened the French infrastructure, but the military value of the damage was only temporary. Marching in winter across the Limousin plateau, with stragglers being picked off by the French, huge numbers of the army, and even larger numbers of horses, died of cold, disease or starvation. The army reached English-occupied Bordeaux on 24 December 1373, severely weakened in numbers with the loss of least one-third of their force in action and another third to disease. Upon arrival in Bordeaux, many more succumbed to the bubonic plague that was raging in the city. Sick, demoralised and mutinous, the army was in no shape to defend Aquitaine, and soldiers began to desert. John had no funds with which to pay them, and despite his entreaties, none were sent from England, so in April 1374, he abandoned the enterprise and sailed for home.[10]

    John's final campaign in France took place in 1378. He planned a 'great expedition' of mounted men in a large armada of ships to land at Brest and take control of Brittany. Not enough ships could be found to transport the horses, and the expedition was tasked with the more limited objective of capturing St. Malo. The English destroyed the shipping in St. Malo harbour and began to assault the town by land on 14 August, but John was soon hampered by the size of his army, which was unable to forage because French armies under Olivier de Clisson and Bertrand du Guesclin occupied the surrounding countryside, harrying the edges of his force. In September, the siege was simply abandoned and the army returned ingloriously to England. John of Gaunt received most of the blame for the debãacle.[11]

    Partly as a result of these failures, and those of other English commanders at this period, John was one of the first important figures in England to conclude that the war with France was unwinnable because of France's greater resources of wealth and manpower. He began to advocate peace negotiations; indeed, as early as 1373, during his great raid through France, he made contact with Guillaume Roger, brother and political adviser of Pope Gregory XI, to let the pope know he would be interested in a diplomatic conference under papal auspices. This approach led indirectly to the Anglo-French Congress of Bruges in 1374–77, which resulted in the short-lived Truce of Bruges between the two sides.[12] John was himself a delegate to the various conferences that eventually resulted in the Truce of Leulinghem in 1389. The fact that he became identified with the attempts to make peace added to his unpopularity at a period when the majority of Englishmen believed victory would be in their grasp if only the French could be defeated decisively as they had been in the 1350s. Another motive was John's conviction that it was only by making peace with France would it be possible to release sufficient manpower to enforce his claim to the throne of Castile.

    Head of government

    On his return from France in 1374, John took a more decisive and persistent role in the direction of English foreign policy. From then until 1377, he was effectively the head of the English government due to the illness of his father and elder brother, who were unable to exercise authority. His vast estates made him the richest man in England, and his great wealth, ostentatious display of it, autocratic manner and attitudes, enormous London mansion (the Savoy Palace on the Strand) and association with the failed peace process at Bruges combined to make him the most visible target of social resentments. His time at the head of government was marked by the so-called Good Parliament of 1376 and the Bad Parliament of 1377. The first, called to grant massive war taxation to the Crown, turned into a parliamentary revolution, with the Commons (supported to some extent by the Lords) venting their grievances at decades of crippling taxation, misgovernment, and suspected endemic corruption among the ruling classes. John was left isolated (even the Black Prince supported the need for reform) and the Commons refused to grant money for the war unless most of the great officers of state were dismissed and the king's mistress Alice Perrers, another focus of popular resentment, was barred from any further association with him. But even after the government acceded to virtually all their demands, the Commons then refused to authorise any funds for the war, losing the sympathy of the Lords as a result.

    The death of the Black Prince on 8 June 1376 and the onset of Edward III's last illness at the closing of Parliament on 10 July left John with all the reins of power. He immediately had the ailing king grant pardons to all the officials impeached by the Parliament; Alice Perrers too was reinstated at the heart of the king's household. John impeached William of Wykeham and other leaders of the reform movement, and secured their conviction on old or trumped-up charges. The parliament of 1377 was John's counter-coup: crucially, the Lords no longer supported the Commons and John was able to have most of the acts of 1376 annulled. He also succeeded in forcing the Commons to agree to the imposition of the first Poll Tax in English history — a viciously regressive measure that bore hardest on the poorest members of society.[13] There was organised opposition to his measures and rioting in London; John of Gaunt's arms were reversed or defaced wherever they were displayed, and protestors pasted up lampoons on his supposedly dubious birth. At one point he was forced to take refuge across the Thames, while his Savoy Palace only just escaped looting.[14] It was rumoured (and believed by many people in England and France) that he intended to seize the throne for himself and supplant the rightful heir, his nephew Richard, the son of the Black Prince, but there seems to have been no truth in this and on the death of Edward III and the accession of the child Richard II, John sought no position of regency for himself and withdrew to his estates.[15]

    John's personal unpopularity persisted, however, and the failure of his expedition to Saint-Malo in 1378 did nothing for his reputation. By this time, too, some of his possessions were taken from him by the Crown. For example, his ship, the Dieulagarde, was seized and bundled with other royal ships to be sold (to pay off the debts of Sir Robert de Crull, who during the latter part of King Edward III's reign had been the Clerk of the King's Ships, and had advanced monies to pay for the king's ships .[16] During the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, John of Gaunt was far from the centre of events, on the March of Scotland, but he was among those named by the rebels as a traitor to be beheaded as soon as he could be found. The Savoy Palace was systematically destroyed by the mob and burned to the ground. Nominally friendly lords and even his own fortresses closed their gates to him, and John was forced to flee into Scotland with a handful of retainers and throw himself on the charity of King Robert II of Scotland until the crisis was over.[17]

    King of Castile

    Upon his marriage to the Infanta Constance of Castile in 1371, John assumed (officially from 29 January 1372) the title of King of Castile and Leâon in right of his wife, and insisted his fellow English nobles henceforth address him as 'my lord of Spain'.[18] He impaled his arms with those of the Spanish kingdom. From 1372, John gathered around himself a small court of refugee Castilian knights and ladies and set up a Castilian chancery that prepared documents in his name according to the style of Peter of Castile, dated by the Castilian era and signed by himself with the Spanish formula 'Yo El Rey' ("I, the King").[19] He hatched several schemes to make good his claim with an army, but for many years these were still-born due to lack of finance or the conflicting claims of war in France or with Scotland. It was only in 1386, after Portugal under its new King John I had entered into full alliance with England, that he was actually able to land with an army in Spain and mount a campaign for the throne of Castile (that ultimately failed). John sailed from England on 9 July 1386 with a huge Anglo-Portuguese fleet carrying an army of about 5,000 men plus an extensive 'royal' household and his wife and daughters. Pausing on the journey to use his army to drive off the French forces who were then besieging Brest, he landed at Corunna in northern Spain on 29 July.


    John of Gaunt dines with John I of Portugal, to discuss a joint Anglo-Portuguese invasion of Castile (from Jean de Wavrin's Chronique d'Angleterre).
    The Castilian king, John of Trastâamara, had expected John would land in Portugal and had concentrated his forces on the Portuguese border. He was wrong-footed by John's decision to invade Galicia, the most distant and disaffected of Castile's kingdoms. From August to October, John of Gaunt set up a rudimentary court and chancery at Ourense and received the submission of the Galician nobility and most of the towns of Galicia, though they made their homage to him conditional on his being recognised as king by the rest of Castile. While John of Gaunt had gambled on an early decisive battle, the Castilians were in no hurry to join battle, and he began to experience difficulties keeping his army together and paying it. In November, he met King John I of Portugal at Ponte do Mouro on the south side of the Minho River and concluded an agreement with him to make a joint Anglo-Portuguese invasion of central Castile early in 1387. The treaty was sealed by the marriage of John's eldest daughter Philippa to the Portuguese king. A large part of John's army had succumbed to sickness, however, and when the invasion was mounted, they were far outnumbered by their Portuguese allies. The campaign of April–June 1387 was an ignominious failure. The Castilians refused to offer battle and the Galician-Anglo-Portuguese troops, apart from time-wasting sieges of fortified towns, were reduced to foraging for food in the arid Spanish landscape. They were harried mainly by French mercenaries of the Castilian king. Many hundreds of English, including close friends and retainers of John of Gaunt, died of disease or exhaustion. Many deserted or abandoned the army to ride north under French safe-conducts. Shortly after the army returned to Portugal, John of Gaunt concluded a secret treaty with John of Trastâamara under which he and his wife renounced all claim to the Castilian throne in return for a large annual payment and the marriage of their daughter Catherine to John of Trastâamara's son Henry.

    Duke of Aquitaine

    John left Portugal for Aquitaine, and he remained in that province until he returned to England in November 1389. This effectively kept him off the scene while England endured the major political crisis of the conflict between Richard II and the Lords Appellant, who were led by John of Gaunt's younger brother Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester. Only four months after his return to England, in March 1390, Richard II formally invested Gaunt with the Duchy of Aquitaine, thus providing him with the overseas territory he had long desired. However he did not immediately return to the province, but remained in England and mainly ruled through seneschals as an absentee duke. His administration of the province was a disappointment, and his appointment as duke was much resented by the Gascons, since Aquitaine had previously always been held directly by the king of England or his heir; it was not felt to be a fief that a king could bestow on a subordinate. In 1394–95, he was forced to spend nearly a year in Gascony to shore up his position in the face of threats of secession by the Gascon nobles. He was one of England's principal negotiators in the diplomatic exchanges with France that led to the Truce of Leulingham in 1396, and he initially agreed to join the French-led Crusade that ended in the disastrous Battle of Nicopolis, but withdrew due to ill-health and the political problems in Gascony and England.[20] For the remainder of his life, John of Gaunt occupied the role of valued counsellor of the king and loyal supporter of the Crown. He did not even protest, it seems, when his younger brother Thomas was murdered at Richard's behest. It may be that he felt he had to maintain this posture of loyalty to protect his son Henry Bolingbroke (the future Henry IV), who had also been one of the Lords Appellant, from Richard's wrath; but in 1398 Richard had Bolingbroke exiled, and on John of Gaunt's death the next year he disinherited Bolingbroke completely, seizing John's vast estates for the Crown.

    Relationship to Chaucer

    John of Gaunt was a patron and close friend of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer, most famously known for his work The Canterbury Tales. Near the end of their lives, Lancaster and Chaucer became brothers-in-law. Chaucer married Philippa (Pan) de Roet in 1366, and Lancaster took his mistress of nearly 30 years, Katherine Swynford (de Roet), who was Philippa Chaucer's sister, as his third wife in 1396. Although Philippa died c. 1387, the men were bound as brothers and Lancaster's children by Katherine – John, Henry, Thomas and Joan Beaufort – were Chaucer's nephews and niece.

    Chaucer's Book of the Duchess, also known as the Deeth of Blaunche the Duchesse,[21] was written in commemoration of Blanche of Lancaster, John of Gaunt's first wife. The poem refers to John and Blanche in allegory as the narrator relates the tale of "A long castel with walles white/Be Seynt Johan, on a ryche hil" (1318–1319) who is mourning grievously after the death of his love, "And goode faire White she het/That was my lady name ryght" (948–949). The phrase "long castel" is a reference to Lancaster (also called "Loncastel" and "Longcastell"), "walles white" is thought to likely be an oblique reference to Blanche, "Seynt Johan" was John of Gaunt's name-saint, and "ryche hil" is a reference to Richmond; these thinly veiled references reveal the identity of the grieving black knight of the poem as John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Earl of Richmond. "White" is the English translation of the French word "blanche", implying that the white lady was Blanche of Lancaster.[22]

    Believed to have been written in the 1390s, Chaucer's short poem Fortune, is also inferred to directly reference Lancaster.[23][24] "Chaucer as narrator" openly defies Fortune, proclaiming he has learned who his enemies are through her tyranny and deceit, and declares "my suffisaunce" (15) and that "over himself hath the maystrye" (14). Fortune, in turn, does not understand Chaucer's harsh words to her for she believes she has been kind to him, claims that he does not know what she has in store for him in the future, but most importantly, "And eek thou hast thy beste frend alyve" (32, 40, 48). Chaucer retorts that "My frend maystow nat reven, blind goddesse" (50) and orders her to take away those who merely pretend to be his friends. Fortune turns her attention to three princes whom she implores to relieve Chaucer of his pain and "Preyeth his beste frend of his noblesse/That to som beter estat he may atteyne" (78–79). The three princes are believed to represent the dukes of Lancaster, York, and Gloucester, and a portion of line 76, "as three of you or tweyne," to refer to the ordinance of 1390 which specified that no royal gift could be authorised without the consent of at least two of the three dukes.[23] Most conspicuous in this short poem is the number of references to Chaucer's "beste frend". Fortune states three times in her response to the plaintiff, "And also, you still have your best friend alive" (32, 40, 48); she also references his "beste frend" in the envoy when appealing to his "noblesse" to help Chaucer to a higher estate. A fifth reference is made by "Chaucer as narrator" who rails at Fortune that she shall not take his friend from him. While the envoy playfully hints to Lancaster that Chaucer would certainly appreciate a boost to his status or income, the poem Fortune distinctively shows his deep appreciation and affection for John of Gaunt.

    Marriages

    Coat of arms of John of Gaunt asserting his kingship over Castile and Leâon, combining the Castilian castle and lion with lilies of France, the lions of England and his heraldic difference

    On 19 May 1359 at Reading Abbey, John married his third cousin, Blanche of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. The wealth she brought to the marriage was the foundation of John's fortune. Blanche died on 12 September 1368 at Tutbury Castle, while her husband was overseas. Their son Henry Bolingbroke became Henry IV of England, after the duchy of Lancaster was taken by Richard II upon John's death while Henry was in exile. Their daughter Philippa became Queen of Portugal by marrying King John I of Portugal in 1387. All subsequent kings of Portugal were thus descended from John of Gaunt.

    In 1371, John married Infanta Constance of Castile, daughter of King Peter of Castile, thus giving him a claim to the Crown of Castile, which he would pursue. Though John was never able to make good his claim, his daughter by Constance, Catherine of Lancaster, became Queen of Castile by marrying Henry III of Castile. Catherine of Aragon is descended from this line.

    During his marriage to Constance, John of Gaunt had fathered four children by a mistress, the widow Katherine Swynford (whose sister Philippa de Roet was married to Chaucer). Prior to her widowhood, Katherine had borne at least two, possibly three, children to Lancastrian knight Sir Hugh Swynford. The known names of these children are Blanche and Thomas. (There may have been a second Swynford daughter.) John of Gaunt was Blanche Swynford's godfather.[25]
    Constance died in 1394.

    John married Katherine in 1396, and their children, the Beauforts, were legitimised by King Richard II and the Church, but barred from inheriting the throne. From the eldest son, John, descended a granddaughter, Margaret Beaufort, whose son, later King Henry VII of England, would nevertheless claim the throne.

    Queen Elizabeth II and her predecessors since Henry IV are descended from John of Gaunt.

    Children

    1640 drawing of tombs of Katherine Swynford and daughter Joan Beaufort

    By Blanche of Lancaster:

    Philippa (1360–1415) married King John I of Portugal (1357–1433).
    John (1362–1365) was the first-born son of John and Blanche of Lancaster and lived possibly at least until after the birth of his brother Edward of Lancaster in 1365 and died before his second brother another short lived boy called John in 1366.[26] He was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester.
    Elizabeth (1364–1426), married (1) in 1380 John Hastings, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1372–1389), annulled 1383; married (2) in 1386 John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter (1350–1400); (3) Sir John Cornwall, 1st Baron Fanhope and Milbroke (d. 1443)
    Edward (1365) died within a year of his birth and was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester.
    John (1366–1367) most likely died after the birth of his younger brother Henry, the future Henry IV of England; he was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester
    Henry IV of England (1367–1413) married (1) Mary de Bohun (1369–1394); (2) Joanna of Navarre (1368–1437)
    Isabel (1368–1368)[27][28]

    By Constance of Castile:

    Catherine (1372–1418), married King Henry III of Castile (1379–1406)
    John (1374–1375)[28][29]

    By Katherine Swynford (nâee de Roet/Roelt), mistress and later wife (children legitimised 1397):

    John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373–1410)—married Margaret Holland.
    Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester and Cardinal (1375–1447)
    Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter (1377–1427), married Margaret Neville, daughter of Sir Thomas de Neville and Joan Furnivall.
    Joan Beaufort (1379–1440)—married first Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem and second Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland.

    By Marie de St. Hilaire of Hainaut, mistress:

    Blanche (1359–1388/89), illegitimate, married Sir Thomas Morieux (1355–1387) in 1381, without issue. Blanche was the daughter of John's mistress, Marie de St. Hilaire of Hainaut (1340-after 1399), who was a lady-in-waiting to his mother, Queen Philippa. The affair apparently took place before John's first marriage to Blanche of Lancaster. John's daughter, Blanche, married Sir Thomas Morieux in 1381. Morieux held several important posts, including Constable of the Tower the year he was married, and Master of Horse to King Richard II two years later. He died in 1387 after six years of marriage.

    Buried:
    St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London. Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604.[1] The present church, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren. Its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London.[2]

    The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, dominated the skyline for 300 years.[3] At 365 feet (111 m) high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1962. The dome is among the highest in the world. St Paul's is the second largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral.

    St Paul's Cathedral occupies a significant place in the national identity.[4] It is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz.[4] Services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Winston Churchill; Jubilee celebrations for Queen Victoria; peace services marking the end of the First and Second World Wars; the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer, the launch of the Festival of Britain and the thanksgiving services for the Golden Jubilee, the 80th Birthday and the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.

    St Paul's Cathedral is a working church with hourly prayer and daily services.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral

    Died:
    Leicester Castle was built over the Roman town walls.

    According to Leicester Museums, the castle was probably built around 1070 (soon after the Norman Conquest in 1066)[2] under the governorship of Hugh de Grantmesnil. The remains now consist of a mound, along with ruins. Originally the mound was 40 ft (12.2 m) high. Kings sometimes stayed at the castle (Edward I in 1300, and Edward II in 1310 and 1311), and John of Gaunt and his second wife Constance of Castile both died here in 1399 and 1394 respectively.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leicester_Castle

    John married Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster 0___ 1396, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. Katherine (daughter of Paon de Roet, Knight and unnamed spouse) was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France; died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 43.  Katherine de Roet, Duchess of LancasterKatherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France (daughter of Paon de Roet, Knight and unnamed spouse); died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Katherine Swynford

    Notes:

    Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster (also spelled Katharine or Catherine[2]), was the third wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, a son of King Edward III. She had been the Duke's lover for many years before their marriage. The couple's children, born before the marriage, were later legitimated during the reign of the Duke's nephew, Richard II, although with the provision that neither they nor their descendants could ever claim the throne of England.

    Their descendants were members of the Beaufort family, which played a major role in the Wars of the Roses. Henry VII, who became King of England in 1485, derived his claim to the throne from his mother Margaret Beaufort, who was a great-granddaughter of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford. His legal claim to the throne, however, was through a matrilineal and previously illegitimate line and Henry's first action was to declare himself king "by right of conquest" retroactively from 21 August 1485, the day before his army defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth.[3]

    Family

    Katherine was the daughter of Paon de Roet, a herald, and later knight, who was "probably christened as Gilles".[4] She had two sisters, Philippa and Isabel (also called Elizabeth) de Roet, and a brother, Walter. Isabel later became Canoness of the convent of St. Waudru's, Mons, c. 1366. Katherine is generally held to have been his youngest child. However, Alison Weir argues that Philippa was the junior and that both were children of a second marriage.[4] Katherine's sister Philippa, a lady of Queen Philippa's household, married the poet Geoffrey Chaucer.

    Life

    She was probably born in Hainaut in 1349 or 1350. Katherine's birth date may have been 25 November, as that is the feast day of her patron, St. Catherine of Alexandria.[citation needed] The family returned to England in 1351, and it is likely that Katherine stayed there during her father's continued travels.

    In about 1366, at St Clement Danes Church, Westminster, Katherine, aged sixteen or seventeen, contracted an advantageous marriage with "Hugh" Ottes Swynford, a Knight from the manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire, the son of Thomas Swynford by his marriage to Nicole Druel. She had the following children by him: Blanche (born 1 May 1367), Thomas (21 September 1368 – 1432), and possibly Margaret Swynford (born about 1369), later recorded as a nun of the prestigious Barking Abbey nominated by command of King Richard II.

    Katherine became attached to the household of John of Gaunt as governess to his daughters Philippa of Lancaster and Elizabeth of Lancaster. The ailing duchess Blanche had Katherine's daughter Blanche (her namesake) placed within her own daughters' chambers and afforded the same luxuries as her daughters; additionally, John of Gaunt stood as godfather to the child.

    Some time after Blanche's death in 1368 and the birth of their first son in 1373, Katherine and John of Gaunt entered into a love affair that would produce four children for the couple, born out of wedlock but legitimized upon their parents' eventual marriage; the adulterous relationship endured until 1381 when it was truncated out of political necessity[5] and ruined Katherine's reputation. On 13 January 1396, two years after the death of the Duke's second wife, Infanta Constance of Castile, Katherine and John of Gaunt married in Lincoln Cathedral. Records of their marriage kept in the Tower and elsewhere list: 'John of Ghaunt, Duke of Lancaster, married Katharine daughter of Guyon King of Armes in the time of K. Edward the 3, and Geffrey Chaucer her sister'.

    On John of Gaunt's death, Katherine became known as dowager Duchess of Lancaster. She outlived him by four years, dying on 10 May 1403, in her early fifties, an age that most of the women in the 15th century did not reach.

    Tomb

    Katherine Swynford's tomb in 1809
    Katherine's tomb and that of her daughter, Joan Beaufort, are under a carved-stone canopy in the sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral. Joan's is the smaller of the two tombs; both were decorated with brass plates — full-length representations of them on the tops, and small shields bearing coats of arms around the sides and on the top — but those were damaged or destroyed in 1644 during the English Civil War. A hurried drawing by William Dugdale records their appearance.

    Children and descendants

    Katherine's children by Hugh Swynford were:

    Margaret Swynford (born c. 1369), became a nun at the prestigious Barking Abbey in 1377 with help from her future stepfather John of Gaunt, where she lived the religious life with her cousin Elizabeth Chaucer, daughter of the famous Geoffrey Chaucer and Katherine's sister Philippa de Roet.[4]
    Sir Thomas Swynford (1367–1432), born in Lincoln while his father Sir Hugh Swynford was away on a campaign with the Duke of Lancaster in Castile fighting for Peter of Castile.[4][6]
    Blanche Swynford, named after the Duchess of Lancaster and a godchild of John of Gaunt. (If, as suggested, she was born after 1375, this date is too late for her to have been fathered by Hugh Swynford, who died in 1371/2. However, since John of Gaunt obtained a dispensation for his marriage to Katherine for being Blanche Swynford's godchild, this theory can be discarded).[4]
    In 1846 Thomas Stapleton suggested that there was a further daughter named Dorothy Swynford, born c. 1366, who married Thomas Thimelby of Poolham near Horncastle, Lincolnshire, Sheriff of Lincolnshire in 1380, but there is no current evidence to support this claim.[4]

    Katherine's children by John of Gaunt were:

    John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373–1410)
    Henry, Cardinal Beaufort (1375–1447)
    Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter (1377–1426)
    Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland (1379–1440)
    The descendants of Katherine Swynford and John of Gaunt are significant in English and Scottish history. Their four children had been given the surname "Beaufort" and with the approval of King Richard II and the Pope were legitimated as adults by their parents' marriage in 1396. Despite this, the Beauforts were barred from inheriting the throne of England by a clause in the legitimation act inserted by their half-brother, Henry IV, although modern scholarship disputes the authority of a monarch to alter an existing parliamentary statute on his own authority, without the further approval of Parliament. This provision was later revoked by Edward IV, placing Katherine's descendants (including himself) back within the legitimate line of inheritance; the Tudor dynasty was directly descended from John and Katherine's eldest child, John Beaufort, great-grandfather of Henry VII, who based his claim to the throne on his mother's descent from John of Gaunt, a son of Edward III. John Beaufort also had a daughter named Joan Beaufort, who married James I of Scotland and thus was an ancestress of the House of Stuart.[7] John and Katherine's daughter, Joan Beaufort, was grandmother of the English kings Edward IV and Richard III, the latter of whom Henry Tudor (thus becoming by conquest Henry VII) defeated at the Battle of Bosworth Field; Henry's claim was strengthened by marrying Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV. It was also through Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland that the sixth queen of Henry VIII, Catherine Parr, descended.[8] John of Gaunt's son — Katherine's stepson Henry of Bolingbroke — became Henry IV after deposing Richard II (who was imprisoned and died in Pontefract Castle, where Katherine's son, Thomas Swynford, was constable and is said to have starved Richard to death for his step-brother). John of Gaunt's daughter by his first marriage to Blanche of Lancaster, Philippa of Lancaster, was great-great-grandmother to Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII and mother of Mary I of England. John of Gaunt's child by his second wife Constance, Catherine (or Catalina), was great-grandmother of Catherine of Aragon as well.

    In literature

    Katherine Swynford is the subject of Anya Seton's novel Katherine (published in 1954) and of Alison Weir's 2008 biography Katherine Swynford: The Story of John of Gaunt and his Scandalous Duchess (ISBN 0-224-06321-9). Swynford is also the subject of Jeannette Lucraft's historical biography Katherine Swynford: The History of a Medieval Mistress. This book seeks to establish Swynford as a powerful figure in the politics of 14th-century England and an example of a woman's ability to manipulate contemporary social mores for her own interests.

    Coat of arms of Katherine Swynford as Duchess of Lancaster, after her marriage to John of Gaunt : three gold Catherine wheels ("roet" means "little wheel" in Old French) on a red field. The wheel emblem shows Katherine's devotion to her patron saint, Catherine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel.,[4] although there was once extant a copy of her seal's impression, ca. 1377, showing her arms of three Catherine wheels of gold on a field Gules, a molet in fess point empaling the arms of Swynford (Birch's Catalogue of Seals

    Buried:
    Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. Mary's Cathedral) is a cathedral located in Lincoln in England and seat of the Bishop of Lincoln in the Church of England. Building commenced in 1088 and continued in several phases throughout the medieval period. It was reputedly the tallest building in the world for 238 years (1311–1549).[1][2][3] The central spire collapsed in 1549 and was not rebuilt. The cathedral is the third largest in Britain (in floor space) after St Paul's and York Minster, being 484 by 271 feet (148 by 83 m). It is highly regarded by architectural scholars; the eminent Victorian writer John Ruskin declared: "I have always held... that the cathedral of Lincoln is out and out the most precious piece of architecture in the British Isles and roughly speaking worth any two other cathedrals we have."

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln_Cathedral

    Notes:

    Married:
    formerly his mistress...

    Children:
    1. John Beaufort, III, Knight, 1st Earl of Somerset was born 1371-1373, Chateau de Beaufrot, Anjou, France; died 14 Mar 1410, Hospital of St. Katherine's by the Tower, London, England; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    2. Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter was born 0___ 1377; died 0___ 1427.
    3. 21. Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland was born ~ 1379, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France; died 13 Nov 1440, Howden, Yorkshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

  9. 44.  John Howard, Knight, Duke of NorfolkJohn Howard, Knight, Duke of Norfolk was born ~ 1366, Wiggenhall, Norfolkshire, England (son of Robert Howard, I, Duke of Norfolk and Margaret de Scales); died 17 Nov 1437, Jerusalem, Israel; was buried Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk, England.

    Other Events:

    • Military: Crusader

    Notes:

    About Sir John Howard, MP 1365

    Sir John Howard, Sheriff of Essex, Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire, & Huntingdonshire1,2,3,4,5,6

    M, #12722, b. circa 1365, d. 17 November 1436

    Father Sir Robert Howard7,8,9 b. c 1342, d. 18 Jul 1388

    Mother Margaret Scales7,8,9

    Sir John Howard, Sheriff of Essex, Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire, & Huntingdonshire was born circa 1365 at of Wiggenhall, East Winch, Fersfield, & Terrington, Norfolk, England; Age 23 in 1388.3,4,6 He married Margaret de Playz, daughter of Sir John de Playz, 5th Lord Playz and Joan Stapleton, circa 22 June 1378; They had 1 son (Sir John, 7th Lord Plaiz).3,10,4,6 Sir John Howard, Sheriff of Essex, Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire, & Huntingdonshire married Alice Tendring, daughter of Sir William de Tendring and Katherine Mylde, before June 1397; They had 2 sons (Sir Robert; & Henry, Esq.).3,4,5,6 Sir John Howard, Sheriff of Essex, Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire, & Huntingdonshire left a will on 1 April 1435.4,6 He died on 17 November 1436 at Jerusalem, Israel; Buried beside his 2nd wife (Alice) at Stoke by Nayland, Suffolk.3,4,6 His estate was probated in 1437.4,6

    Family 1 Margaret de Playz b. c 1367, d. bt 7 Aug 1391 - 14 Aug 1391

    Child

    Sir John Howard, 7th Lord Plaiz+7,4,6 b. c 1385

    Family 2 Alice Tendring b. c 1385, d. 18 Oct 1426

    Children

    Henry Howard, Esq.+4,6 b. c 1400, d. b 1447
    Sir Robert Howard+11,4,6 b. c 1401, d. bt Jan 1436 - Apr 1436

    Citations

    1.[S3541] Unknown author, The Royal Descents of 500 Immigrants, by Gary Boyd Roberts, p. 317; Burke's Peerage, 1938, p. 1857; The Ancestry of Dorothea Poyntz, by Ronny O. Bodine, p. 68.
    2.[S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. X, p. 542.
    3.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 234.
    4.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 409.
    5.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 72.
    6.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 330-331.
    7.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 233-234.
    8.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 407-408.
    9.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 329-330.
    10.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 634.
    11.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 234-235.
    From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p424.htm#i12722
    --------------------
    John HOWARD (Sheriff of Essex)
    Born: 1366
    Died: 17 Nov 1436, Jerusalem

    Notes: Sheriff of Hertford
    Father: Robert HOWARD (Sir)
    Mother: Margery SCALES
    Married 1: Margaret PLAIZ (d. 1381) (dau. of Sir John Plaiz)

    Children:

    1. John HOWARD
    2. Margaret HOWARD

    Married 2: Alice TENDRING (d. 18 Oct 1426) (dau. of Sir William Tendring and Catherine Clopton)

    Children:

    3. Robert HOWARD of Stoke Neyland (Sir)
    4. Henry HOWARD of Teringhampton

    From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/HOWARD1.htm#John HOWARD (Sheriff of Essex)1
    _____________
    Sir John Howard1
    M, #274370, b. circa 1357, d. 17 November 1437
    Last Edited=13 Mar 2008
    Sir John Howard was born circa 1357.1 He died on 17 November 1437, while on a pilmgrimage to Jerusalem.1
    Children of Sir John Howard

    1.Sir John Howard+1 d. 1409

    2.Sir Robert Howard+1 b. c 1385, d. 1436

    Citations

    1.[S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 2, page 2906. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p27437.htm#i274370
    ____________
    John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, KG, Earl Marshal (c.1425 – 22 August 1485) was an English nobleman and soldier, and the first Howard Duke of Norfolk. ...
    John Howard, born about 1425, was the son of Sir Robert Howard of Tendring (1385–1436) and Margaret de Mowbray (1388–1459), eldest daughter of Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (of the first creation) (1366–1399), by Elizabeth FitzAlan (1366–1425). His paternal grandparents were Sir John Howard of Wiggenhall, Norfolk, and Alice Tendring, daughter of Sir William Tendring.[1][2] Howard was a descendant of English royalty through both sides of his family. On his father's side,

    Howard was descended from Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, the second son of King John, who had an illegitimate son, named Richard (d.1296), whose daughter, Joan of Cornwall, married Sir John Howard (d. shortly before 23 July 1331).[3]

    On his mother's side, Howard was descended from Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, the elder son of Edward I of England by his second wife, Margaret of France, and from Edward I's younger brother, Edmund Crouchback. ....
    From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Howard,_1st_Duke_of_Norfolk

    HOWARD, Sir John (c.1366-1437), of Wiggenhall and East Winch, Norf., Stoke Nayland, Suff., Stansted Mountfichet, Essex, and Fowlmere, Cambs.

    Family and Education

    b.c.1366, s. and h. of Sir Robert Howard (d.1389) of Wiggenhall and East Winch by Margaret, da. of Robert, 3rd Lord Scales (d.1369), and Katherine, sis. and coh. of William de Ufford, 2nd earl of Suffolk. m. (1) c.1380, Margaret (c.1367-Aug. 1391), da. and h. of John, 5th Lord Plaiz, by his 2nd w. Joan, da. of Sir Miles Stapleton of Bedale, Yorks. and Ingham, Norf., 1s. d.v.p.; (2) bef. June 1397, Alice (d. 18 Oct. 1426), da. and h. of Sir William Tendring of Tendring Hall and Stoke Nayland by Katherine, wid. of Sir Thomas Clopton, 2s. Kntd. by Mar. 1387.
    ... etc. ...

    From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1386-1421/member/howard-sir-john-1366-1437

    Links

    http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/j/o/s/Elizabeth-J-Joseph/WEBSITE-0001/UHP-0711.html


    HOWARD, Sir John (c.1366-1437), of Wiggenhall and East Winch, Norf., Stoke Nayland, Suff., Stansted Mountfichet, Essex, and Fowlmere, Cambs.

    Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1386-1421, ed. J.S. Roskell, L. Clark, C. Rawcliffe., 1993 ***

    ConstituencyDates ESSEX Sept. 1397 CAMBRIDGESHIRE 1407 SUFFOLK 1422 Family and Education b.c.1366, s. and h. of Sir Robert Howard (d.1389) of Wiggenhall and East Winch by Margaret, da. of Robert, 3rd Lord Scales (d.1369), and Katherine, sis. and coh. of William de Ufford, 2nd earl of Suffolk. m. (1) c.1380, Margaret (c.1367-Aug. 1391), da. and h. of John, 5th Lord Plaiz, by his 2nd w. Joan, da. of Sir Miles Stapleton of Bedale, Yorks. and Ingham, Norf., 1s. d.v.p.; (2) bef. June 1397, Alice (d. 18 Oct. 1426), da. and h. of Sir William Tendring of Tendring Hall and Stoke Nayland by Katherine, wid. of Sir Thomas Clopton, 2s. Kntd. by Mar. 1387.

    Offices Held Commr. of inquiry, Norf. May 1388 (collusion and maintenance in a lawsuit), Essex. Apr. 1405 (treasons and felonies), Suff. June 1422 (post mortem); sewers, Cambs., Norf. Apr., May 1392; array, Norf. Mar. 1392, Essex Dec. 1399, July 1402, Suff. Aug. 1403, Essex Aug.-Nov. 1403, July 1405, Suff. Apr. 1418, Mar. 1419, June 1421; to seize and supervise estates forfeited by the Appellants of 1387-8, Essex Oct. 1397; treat for payment of a communal fine of ¹2,000 Dec. 1397; make proclamation of Henry IV’s intention to govern well, Suff., Essex May 1402; raise royal loans, Suff. Nov. 1419, Suff., Norf. Mar. 1430, Mar. 1431; of oyer and terminer May 1431.

    J.p. Suff. 22 July 1397-May 1408, 14 Dec. 1417-July 1434, 16 Nov. 1436-d., Essex 12 Nov. 1397-Oct. 1399, 28 Nov. 1399-Dec. 1414.

    Steward of the franchise of Bury St. Edmund’s abbey, Suff. c. Oct. 1399-aft. May 1404.1

    Sheriff, Essex and Herts. 24 Nov. 1400-8 Nov. 1401, 10 Nov. 1414-1 Dec. 1415, 4 Nov. 1418-23 Nov. 1419, Cambs. and Hunts. Mich. 1401-4 Nov. 1403.

    Tax collector, Essex Mar. 1404.

    Biography John was a descendant of Sir William Howard, j.c.p. under Edward I, who possibly came of burgess stock from Bishop’s Lynn. His grandfather, Sir John Howard, served as admiral of the northern fleet (1335-7), and by the mid 14th century the family was of quasi-baronial importance with interests and connexions scattered throughout East Anglia. The Howard estates, accumulated through marriage and purchase, included five manors near Bishop’s Lynn and the property of John’s grandmother, the de Boys heiress, at Fersfield and Garboldisham in south Norfolk and Brook Hall near Dunwich in Suffolk.

    John’s father died in 1389, when he was about 23, but his mother lived on until 1416. Most of the inheritance passed to him at his father’s death, however, and that same year his landed holdings were augmented considerably following the demise of his father-in-law, Lord Plaiz.2

    Howard’s marriage to Lord Plaiz’s only daughter had been purchased nine years earlier for 300 marks, and now, besides the Plaiz manors at Toft, Weeting and Knapton in Norfolk, he acquired properties outside East Anglia, namely ‘Benetfield Bury’ in Stansted Mountfichet, Oakley and Moze (Essex), Chelsworth (Suffolk) and Fowlmere (Cambridgeshire). These estates, valued at over ¹117 a year when his wife died in 1391, he retained for life ‘by the courtesy’. Howard’s second wife brought him properties on the border of Essex and Suffolk, the most notable being the manor of Stoke Nayland. The estates thus acquired by marriage qualified Sir John for election to Parliament by three shires.

    In 1404 he was numbered among the few landowners of England whose net incomes amounted to over 500 marks a year.3

    Howard’s career had begun by March 1387 when he was already a knight and serving at sea in the fleet commanded by Richard, earl of Arundel. He was closely connected with Sir Simon Felbrigg, a cousin on his mother’s side, with whom he was associated in a religious foundation in 1392, and it may have been Felbrigg who introduced him to the royal household. (Sir Simon had married a kinswoman of Queen Anne and from 1395 appeared on ceremonial occasions as the King’s standard-bearer.) On 10 Mar. 1394 Howard was retained by Richard II for life with an annuity of ¹40. That September he joined the King’s expedition in Ireland, returning in the following spring. The cancellation of his appointment as sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire in December 1396 was evidently of no lasting political significance, for he was nominated as a j.p. in Suffolk in the following July.

    Howard’s election to Parliament in the autumn of 1397 probably owed much to his position as one of the King’s retainers, for Richard required supporters in the Commons for the enforcement of his stringent measures against the Appellants of 1387-8. During the recess he was commissioned to seize and supervise estates forfeited by Gloucester, Arundel and Warwick, and in December he was instructed to treat with the men of Essex and Hertfordshire for payment of a communal fine of ¹2,000 and to return to Parliament when it re-assembled at Shrewsbury ready, in conjunction with his fellow shire knight, Robert Tey, to give a personal account to the King of that commission’s activities. When Richard set off on his second voyage to Ireland, in the spring of 1399, Sir John again accompanied him.4

    Howard’s royal annuity was not confirmed by Henry IV, but he soon accommodated himself to the new regime and his influence as a landed magnate remained unimpaired. He continued to serve on royal commissions and as a j.p. without interruption, and he now became steward of the liberty of Bury St. Edmunds. Sir John’s chief interests lay not with his hereditary estates bordering the Wash, but rather in the property acquired by his marriages. Thus, he officiated as sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire in 1400-1 (during which term he was summoned to the great council of August 1401), and of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire in 1401-3; and it was as knight of the shire for Cambridgeshire that he was returned to Parliament for the second time, in 1407.5 But his family holdings ensured that at least to some extent he would be active in Norfolk. Earlier in his career he had devoted some attention to Raveningham college, an important foundation with which his father and his father-in-law, Lord Plaiz, had been much concerned, and he assisted in the removal of the college first to Norton Subcourse (Norfolk) and then to Mettingham castle (Suffolk). Something of his standing in East Anglian society is suggested by that of his associates: for instance, his brother-in-law, Constantine, Lord Clifton, owned Buckenham castle and other substantial estates, of which he was a feoffee. He served as trustee of the properties of Joan, Lady Fitzwalter (d.1409); among those given a fiduciary interest in his own estates was another kinsman, Robert, 5th Lord Scales; and in 1413 he was named as supervisor of the will of Maud de Vere, dowager countess of Oxford. It is not known precisely when he joined the circle of Joan de Bohun, countess of Hereford, but he had evidently done so by 1402 and thereafter he became close to the countess by whom he was engaged as a councillor. It seems likely that his son John (the issue of his first marriage) was a member of Joan’s household, for when the young man made his will in 1409 he named her, along with his father, as overseer. Others connected with Countess Joan included Robert Tey, for whom Howard acted as a feoffee, and Sir William Marney*, who asked him to be godfather to one of his sons. It was in association with Marney that Howard became a trustee of the estates of the Essex lawyer, Richard Baynard*. Then, too, he was well known to Sir Thomas Erpingham, formerly chamberlain to Henry IV and steward of the household of Henry V, who after the death of Howard’s son John married his widow, Joan Walton.6

    As sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire in 1414-15, Howard became involved in preparations for Henry V’s first expedition to France, and in January 1416 he was pardoned ¹180 charged on his account in consideration of the expenses incurred at that time.

    In the summer of 1420 there was grave danger of a breach of the peace at the Suffolk assizes between the followers of Howard and Sir Thomas Kerdeston†, a distant kinsman of his wife, and the prospect of a riot prompted Sir Thomas Erpingham to inform the King’s Council so that both men might be warned to cease ‘alle suche gederyng of strengthe and of meigntenance’. Both Howard and Kerdeston were described as ‘weel ykynde and of gret allyaunce’, able to gain support ‘as weel of lordys of estate as of othre gentilmen as knyghtis and squyers’.7 Howard naturally found no difficulty in securing marriages for his children and grandchild with important gentry families. Young John had been married to the Walton heiress, and now, in 1420, Howard obtained for Robert, his elder son by his second wife, the hand of Margaret Mowbray, daughter of Thomas, duke of Norfolk (d.1399), and sister to John, the Earl Marshal, who was to be acknowledged duke in 1425. One eventual outcome of this match was that part of the inheritance of the great comital houses of Mowbray and Fitzalan became vested in the Howard family in the person of Sir John’s grandson, John†, who was to be summoned to Parliament as Lord Howard in 1470 and created Earl Marshal and duke of Norfolk by Richard III. Meanwhile, in about 1425 Howard secured for his grand daughter Elizabeth (the only child of his son John) the hand of John de Vere, the young earl of Oxford, who had refused a marriage proposed to him by the King’s Council in order to wed her. The price was high: Sir John settled on Elizabeth many of the family properties near Lynn and all of the former de Boys manors; and he assured de Vere that she would inherit the Plaiz and Walton estates of her parents. These settlements were to lead, after his death, to bitter feuds between the earl of Oxford and Lord Howard, which influenced their fateful alignment in the civil wars.8

    After his third Parliament, in 1422, Howard became less active than before in local administration, although he continued to be a j.p. in Suffolk and to serve as a commissioner to raise royal loans. In February 1436 he himself was requested for a loan of 100 marks in aid of the duke of York’s expedition to France. A year or so later he set out on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, only to die at Jerusalem on 17 Nov. 1437. His body was apparently brought back for burial next to his second wife, at Stoke Nayland.9

    Ref Volumes: 1386-1421 Authors: J. S. Roskell / L. S. Woodger Notes 1. F. Blomefield, Norf. v. 243; CFR, xii. 245. 2. G. Brenan and E.P. Statham, House of Howard, 1-18, 32-33; CP, xi. 501-7; CIPM, xvi. 701; Reg. Chichele, iii. 417. 3.CP, x. 542; CIPM, xvi. 754; CCR, 1389-92, p. 407; Blomefield, ii. 161; v. 235-44; C136/71/4; CPL, v. 60; E179/81/54. 4. E101/40/33 m. 1, 402/20 f. 33d; CPR, 1391-6, pp. 105-6, 381, 507; 1396-9, pp. 525, 529; CCR, 1392-6, p. 485; CFR, xi. 195, 251. 5.PPC, i. 158. 6.VCH Norf. ii. 457; CPR, 1385-9, p. 344; 1391-6, pp. 135, 389; 1405-8, p. 173; 1408-13, p. 274; 1416-22, pp. 391-2; 1422-9, p. 64; CCR, 1399-1402, p. 396; 1402-5, p. 295; 1405-9, p. 446; 1422-9, p. 145; Add. Roll 41523; C139/13/55; Lambeth Pal. Lib. Reg. Arundel, ii. f. 161d; PCC 22 Marche; CFR, xiii. 154, 189. 7.CPR, 1413-16, p. 389; PPC, ii. 272-4; CP, vii. 197-9; Peds. Plea Rolls ed. Wrottesley, 386. 8.CP, ix. 610-12; x. 238; CCR, 1422-9, p. 172; CPR, 1416-22, p. 543; Peds. Plea Rolls, 414-15. 9.PPC, iv. 323; CFR, xvii. 1, 45; Blomefield, i. 80-81; PCC 6 Luffenham; Mon. Brasses ed. Mill Stephenson, 471; C139/88/56.

    John married Alice Tendring 0___ 1387, Wiggenhall, Norfolkshire, England. Alice was born 21 Oct 1365, Tendring Hall, Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk, England; died 18 Oct 1426, Wiggenhall, Norfolkshire, England; was buried Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk, England. [Group Sheet]


  10. 45.  Alice Tendring was born 21 Oct 1365, Tendring Hall, Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk, England; died 18 Oct 1426, Wiggenhall, Norfolkshire, England; was buried Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk, England.

    Notes:

    About Alice Howard

    Alice TENDRING7,191,1194,1195 was born about 1365 in Tendring Hall, Stoke By Nayland, Suffolk, England. 1194 She died on 18 Oct 1467 in Wiggenhall, Norfolk, England. 1194 She was buried in Stoke Neyland, Suffolk, England.1194 2 SOUR S2511686

    Spouse: Sheriff Of Essex John HOWARD. Sheriff Of Essex John HOWARD and Alice TENDRING were married in 1387 in Wiggenhall, Norfolk, England. Children were: Margaret HOWARD, Henry Esq. HOWARD, [Sir Knight] Robert HOWARD, Henry HOWARD.

    Children:
    1. 22. Robert Howard, Duke of Norfolk was born 0___ 1385, Tendring, Essex, England; died 1 Apr 1437.

  11. 46.  Thomas de Mowbray, Knight, 1st Duke of NorfolkThomas de Mowbray, Knight, 1st Duke of Norfolk was born 22 Mar 1366, Epworth, Isle of Axholme, Lincolnshire, England (son of John de Mowbray, Knight, 4th Baron Mowbray and Elizabeth Segrave); died 22 Sep 1399, Venice, Itlaly.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Earl of Nottingham

    Notes:

    Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, KG, Earl Marshal (22 March 1367 or 1368 - 22 September 1399) was an English peer. As a result of his involvement in the power struggles which led up to the fall of Richard II, he was banished and died in exile in Venice.

    Family

    Mowbray was the second son of John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray, and Elizabeth de Segrave, suo jure Lady Segrave, daughter and heiress of John de Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave, by Margaret, daughter and heiress of Thomas of Brotherton, son of Edward I.[1] He had an elder brother, John de Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham, and three sisters, Eleanor, Margaret and Joan (for details concerning his siblings see the article on his father, John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray)

    Career[

    Depiction of Mowbray, Arundel, Gloucester, Derby and Warwick demanding of Richard II that he let them prove by arms the justice of their rebellion
    In April 1372, custody of both Thomas and his elder brother, John, was granted to Blanche Wake, a sister of their grandmother, Joan of Lancaster.[2]

    On 10 February 1383, he succeeded his elder brother, John Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham, as Baron Mowbray and Segrave, and was created Earl of Nottingham on 12 February 1383.[3] On 30 June 1385 he was created Earl Marshal for life, and on 12 January 1386 he was granted the office in tail male.[4] He fought against the Scots and then against the French. He was appointed Warden of the East March towards Scotland in 1389, a position he held until his death.

    He was one of the Lords Appellant to King Richard II who deposed some of the King's court favourites in 1387. The King's uncle, Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, was imprisoned at Calais, where Nottingham was Captain. When Gloucester was killed in 1397, it was probably at the King's orders and probably with Nottingham's involvement. On 29 September 1397 he was created Duke of Norfolk.[4][3]

    In 1398, Norfolk quarrelled with Henry of Bolingbroke, 1st Duke of Hereford (later King Henry IV), apparently due to mutual suspicions stemming from their roles in the conspiracy against the Duke of Gloucester. Before a duel between them could take place, Richard II banished them both. Mowbray left England on 19 October 1398.[5] While in exile, he succeeded as Earl of Norfolk when his grandmother, Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, died on 24 March 1399.[5]

    He died of the plague at Venice on 22 September 1399.[3] Bolingbroke returned to England in 1399 and usurped the crown on 30 September 1399; shortly afterward, on 6 October 1399, the creation of Mowbray as Duke of Norfolk was annulled by Parliament, although Mowbray's heir retained his other titles.[5][3]

    Arms of Mowbray



    Arms of Thomas de Mowbray as Earl Marshall, , ca.1395
    The traditional, and historic arms for the Mowbray family are "Gules, a lion rampant argent". Although it is certain that these arms are differenced by various devices, this primary blazon applies to all the family arms, including their peerages at Norfolk. They are never indicated to bear the arms of Thomas Brotherton, nor any other English Royal Arms.

    Sir Bernard Burkes, C.B., LL.D.,Ulster King of Arms, in his book 'A General Armory of England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland', 1884, page 713, provides the following detailed listing of the Mowbray/Norfolk arms:

    "Mowbray (Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Nottingham, Earl of Warren and Surrey, Earl Marshal of England, and Baron Mowbray: dukedom and earldoms extinct 1475, when the barony fell into abeyance. The Mowbrays descended from Roger de Mowbray, son of Nigel d'Albini, who, possessing the lands of Mowbray [Montbray], assumed that surname by command of Henry I., his descendant, Roger de Mowbray, was summoned to Parliament 1295, the fifth baron was created Earl of Nottingham, 1377, d.s.p., his brother, the sixth Baron, was re-created Earl of Nottingham, 1383, constituted Earl Marshal, and created Duke of Norfolk, 139G, the fourth duke was created Earl of Warren and Surrey, vita patris, and d. without surviving issue, when all his honours became extinct except the barony, which fell into abeyance among the descendants of the daus. of the first Duke, of whom Lady Isabel is represented by the Earl of Berkeley, and Lady Margaret by the Lords Stourton and Pttre, as heirs general, and by the Duke of Norfolk, as heir male).

    Marriages and issue

    He married firstly, after 20 February 1383, Elizabeth le Strange (c. 6 December 1373 – 23 August 1383), suo jure Lady Strange of Blackmere, daughter and heiress of John le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Blackmere, by Isabel Beauchamp, daughter of Thomas Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, by whom he had no issue.[3]

    He married secondly Elizabeth Arundel (c.1372 – 8 July 1425), widow of Sir William Montagu, and daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, by Elizabeth Bohun, daughter of William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton, by whom he had two sons and three daughters:[3]

    Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk.[6]
    John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk.[6]
    Elizabeth Mowbray, who married Michael de la Pole, 3rd Earl of Suffolk.[6]
    Margaret Mowbray, who married firstly Sir Robert Howard, by whom she was the mother of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, and secondly Sir John Grey of Ruthin, Derbyshire.[6]
    Isabel Mowbray; married firstly Sir Henry Ferrers, son of 5th Baron Ferrers of Groby, and secondly James Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley.[6]

    Shakespeare

    Mowbray's quarrel with Bolingbroke and subsequent banishment are depicted in the opening scene of Shakespeare's Richard II.[7] Thomas Mowbray (as he is called in the play) prophetically replies to King Richard's "Lions make leopards tame" with the retort, "Yea, but not change his spots." Mowbray's death in exile is announced later in the play by the Bishop of Carlisle.

    View the Noble House of Mobray ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Mowbray

    Died:
    As a result of his involvement in the power struggles which led up to the fall of Richard II, he was banished and died in exile in Venice.

    Thomas married Elizabeth FitzAlan, Duchess of Norfolk 0Jul 1384, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England. Elizabeth (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 11th Earl of Arundel and Elizabeth de Bohun, Countess of Arundel, Countess of Surrey) was born 0___ 1366, Derbyshire, England; died 8 Jul 1425, Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried (St Michael's Church) Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 47.  Elizabeth FitzAlan, Duchess of Norfolk was born 0___ 1366, Derbyshire, England (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 11th Earl of Arundel and Elizabeth de Bohun, Countess of Arundel, Countess of Surrey); died 8 Jul 1425, Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried (St Michael's Church) Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Baroness Strange of Blackmere
    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1366, Arundel, Sussex, England
    • Alt Birth: ~ 1371, Arundel, Sussex, England

    Notes:

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    (Redirected from Lady Elizabeth FitzAlan)

    Lady Elizabeth Fitzalan, Duchess of Norfolk (1366 – 8 July 1425)[1] was an English noblewoman and the wife of Thomas Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk.

    Through her eldest daughter, Lady Margaret Mowbray, Elizabeth was an ancestress of Queens consort Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, and the Howard Dukes of Norfolk. Her other notable descendants include Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk; Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby; Sir Thomas Wyatt, the younger; and Lady Jane Grey (by both parents).[citation needed]

    Marriages and children

    Lady Elizabeth was born in Derbyshire, England, a daughter of Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel and his first wife Elizabeth de Bohun, daughter of William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton and Elizabeth de Badlesmere.[citation needed]

    Elizabeth had four husbands and at least six children:

    William Montacute (before December 1378)
    Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (1384)
    Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk (b. 17 September 1385)
    Margaret de Mowbray (b. 1388), married Sir Robert Howard (1385 - 1436), and from this marriage descended Queens consort Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, and the Howard Dukes of Norfolk.
    John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (b. 1392)
    Isabel de Mowbray (b.1400), married James Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley
    Sir Robert Goushill or Gousell of Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire (before 18 August 1401)
    Elizabeth Goushill or Gousell (1404-1491), wife of Sir Robert Wingfield of Letheringham, Suffolk (1403-between 6 October 1452 and 21 November 1454), they were great-grandparents to Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk.
    Joan or Jean Goushill or Gousell (b. 1409), wife of Thomas Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley, King of Mann, and parents of Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby.
    Sir Gerald or Gerard Afflete (before 1411)

    She died 8 July 1425 in Wighill, Yorkshire, England, and was buried with her third husband in the Goushill tomb in the church in Hoveringham, Thurgarton Hundred, Nottinghamshire, England.

    Notes:

    Married:
    arranged marriage...

    Children:
    1. 23. Margaret Mowbray, Duchess of Norfolk was born Abt 1387, Axholme, Lincoln, England; died 8 Jul 1425.
    2. John de Mowbray, Knight, 2nd Duke Norfolk was born 0___ 1390; died 0___ 1432.
    3. Isabel de Mowbray was born ~ 1396, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England; died 29 Sep 1452, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England.

  13. 56.  Thomas Boleyn was born Salle, Norfolk, England; died 1411.

    Thomas — Anne Bracton. [Group Sheet]


  14. 57.  Anne Bracton (daughter of John Bracton, Knight and Agnes LNU).
    Children:
    1. 28. Geoffrey Boleyn was born ~ 1380, Salle, Norfolk, England; died 0___ 1440.


Generation: 7

  1. 72.  John Touchet, Lord of Markeaton was born 0___ 1350, (Derby, Derbyshire, England) (son of John Touchet, Knight, Lord of Markeaton and Joan Audley); died 0___ 1372.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Lord Audley

    John married Margery de Mortimer 0___ 1371, Ludlow, Shropshire, England. Margery was born 0___ 1352; died 0___ 1405. [Group Sheet]


  2. 73.  Margery de Mortimer was born 0___ 1352; died 0___ 1405.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Maud LNU

    Children:
    1. 36. John Touchet, III, Knight, 4th Lord Audley was born 23 Apr 1371, Heleigh, Staffordshire, England; died 19 Dec 1408, Heleigh, Staffordshire, England.

  3. 74.  Humphrey Stafford was born 0___ 1342, Stafford, Staffordshire, England; died 31 Oct 1413.

    Notes:

    Biography

    Sir John Stafford, knt., of Amelcote and Bromshull, Staffordshire, who was living in 1361, married as his second wife the Lady Margaret, daughter of Sir Ralph Stafford, K.G., and one of the original founders of that Order, second Baron Stafford, and who was subsequently raised to the Earldom 5 March, 1351, and died in 1372; by his wife Margaret, only daughter and heiress of Hugh de Audley, Baron Audley. He had issue by this marriage a son and heir named Humphrey.

    This son, Sir Humphrey, migrated into Wilts, and

    married first Alice Greynville, daughter and heir of John de Greynville, the then possessor of Suthwyke. By her he acquired a large estate, viz., the manor, mansion house, and patronage of the Church of St. John Baptist thereto annexed of Suthwyke juxta Frome-Selwood, in the parish of North-Bradley, Wilts,—the manors and advowsons of Clutton and Farnburgh, Somerset, and the manor of Burmington, Warwick, and she was married to Sir Humphrey before 1365. Her father bore for his arms, Argent, six lioncels rampant gules.
    By her husband Sir Humphrey, Alice had a son Humphrey, who became her heir.
    Sir Humphrey married secondly, Elizabeth d'Aumarle, second daughter of Sir William d'Aumarle of Woodbury, Devon, who died 15 November, 1362, and widow of Sir John Mautravers of Hooke, in Dorset, who died 15 June, 1386, and whose arms were, Sable, a fret or. She had no children by Sir Humphrey, but two daughters by her first husband;
    Maud, married first to Peter de la Mare, of Offelegh, Herts, who died about 1395, and secondly to Sir John Dinham, of Buckland-Dinham, Somerset, who died about 1428;
    and Elizabeth Mautravers, married to her second husband's only son. He was sheriff of Dorset and Somerset 12 Henry IV., 1411.
    Elizabeth d'Aumarle, the second wife of Sir Humphrey died the 15 Oct., 1413, and the knight himself survived her sixteen days only, dying on the 31 Oct., 1413, and both were buried beside her first husband, Sir John Mautravers of Hooke, in the Abbey Church of Abbotsbury. He was the first of his line that bore for his arms, Or, a chevron gules within a bordure engrailed sable.

    All the foregoing coats of arms including also D'Aumarle, Per fess gules and azure, three crescents argent, are found among the heraldic display on the tomb of their descendant the Lady Elizabeth Willoughby-Greville at Alcester.

    Sir Humphrey Stafford—only child of Sir Humphrey and Alice Greynville —was of Suthwyke in right of his mother, and of Hooke, jure uxoris. He was surnamed with the Silver Hand,—a 'periphrasis' whose meaning has not been explained,—and married Elizabeth Mautravers, the second daughter of his father's second wife, Elizabeth d'Aumarle by her first husband Sir John Mautravers of Hooke. By her he had three sons,

    Richard,
    John, and
    William,
    and one daughter Alice.[1]
    Note

    Note: @N11487@
    @N11487@ NOTE
    He married #2 between June 1386 and January 1387/8 Elizabeth d'Aumarle, widow of John Mautravers, and daughter of William d'Aumarle, Knt., of Woodbury, Devonshire, and Middle Chinnock, Somersetshire.
    Marriage

    Husband: Humphrey Stafford
    Wife: Alice de GRENVILLE
    Marriage:
    Date: ABT 1365
    User ID: 63EAC3F079014E73B772331A5029BDE8CF35
    Child: Elizabeth Stafford
    Could not parse date out of ABT 1365.

    Sources

    ? The Strife of the Roses and Days of the Tudors in the West, p. 140. by W.H. Hamilton Rogers, F.S.A., amb
    "Royal Ancestry" 2013 Douglas Richardson Vol. IV. page 679, and Vol. V. page 196
    HUMPHREY STAFFORD, Knt., son and heir. He married (1st) before 1365 ALICE GRENVILLE (or GREYNVILLE). She was born about 1344. They had one son, Humphrey, Knt., and one daughter, Elizabeth. By a mistress, Emma, he also had an illegitimate son, [Master] John Stafford, Doctor of Canon Law [Bishop of Bath and Wells, Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord High Treasurer. His wife, Alice was living in 1371. He married (2nd) between June 1386 and January 1387 ELIZABETH D'AUMARLE, widow of John Mautravers, Knt. (died 15 June 1386), and daughter of William d'Aumarle, Knt. They had no issue. His wife, Elizabeth, died 15 October 1413. SIR HUMPHREY STAFFORD died 31 October 1413.

    Children of Humphrey Stafford, Knt., by Alice Grenville:

    Humphrey Stafford, Knt., son and heir by his 1st marriage, born about 1379. He married before October 1397 Elizabeth Mautravers, daughter and co-heiress of John Mautravers, Knt., by Elizabeth, daughter of William d'Aumarle, Knt. She was born 1378-80. They had five sons, Richard, Knt., John, Knt., William, Esq., Thomas, and Humphrey, and two daughters, ______ and Alice.
    Elizabeth Stafford, married John Tuchet, Knt., 4th Lord Audley. He was born 23 April 1371. They had one son, James, Knt., and three daughters, Margaret, Elizabeth (wife of Baskerville, Knt., ), and Isabel (wife of John Verney). She died 1446-7.
    Children of John Tuchet, Knt., by Elizabeth Stafford:

    James Tuchet, Knt., 5th Lord Audley, son and heir, born about 1398. He married (1st) Margaret Roos )or Ros). They had one son, John, Knt., and two daughters, Anne (wife of Thomas Dutton, Knt. ) and Elizabeth. He married (2nd) Eleanor Holand, illegitimate daughter of Edmund Holand, K.G., Earl of Kent, by Constance, daughter of Edmund of Langley, K.G., Duke of York (5th son of King Edward III of England. They had three sons, Humphrey, Knt., Edmund [Bishop of Rochester, Bishop of Hereford, Bishop of Salisbury, Chancellor of the Order of the Garter], and Thomas, and three daughters, Margaret (wife of Richard Grey, Knt., Lord Powis [died 1466] and Roger Vaughan, Knt. [died 1471], Anne (wife of Richard Delabere, Knt.) and Constance. Sir James Tuchet (or Audley), 5th Lord Audley, was defeated and slain at the Battle of Blore Heath, Shropshire 23 Sept. 1459, in command of the Lancastrian forces.
    John Burke, A General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerages of England, Ireland, and Scotland, Extinct, Dormant, and in Abeyance (Google eBook). ????? ??????? - Biography & Autobiography
    This person was created through the import of Acrossthepond.ged on 21 February 2011.
    This person was created through the import of Smith-Hunter.ged on 10 March 2011.

    end

    Humphrey married Alice Grenville 0___ 1365. [Group Sheet]


  4. 75.  Alice Grenville

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Alice Greynville

    Children:
    1. Humphrey Stafford was born 0___ 1370, Hooke, Dorsetshire, England; died 27 May 1442.
    2. 37. Elizabeth Stafford was born 0___ 1375, Stourbridge, Staffordshire, England; died Aft 1404, Heleigh, Staffordshire, England.

  5. 76.  Thomas de Ros, Knight, 4th Baron de Ros was born 13 Jan 1335, Helmsley, Yorkshire, England (son of William de Ros, Knight, 2nd Baron de Ros and Margery de Badlesmere); died 8 Jun 1383, Uffington, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Rievaulx Abbey, Helmsley, North Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Military: Crusader
    • Residence: 0___ 1364, The Holy Land

    Notes:

    Thomas de Ros, 4th Baron de Ros of Helmsley (1338 - 8 June 1383) was the son of William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros, and the brother of William de Ros, 3rd Baron de Ros. He was heir to his brother in 1352.

    In 1364, he accompanied the king of Cyprus to the Holy Land; and was in the French wars, from 1369 to 1371. He was summoned to parliament by both King Edward III of England and King Richard II of England. He died at Uffington, Lincolnshire, 8 June 1383, and was buried at Rievaulx Abbey. His widow became the wife of Sir Richard Burley.

    Marriage and issue

    Thomas de Ros married 12 Apr 1363, Beatrice Stafford (d. 13 Apr 1415), daughter of Ralph de Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford, by whom he had four sons and two daughters:[2]

    John de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros.
    William de Ros, 7th Baron de Ros.
    Thomas de Ros.
    Robert de Ros.
    Elizabeth de Ros, who married Thomas de Clifford, 6th Baron de Clifford.
    Margaret de Ros, who married Reginald Grey, 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn.

    Footnotes

    Jump up ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.347
    Jump up ^ Richardson III 2011, pp. 453–5.

    References

    Cokayne, George Edward (1949). The Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White XI. London: St. Catherine Press.
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham I (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966373
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham III (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 144996639X

    Buried:
    Click here to view the history, map & pictures ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rievaulx_Abbey

    Thomas married Beatrice Stafford 1 Jan 1359, (Yorkshire) England. Beatrice (daughter of Ralph Stafford, Knight, 1st Earl of Stafford and Margaret de Audley, 2nd Baroness Audley) was born ~ 1341, Staffordshire, England; died 13 Apr 1415. [Group Sheet]


  6. 77.  Beatrice Stafford was born ~ 1341, Staffordshire, England (daughter of Ralph Stafford, Knight, 1st Earl of Stafford and Margaret de Audley, 2nd Baroness Audley); died 13 Apr 1415.

    Notes:

    Married:
    married firstly, in 1350, Maurice FitzGerald, 2nd Earl of Desmond (d. June 1358); married secondly, Thomas de Ros, 4th Baron de Ros, of Helmsley; married thirdly Sir Richard Burley, Knt

    Children:
    1. Elizabeth de Ros was born Abt 1367, Helmsley, Yorkshire, England; died 26 Mar 1424, (Yorkshire) England.
    2. 38. William de Ros, Knight, 6th Baron de Ros of Helmsley was born ~ 1370, Helmsley, Yorkshire, England; died 1 Sep 1414.
    3. Margaret de Ros, Baroness Grey de Ruthyn was born 0___ 1365, Helmsley, Yorkshire, England; died 0___ 1414, Ruthin, Denbighshire, Wales; was buried Rievaulx Abbey, Helmsley, Yorkshire, England.

  7. 78.  John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel was born ~ 1348, Etchingham, Sussex, England (son of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel); died 16 Dec 1379; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.

    Notes:

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    John FitzAlan (D' Arundel), 1st Baron Arundel (c. 1348 – 16 December 1379) was a Lord Marshal or Marshal of England .

    Lineage

    He was born in Etchingham , Sussex , England to Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel and his second wife Eleanor of Lancaster (Eleanor Plantagenet). His brother was Thomas Arundel , Archbishop of Canterbury. His sister was Joan Fitzalan , Countess of Hereford.
    High office
    John was appointed Lord Marshal of England by Richard II of England in 1377, and summoned to the House of Lords on 4 August 1377, by writ directed Johanni de Arundell. He served as Lord Marshal until 1383.
    On 26 July 1379[1][2] he was given license to crenellate (i.e., permission to fortify) a stone castle on the site of an 11th-century earthwork fortress in Surrey. Over the years since then the structure was rebuilt and remodelled and its remains are now known as Betchworth Castle .

    Naval victory

    Being in command of a naval expedition in aid to the Duke of Brittany , he defeated the French fleet off the coast of Cornwall .

    Death at sea

    Commanding a force with the purpose of bringing relief to the Duke of Brittany , Sir John was compelled to wait for stronger winds. During this wait he decided to take refuge in a nunnery, where his men "took no notice of the sanctity of the place and... violently assaulted and raped"[3] those they found inside. Further to this Sir John "allowed his men to ransack the countryside as they liked and to impoverish the people".[3] When the force eventually set out to sea, carrying with them goods stolen from a nearby church and under a pronouncement of excommunication from the wronged priests, the expedition was caught in a storm. Thomas Walsingham reports that during the panic of the storm, Sir John murdered those of his men who refused to make for shore for fear of being shipwrecked upon the rocks. Subsequently, after safely arriving on an island off the Irish coast, Sir John and his boat captain were swept back into the sea and drowned.[3]
    According to Thomas Walsingham 's story, FitzAlan's men profaned a convent at or near Southampton , and abducted many of its occupants. The fleet was then pursued by a violent tempest, when the wretched nuns who had been carried off were thrown overboard to lighten the ships. The vessels were, however, wrecked on the Irish coast, near Scariff according to some authorities, but at Cape Clear Island according to others. Sir John Arundell, together with his esquires, and other men of high birth, were drowned, and twenty-five ships were lost with most of their crews. Froissart 's account of the event differs essentially from Walsingham's, in the omission of the story of the desecration of the convent.

    Burial

    He was buried in Lewes , Sussex.
    He was also an ancestor of the poet, Percy Bysshe Shelley .
    Marriage and children

    On 17 February 1358, FitzAlan married Eleanor Maltravers (Mautravers) (1345 – 10 January 1404/1406), daughter of John Maltravers and Gwenthin. They had at least five children (some references list more):

    Joan FitzAlan (D' Arundel) (c. 1360 – 1 September 1404. She married first William de Brien (no issue) and secondly Sir William de Echingham .[4]
    John FitzAlan, 2nd Baron Arundel (3 November 1364 – 14 August 1390), who married Elizabeth le Despenser .
    Richard FitzAlan (c. 1366 – 3 June 1419). His daughter Joan married Thomas Willoughby of Parham, a grandson of Alayne FitzAlan, daughter of Edmund Fitzalan, 8th (or 9th) Earl of Arundel.
    Sir William Arundel (c. 1369 – 1400). He was a Knight of the Garter .
    Margaret (1372-7 July 1439) married William de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros of Hamlake and had descendants

    John married Eleanor Maltravers, 2nd Baroness Maltravers 17 Feb 1358. Eleanor was born 0___ 1345; died 12 Jan 1406; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 79.  Eleanor Maltravers, 2nd Baroness Maltravers was born 0___ 1345; died 12 Jan 1406; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.

    Notes:

    Eleanor Maltravers or Mautravers, 2nd Baroness Maltravers suo jure (c. 1345 – 12 January 1405) was an English noblewoman and heiress.

    Family

    Eleanor Maltravers (c.1345 – 12 January 1405), was the younger daughter and coheir of Sir John Maltravers (d. 22 January 1349) and his wife Gwenthlian. She had a brother, Henry Maltravers, who died an infant before 8 February 1350, and a sister, Joan Maltravers, who married firstly Sir John de Keynes, and secondly Sir Robert Rous, but died without issue.[1]

    When Eleanor's grandfather, John Maltravers, 1st Baron Maltravers, died on 13 February 1364, the Maltravers barony fell into abeyance, according to modern doctrine, between his granddaughters and coheirs, Joan and Eleanor. At the death of her sister Joan in or after 1376,[2] Eleanor succeeded as de jure Baroness Maltravers.[3]

    Marriages and issue

    On 17 February 1359 Eleanor married John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel (d. 13 December 1379), by whom she had five sons and two daughters.[4]

    John FitzAlan, 2nd Baron Arundel (30 November 1364 – 14 August 1390), who married Elizabeth le Despenser, daughter of Edward le Despencer, 4th Baron le Despencer (d.1336 – 11 November 1375), by whom he had three sons:[5]
    John FitzAlan, 13th Earl of Arundel.[6]
    Sir Edward FitzAlan.[7]
    Sir Thomas FitzAlan of West Betchworth (in Dorking), Surrey, who married Joan Moyne.[8]
    Sir William FitzAlan, Knight of the Garter, second son, who married a wife named Agnes, but left no issue.[9]
    Henry FitzAlan.
    Edward FitzAlan.
    Sir Richard FitzAlan (d. 3 June 1419), 5th son, who married Alice (d. 30 August 1436), the widow of Roger Burley, esquire, by whom he had a daughter, Joan Arundel, who married Sir Thomas Willoughby of Parham.[10]
    Joan FitzAlan, who married firstly Sir William de Bryan, and secondly, Sir William Echingham.[11] She is buried in the chancel at Etchingham.[12]
    Margaret FitzAlan, who married William de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros.[13]
    Sir John Fitzalan died in the Irish Sea on 15 or 16 December 1379.

    Eleanor married secondly, on 9 August 1380, as his second wife, Reynold Cobham, 2nd Baron Cobham of Sterborough (died 3 or 6 July 1403), by whom she had three sons and two daughters:[14]

    John Cobham.
    Reynold Cobham, 3rd Baron Cobham, who married Eleanor Culpeper and was the father of Eleanor Cobham, wife of Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester.
    Thomas Cobham.
    Elizabeth Cobham.
    Margaret Cobham, who married Sir Richard Curteys.

    In 1384 Eleanor and her second husband were divorced on the ground that they were within the second and three degrees of consanguinity. They were subsequently allowed to remarry, with proper dispensation from the Archbishop of Canterbury, on 29 September 1384.[15]

    Eleanor died 12 January 1405,[16] and was buried with her first husband at Lewes Priory, Sussex.[17] Her will, dated 26 September 1404, was proved 16 January 1404/1405 at Maidstone, Kent.[citation needed]

    Footnotes

    Children:
    1. 39. Margaret FitzAlan was born ~ 1370; died 3 Jul 1438.

  9. 80.  Ralph Neville, 4th Baron Neville de Raby was born 0___ 1291, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England (son of Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville of Raby and Euphemia Clavering, Baroness of Raby); died 5 Aug 1367, Durhamshire, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: 0___ 1355; Governor of Berwick

    Notes:

    NEVILLE, RALPH, de, fourth Baron Neville of Raby (1291?-1367), was the second son and eventual heir of Ralph Neville, third baron (d. 1331), by his first wife, Euphemia, daughter and heiress of Sir John de Clavering of Warkworth, in Northumberland, and Clavering, in western Essex.

    His grandfather, Robert de Neville, who died during his father's lifetime [see Neville, Robert de, d. 1282], made one of those fortunate marriages which became traditional with this family, acquiring the lordship of Middleham, in Wensleydale, with the side valley of Coverdale, and the patronage of the abbey of Coverham, by his marriage with Mary, the heiress of the FitzRanulphs. His father, who, like his grandfather, bore none the best of reputations, did not die until 18 April 1331. Robert, the elder son, called the ‘Peacock of the North,’ whose monument may still be seen in Brancepeth Church, had been slain in a border fray by the Earl of Douglas in 1318; and his brother Ralph, who now became the heir of the Neville name, was carried off captive, but after a time was ransomed (Swallow, p. 11).

    Before his father's death Neville had served the king both on the Scottish borders and at court, where he was seneschal of the household (Dugdale, i. 292; Fœdera, iv. 256, 448). In June 1329 he had been joined with the chancellor to treat with Philip VI of France for marriages between the two royal houses (ib. iv. 392); and he had entered into an undertaking to serve Henry, lord Percy (d. 1352) [q. v.], for life in peace and war, with twenty men at arms against all men except the king (Dugdale, u.s., who gives the full terms). He tried to induce the prior and convent of Durham, to whom he had to do fealty for his Raby lands, to recognise the curious claim which his father had first made to the monks' hospitality on St. Cuthbert's day (4 Sept.) (cf. Dugdale, Baronage, i. 293; Letters from Northern Registers, p. 394).

    Neville was a man of energy, and King Edward kept him constantly employed. Scottish relations were then very critical, and Neville and Lord Percy, the only magnate of the north country whose power equalled his own, spent most of their time on the northern border. In 1334 they were made joint wardens of the marches, and were frequently entrusted with important negotiations. Neville was also governor of the castle of Bamborough, and warden of all the forests north of the Trent (Dugdale, i. 294; Swallow, p. 14; Fœdera, vols. iv.–v.). The Lanercost chronicler (p. 293) insinuates that he and Percy did less than their duty during the Scottish invasion of 1337. Neville took part in the subsequent siege of Dunbar (ib. p. 295). It was only at rare intervals that he could be spared from the north. Froissart is no doubt in error in bringing him to the siege of Tournay in 1340, but the truce with Scotland at the close of 1342 permitted his services to be used in the peace negotiations with France promoted by Pope Clement VI in the following year (Froissart, iii. 312, ed. Lettenhove; cf. Fœdera, v. 213; Dugdale). When the king was badly in want of money (1338), Neville advanced him wool from his Yorkshire estates, and in return for this and other services was granted various privileges. In October 1333 he was given the custody of the temporalities of the bishopric of Durham during its vacancy, and twelve years later the wardship of two-thirds of the lands of Bishop Kellawe, who had died in 1316 (Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense, iv. 175, 340).

    When David Bruce invaded England in 1346, Ralph and his eldest son, John, joined William de la Zouch, archbishop of York, at Richmond on 14 Oct., and, marching northwards by Barnard Castle and Auckland, shared three days later in the victory at the Red Hills to the west of Durham, near an old cross already, it would seem, known as Neville's Cross. This success saved the city of Durham, and made David Bruce a captive. Neville fought in the van, and the Lanercost writer now praises him as ‘vir verax et validus, audax et astutus et multum metuendus’ (Chron. de Lanercost, pp. 347, 350; Galfrid le Baker, p. 87). A sword is still shown at Brancepeth Castle which is averred to be that used by Ralph at Neville's Cross or Durham, as the battle was at first often called (Swallow, pp. 16–17). With Gilbert Umfreville, earl of Angus, he pursued the flying Scots across the border, took Roxburgh on terms, and harried the southern counties of Scotland (Chron. de Lanercost, p. 352). Tradition represents that he erected Neville's Cross on the Brancepeth road, half a mile out of Durham, in commemoration of the victory. The old cross was soon altered or entirely replaced by a more splendid one, which was destroyed in 1589, after the fall of the elder branch of Neville, and only the stump now remains; but a detailed description of it was printed in 1674 from an old Durham Roll by Davies in his ‘Rites and Monuments’ (Swallow, p. 16). The king rewarded Neville's services with a grant of 100l. and a license to endow two priests in the church of Sheriff-Hutton to pray for the souls of himself and his family (Dugdale). Towards the end of his life (1364) he endowed three priests in the hospital founded by his family at Well, near Bedale, not far from Middleham, for the same object (ib.)

    The imprisonment of David Bruce made the Scots much less dangerous to England; but there was still plenty of work on the borders, and the rest of Neville's life was almost entirely spent there as warden of the marches, peace commissioner, and for a time (1355) governor of Berwick. The protracted negotiations for the liberation of David Bruce also occupied him (ib.) Froissart mentions one or two visits to France, but with the exception of that of 1359, when he accompanied the king into Champagne, these are a little doubtful (ib.; Froissart, v. 365, vi. 221, 224, ed. Lettenhove). He died on 5 Aug. 1367, and, having presented a very rich vestment to St. Cuthbert, was allowed to be buried in the south aisle of Durham Cathedral, being the first layman to whom that favour was granted (Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc., i. 26). The body was ‘brought to the churchyard in a chariot drawn by seven horses, and then carried upon the shoulders of knights into the church.’ His tomb, terribly mutilated by the Scottish prisoners confined in the cathedral in 1650, still stands in the second bay from the transept.

    Neville greatly increased the prestige of his family, and his descendants were very prosperous. He married Alice, daughter of Sir Hugh Audley, who, surviving him, married Ralph, baron of Greystock (d. 1417), in Cumberland, and, dying in 1374, was buried by the side of her first husband. They had five sons: (1) John, fifth baron Neville [q. v.]; (2) Robert, like his elder brother, a distinguished soldier in the French wars (Froissart, ed. Lettenhove, xxii. 289); (3) Ralph, the founder of the family of the Nevilles of Thornton Bridge, on the Swale, near Borough- bridge, called Ralph Neville of Condell (Cundall); (4) Alexander [q. v.], archbishop of York; (5) Sir William (d. 1389?) [q. v.] Their four daughters were: (1) Margaret, married, first (1342), William, who next year became Lord Ros of Hamlake (i.e. Helmsley, in the North Riding), and secondly, he dying in 1352, Henry Percy, first earl of Northumberland [q. v.]; (2) Catherine, married Lord Dacre of Gillsland; (3) Eleanor, who married Geoffrey le Scrope, and afterwards became a nun in the Minories, London (Wills and Inventories, i. 39); (4) Euphemia, who married, first, Reginald de Lucy; secondly, Robert Clifford, lord of Westmorland, who died before 1354; and, thirdly, Sir Walter de Heslarton (near New Malton). She died in 1394 or 1395. Surtees (iv. 159) adds a sixth son, Thomas, ‘bishop-elect of Ely,’ but this seems likely to be an error.

    [Rotuli Parliamentorum; Calendarium Genealogicum, published by the Record Commission; Rymer's Fœdera, original and Record editions; Robert de Avesbury, Adam de Murimuth, Walsingham, Letters from Northern Registers and Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense in the Rolls Ser.; Chronicon de Lanercost, Maitland Club ed.; Galfrid le Baker, ed. Maunde Thompson; Froissart, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove; Surtees's Hist. of Durham, vol. iv.; Longman's Hist. of Edward III; Dugdale's Baronage; Nicolas's Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope; Segar's Baronagium Genealogicum, ed. Edmondson; Selby's Genealogist, iii. 107, &c.; Foster's Yorkshire Pedigrees.]

    end of biography

    Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby (c.1291 – 5 August 1367) was an English aristocrat, son of Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby and Euphemia de Clavering .[1]

    Neville led the English forces to victory against the Scottish king David II of Scotland at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346

    end of comment

    Birth:
    Raby Castle - history & images of this Neville Family Home ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raby_Castle

    Ralph married Alice de Audley 14 Jan 1326, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England. Alice (daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton and Isolde (Isabella) de Mortimer) was born 1302-1304, Hadley, Lambourne, Berkshire, England; died 12 Jan 1374, Greystoke Manor, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  10. 81.  Alice de Audley was born 1302-1304, Hadley, Lambourne, Berkshire, England (daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton and Isolde (Isabella) de Mortimer); died 12 Jan 1374, Greystoke Manor, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.
    Children:
    1. Margaret Neville, Baroness of Ros was born 12 Feb 1329, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England); died 12 May 1372.
    2. Ralph Neville was born Abt 1332, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England); died Abt 1380.
    3. Alexander Neville was born 0___ 1332, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England); died 16 May 1392, Leuven, Belgium; was buried Carmelite Churchyard, Leuven, Belgium.
    4. Robert Neville was born (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).
    5. 40. John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby was born 1337-1340, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 17 Oct 1388, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.
    6. William Neville was born Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.
    7. Catherine Neville was born (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).
    8. Eleanor Neville was born (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).
    9. Euphemia Neville was born (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England); died 1394-1395, England.

  11. 82.  Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick was born 0___ 1299, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ (son of Henry de Percy, Knight, 1st Baron Percy and Eleanor FitzAlan); died 0___ 1352.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Governor of Pickering Castle
    • Also Known As: 9th Baron Percy
    • Also Known As: Earl Henry III de Percy
    • Military:
    • Alt Birth: 6 Feb 1301, Leckonfield, Yorkshire, England
    • Alt Death: 25 Feb 1353, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ

    Notes:

    Henry de Percy, 9th Baron Percy and 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick (1299-1352) was the son of Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick, and Eleanor Fitzalan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel.

    Henry was sixteen when his father died, so the Barony was placed in the custody of John de Felton.[1]

    In 1316 he was granted the lands of Patrick IV, Earl of March, in Northumberland, by King Edward II of England.[2] In 1322, was made governor of Pickering Castle and of the town and castle of Scarborough and was later knighted at York.[3] Henry joined with other barons to remove the Despensers, who were favorites of Edward II.

    Following a disastrous war with the Scots, Henry was empowered along with William Zouche to negotiate the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton.[4] This was an unpopular treaty and peace between England and Scotland lasted only five years.

    He was appointed to Edward III's Council in 1327 and was given the manor and castle of Skipton. Was granted, by Edward III, the castle and barony of Warkworth in 1328. He was at the siege of Dunbar and the Battle of Halidon Hill and was subsequently appointed constable of Berwick-upon-Tweed.[5] In 1346, Henry commanded the right wing of the English, at the Battle of Neville's Cross.[6]

    Married Idonia, daughter of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford,[7] and had five children;

    Henry, b.1320, succeeded his father as 3rd Baron Percy of Alnwick
    Thomas Percy, Bishop of Norwich
    Roger
    Maud Percy, married John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby
    Eleanor Percy, married John Fitzwalter, 3rd Baron Fitzwalter (c.1315 – 18 October 1361)[8]
    Isabel Percy, married Sir William de Aton, 2nd Lord Aton, and had a daughter, Katherine Aton. Katherine Aton's son, William Eure, married Maud FitzHugh, daughter of Henry FitzHugh, 3rd Baron FitzHugh.[9]
    In 1329, he founded a chantry, to celebrate divine service for his soul.[10]

    Military:
    In 1316 he was granted the lands of Patrick IV, Earl of March, in Northumberland, by King Edward II of England.[2] In 1322, was made governor of Pickering Castle and of the town and castle of Scarborough and was later knighted at York.[3] Henry joined with other barons to remove the Despensers, who were favorites of Edward II.

    Following a disastrous war with the Scots, Henry was empowered along with William Zouche to negotiate the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton.[4] This was an unpopular treaty and peace between England and Scotland lasted only five years.

    He was appointed to Edward III's Council in 1327 and was given the manor and castle of Skipton. Was granted, by Edward III, the castle and barony of Warkworth in 1328. He was at the siege of Dunbar and the Battle of Halidon Hill and was subsequently appointed constable of Berwick-upon-Tweed.[5] In 1346, Henry commanded the right wing of the English, at the Battle of Neville's Cross.

    Henry married Idonia Clifford 0___ 1314, Yorkshire, England. Idonia (daughter of Robert de Clifford, Knight, 1st Baron de Clifford and Maude de Clare) was born ~ 1303, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England; died 24 Aug 1365, (Yorkshire, England); was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 83.  Idonia Clifford was born ~ 1303, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England (daughter of Robert de Clifford, Knight, 1st Baron de Clifford and Maude de Clare); died 24 Aug 1365, (Yorkshire, England); was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Idonia de Clifford

    Notes:

    Buried:
    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beverley_Minster

    Children:
    1. Isabel Percy was born 0___ 1320, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; died Bef 25 May 1368, Alnwick, Northumberland, England.
    2. Henry Percy, IV, 3rd Baron Percy was born 0___ 1322, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ; died 18 May 1368, Berwick Castle, Berwick-upon-Tweed, England; was buried Alnwick, Northumberland, England.
    3. 41. Maud Percy was born Abt 1335, Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; died 18 Feb 1378; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.
    4. Alianore Percy was born ~ 1336, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ; died Bef 1361.

  13. 84.  Edward III, King of EnglandEdward III, King of England was born 13 Nov 1312, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was christened 20 Nov 1312 (son of Edward II, King of England and Isabella of France, Queen of England); died 21 Jun 1377, Richmond Palace, London, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward of Windsor

    Notes:

    Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England from 25 January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His long reign of fifty years also saw vital developments in legislation and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death.

    Edward was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother and her lover Roger Mortimer. At age seventeen he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1337 but his claim was denied due to the Salic law. This started what would become known as the Hundred Years' War.[1] Following some initial setbacks the war went exceptionally well for England; victories at Crâecy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brâetigny. Edward's later years, however, were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.

    Edward III was a temperamental man but capable of unusual clemency. He was in many ways a conventional king whose main interest was warfare. Admired in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by later Whig historians such as William Stubbs. This view has been challenged recently and modern historians credit him with some significant achievements.[2][3]

    Early life

    Edward was born at Windsor Castle on 13 November 1312, and was often referred to as Edward of Windsor in his early years.[4] The reign of his father, Edward II, was a particularly problematic period of English history.[5] One source of contention was the king's inactivity, and repeated failure, in the ongoing war with Scotland.[6] Another controversial issue was the king's exclusive patronage of a small group of royal favourites.[7] The birth of a male heir in 1312 temporarily improved Edward II's position in relation to the baronial opposition.[8] To bolster further the independent prestige of the young prince, the king had him created Earl of Chester at only twelve days of age.[9]

    In 1325, Edward II was faced with a demand from the French king, Charles IV, to perform homage for the English Duchy of Aquitaine.[10] Edward was reluctant to leave the country, as discontent was once again brewing domestically, particularly over his relationship with the favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger.[11] Instead, he had his son Edward created Duke of Aquitaine in his place and sent him to France to perform the homage.[12] The young Edward was accompanied by his mother Isabella, who was the sister of King Charles, and was meant to negotiate a peace treaty with the French.[13] While in France, however, Isabella conspired with the exiled Roger Mortimer to have the king Edward deposed.[14] To build up diplomatic and military support for the venture, Isabella had Prince Edward engaged to the twelve-year-old Philippa of Hainault.[15] An invasion of England was launched and Edward II's forces deserted him completely. The king was forced to relinquish the throne to his son on 25 January 1327. The new king was crowned as Edward III on 1 February 1327.[16]

    It was not long before the new reign also met with other problems caused by the central position at court of Roger Mortimer, who was now the de facto ruler of England. Mortimer used his power to acquire noble estates and titles, and his unpopularity grew with the humiliating defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Stanhope Park and the ensuing Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, signed with the Scots in 1328.[17] Also the young king came into conflict with his guardian. Mortimer knew his position in relation to the king was precarious and subjected Edward to disrespect. The tension increased after Edward and Philippa, who had married on 24 January 1328, had a son on 15 June 1330.[18] Eventually, Edward decided to take direct action against Mortimer. Aided by his close companion William Montagu and a small number of other trusted men, Edward took Mortimer by surprise at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. Mortimer was executed and Edward III's personal reign began.[19]

    Early reign

    Edward III was not content with the peace agreement made in his name, but the renewal of the war with Scotland originated in private, rather than royal initiative. A group of English magnates known as The Disinherited, who had lost land in Scotland by the peace accord, staged an invasion of Scotland and won a great victory at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332.[20] They attempted to install Edward Balliol as king of Scotland in David II's place, but Balliol was soon expelled and was forced to seek the help of Edward III. The English king responded by laying siege to the important border town of Berwick and defeated a large relieving army at the Battle of Halidon Hill.[21] Edward reinstated Balliol on the throne and received a substantial amount of land in southern Scotland.[22] These victories proved hard to sustain, however, as forces loyal to David II gradually regained control of the country. In 1338, Edward was forced to agree to a truce with the Scots.[23]

    To mark his claim to the French crown, Edward's coat of arms showed the three lions of England quartered with the fleurs-de-lys of France. English stained glass, c. 1350–1377[24]
    One reason for the change of strategy towards Scotland was a growing concern for the relationship between England and France. As long as Scotland and France were in an alliance, the English were faced with the prospect of fighting a war on two fronts.[25] The French carried out raids on English coastal towns, leading to rumours in England of a full-scale French invasion.[23] In 1337, Philip VI confiscated the English king's duchy of Aquitaine and the county of Ponthieu. Instead of seeking a peaceful resolution to the conflict by paying homage to the French king, the way his father had done, Edward responded by laying claim to the French crown as the grandson of Philip IV.[26] The French, however, invoked the Salic law of succession and rejected his claim. Instead, they upheld the rights of Philip IV's nephew, King Philip VI (an agnatic descendant of the House of France), thereby setting the stage for the Hundred Years' War (see family tree below).[27] In the early stages of the war, Edward's strategy was to build alliances with other Continental princes. In 1338, Louis IV named Edward vicar-general of the Holy Roman Empire and promised his support.[28] These measures, however, produced few results; the only major military victory in this phase of the war was the English naval victory at Sluys on 24 June 1340, which secured English control of the Channel.[29]

    Meanwhile, the fiscal pressure on the kingdom caused by Edward's expensive alliances led to discontent at home. The regency council at home was frustrated by the mounting national debt, while the king and his commanders on the Continent were angered by the failure of the government in England to provide sufficient funds.[30] To deal with the situation, Edward himself returned to England, arriving in London unannounced on 30 November 1340.[31] Finding the affairs of the realm in disorder, he purged the royal administration of a great number of ministers and judges.[32] These measures did not bring domestic stability, however, and a stand-off ensued between the king and John de Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury, during which Stratford's relatives Robert Stratford Bishop of Chichester and Henry de Stratford were temporarily stripped of title and imprisoned respectively.[33] Stratford claimed that Edward had violated the laws of the land by arresting royal officers.[34] A certain level of conciliation was reached at the parliament of April 1341. Here Edward was forced to accept severe limitations to his financial and administrative freedom, in return for a grant of taxation.[35] Yet in October the same year, the king repudiated this statute and Archbishop Stratford was politically ostracised. The extraordinary circumstances of the April parliament had forced the king into submission, but under normal circumstances the powers of the king in medieval England were virtually unlimited, a fact that Edward was able to exploit.[36]


    Historian Nicholas Rodger called Edward III's claim to be the "Sovereign of the Seas" into question, arguing there was hardly any Royal Navy before the reign of Henry V (1413–22). Although Rodger may have made this claim, the reality was that King John had already developed a royal fleet of galleys and had attempted to establish an administration for these ships and ones which were arrested (privately owned ships pulled into royal/national service). Henry III, his successor, continued this work. Notwithstanding the fact that he, along with his predecessor, had hoped to develop a strong and efficient naval administration, their endeavours produced one that was informal and mostly ad hoc. A formal naval administration emerged during Edward's reign which was composed of lay administrators and headed by William de Clewre, Matthew de Torksey, and John de Haytfield successively with them being titled, Clerk of the King's Ships. Sir Robert de Crull was the last to fill this position during Edward III's reign[37] and would have the longest tenure in this position.[38] It was during his tenure that Edward's naval administration would become a base for what evolved during the reigns of successors such as Henry VIII of England's Council of Marine and Navy Board and Charles I of England's Board of Admiralty. Rodger also argues that for much of the fourteenth century, the French had the upper hand, apart from Sluys in 1340 and, perhaps, off Winchelsea in 1350.[39] Yet, the French never invaded England and France's King John II died in captivity in England. There was a need for an English navy to play a role in this and to handle other matters, such as the insurrection of the Anglo-Irish lords and acts of piracy.[40]

    Fortunes of war

    Map showing 14th-century France in green, with the southwest and parts of the north in pink.
    Map showing the area (in pink) gained by England through the Treaty of Brâetigny.
    By the early 1340s, it was clear that Edward's policy of alliances was too costly, and yielded too few results. The following years saw more direct involvement by English armies, including in the Breton War of Succession, but these interventions also proved fruitless at first.[41] A major change came in July 1346, when Edward staged a major offensive, sailing for Normandy with a force of 15,000 men.[42] His army sacked the city of Caen, and marched across northern France, to meet up with English forces in Flanders. It was not Edward's initial intention to engage the French army, but at Crâecy, just north of the Somme, he found favourable terrain and decided to fight an army led by Philip VI.[43] On 26 August, the English army defeated a far larger French army in the Battle of Crâecy.[44] Shortly after this, on 17 October, an English army defeated and captured King David II of Scotland at the Battle of Neville's Cross.[45] With his northern borders secured, Edward felt free to continue his major offensive against France, laying siege to the town of Calais. The operation was the greatest English venture of the Hundred Years' War, involving an army of 35,000 men.[46] The siege started on 4 September 1346, and lasted until the town surrendered on 3 August 1347.[47]


    Edward III counting the dead on the battlefield of Crâecy
    After the fall of Calais, factors outside of Edward's control forced him to wind down the war effort. In 1348, the Black Death struck England with full force, killing a third or more of the country's population.[48] This loss of manpower led to a shortage of farm labour, and a corresponding rise in wages. The great landowners struggled with the shortage of manpower and the resulting inflation in labour cost.[49] To curb the rise in wages, the king and parliament responded with the Ordinance of Labourers in 1349, followed by the Statute of Labourers in 1351. These attempts to regulate wages could not succeed in the long run, but in the short term they were enforced with great vigour.[50] All in all, the plague did not lead to a full-scale breakdown of government and society, and recovery was remarkably swift.[51] This was to a large extent thanks to the competent leadership of royal administrators such as Treasurer William de Shareshull and Chief Justice William Edington.[52]

    It was not until the mid-1350s that military operations on the Continent were resumed on a large scale.[53] In 1356, Edward's eldest son, Edward, the Black Prince, won an important victory in the Battle of Poitiers. The greatly outnumbered English forces not only routed the French, but captured the French king, John II and his youngest son, Philip.[54] After a succession of victories, the English held great possessions in France, the French king was in English custody, and the French central government had almost totally collapsed.[55] There has been a historical debate as to whether Edward's claim to the French crown originally was genuine, or if it was simply a political ploy meant to put pressure on the French government.[56] Regardless of the original intent, the stated claim now seemed to be within reach. Yet a campaign in 1359, meant to complete the undertaking, was inconclusive.[57] In 1360, therefore, Edward accepted the Treaty of Brâetigny, whereby he renounced his claims to the French throne, but secured his extended French possessions in full sovereignty.[58]

    Later reign

    While Edward's early reign had been energetic and successful, his later years were marked by inertia, military failure and political strife. The day-to-day affairs of the state had less appeal to Edward than military campaigning, so during the 1360s Edward increasingly relied on the help of his subordinates, in particular William Wykeham.[59] A relative upstart, Wykeham was made Keeper of the Privy Seal in 1363 and Chancellor in 1367, though due to political difficulties connected with his inexperience, the Parliament forced him to resign the chancellorship in 1371.[60] Compounding Edward's difficulties were the deaths of his most trusted men, some from the 1361–62 recurrence of the plague. William Montague, Earl of Salisbury, Edward's companion in the 1330 coup, died as early as 1344. William de Clinton, who had also been with the king at Nottingham, died in 1354. One of the earls created in 1337, William de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, died in 1360, and the next year Henry of Grosmont, perhaps the greatest of Edward's captains, succumbed to what was probably plague.[61] Their deaths left the majority of the magnates younger and more naturally aligned to the princes than to the king himself.[62]


    King Edward III grants Aquitaine to his son Edward, the Black Prince. Initial letter "E" of miniature, 1390; British Library, shelfmark: Cotton MS Nero D VI, f.31
    Increasingly, Edward began to rely on his sons for the leadership of military operations. The king's second son, Lionel of Antwerp, attempted to subdue by force the largely autonomous Anglo-Irish lords in Ireland. The venture failed, and the only lasting mark he left were the suppressive Statutes of Kilkenny in 1366.[63] In France, meanwhile, the decade following the Treaty of Brâetigny was one of relative tranquillity, but on 8 April 1364 John II died in captivity in England, after unsuccessfully trying to raise his own ransom at home.[64] He was followed by the vigorous Charles V, who enlisted the help of the capable Constable Bertrand du Guesclin.[65] In 1369, the French war started anew, and Edward's younger son John of Gaunt was given the responsibility of a military campaign. The effort failed, and with the Treaty of Bruges in 1375, the great English possessions in France were reduced to only the coastal towns of Calais, Bordeaux, and Bayonne.[66]

    Military failure abroad, and the associated fiscal pressure of constant campaigns, led to political discontent at home. The problems came to a head in the parliament of 1376, the so-called Good Parliament. The parliament was called to grant taxation, but the House of Commons took the opportunity to address specific grievances. In particular, criticism was directed at some of the king's closest advisors. Chamberlain William Latimer and Steward of the Household John Neville were dismissed from their positions.[67] Edward's mistress, Alice Perrers, who was seen to hold far too much power over the ageing king, was banished from court.[68][69] Yet the real adversary of the Commons, supported by powerful men such as Wykeham and Edmund de Mortimer, Earl of March, was John of Gaunt. Both the king and the Black Prince were by this time incapacitated by illness, leaving Gaunt in virtual control of government.[70] Gaunt was forced to give in to the demands of parliament, but at its next convocation, in 1377, most of the achievements of the Good Parliament were reversed.[71]

    Edward himself, however, did not have much to do with any of this; after around 1375 he played a limited role in the government of the realm. Around 29 September 1376 he fell ill with a large abscess. After a brief period of recovery in February 1377, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June.[72] He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, son of the Black Prince, since the Black Prince himself had died on 8 June 1376.[73]

    Achievements of the reign

    Legislation

    The middle years of Edward's reign were a period of significant legislative activity. Perhaps the best-known piece of legislation was the Statute of Labourers of 1351, which addressed the labour shortage problem caused by the Black Death. The statute fixed wages at their pre-plague level and checked peasant mobility by asserting that lords had first claim on their men's services. In spite of concerted efforts to uphold the statute, it eventually failed due to competition among landowners for labour.[74] The law has been described as an attempt "to legislate against the law of supply and demand", which made it doomed to fail.[75] Nevertheless, the labour shortage had created a community of interest between the smaller landowners of the House of Commons and the greater landowners of the House of Lords. The resulting measures angered the peasants, leading to the Peasants' Revolt of 1381.[76]

    The reign of Edward III coincided with the so-called Babylonian Captivity of the papacy at Avignon. During the wars with France, opposition emerged in England against perceived injustices by a papacy largely controlled by the French crown.[77] Papal taxation of the English Church was suspected to be financing the nation's enemies, while the practice of provisions – the Pope providing benefices for clerics – caused resentment in the English population. The statutes of Provisors and Praemunire, of 1350 and 1353 respectively, aimed to amend this by banning papal benefices, as well as limiting the power of the papal court over English subjects.[78] The statutes did not, however, sever the ties between the king and the Pope, who were equally dependent upon each other.[79]

    Other legislation of importance includes the Treason Act of 1351. It was precisely the harmony of the reign that allowed a consensus on the definition of this controversial crime.[80] Yet the most significant legal reform was probably that concerning the Justices of the Peace. This institution began before the reign of Edward III but, by 1350, the justices had been given the power not only to investigate crimes and make arrests, but also to try cases, including those of felony.[81] With this, an enduring fixture in the administration of local English justice had been created.[82]

    Parliament and taxation

    Half groat with portrait of King Edward III, York mint.
    Parliament as a representative institution was already well established by the time of Edward III, but the reign was nevertheless central to its development.[83] During this period, membership in the English baronage, formerly a somewhat indistinct group, became restricted to those who received a personal summons to parliament.[84] This happened as parliament gradually developed into a bicameral institution, composed of a House of Lords and a House of Commons.[85] Yet it was not in the upper, but in the lower house that the greatest changes took place, with the expanding political role of the Commons. Informative is the Good Parliament, where the Commons for the first time – albeit with noble support – were responsible for precipitating a political crisis.[86] In the process, both the procedure of impeachment and the office of the Speaker were created.[87] Even though the political gains were of only temporary duration, this parliament represented a watershed in English political history.

    The political influence of the Commons originally lay in their right to grant taxes.[88] The financial demands of the Hundred Years' War were enormous, and the king and his ministers tried different methods of covering the expenses. The king had a steady income from crown lands, and could also take up substantial loans from Italian and domestic financiers.[89] To finance warfare on Edward III's scale, however, the king had to resort to taxation of his subjects. Taxation took two primary forms: levy and customs. The levy was a grant of a proportion of all moveable property, normally a tenth for towns and a fifteenth for farmland. This could produce large sums of money, but each such levy had to be approved by parliament, and the king had to prove the necessity.[90] The customs therefore provided a welcome supplement, as a steady and reliable source of income. An "ancient duty" on the export of wool had existed since 1275. Edward I had tried to introduce an additional duty on wool, but this unpopular maltolt, or "unjust exaction", was soon abandoned.[91] Then, from 1336 onwards, a series of schemes aimed at increasing royal revenues from wool export were introduced. After some initial problems and discontent, it was agreed through the Ordinance of the Staple of 1353 that the new customs should be approved by parliament, though in reality they became permanent.[92]

    Through the steady taxation of Edward III's reign, parliament – and in particular the Commons – gained political influence. A consensus emerged that in order for a tax to be just, the king had to prove its necessity, it had to be granted by the community of the realm, and it had to be to the benefit of that community.[93] In addition to imposing taxes, parliament would also present petitions for redress of grievances to the king, most often concerning misgovernment by royal officials.[94] This way the system was beneficial for both parties. Through this process the commons, and the community they represented, became increasingly politically aware, and the foundation was laid for the particular English brand of constitutional monarchy.[95]

    Chivalry and national identity

    Edward III as head of the Order of the Garter, drawing c. 1430–40 in the Bruges Garter Book
    Partly ruined black seal, showing Edward III on horseback, in armour and sword raised.
    The Great Seal of Edward III.
    Central to Edward III's policy was reliance on the higher nobility for purposes of war and administration. While his father had regularly been in conflict with a great portion of his peerage, Edward III successfully created a spirit of camaraderie between himself and his greatest subjects.[96] Both Edward I and Edward II had been limited in their policy towards the nobility, allowing the creation of few new peerages during the sixty years preceding Edward III's reign.[97] The young king reversed this trend when, in 1337, as a preparation for the imminent war, he created six new earls on the same day.[98] At the same time, Edward expanded the ranks of the peerage upwards, by introducing the new title of duke for close relatives of the king.[99] Furthermore, Edward bolstered the sense of community within this group by the creation of the Order of the Garter, probably in 1348. A plan from 1344 to revive the Round Table of King Arthur never came to fruition, but the new order carried connotations from this legend by the circular shape of the garter.[100] Polydore Vergil tells of how the young Joan of Kent, Countess of Salisbury – allegedly the king's favourite at the time – accidentally dropped her garter at a ball at Calais. King Edward responded to the ensuing ridicule of the crowd by tying the garter around his own knee with the words honi soit qui mal y pense – shame on him who thinks ill of it.[101]

    This reinforcement of the aristocracy must be seen in conjunction with the war in France, as must the emerging sense of national identity.[96] Just as the war with Scotland had done, the fear of a French invasion helped strengthen a sense of national unity, and nationalise the aristocracy that had been largely Anglo-French since the Norman conquest. Since the time of Edward I, popular myth suggested that the French planned to extinguish the English language, and as his grandfather had done, Edward III made the most of this scare.[102] As a result, the English language experienced a strong revival; in 1362, a Statute of Pleading ordered the English language to be used in law courts,[103] and the year after, Parliament was for the first time opened in English.[104] At the same time, the vernacular saw a revival as a literary language, through the works of William Langland, John Gower and especially The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer.[105] Yet the extent of this Anglicisation must not be exaggerated. The statute of 1362 was in fact written in the French language and had little immediate effect, and parliament was opened in that language as late as 1377.[106] The Order of the Garter, though a distinctly English institution, included also foreign members such as John V, Duke of Brittany and Sir Robert of Namur.[107][108] Edward III – himself bilingual – viewed himself as legitimate king of both England and France, and could not show preferential treatment for one part of his domains over another.

    Assessment and character

    See also: Cultural depictions of Edward III of England
    Early modern half-figure portrait of Edward III in his royal garb.
    Edward III as he was portrayed in the late 16th century.
    Edward III enjoyed unprecedented popularity in his own lifetime, and even the troubles of his later reign were never blamed directly on the king himself.[109] Edward's contemporary Jean Froissart wrote in his Chronicles that "His like had not been seen since the days of King Arthur".[72] This view persisted for a while but, with time, the image of the king changed. The Whig historians of a later age preferred constitutional reform to foreign conquest and discredited Edward for ignoring his responsibilities to his own nation. In the words of Bishop Stubbs:

    Edward III was not a statesman, though he possessed some qualifications which might have made him a successful one. He was a warrior; ambitious, unscrupulous, selfish, extravagant and ostentatious. His obligations as a king sat very lightly on him. He felt himself bound by no special duty, either to maintain the theory of royal supremacy or to follow a policy which would benefit his people. Like Richard I, he valued England primarily as a source of supplies.
    — William Stubbs, The Constitutional History of England[110]

    Influential as Stubbs was, it was long before this view was challenged. In a 1960 article, titled "Edward III and the Historians", May McKisack pointed out the teleological nature of Stubbs' judgement. A medieval king could not be expected to work towards the future ideal of a parliamentary monarchy; rather his role was a pragmatic one—to maintain order and solve problems as they arose. At this, Edward III excelled.[111] Edward had also been accused of endowing his younger sons too liberally and thereby promoting dynastic strife culminating in the Wars of the Roses. This claim was rejected by K.B. McFarlane, who argued that this was not only the common policy of the age, but also the best.[112] Later biographers of the king such as Mark Ormrod and Ian Mortimer have followed this historiographical trend. However, the older negative view has not completely disappeared; as recently as 2001, Norman Cantor described Edward III as an "avaricious and sadistic thug" and a "destructive and merciless force."[113]

    From what is known of Edward's character, he could be impulsive and temperamental, as was seen by his actions against Stratford and the ministers in 1340/41.[114] At the same time, he was well known for his clemency; Mortimer's grandson was not only absolved, but came to play an important part in the French wars, and was eventually made a Knight of the Garter.[115] Both in his religious views and his interests, Edward was a conventional man. His favourite pursuit was the art of war and, in this, he conformed to the medieval notion of good kingship.[116][117] As a warrior he was so successful that one modern military historian has described him as the greatest general in English history.[118] He seems to have been unusually devoted to his wife, Queen Philippa. Much has been made of Edward's sexual licentiousness, but there is no evidence of any infidelity on the king's part before Alice Perrers became his lover, and by that time the queen was already terminally ill.[119][120] This devotion extended to the rest of the family as well; in contrast to so many of his predecessors, Edward never experienced opposition from any of his five adult sons.[121]

    Birth:
    Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is notable for its long association with the English and later British royal family and for its architecture. The original castle was built in the 11th century after the Norman invasion of England by William the Conqueror. Since the time of Henry I, it has been used by all monarchs, and is the longest-occupied palace in Europe. The castle's lavish early 19th-century State Apartments were described by the art historian Hugh Roberts as "a superb and unrivalled sequence of rooms widely regarded as the finest and most complete expression of later Georgian taste".[1] Inside the castle walls is the 15th-century St George's Chapel, considered by the historian John Martin Robinson to be "one of the supreme achievements of English Perpendicular Gothic" design.

    View map & image ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windsor_Castle (Sheila & I traversed "the Long Walk" by horse & carriage...DAH)

    Buried:
    Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556 the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, however, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the original abbey church.

    According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site (then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island)) in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III.

    Photo & maps ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Abbey

    Died:
    Formerly known as "Sheen Palace" until partially destroyed by fire and rebuilt and renamed by Henry VII...

    Edward married Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England 24 Jan 1327, York Minster, York, East Riding, Yorkshire, England. Phillipa was born 1312-1314, Mons, Hainaut, Belgium, Netherlands; died 15 Aug 1369, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was buried 15 Aug 1368, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. [Group Sheet]


  14. 85.  Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England was born 1312-1314, Mons, Hainaut, Belgium, Netherlands; died 15 Aug 1369, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was buried 15 Aug 1368, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Philippa of Hainault

    Children:
    1. Edward of Woodstock, The Black Prince was born 15 Jun 1330, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England; died 8 Jun 1376, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    2. Lionel of Antwerp, Knight, 1st Duke of Clarence was born 29 Nov 1338, Antwerp, Belgium; died 17 Oct 1368, Alba, Italy; was buried Clare Priory, Suffolk, England.
    3. 42. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster was born 6 Mar 1340, St. Bavo's Abbey, Ghent, Belgium; died 3 Feb 1399, Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire, England; was buried 15 Mar 1399, St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Middlesex, England..
    4. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge was born 5 Jun 1341, King's Langley, Hertford, England; was christened King's Langley, Hertford, England; died 1 Aug 1402, Abbot's Langley, Hertford, England; was buried Dominicans Church, King's Langley, Hertford, England.
    5. Thomas of Woodstock was born 7 Jan 1355, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England; died 8 Sep 1397, Calais, France.

  15. 86.  Paon de Roet, Knight was born ~ 1310, Roeulx, France; died 0___ 1380, Ghent, Belgium; was buried Old St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Paganus de Rodio
    • Also Known As: Sir Gilles de Roet

    Notes:

    Paon de Roet sometimes Payne Roet of Guienne (c.1310-1380), and also referred to as Sir Gilles de Roet, was a herald and knight from Hainaut who was involved in the early stages of the Hundred Years War. He became attached to the court of King Edward III of England through the king's marriage to Philippa of Hainaut.

    He is most notable for the fact that he became the ancestor of the monarchs of England because his daughter Katherine married John of Gaunt. Her children, given the surname "Beaufort", became the forebears of the Tudor dynasty through Margaret Beaufort. Another of his daughters also made a notable marriage, to the poet Geoffrey Chaucer.

    Early life

    Paon de Roet was "probably christened as Gilles",[1] but seems to have been known as "Paon" or "Payne", Latinised as "Paganus". He is named in a legal document in the form Paganus de Rodio — referring to Rodium, the mediaeval Latin form corresponding to the Roeulx, or Le Rœulx, a town of 3000 inhabitants, 8 miles north-east of Mons, on the highway leading from Mons to Nivelle located in the County of Hainaut.

    Paon de Roet may have been impelled to seek his fortune in England by the recital of the exploits of Fastre de Roet, who accompanied John of Beaumont in 1326, when, with three hundred followers, he went to assist the English against the Scots. Fastre was the younger brother of the last lord of Roeulx, descended from the Counts of Hainault. He and his brother Eustace fell into pecuniary straits, and were obliged to alienate their landed possessions. Fastre died in 1331, and was buried in the abbey church of Roeulx, while his brother Eustace survived till 1336. Paon was, like Fastre, a younger brother — possibly of a collateral line.

    In England

    Paon de Roet may have come to England as part of the retinue of Philippa of Hainaut, accompanying the young queen in her departure from Valenciennes to join her youthful husband Edward III in England at the close of 1327. His name does not appear in the official list of knights who accompanied the queen from Hainaut. However, Froissart says he was one of a number of additional young knights and squires who added to the queen's retinue, referred to as 'pluissier jone esquier', i.e. "plusiers jeunes escuyers" ('other young squires'); Speght (1598)[2]

    Froissart's account of the history of English monarchs includes a genealogical tree, the relevant part of which begins with Paon's name. He is described as "Paganus de Rouet Hannoniensis, aliter dictus Guien Rex Armorum" ("Paon de Rouet of Hainaut, also called Guyenne King of Arms"). The latter part refers to the title of King of Arms granted by Edward III to Roet for the territory of Guyenne (Aquitaine) which was controlled by Edward.

    France and Hainaut

    In 1347, Roet was sent to the Siege of Calais, and was one of two knights deputed by Queen Philippa to conduct out of town the citizens whom she had saved (the so-called Burghers of Calais).[3]

    He had returned to the lands of Hainaut, probably by 1349. He went to serve the queen’s sister, Marguerite, who was the empress of Germany, and his three younger children—Walter, Philippa and Katherine—were left in the care of Queen Philippa.[4] He died in Ghent in 1380.

    Family

    Paon had three daughters, Katherine, Philippa and Isabel (also called Elizabeth) de Roet, and a son, Walter. Isabel was to become Canoness of the convent of St. Waudru at Mons in Hainaut, c. 1366. Philippa married the poet Geoffrey Chaucer in 1366. They met while still children when they were attached to the household of Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster.[5]

    Katherine became governess to the daughters of John of Gaunt. After the death of John's wife Blanche in 1369, Katherine and John began a love affair which would bring forth four children born out of wedlock and would endure as a lifelong relationship. However, John made a dynastic marriage to Constance of Castille, a claimant to the throne of Castile, after which he called himself "King of Castille". When Constance died he married Katherine and legitimised their children.

    Tomb

    Roet's name listed amongst early graves lost noted on the memorial in St Paul's Cathedral
    Paon de Roet's tomb was in Old St Paul's Cathedral, near Sir John Beauchamp's tomb (commonly called "Duke Humphrey's"). The antiquary John Weever had previously recorded that "Once a fair marble stone inlaid all over with brass, nothing but the heads of a few brazen nails are at this day visible, previously engraven with the representation and coat of arms of the party defunct, thus much of a mangled funeral inscription was of late times perspicuous to be read".[6]

    By 1658, viewed without its brass plate and effigies, this tomb was described by William Dugdale. The tomb, along with the tombs of many others, including John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster's, were completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. A modern monument in the crypt lists De Roet amongst the important graves lost.

    The former inscription was as follows:

    " Hic Jacet Paganus Roet Miles Guyenne Rex
    Armorum Pater Catherine Ducisse Lancastrie."
    (Here lies Paon de Roet, knight, Guyenne King of Arms, father of Katherine Duchess of Lancaster)

    Birth:
    Roeulx is a French commune located in the department of North , in region Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy .

    Buried:
    Old St Paul's Cathedral was the medieval cathedral of the City of London that, until 1666, stood on the site of the present St Paul's Cathedral. Built from 1087 to 1314 and dedicated to Saint Paul, the cathedral was the fourth church on the site at Ludgate Hill.

    Paon de Roet's tomb was in Old St Paul's Cathedral, near Sir John Beauchamp's tomb (commonly called "Duke Humphrey's"). The antiquary John Weever had previously recorded that "Once a fair marble stone inlaid all over with brass, nothing but the heads of a few brazen nails are at this day visible, previously engraven with the representation and coat of arms of the party defunct, thus much of a mangled funeral inscription was of late times perspicuous to be read".[6]

    By 1658, viewed without its brass plate and effigies, this tomb was described by William Dugdale. The tomb, along with the tombs of many others, including John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster's, were completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. A modern monument in the crypt lists De Roet amongst the important graves lost.

    The former inscription was as follows:

    " Hic Jacet Paganus Roet Miles Guyenne Rex
    Armorum Pater Catherine Ducisse Lancastrie."
    (Here lies Paon de Roet, knight, Guyenne King of Arms, father of Katherine Duchess of Lancaster)

    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paon_de_Roet

    Paon — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  16. 87.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 43. Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France; died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.
    2. Phillipa de Roet was born ~ 1346, (Roeulx) France; died ~ 1387, (London, Middlesex, England).

  17. 88.  Robert Howard, I, Duke of Norfolk was born ~ 1336, East Wynch, Wiggenhall, Norfolk, England (son of John Howard, II, Admiral of the North Seas and Alice de Boys); died 3 Jul 1388, Wiggenhall, Norfolk, England; was buried 18 Jul 1388, Howard Chapel, East Winch, Norfolk, England.

    Robert married Margaret de Scales 0___ 1365, East Wynch, Wiggenhall, Norfolk, England. Margaret was born 0___ 1339, of, Newselles, Hertford, England; died 18 May 1416, East Wynch, Wiggenhall, Norfolk, England. [Group Sheet]


  18. 89.  Margaret de Scales was born 0___ 1339, of, Newselles, Hertford, England; died 18 May 1416, East Wynch, Wiggenhall, Norfolk, England.
    Children:
    1. 44. John Howard, Knight, Duke of Norfolk was born ~ 1366, Wiggenhall, Norfolkshire, England; died 17 Nov 1437, Jerusalem, Israel; was buried Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk, England.

  19. 92.  John de Mowbray, Knight, 4th Baron Mowbray was born 24 Jun 1340, Epworth, Lincolnshire, England (son of John de Mowbray, Knight, 3rd Baron Mowbray and Joan Plantagenet, Baroness Mowbray); died 19 Oct 1368, Constantinople, Turkey.

    Other Events:

    • Probate: 17 May 1369, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England

    Notes:

    John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray (24 June 1340 – 1368) was an English peer. He was slain near Constantinople while en route to the Holy Land.

    Family

    John de Mowbray, born 25 June 1340 at Epworth, Lincolnshire, was the son of John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray, of Axholme, Lincolnshire, by his second wife, Joan of Lancaster, sixth and youngest daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster.[1][2][3] He had two sisters, Blanche and Eleanor (for details concerning his sisters see the article on his father, John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray.[4]

    Career

    He and twenty-six others were knighted by Edward III in July 1355[3] while English forces were at the Downs before sailing to France. In 1356 he served in a campaign in Brittany.[2][3] He had livery of his lands on 14 November 1361; however his inheritance was subject to the dower which his father had settled on his stepmother, Elizabeth de Vere.[3] By 1369 she had married Sir William de Cossington, son and heir of Stephen de Cossington of Cossington in Aylesford, Kent; not long after the marriage she and her new husband surrendered themselves to the Fleet prison for debt.[2][4] According to Archer, the cause may have been Mowbray's prosecution of his stepmother for waste of his estates; he had been awarded damages against her of almost ¹1000.[3]

    In about 1343 an agreement had been made for a double marriage between, on the one hand, Mowbray and Audrey Montagu, the granddaughter of Thomas of Brotherton, and on the other hand, Mowbray's sister, Blanche, and Audrey's brother, Edward Montagu. Neither marriage took place.[3] Instead, about 1349 a double marriage was solemnized between, on the one hand, Mowbray and Elizabeth Segrave, and on the other hand, Mowbray's sister Blanche, and Elizabeth Segrave's brother John, Pope Clement VI having granted dispensations for the marriages at the request of the Earl of Lancaster in order to prevent 'disputes between the parents', who were neighbours.[5][3] Mowbray had little financial benefit from his marriage during his lifetime as a result of the very large jointure which had been awarded to Elizabeth Segrave's mother, Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, who lived until 1399.[6][3] However, when Elizabeth Segrave's father, John de Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave, died on 1 April 1353, Edward III allowed Mowbray to receive a small portion of his wife's eventual inheritance. Estate accounts for 1367 indicate that Mowbray enjoyed an annual income of almost ¹800 at that time.[3]

    Mowbray was summoned to Parliament from 14 August 1362 to 20 January 1366.[2] On 10 October 1367 he appointed attorneys in preparation for travel beyond the seas; these appointments were confirmed in the following year.[7] He was slain by the Turks near Constantinople while en route to the Holy Land.[8] A letter from the priory of 'Peyn' written in 1396 suggests that he was initially buried at the convent at Pera opposite Constantinople;[9][10] according to the letter, 'at the instance of his son Thomas' his bones had now been gathered and were being sent to England for burial with his ancestors.[7]

    His will was proved at Lincoln on 17 May 1369.[11][5] His wife, Elizabeth, predeceased him in 1368 by only a few months.[5]

    Marriage and issue

    Mowbray married, by papal dispensation dated 25 March 1349,[5] Elizabeth de Segrave (born 25 October 1338 at Croxton Abbey),[5] suo jure Lady Segrave, daughter and heiress of John de Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave (d.1353),[3] by Margaret, daughter and heiress of Thomas of Brotherton, son of Edward I.[12]

    They had two sons and three daughters:[12]

    John de Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham (1 August 1365 – before 12 February 1383), who died unmarried, and was buried at the Whitefriars, London.[13]
    Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk.[14]
    Eleanor Mowbray (born before 25 May 1364),[5] who married John de Welles, 5th Baron Welles.[13][15]
    Margaret Mowbray (d. before 11 July 1401), who married, by licence dated 1 July 1369, Sir Reginald Lucy (d. 9 November 1437) of Woodcroft in Luton, Bedfordshire.[16]
    Joan Mowbray, who married firstly Sir Thomas Grey (1359 – 26 November or 3 December 1400) of Heaton near Norham, Northumberland, son of the chronicler Sir Thomas Grey, and secondly Sir Thomas Tunstall of Thurland in Tunstall, Lancashire.[17][13]

    Died:
    while en route to the Holy Land...

    John married Elizabeth Segrave ~ 1343. Elizabeth (daughter of John Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave and Margaret Brotherton, Countess of Norfolk) was born 25 Oct 1338, Blaby, Leicestershire, England; died 24 May 1368, Leicestershire, England; was buried Croxton Abbey, Blaby, Leicestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  20. 93.  Elizabeth SegraveElizabeth Segrave was born 25 Oct 1338, Blaby, Leicestershire, England (daughter of John Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave and Margaret Brotherton, Countess of Norfolk); died 24 May 1368, Leicestershire, England; was buried Croxton Abbey, Blaby, Leicestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Buried:
    Croxton Abbey, near Croxton Kerrial, Leicestershire, was a Premonstratensian monastery founded by William I, Count of Boulogne.

    images ... https://www.google.com/search?q=byland+abbey&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=815&site=webhp&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&sqi=2&ved=0ahUKEwj6svLG7MLKAhUEFh4KHfJ4BGgQsAQILg&dpr=1#tbm=isch&q=croxton+abbey

    Children:
    1. Joan Mowbray was born ~ 1361; died Aft 30 Nov 1402.
    2. 46. Thomas de Mowbray, Knight, 1st Duke of Norfolk was born 22 Mar 1366, Epworth, Isle of Axholme, Lincolnshire, England; died 22 Sep 1399, Venice, Itlaly.

  21. 94.  Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 11th Earl of ArundelRichard FitzAlan, Knight, 11th Earl of Arundel was born 25 Mar 1346, Arundel, Sussex, England (son of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel); died 21 Sep 1397, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Augustin Friars, Bread Street, London, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Governor of Brest
    • Also Known As: Arundel
    • Also Known As: Earl of Surrey
    • Military: Admiral of the West and South
    • Military: Knight of the Garter

    Notes:

    Lineage

    Born in 1346, he was the son of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor of Lancaster.[2] He succeeded his father to the title of Earl of Arundel on 24 January 1376.

    His brother was Thomas Arundel, the Bishop of Ely from 1374 to 1388, Archbishop of York from 1388 to 1397, and Archbishop of Canterbury in 1397 and from 1399 until his death in 1414.[3]

    At the coronation of Richard II, Richard FitzAlan carried the crown.[2]

    Admiral

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel; Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester; Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham; Henry, Earl of Derby (later Henry IV); and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, demand Richard II to let them prove by arms the justice for their rebellion
    In 1377, Richard FitzAlan held the title of Admiral of the West and South.[2] In this capacity, he attacked Harfleur at Whitsun 1378, but was forced to return to his ships by the defenders. Later, he and John of Gaunt attempted to seize Saint-Malo but were unsuccessful.[4]

    Power Struggle

    FitzAlan was closely aligned with Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, who was uncle of King Richard II. Thomas was opposed to Richard II's desire for peace with France in the Hundred Years War and a power struggle ensued between him and Gloucester. In late 1386, Gloucester forced King Richard II to name himself and Richard FitzAlan to the King's Council.[5] This Council was to all intents and purposes a Regency Council for Richard II. However, Richard limited the duration of the Council's powers to one year.[6]

    Knight of the Garter

    In 1386, Richard II named Richard FitzAlan Admiral of England, as well as being made a Knight of the Garter.[2] As Admiral of England, he defeated a Franco-Spanish-Flemish fleet off Margate in March 1387, along with Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham.[6]

    New favourites

    In August of 1387, the King dismissed Gloucester and FitzAlan from the Council and replaced them with his favourites - including the Archbishop of York, Alexander Neville; the Duke of Ireland, Robert de Vere; Michael de la Pole; the Earl of Suffolk, Sir Robert Tresilian, who was the Chief Justice; and the former Mayor of London Nicholas Brembre.[7]

    Radcot Bridge

    The King summoned Gloucester and FitzAlan to a meeting. However, instead of coming, they raised troops and defeated the new Council at Radcot Bridge on 22 December 1387. During that battle, they took the favourites prisoner. The next year, the Merciless Parliament condemned the favourites.

    FitzAlan was one of the Lords Appellant who accused and condemned Richard II's favorites.[5] He made himself particularly odious to the King by refusing, along with Gloucester, to spare the life of Sir Simon Burley who had been condemned by the Merciless Parliament. This was even after the queen, Anne of Bohemia, went down on her knees before them to beg for mercy. King Richard never forgave this humiliation and planned and waited for his moment of revenge.

    In 1394, FitzAlan further antagonized the King by arriving late for the queen's funeral. Richard II, in a rage, snatched a wand and struck FitzAlan in the face and drew blood. Shortly after that, the King feigned a reconciliation but he was only biding his time for the right moment to strike. Arundel was named Governor of Brest in 1388.[2]

    Opposed to peace

    Peace was concluded with France in 1389. However, Richard FitzAlan followed Gloucester's lead and stated that he would never agree with the peace that had been concluded.[5]

    Marriage and children

    Arundel married twice.

    His first wife was Elizabeth de Bohun, daughter of William de Bohun, Lord High Constable of England, 8th Earl of Hereford, 6th Earl of Essex, 1st Earl of Northampton and Elizabeth de Badlesmere. They married around 28 September 1359 and had seven children:[2][8]

    Thomas FitzAlan, 12th Earl of Arundel[2]
    Lady Eleanor FitzAlan (c.1365 – 1375), on 28 October 1371, at the age of about six, married Robert de Ufford. Died childless.
    Elizabeth FitzAlan (c.1366 – 8 July 1425), married first William Montacute (before December 1378); no issue. Married second, in 1384, Thomas Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk; had issue. Married third, before August 1401, Sir Robert Goushill of Hoveringham; had issue. Married fourth, before 1411, Sir Gerard Afflete; no issue.[2][9]
    Joan FitzAlan (1375 – 14 November 1435), who married William Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny;[2]
    Alice FitzAlan (1378 – before October 1415), married before March 1392, John Charleton, 4th Baron Cherleton. (not mentioned as an heir of Thomas in the Complete Peerage). Had an affair with Cardinal Henry Beaufort, by whom she had an illegitimate daughter, Jane Beaufort.[4]
    Margaret FitzAlan, who married Sir Rowland Lenthall;[2] by whom she had two sons.
    William (or Richard) FitzAlan

    After the death of his first wife in 1385, Arundel married Philippa Mortimer, daughter of Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March. Her mother was Philippa Plantagenet, the only daughter of Lionel of Antwerp and thus a granddaughter of Edward III. They had no children.[2]

    Death and succession

    On 12 July 1397, Richard FitzAlan was arrested for his opposition to Richard II,[2] as well as plotting with Gloucester to imprison the king.[10] He stood trial at Westminster and was attainted.[11] He was beheaded on 21 September 1397 and was buried in the church of the Augustin Friars, Bread Street, London.[2] Tradition holds that his final words were said to the executioner, "Torment me not long, strike off my head in one blow".[12]

    In October 1400, the attainder was reversed, and Richard's son Thomas succeeded to his father's estates and honors.[2]

    Military:
    In 1377, Richard FitzAlan held the title of Admiral of the West and South.[2] In this capacity, he attacked Harfleur at Whitsun 1378, but was forced to return to his ships by the defenders. Later, he and John of Gaunt attempted to seize Saint-Malo but were unsuccessful.

    Died:
    He was beheaded on 21 September 1397...

    Richard married Elizabeth de Bohun, Countess of Arundel, Countess of Surrey 28 Sep 1365, (Derbyshire) England. Elizabeth (daughter of William de Bohun, Knight, 1st Earl of Northampton and Elizabeth Badlesmere, Countess of Northampton) was born ~ 1350, Derbyshire, England; died 3 Apr 1385, Arundel, West Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]


  22. 95.  Elizabeth de Bohun, Countess of Arundel, Countess of Surrey was born ~ 1350, Derbyshire, England (daughter of William de Bohun, Knight, 1st Earl of Northampton and Elizabeth Badlesmere, Countess of Northampton); died 3 Apr 1385, Arundel, West Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Baptism: Lewes Priory, Sussex, England

    Notes:

    Lady Elizabeth de Bohun, Countess of Arundel, Countess of Surrey (c. 1350 – 3 April 1385) was a member of the Anglo-Norman Bohun family, which wielded much power in the Welsh Marches and the English government. She was the first wife of Richard FitzAlan, a powerful English nobleman and military commander in the reigns of Edward III and Richard II. She was the mother of seven of his children, and as the wife of one of the most powerful nobles in the realm, enjoyed much prestige and took precedence over most of the other peers' wives.

    Family and lineage

    Lady Elizabeth de Bohun was born around 1350, the daughter of William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton and Elizabeth de Badlesmere. Her older brother Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford married Joan FitzAlan, a sister of the 11th Earl of Arundel, by whom he had two daughters. Elizabeth had a half-brother, Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, by her mother's first marriage to Sir Edmund Mortimer.

    Her paternal grandparents were Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth of Rhuddlan, daughter of King Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile. Her maternal grandparents were Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare.

    Lady Elizabeth's parents both died when she was young, her mother having died in 1356, and her father in 1360.


    Arundel Castle, principal residence of Richard Fitzalan and Elizabeth de Bohun

    Marriage and issue

    On 28 September 1359, by Papal dispensation,[1] Elizabeth married Richard FitzAlan, who succeeded to the earldoms of Arundel and Surrey upon the death of his father, Richard FitzAlan, 3rd Earl of Arundel in 1376. Their marriage was especially advantageous as it united two of the most powerful families in England. The alliance was further strengthened by the marriage of Elizabeth's brother, Humphrey to FitzAlan's sister Joan.

    As the Countess of Arundel, Elizabeth was one of the most important women in England, who enjoyed much prestige, and after the Queen, the Duchesses of Lancaster and York, and the Countess of Buckingham, took precedence over the other noble ladies in the realm.

    At the coronation of King Richard II, FitzAlan carried the crown. In the same year, 1377, he was made Admiral of the South and West. The following year, 1378, he attacked Harfleur, but was repelled by the French.

    FitzAlan allied himself with the King's uncle Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, who was married to FitzAlan's niece Eleanor de Bohun, who was also Elizabeth's niece. The two men eventually became members of the Council of Regency, and formed a strong and virulent opposition to the King. This would later prove fatal to both men.

    Richard and Elizabeth had seven children:[1]

    Thomas FitzAlan, 5th Earl of Arundel, Earl of Surrey KG (13 October 1381- 13 October 1415), married 26 November 1405, Beatrice, illegitimate daughter of King John I of Portugal and Inez Perez Esteves.[2] The marriage was childless.
    Lady Eleanor FitzAlan (c.1365- 1375), on 28 October 1371, at the age of about six, married Robert de Ufford. Died childless.
    Lady Elizabeth FitzAlan (1366- 8 July 1425), married firstly before 1378, Sir William de Montagu, secondly in 1384, Thomas Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, by whom she had four children, thirdly before 19 August 1401, Sir Robert Goushill, by whom she had two daughters, and fourthly before 1411, Sir Gerard Afflete. The Howard Dukes of Norfolk descend from her daughter Margaret Mowbray who married Sir Robert Howard. Joan Goushill, daughter from the 3rd marriage, was ancestress of James Madison,[3] 4th President of the U.S.A.
    Lady Joan FitzAlan (1375- 14 November 1435), married William de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny, by whom she had a son, Richard de Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester and a daughter Joan de Beauchamp, wife of James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormonde.
    Lady Alice Fitzalan (1378- before October 1415), married before March 1392, John Cherlton, Lord Cherlton. Had an affair with Cardinal Henry Beaufort, by whom she had an illegitimate daughter, Jane Beaufort.[4]
    Lady Margaret FitzAlan (1382- after 1423), married Sir Rowland Lenthall, of Hampton Court, Herefordshire, by whom she had two sons.
    Son FitzAlan (his name is given as either Richard or William).

    Death

    Elizabeth de Bohun died on 3 April 1385 at the age of about thirty-five. She was buried at Lewes in Sussex. Her husband married secondly Philippa Mortimer on 15 August 1390, by whom he had a son: John FitzAlan (1394- after 1397).

    Richard FitzAlan was executed by decapitation on 21 September 1397 at Tower Hill Cheapside, London for having committed high treason against King Richard.[5] His titles and estates were attainted until October 1400, when they were restored to his son and heir, Thomas FitzAlan, 5th Earl of Arundel, by the new king, Henry IV, who had ascended to the English throne upon the deposition of King Richard in 1399.

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Click here to view many images of Arundel Castle ... http://bit.ly/1J6YiEy

    Children:
    1. 47. Elizabeth FitzAlan, Duchess of Norfolk was born 0___ 1366, Derbyshire, England; died 8 Jul 1425, Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried (St Michael's Church) Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England.
    2. Joan FitzAlan, Baroness Bergavenny was born 0___ 1375, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 14 Nov 1435, Herefordshire, England; was buried Black Friars Churchyard, Hereford, Herefordshire, England.

  23. 114.  John Bracton, Knight was born Norfolkshire, England.

    John — Agnes LNU. [Group Sheet]


  24. 115.  Agnes LNU
    Children:
    1. 57. Anne Bracton


Generation: 8

  1. 144.  John Touchet, Knight, Lord of Markeaton was born 25 Jul 1327, Derby, Derbyshire, England; died 22 Jun 1371, Derby, Derbyshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1327

    Notes:

    M John TOUCHET (Sir - Lord of Markeaton) ktPrint Family Tree(John TOUCHET)


    Born 25 July 1327 - Derby, Derbyshire, England
    Deceased 22 June 1371 - Derby, Derbyshire, England , age at death: 43 years old

    Parents
    Thomas (Sir - Lord of Tattenhall) kt TOUCHET, born in 1298 - Derbyshire, England, Deceased in 1346 - Markeaton, Derbyshire, England age at death: 48 years old
    Married to
    Joan (Baroness of Tattenhall) ?, born in 1302 - Derby, Derbyshire, England, Deceased 25 July 1327 - Derbyshire, England age at death: 25 years old

    Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
    Married in 1349, Heighley, Staffordshire, England, to Joan d' AUDLEY, born in 1331 - Heighley, Staffordshire, England, Deceased in 1392 - Derby, Derbyshire, England age at death: 61 years old (Parents : M James d' AUDLEY 1312-1386 & F Joanne De MORTIMER 1314-1351) with
    M John (Sir - Lord of Markeaton) kt TOUCHET 1350-1372 married in 1371, Ludlow, Shropshire, England, to Margery De (BARONESS of Markeaton) MORTIMER 1352-1405 with
    M John (SIR) TOUCHET 1371-1408 married in 1398, Heighley, Staffordshire, England, to Isabel De (Baroness) AUDLEY 1375-1447 with :
    M James (Sir - 5th Baron of Audley) kt TOUCHET 1398-1459
    F Elizabeth TOUCHET 1406-1438

    Siblings
    M Robert TOUCHET ca 1320- Married to ? ?

    Paternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
    M Robert (Sir - Lord of Ashwell) TOUCHET 1264-ca 1337 married (1290)
    F Agnes De (Baroness of Ashwell) CHESHIRE 1270-1298
    F Jane TOUCHET ca 1290-
    married (1310)
    1 child
    M Thomas (Sir - Lord of Tattenhall) kt TOUCHET 1298-1346
    married
    2 children



    Sources
    Individual:
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=8794
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=8794

    Family Tree Preview
    Ancestry Chart Descendancy Chart Printable Family Tree
    _____| 16_ Robert Touchet 1218-1248
    _____| 8_ Thomas (Sir - Lord of Ashwell) Touchet 1240-/1314
    _____| 4_ Robert (Sir - Lord of Ashwell) TOUCHET 1264-ca 1337
    / \
    /
    |2_ Thomas (Sir - Lord of Tattenhall) kt TOUCHET 1298-1346
    | \
    |--1_ John (Sir - Lord of Markeaton) kt TOUCHET 1327-1371
    |3_ Joan (Baroness of Tattenhall) ? 1302-1327

    end of profile

    John married Joan Audley 0___ 1349, Heleigh, Staffordshire, England. Joan (daughter of James Audley, 2nd Baron Audley (of Heleigh) and Joan de Mortimer, 2nd Baroness Geneville) was born 0___ 1331, Heleigh, Staffordshire, England; died 0___ 1392, Derby, Derbyshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 145.  Joan Audley was born 0___ 1331, Heleigh, Staffordshire, England (daughter of James Audley, 2nd Baron Audley (of Heleigh) and Joan de Mortimer, 2nd Baroness Geneville); died 0___ 1392, Derby, Derbyshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Baptism:

    Children:
    1. 72. John Touchet, Lord of Markeaton was born 0___ 1350, (Derby, Derbyshire, England); died 0___ 1372.

  3. 152.  William de Ros, Knight, 2nd Baron de RosWilliam de Ros, Knight, 2nd Baron de Ros was born 0___ 1288, Helmsley, Yorkshire, England (son of William de Ros, Knight, 1st Baron de Ros of Hamlake and Maud de Vaux); died 3 Feb 1343, Kirkham, Yorkshire, England; was buried Kirkham Priory, Kirkham, North Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Member of Parliament
    • Also Known As: 3rd Baron de Ros of Hamlake, Werke, Trusbot & Belvoir
    • Also Known As: Lord Ross of Werke
    • Military: Lord High Admiral

    Notes:

    William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros of Helmsley (c.1288 - 3 February 1343) was the son of William de Ros, 1st Baron de Ros.

    Biography

    As 2nd Baron de Ros of Hamlake, Werke, Trusbut & Belvoir, he was summoned to Parliament during the reigns of Edward II and Edward III of England. In 1321 he completed the religious foundation which his father had begun at Blakeney. He was created Lord Ross of Werke. He was appointed Lord High Admiral and was one of the commissioners with the Archbishop of York, and others, to negotiate peace between the king and Robert de Bruce, who had assumed the title of king of Scotland.

    William de Ros was buried at Kirkham Priory, near the great altar.

    Family

    William de Ros married, before 25 November 1316, Margery De Badlesmere (c.1306 - 18 October 1363), eldest daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, with Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas de Clare, with whom he had two sons and three daughters:[2]

    William, who succeeded his father as Baron.
    Thomas, who succeeded his brother as Baron.
    Margaret, who married Sir Edward de Bohun.
    Maud, who married John de Welles, 4th Baron Welles.
    Elizabeth, who married William la Zouche, 2nd Lord Zouche of Haryngworth, a descendant of Breton nobility.

    Maud survived her husband by many years and was one of the very few English people present at the Jubilee, at Rome, in 1350; the king had tried to prevent the attendance of his subjects at this ceremony on account of the large sums of money usually taken out of the kingdom on such occasions.

    *

    Biography

    more...

    Residing in Wark Castle in August 1310. He was summoned for service in Scotland 1316-19, 1322, 1323, 1327, and 1335, and to Parliament 20 November 1317 to 21 Feb 1339/40. Received the surrender of Knaresborough, as a joint commander in January 1317/18, and remained loyal during the Earl of Lancaster's rebellion in 1321-22. Summoned for service in Gascony in December of 1324. He was appointed, by Prince Edward's government, Sheriff of Yorkshire (Nov 1326) and was a member of the Council of Regency in February 1326/27. In November 1327, he served as a commissioner to negotiate with the Scots for peace, as well as a similar role with France in February 1329/30. In 1334, he entertained the King at Helmsley, and during the King's absence in Flanders, he was one of the commissioners to preserve the peace in that country. He took part in the defense of Newcastle against the Scots. Buried at Kirkham in Lancashire.

    Children

    They had two sons, William, Knt. [3rd Lord Roos of Helmsley] and Thomas, Knt. [4th Lord Roos of Helmsley], and three daughters, Margaret, Maud, and Elizabeth. (Ref: Magna Carta Ancestry)

    William de Ros, 3rd Baron de Ros

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    William de Ros, 3rd Baron de Ros (died February 16, 1342) was the son of William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros.

    As 3rd Baron de Ros of Hamlake, Werke, Trusbut & Belvoir, he was summoned to Parliament during the reigns of Edward II and Edward III of England. In 1321 he completed the religious foundation which his father had begun at Blakeney. He was created Lord Ross of Werke. He was appointed Lord High Admiral and was one of the commissioners with the Archbishop of York, and others, to negotiate peace between the king and Robert de Bruce, who had assumed the title of king of Scotland.
    He married Margery De Badlesmere (1306-1363), the eldest sister and co-heir of Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere of Leeds Castle, county of Kent. She survived her husband by many years and was one of the very few English people present at the Jubilee, at Rome, in 1350; the king had tried to prevent the attendance of his subjects at this ceremony on account of the large sums of money usually taken out of the kingdom on such occasions.

    Their children were:

    * William de Ros, 4th Baron de Ros
    * Thomas de Ros, 5th Baron de Ros
    * Sir John De Ros
    * Margaret de Ros
    * Matilda de Ros

    William de Ros was buried at Kirkham Priory, near the great altar.

    *

    more...

    Baron de Ros (pronounced "Roose") is one of the most ancient baronial titles in the Peerage of England . (The spelling of the title and of the surname of the original holders has been rendered differently in various texts. The word "Ros" is sometimes spelt "Roos", and the word "de" is sometimes dropped.)


    Barons de Ros of Helmsley (1264)[edit]
    William de Ros, 1st Baron de Ros (d. 1317)
    William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros (d. 1343)
    William de Ros, 3rd Baron de Ros (c. 1326–1352)
    Thomas de Ros, 4th Baron de Ros (1336–1384)
    John de Ros, 5th Baron de Ros (c. 1360–1394)
    William de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros (c. 1369–1414)
    John de Ros, 7th Baron de Ros (d. 1421)
    Thomas de Ros, 8th Baron de Ros (c. 1405–1431)
    Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros (c. 1427–1464) (forfeit 1464)
    Edmund de Ros, 10th Baron de Ros (d. 1508) (restored 1485, barony abeyant in 1508)
    George Manners, 11th Baron de Ros (d. 1513) (abeyance terminated about 1512)
    Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland, 12th Baron de Ros (d. 1543)
    Henry Manners, 2nd Earl of Rutland, 13th Baron de Ros (1526–1563)
    Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland, 14th Baron de Ros (1549–1587)
    Elizabeth Cecil, 16th Baroness de Ros (c. 1572–1591)
    William Cecil, 17th Baron de Ros (1590–1618)
    Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland, 18th Baron de Ros (1578–1632)
    Katherine Villiers, Duchess of Buckingham, 19th Baroness de Ros (d. 1649)
    George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, 20th Baron de Ros (1628–1687) (barony abeyant 1687)
    Charlotte FitzGerald-de Ros, 21st Baroness de Ros (1769–1831) (abeyance terminated 1806)
    Henry William FitzGerald-de Ros, 22nd Baron de Ros (1793–1839)
    William Lennox Lascelles FitzGerald-de Ros, 23rd Baron de Ros (1797–1874)
    Dudley Charles FitzGerald-de Ros, 24th Baron de Ros (1827–1907)
    Mary Dawson, Countess of Dartrey, 25th Baroness de Ros (1854–1939) (abeyant 1939)
    Una Mary Ross, 26th Baroness de Ros (1879–1956) (abeyance terminated 1943; abeyant 1956)
    Georgiana Angela Maxwell, 27th Baroness de Ros (1933–1983) (abeyance terminated 1958)
    Peter Trevor Maxwell, 28th Baron de Ros (b. 1958)
    The heir apparent is the present holder's son Hon. Finbar James Maxwell (b. 1988).

    Footnotes

    Jump up ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.347
    Jump up ^ The British herald; or, Cabinet of armorial bearings of the nobility & gentry of Great Britain & Ireland, from the earliest to the present time: with a complete glossary of heraldic terms: to which is prefixed a History of heraldry, collected and arranged ...
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1949, p. 95; Richardson III 2011, p. 448.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1949, p. 95.
    Jump up ^ http://www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk/online/content/Ros1299.htm

    References

    Cokayne, George Edward (1949). The Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White XI. London: St. Catherine Press.
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham III (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 144996639X

    Birth:
    (pronounced "Roose")

    Buried:
    The ruins of Kirkham Priory are situated on the banks of the River Derwent, at Kirkham, North Yorkshire, England. The Augustinian priory was founded in the 1120s by Walter l'Espec, lord of nearby Helmsley, who also built Rievaulx Abbey ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirkham_Priory

    Images for Kirkham Priory ... https://www.google.com/search?q=Kirkham+Priory&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=810&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjYj6LQuIzPAhXCJiYKHVRGC3wQsAQIMA

    William married Margery de Badlesmere Bef 25 Nov 1316. Margery (daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, Knight, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere) was born 0___ 1306, Badlesmere Manor, Kent, England; died 18 Oct 1363. [Group Sheet]


  4. 153.  Margery de Badlesmere was born 0___ 1306, Badlesmere Manor, Kent, England (daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, Knight, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere); died 18 Oct 1363.
    Children:
    1. Elizabeth de Ros was born 0___ 1325, Helmsley, Yorkshire, England; died 24 May 1380, Harringworth, Northamptonshire, , England.
    2. 76. Thomas de Ros, Knight, 4th Baron de Ros was born 13 Jan 1335, Helmsley, Yorkshire, England; died 8 Jun 1383, Uffington, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Rievaulx Abbey, Helmsley, North Yorkshire, England.
    3. Maud de Ros, Lady Welles was born (Helmsley, Yorkshire, England); died 9 Dec 1388.

  5. 154.  Ralph Stafford, Knight, 1st Earl of StaffordRalph Stafford, Knight, 1st Earl of Stafford was born 24 Sep 1301, Staffordshire, England; died 31 Aug 1372; was buried Tonbridge Priory, Kent, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 2nd Baron Stafford
    • Military: Knight of the Garter

    Notes:

    Ralph de Stafford, 2nd Baron Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford, KG (24 September 1301 - 31 August 1372) was an English nobleman and notable soldier during the Hundred Years War against France.

    Early life and family

    Ralph was born on 24 September 1301, the son of Edmund de Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford and Margaret Bassett.[1] Having lost his father at the age of seven, Ralph grew up in the midlands with his mother's relatives, including her second husband Thomas Pipe. He had his first experience of royal service, along with his brothers and stepfather, when he joined the retinue of Ralph, 2nd Lord Bassett.[2]

    Career

    Stafford was made a Knight banneret in 1327 and was fighting the Scots shortly afterwards. He supported the plot to free Edward III of England from the control of Roger Mortimer, which earned the king's gratitude. By the summer of 1332, he was a commissioner of the peace in Staffordshire and had served abroad on royal business, accompanying Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester. He was also still fighting the Scots, commanding archers at the Battle of Dupplin Moor on 11 Aug 1332 and on three further Scottish campaigns.[2]

    He was first summoned to Parliament by writ as Lord Stafford on 29 November 1336 and continued to attend until 1350.

    His military career continued, accompanying King Edward to France in 1338 as an advisor and being present at the naval battle of Sluys on 24 June 1340. He also fought at the relief of Brest and the siege of Morlaix. He was captured at Vannes but was exchanged in time to negotiate a truce at Malestroit.

    On 6 January 1341, he was made Steward of the Royal Household but resigned that post on 29 March 1345 having assumed the office of Seneschal of Aquitaine, an English possession in France, where he stayed for about a year. Further battles included the battle of Auberoche, the siege of Aiguillon, from where he escaped prior to its lifting, a raid on Barfleur and the English victory at the Battle of Crecy, on 26 August 1346. He became one of the twenty-six founding members and the fifth Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.[2]

    In November 1347, his wife's father died; they were able to take possession of his estates without paying the king's homage, an indication of the relationship between them. Ralph was now a very wealthy man, from his estates and from the many prizes from the French war.[2]

    Edward III created a number of new peerage titles to honour his war captains and to mark his jubilee year. Ralph was created the 1st Earl of Stafford on 5 March 1350, with an annuity of 1000 marks. He now replaced Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster as the king's lieutenant in Gascony, he committed to serve with 200 men at his expense with the expectation of this being doubled in March 1353 at the king's expense. The campaigns provided several captives that were ransomed, but were ultimately unsuccessful, leading to the appointment of Edward, Prince of Wales to command.[2]

    Even at the age of sixty, Stafford continued to command troops and act as a royal envoy, both in France and in Ireland in 1361, accompanying Lionel of Antwerp to try and restore English control.

    Marriages and children

    Around 1326, Stafford married his first wife, Katherine Hastang (also known as Katherine Hastings).[1][3] Katherine was the daughter of Sir John de Hastang, Knight, of Chebsey, Staffordshire.[4] Ralph and Katherine had two daughters:

    Margaret, married Sir John of Bramshall (or Wickham) de Stafford, Knight.
    Joan, married Sir Nicholas de Beke, Knight.
    He later sensationally abducted Margaret de Audley, 2nd Baroness Audley, daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Margaret de Clare, who was worth at least ¹2314 a year, more than ten times his own estates. Her parents filed a complaint with King Edward III of England, but the King supported Stafford's actions. In compensation, the King appeased Hugh and Margaret by creating Hugh the 1st Earl of Gloucester. Margaret de Audley and Stafford married before 6 July 1336 and they subsequently had two sons and four daughters:

    Ralph de Stafford (d. 1347), married Maud of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Isabel de Beaumont in 1344.[2][5]
    Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, born circa 1336 in Staffordshire, England, married Philippa de Beauchamp; they were the ancestors of the Dukes of Buckingham (1444 creation).[5]
    Elizabeth de Stafford, born circa 1340 in Staffordshire, England, died 7 August 1376, married firstly Fulk le Strange;[5] married secondly, John de Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Chartley; married thirdly Reginald de Cobham, 2nd Baron Cobham.[6]
    Beatrice de Stafford, born circa 1341 in Staffordshire, England, died 1415, married firstly, in 1350, Maurice FitzGerald, 2nd Earl of Desmond (d. June 1358); married secondly, Thomas de Ros, 4th Baron de Ros, of Helmsley; married thirdly Sir Richard Burley, Knt.[5]
    Joan de Stafford, born in 1344 in Staffordshire, England, died 1397, married firstly, John Charleton, 3rd Baron Cherleton;[5] married secondly Gilbert Talbot, 3rd Baron Talbot.[7]
    Katherine de Stafford, born circa 1348 in Staffordshire, England and died in December 1361. On 25 December 1357, she married Sir John de Sutton III (1339 – c. 1370 or 1376), Knight, Master of Dudley Castle, Staffordshire.[8] They were parents of Sir John de Sutton IV, hence grandparents of Sir John de Sutton V.[9]
    Death[edit]
    He died on 31 August 1372 at Tonbridge Castle, Kent, England.[2] He was buried at Tonbridge Priory,[10] next to his second wife and her parents.[2]

    Buried:
    Tonbridge Priory was a priory in Tonbridge , Kent , England that was established in 1124. It was destroyed by fire in 1337 and then rebuilt. The priory was disestablished in 1523.

    The building stood in 1735, but was a ruin by 1780. The remains of the priory were demolished in 1842 when the South Eastern Railway built the railway through Tonbridge, the original Tonbridge station standing on its site.

    Ralph married Margaret de Audley, 2nd Baroness Audley Bef 6 July 1336. Margaret (daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley and Margaret de Clare) was born 1318-1322, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; died 7 Sep 1349, Tunbridge Castle, Tunbridge, Kent, England; was buried Tunbridge Priory, Kent, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 155.  Margaret de Audley, 2nd Baroness Audley was born 1318-1322, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England (daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley and Margaret de Clare); died 7 Sep 1349, Tunbridge Castle, Tunbridge, Kent, England; was buried Tunbridge Priory, Kent, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Stafford

    Notes:

    Margaret de Audley, suo jure 2nd Baroness Audley and Countess of Stafford (1318 - between 1347 and 1351[1]) was an English noblewoman. She was the only daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester by his wife Lady Margaret de Clare.[2] Her mother was the daughter of Joan of Acre, Princess of England; thus making Margaret a great-granddaughter of King Edward I by his first consort, Eleanor of Castile. As the only daughter and heiress of her father, she succeeded to the title of 2nd Baroness Audley [E., 1317] on 10 November 1347.[1]

    Marriage and issue

    Margaret was abducted by Ralph, Lord Stafford, who had helped Edward III take the throne. At the time, her worth was at least ¹2314 a year, which was more than ten times Stafford's own estates. (However, he eventually rose to Earl of Stafford in 1350.) After the abduction, her parents filed a complaint with the king, but Edward supported Stafford. In compensation, the king appeased Hugh and Margaret by creating Hugh the 1st Earl of Gloucester.

    Margaret de Audley and Stafford married before 6 July 1336. They subsequently had two sons and four daughters:

    Sir Ralph de Stafford (d. 1347), married Maud of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Isabel of Beaumont in 1344.[3]
    Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, born circa 1336 in Staffordshire, England, married Philippa de Beauchamp; they were the ancestors of the Dukes of Buckingham (1444 creation).[3]
    Elizabeth de Stafford, born circa 1340 in Staffordshire, England, died 7 August 1376, married firstly Fulk le Strange;[3] married secondly, John de Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Chartley; married thirdly Reginald de Cobham, 2nd Baron Cobham.[4]
    Beatrice de Stafford, born circa 1341 in Staffordshire, England, died 1415, married firstly, in 1350, Maurice FitzGerald, 2nd Earl of Desmond (d. June 1358); married secondly, Thomas de Ros, 4th Baron de Ros, of Helmsley; married thirdly Sir Richard Burley, Knt.[3]
    Joan de Stafford, born in 1344 in Staffordshire, England, died 1397, married firstly, John Charleton, 3rd Baron Cherleton;[3] married secondly Gilbert Talbot, 3rd Baron Talbot.[5]
    Katherine de Stafford, born circa 1348 in Staffordshire, England and died in December 1361. Married on 25 December 1357 Sir John de Sutton III (1339 – c. 1370 or 1376), Knight, Master of Dudley Castle, Staffordshire. They were parents of Sir John de Sutton IV, hence grandparents of Sir John de Sutton V.[6]

    Children:
    1. 77. Beatrice Stafford was born ~ 1341, Staffordshire, England; died 13 Apr 1415.
    2. Elizabeth de Stafford was born 0___ 1342, Staffordshire, England; died 7 Aug 1375.
    3. Hugh Stafford, Knight, 2nd Earl of Stafford was born ~ 1344, Stafford Castle, Stafford, Staffordshire, England; died 16 Oct 1386, Rhodes, Greece; was buried Stone Priory, Staffordshire, England.

  7. 156.  Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of ArundelRichard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel was born 1306-1313, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (son of Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel); died 24 Jan 1376, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Governor of Caernarfon Castle
    • Occupation: High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire
    • Occupation: Justiciar of North Wales
    • Also Known As: 8th Earl of Surrey
    • Military: Commander of the English Army in the North
    • Will: 5 Dec 1375

    Notes:

    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and 8th Earl of Surrey (c. 1306/1313 – 24 January 1376) was an English nobleman and medieval military leader.

    Family and early life

    Richard's birth date was uncertain perhaps 1313 or maybe 1306 in Sussex, England. FitzAlan was the eldest son of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel (8th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots), and his wife Alice de Warenne.[1] His maternal grandparents were William de Warenne and Joan de Vere. William was the only son of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (himself son of Maud Marshal by her second marriage), and his wife Alice de Lusignan (d. 1356), half-sister of Henry III of England.

    Alliance with the Despensers

    Around 1321, FitzAlan's father allied with King Edward II's favorites, Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester and his namesake son, and Richard was married to Isabel le Despenser, daughter of Hugh the Younger. Fortune turned against the Despenser party, and on 17 November 1326, FitzAlan's father was executed, and he did not succeed to his father's estates or titles.

    Gradual restoration

    However, political conditions had changed by 1330, and over the next few years Richard was gradually able to reacquire the Earldom of Arundel as well as the great estates his father had held in Sussex and in the Welsh Marches.

    Beyond this, in 1334 he was made Justiciar of North Wales (later his term in this office was made for life), High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire for life and Governor of Caernarfon Castle. He was one of the most trusted supporters of Edward the Black Prince in Wales.

    Military service in Scotland

    Despite his high offices in Wales, in the following decades Arundel spent much of his time fighting in Scotland (during the Second Wars of Scottish Independence) and France (during the Hundred Years' War). In 1337, Arundel was made Joint Commander of the English army in the north, and the next year he was made the sole Commander.

    Notable victories

    In 1340 he fought at the Battle of Sluys, and then at the siege of Tournai. After a short term as Warden of the Scottish Marches, he returned to the continent, where he fought in a number of campaigns, and was appointed Joint Lieutenant of Aquitaine in 1340.

    Arundel was one of the three principal English commanders at the Battle of Crâecy. He spent much of the following years on various military campaigns and diplomatic missions.

    In a campaign of 1375, at the end of his life, he destroyed the harbour of Roscoff.

    Great wealth

    In 1347, he succeeded to the Earldom of Surrey (or Warenne), which even further increased his great wealth. (He did not however use the additional title until after the death of the Dowager Countess of Surrey in 1361.) He made very large loans to King Edward III but even so on his death left behind a great sum in hard cash.

    Marriages and children

    This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2012)
    He married firstly February 9, 1321 at Havering-atte-Bower, Isabel le Despenser (born 1312). At that time, the future earl was eight (or fifteen) and his bride nine. He later repudiated this bride, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI in December 1344 on the grounds that he had been underaged and unwilling. He had a son Edmund (b. 1327) when he was fourteen (or twenty-one) and his wife fifteen; this son was bastardized by the annulment.

    His second wife, whom he married on 5 April 1345, was a young widow Eleanor of Lancaster, the second youngest daughter and sixth child of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth; by Papal dispensation he was allowed to marry his first wife's first cousin by their common grandmother Isabella de Beauchamp. Eleanor was the widow of John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont. The king, Edward III, himself a kinsman of both wives, attended this second marriage. By now, the Earl of Arundel had rebuilt the family wealth and was apparently a major financier of the Crown, and financial sweeteners may have been used to reconcile both the Church and the Crown.[2] By his first marriage to Isabel le Despenser (living 1356, and may have died circa 1376-7), which marriage he had annulled December 1344 [1], he had one son:

    Sir Edmund de Arundel, knt (b ca 1327; d 1376-1382), bastardized by the annulment. Edmund was nevertheless knighted, married at the age of twenty, in the summer of 1347 [2] Sybil de Montacute, a younger daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, whose elder sister Elizabeth was married to his maternal uncle (the uncle may have arranged this marriage). Edmund protested his bastardization bitterly in 1347, but was apparently ignored. After his father's death in 1376, Edmund disputed his half-brother Richard's inheritance of the earldom and associated lands and titles in 1376 and apparently tried to claim the six manors allotted to his deceased mother. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1377, and finally freed through the intervention of two of his brothers-in-law (his wife's brother John de Montacute and the second husband of Elizabeth de Montacute, Lady Le Despencer).[3] They had three daughters who were his co-heiresses and who brought a failed suit in 1382 against their half-uncle the Earl:

    Elizabeth de Arundel, who married Sir Leonard Carew and has descendants

    Philippa de Arundel (died 18 May 1452), married (as his 2nd wife) Sir Richard Sergeaux, Knt, of Colquite, Cornwall.[4] A Victorian historical novel ascribes the following five children to her: a) Richard, born December 21, 1376, and died issueless, June 24, 1396; b) Elizabeth, born 1379, wife of Sir William Marny; c) Philippa, born 1381, wife of Robert Passele; d) Alice, born at Kilquyt, September 1, 1384, wife of Guy de Saint Albino [this ; e) Joan, born 1393, died February 21, 1400. "Philippa became a widow, September 30, 1393, and died September 13, 1399." (I.P.M., 17 Ric. II., 53; 21 Ric. II., 50; 1 H. IV., 14, 23, 24.)[5]

    Alice Sergeaux later Countess of Oxford (c. 1386 - 18 May 1452), married 1stly Guy de St Aubyn of St. Erme, Cornwall, and 2ndly about 1406-7 as his 2nd wife, the 11th Earl of Oxford and widower of Alice de Holand (dsp. 1406, niece of Henry IV, and mother of two sons by him
    John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
    Robert de Vere, whose grandson, John, became the 15th Earl of Oxford.[7]

    Mary (died 29 Aug 1396), married John le Strange, 4th Lord Blackmere (from Genealogy of Fitzalans).
    By the second marriage 5 February 1345, by Papal dispensation,[6] to Eleanor of Lancaster, he had 3 sons and 3 surviving daughters:

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who succeeded him as 11th Earl of Arundel as his "eldest legitimate" son.
    John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel, 1st Baron Maltravers, who was a Marshall of England, and drowned in 1379.
    Thomas Arundel, who became Archbishop of Canterbury
    Lady Joan FitzAlan (1348 - 7 April 1419) who married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. They were the maternal grandparents of Henry V of England through their daughter Mary de Bohun.
    Lady Alice FitzAlan (1350 - 17 March 1416), who married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, uterine brother of King Richard II. They were ancestors to Queen consorts Anne Neville (wife of King Richard III), Elizabeth of York (wife of King Henry VII), and Catherine Parr (wife of King Henry VIII).
    Lady Eleanor Fitzalan (1356 - before 1366).

    The current Dukes of Norfolk descend from Lady Mary, Duchess of Norfolk, a daughter and co-heiress of Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel; the 19th Earl descended from John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel.

    Death and legacy

    Richard died on 24 January 1376 in Sussex, England. (Another source says he wrote his will on 5 December 1375, and died on 14 January 1376 at Arundel Castle).[3]. In his will, he mentioned his three surviving sons by his second wife, his two surviving daughters Joan, Dowager Countess of Hereford and Alice, Countess of Kent, his grandchildren by his second son John, etc., but left out his bastardized eldest son Edmund.

    The memorial effigies attributed to Richard FitzAlan and his second wife Eleanor of Lancaster in Chichester Cathedral are the subject of the poem "An Arundel Tomb" by Philip Larkin.

    FitzAlan died an incredibly wealthy man, despite his various loans to Edward III

    Birth:
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery on Christmas Day 1067. Roger became the first to hold the earldom of Arundel by the graces of William the Conqueror. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War and then restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    From the 11th century, the castle has served as a home and has been in the ownership of the family of the Duke of Norfolk for over 400 years. It is the principal seat of the Norfolk family. It is a Grade I listed building.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Occupation:
    The Justiciar of North Wales was responsible for the royal administration in these counties as well as the administration of justice. English law was applied to criminal law, but in other matters Welsh law was allowed to continue.

    List of Justiciars

    Otton de Grandson, 1284–1294
    Robert Tibetot, 1295–1301
    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, 1334–1352
    Arundel sold the office to Edward the Black Prince in 1352
    John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp 1385–1388
    Henry Percy (Hotspur) 1399?–1403?

    Occupation:
    Caernarfon Castle (Welsh: Castell Caernarfon) is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, north-west Wales. Click here to view its history, map & picture ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caernarfon_Castle

    Buried:
    Lewes Priory is a ruined medieval Cluniac priory in Southover, East Sussex in the United Kingdom. The ruins have been designated a Grade I listed building.

    The Priory of St Pancras was the first Cluniac house in England and had one of the largest monastic churches in the country. It was set within an extensive walled and gated precinct laid out in a commanding location fronting the tidal shore-line at the head of the Ouse valley to the south of Lewes in the County of Sussex. The Priory had daughter houses, including Castle Acre Priory in Norfolk, and was endowed with churches and extensive holdings throughout England. In Lewes it had hospitiums dedicated to St James and to St Nicholas.

    In 1264, during the Battle of Lewes, King Henry III installed his forces in the Priory precinct which came under attack from those of Simon de Montfort after his victory over Henry in battle. Henry was forced, in the Mise of Lewes, to accept the Council that was the start of Parliamentary government in England.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewes_Priory

    Richard married Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel 5 Feb 1344, Ditton Church, Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, England. Eleanor (daughter of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester and Maud Chaworth) was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales; died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 157.  Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales (daughter of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester and Maud Chaworth); died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Eleanor of Lancaster

    Notes:

    On 5 February 1344 at Ditton Church, Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, she married Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel.[4]

    His previous marriage, to Isabel le Despenser, had taken place when they were children. It was annulled by Papal mandate as she, since her father's attainder and execution, had ceased to be of any importance to him. Pope Clement VI obligingly annulled the marriage, bastardized the issue, and provided a dispensation for his second marriage to the woman with whom he had been living in adultery (the dispensation, dated 4 March 1344/1345, was required because his first and second wives were first cousins).

    The children of Eleanor's second marriage were:

    Richard (1346–1397), who succeeded as Earl of Arundel
    John Fitzalan (bef 1349 - 1379)
    Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury (c. 1353 - 19 February 1413)
    Lady Joan FitzAlan (1347/1348 - 7 April 1419), married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford
    Lady Alice FitzAlan (1350 - 17 March 1416), married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (Thomas Holand)
    Lady Mary FitzAlan (died 29 August 1396), married John Le Strange, 4th Lord Strange of Blackmere, by whom she had issue
    Lady Eleanor FitzAlan (1356 - before 1366)

    Notes:

    Married:
    Richard married Isabel's first cousin Eleanor of Lancaster, with whom he had apparently been having an affair.

    Children:
    1. 94. Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 11th Earl of Arundel was born 25 Mar 1346, Arundel, Sussex, England; died 21 Sep 1397, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Augustin Friars, Bread Street, London, England.
    2. 78. John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel was born ~ 1348, Etchingham, Sussex, England; died 16 Dec 1379; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.
    3. Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent was born 1350-1352, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 17 Mar 1415, (Arundel, West Sussex, England).
    4. Joan FitzAlan was born 0___ 1347, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 7 Apr 1419, Saffron Walden, Essex, England; was buried Walden Abbey, Essex, England.

  9. 160.  Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville of RabyRalph Neville, 1st Baron Neville of Raby was born 18 Oct 1262, Raby, Durham, England (son of Robert Neville and Mary FitzRanulph, Heiress of Middleham); died 18 Apr 1331, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 3rd Baron Neville of Raby
    • Also Known As: Sir Ranulf de Neville

    Notes:

    Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby (18 October 1262 / 1270 – 18 April 1331) was a Norman nobleman and member of the powerful Neville family, son of Robert de Neville and Mary fitz Ranulf.[a]

    Neville married first Euphemia de Clavering daughter of Robert de Clavering (5th Baron of Warkworth & Clavering) and Margaret La Zouche, sister of Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby. Ralph and Euphemia had fourteen children.[1] His second marriage was to Margery de Thwenge, daughter of John De Thwenge and Joan De Mauley[1]

    Children

    Ralph had the following children with Euphemia de Clavering:

    Joan de Neville (c.1283) m. John of Willington (1281–1388) son of Ralph de Willington and Juliana Lomene.
    Anastasia de Neville (c.1285), married Sir Walter de Fauconberg (1264 - 24 June 1314 Battle of Bannockburn).
    Sir Robert de Neville of Middleham (c. 1287 – June 1319)
    Ida de Neville (c.1289)
    Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby (c. 1291 – 5 August 1367), married Alice de Audley and had children
    Eupheme de Neville (c. 1291)
    Alice de Neville (c. 1293)
    Sir Alexander de Neville (c. 1297 - 15 March 1367)
    John Neville (1299 - 19 July 1333 Battle of Halidon Hill)
    Mary de Neville (c. 1301)
    William de Neville (c. 1303)
    Margaret de Neville (c. 1305)
    Thomas de Neville (c. 1306 - before June 1349)
    Avelina de Neville (c. 1307), married Norville Norton and had children

    Notes
    Jump up ^ The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography uses a different numbering system and numbers him the 3rd Baron Neville and his father the 2nd etc. (Tuck 2008).
    ^ Jump up to: a b Neville family.

    References
    "Neville family". tudorplace.com. Retrieved October 2010.[unreliable source?][better source needed]
    Tuck, Anthony (January 2008) [2004]. "Neville, Ralph, fourth Lord Neville (c.1291–1367)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19950. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) The first edition of this text is available as an article on Wikisource: Lee, Sidney, ed. (1894). "Neville, Ralph de (DNB00)". Dictionary of National Biography 40. London: Smith, Elder & Co.

    Ralph married Euphemia Clavering, Baroness of Raby ~ 1286, Raby, Durham, England. Euphemia (daughter of Robert FitzRoger Clavering, 5th Baron Warkworth, 1st Baron Clavering and Margery Mary de la Zouche) was born 0___ 1267, Clavering, Essex, England; died 0___ 1320, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England). [Group Sheet]


  10. 161.  Euphemia Clavering, Baroness of Raby was born 0___ 1267, Clavering, Essex, England (daughter of Robert FitzRoger Clavering, 5th Baron Warkworth, 1st Baron Clavering and Margery Mary de la Zouche); died 0___ 1320, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Euphemia de Clavering
    • Alt Death: 0___ 1329

    Notes:

    Born: Abt 1267, Clavering, Essex, England
    Marriage: Sir Ranulf DE NEVILLE, 1st Baron Neville De Raby [1414] about 1286 in Raby, Durham, England 1
    Died: 1320, , , England about age 53
    Sources, Comments and Notes
    Source :
    "Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby (18 October 1262 / 1270 - 18 April 1331) was an English aristocrat and member of the powerful Neville family, son of Roger de Neville and Mary Tailboys. He married first Euphemia de Clavering daughter of Robert de Clavering (5th Baron of Warkworth & Clavering) and Margaret La Zouche, with whom he had fourteen children. His second marriage was to Margery de Thwenge daughter of John De Thwenge and Joan De Mauley.

    Ralph had the following children with Euphemia de Clavering:
    Joan de Neville (c.1283)
    Anastasia de Neville (c.1285), married Sir Walter de Fauconberg
    Sir Robert de Neville of Middleham (c.1287 - June 1319)
    Ida de Neville (c.1289)
    Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby (c.1291 - 5 August 1367), married Alice de Audley and had issue
    Eupheme de Neville (c.1291)
    Alice de Neville (c.1293)
    Sir Alexander de Neville (c.1297 - 15 March 1366/7)
    John Neville (1299 - 19 July 1333)
    Mary de Neville (c.1301)
    William de Neville (c.1303)
    Margaret de Neville (c.1305)
    Thomas de Neville (c.1306 - bef June 1349)
    Avelina de Neville (c.1307), married Norville Norton and had issue"
    ___________________________
    Source Par Charles H. Browning:
    "..., the son of Sir John, third Baron de Nevill, of Raby, K.G., constituted admiral of the king's fleet, d. October 17, 1385, the son of Ralph de Nevill, second Baron, d. 1367, son of Ralph, Baron de Nevill, of Raby, and his first wife, Lady Euphemia, sister of John de Clavering, and daughter of Robert Fitz-Roger, son of Roger Fitz-John, the son of Robert Fitz-Robert, one of the Sureties for the Magna Charta."
    __________________________
    Source :
    "Ranulf (Randolph) de Neville, 1st Lord of Raby (1262 - 1331)
    ...
    He married, firstly, Eupheme FitzRobert, daughter of Robert FitzRoger, 1st Lord FitzRoger and Margaret de la Zouche. He married, secondly, Margery de Thweng, daughter of John de Thweng, before 1331.1 He died circa 1337 at Raby Castle, Durham, County Durham, England.
    ..."
    __________________________
    Source Par Charles Robert Young:
    "THE NEVILLE FAMILY (extract):
    ...
    8. Ranulph de Neville, Lord of Raby d.1331 = Eupheme
    9. Ralph de Neville, Lord of Raby d.1367 = Alice
    ..."
    Euphemia married Sir Ranulf DE NEVILLE, 1st Baron Neville De Raby [1414], son of Robert DE NEVILLE, Jr, Baron De Raby [1418] and Mary FITZ RALPH [1543], about 1286 in Raby, Durham, England.1 (Sir Ranulf DE NEVILLE, 1st Baron Neville De Raby [1414] was born on 18 Oct 1262 in Raby, Durham, England 1 2 and died on 18 Apr 1331 in Raby Castle, Durham, England.)

    Children:
    1. Joan de Neville was born ~ 1283, (Raby, Durham, England).
    2. Anastasia de Neville was born ~ 1285, (Raby, Durham, England).
    3. Robert de Neville, of Middleham was born 0___ 1287, (Raby, Durham, England); died 0Jun 1319.
    4. 80. Ralph Neville, 4th Baron Neville de Raby was born 0___ 1291, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 5 Aug 1367, Durhamshire, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.
    5. Alexander de Neville was born ~ 1297, (Raby, Durham, England); died 15 Mar 1367.
    6. John Neville was born 0___ 1299, (Raby, Durham, England); died 19 Jul 1333.
    7. Thomas de Neville was born ~ 1306, (Raby, Durham, England); died Bef June 1349.

  11. 162.  Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of StrattonHugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton was born 0___ 1267, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England (son of James de Audley, Knight and Ela Longespee); died Bef 1326; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Member of Parliament
    • Residence: London, Middlesex, England
    • Also Known As: Sir Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester

    Notes:

    Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton, was the son of James de Aldithley and Ela Longespâee, the daughter of William II Longespâee and Idoina de Camville.

    He married Isolde de Mortimer about 1290.

    They were the parents of at least three children

    Sir Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester, who married Margaret de Clare, the daughter of Gilbert de Clare and Joan of Acre.
    Alice de Audley, who married Ralph de Neville, 2nd Baron Neville of Raby, the son of Ralph de Neville and Euphemia de Clavering
    James de Audley.

    Hugh de Alditheley or Audley, brother of Nicholas, Lord Audley of Heleigh, was summoned to parliament as "Hugh de Audley, Seniori" on 15 May, 1321, 14th Edward II. His lordship had been engaged during the reign of Edward I in the king's service and was called "Senior" to distinguish him from his son. Being concerned in the insurrection of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, 15th Edward II [1322], the baron was committed a close prisoner to Wallingford Castle but making his peace with the king he obtained his release and suffered nothing further. He sat in the parliament on the 11th [1318] and 14th [1321] of Edward II.

    Buried:
    Plot: Inside Church

    Died:
    As a prisoner in Wallingford Castle, Berkshire, England...

    Hugh married Isolde (Isabella) de Mortimer ~ 1290. Isolde was born 0___ 1270, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 0___ 1338, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 163.  Isolde (Isabella) de MortimerIsolde (Isabella) de Mortimer was born 0___ 1270, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 0___ 1338, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isoldt de Mortimer
    • Also Known As: Lady of the Manor of Eastingdon, Gloucestershire, Thornbury, and Herefordshire

    Notes:

    Isolde married Walter de Balun, (it is said that he died after an accident at a tournament on his wedding day while at Southampton waiting to go to the Holy Land with Henry lll). No children from this marriage.

    Isolde also married Hugh I de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton, about 1290.

    They had at least three children

    Hugh II de Audley, 1st and last Earl of Gloucester, who married Margaret de Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare and Joan of Acre
    Alice de Audley, who married Ralph de Neville, 2nd Baron Neville of Raby, the son of Ralph de Neville and Euphemia de Clavering
    Sir James de Audley

    Isolde's parentage is in conflict at this time. Some genealogies have her as the daughter of Hugh de Mortimer and Agatha de Ferriáeres or Edmund de Mortimer and Margaret de Fiennes. I have also seen her as the daughter of Hugh de Mortimer and unknown mistress.

    Buried:
    Note: According to Effigies and Brasses her effigy is in the Church...

    Children:
    1. Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley was born ~ 1289, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; died 10 Nov 1347, Kent, England; was buried Tonbridge Priory, Kent, England.
    2. 81. Alice de Audley was born 1302-1304, Hadley, Lambourne, Berkshire, England; died 12 Jan 1374, Greystoke Manor, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

  13. 164.  Henry de Percy, Knight, 1st Baron Percy was born 25 Mar 1273, Petworth, Sussex, England (son of Henry de Percy, Knight, 7th Feudal Baron of Topcliffe and Eleanor de Warenne); died 0Oct 1314, Alnwick, Northumberland, England.

    Notes:

    Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick (1273-1314)[3] was a medieval English magnate.

    He fought under King Edward I of England in Wales and Scotland and was granted extensive estates in Scotland, which were later retaken by the Scots under King Robert I of Scotland. He added Alnwick to the family estates in England, founding a dynasty of northern warlords. He rebelled against King Edward II over the issue of Piers Gaveston and was imprisoned for a few months. After his release, he declined to fight under Edward II at the Battle of Bannockburn, remaining at Alnwick, where he died a few months later, aged 41.

    Origins

    Henry was born at Petworth in Sussex on 25 March 1273, seven months after his father's death, saving the family line from extinction, as two older brothers had died in infancy, and all six uncles had died without leaving any legitimate heir. He was fortunate in having the powerful John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey as his maternal grandfather. Henry was the son of Henry de Percy (d.1272), 7th feudal baron of Topcliffe, Yorkshire,[4] by his wife, Eleanor de Warenne, daughter of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey by Alice de Lusignan, Countess of Surrey, half sister of King Henry III.[5] His great-great-grandfather was Jocelin de Louvain (d.1180) who had married Agnes de Percy (d.1203), one of the two daughters and co-heiresses of William II de Percy (d.1174/5), 3rd feudal baron of Topcliffe, whose descendants had adopted the surname "de Percy".[4]

    Drawing made in 1611 of seal of Henry de Percy attached to the Barons' Letter, 1301, showing his use of the arms of Brabant (Percy (modern):[2] Or, a lion rampant azure.
    In 1293 Henry came into his inheritance of estates in Sussex and Yorkshire, including Topcliffe Castle, the ancient family seat. In 1294 he married Eleanor, daughter of the Earl of Arundel. He then proceeded to change the family coat of arms from Azure, five fusils in fess or[7] ("Percy ancient") to Or, a lion rampant azure ("Percy modern")(a blue lion rampant on a gold background). Blue and gold were the Earl Warenne's colours and a gold lion rampant had been the Arundel's arms. Alternatively the arms are said to be the arms of Brabant.[2] This emphasised his royal and noble connections and marked his ambition. This was also the year he went to war for the first time, summoned to fight in France, but then diverted to Wales to join Edward I in suppressing a Welsh rebellion. There he learned the grim business of medieval warfare, and command and supply of armies in the field.

    Marriage and progeny

    Henry de Percy married Eleanor FitzAlan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel,[8] and had two sons:

    Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy (b.1299), who succeeded his father.
    William de Percy (c.1303-1355).
    Knighthood and war in Scotland[edit]

    The view from Stirling Castle with the present Stirling Bridge in the foreground and the Wallace Monument in the middle distance
    By the summer of 1295 Henry was in the north with his grandfather Earl Warenne. Edward I's deliberately humiliating treatment of King John I of Scotland and his nobles was making war inevitable. Warenne was King John's father in law, used as an intermediary by Edward. In 1294 Philip IV of France had taken back Aquitaine from the English crown and now negotiated a treaty with the Scots to wage war on Edward on two fronts. During March 1296 Edward I's army surrounded Berwick on Tweed, then the largest town in Scotland and an important seaport. It was here on 30 March that Henry Percy was knighted by the King.[9] Later on the same day the town was taken and the ruthless king, apparently provoked by the inhabitants previously baring their buttocks at him, ordered the city put to the sword "whatever the age or sex" and according to the Scotichronicon 7,500 were executed.[10]

    Percy, under Warenne's command, was sent north to Dunbar where the castle was held by the Earls of Mar, Menteith and Ross, together with many lesser nobles. After they had beaten a Scottish force outside the castle the king joined them, and the castle soon surrendered. The rest of Scotland was occupied in the space of a few weeks and English administrators installed. King John Balliol was forced to abdicate and Warenne appointed to govern Scotland as a province. Having proved his ability Henry Percy was given the task of governing Ayr, Galloway and Cumberland, based at Carlisle Castle. With King Edward now turning his attention to affairs in France there was only a year or so of peace before the situation in Scotland began to unravel. In the summer of 1297 William Wallace murdered the English sheriff of Lanark and was joined by Robert Bruce, Bishop Lockhart, James Stewart and Sir William Douglas in the Scottish lowlands while Andrew Murray started a Highland uprising.

    Working closely with Robert Clifford from Westmorland, Percy confronted the other rebels at Irvine while Wallace was in central Scotland, and negotiated their submission, subduing southern Scotland for a while. Warenne then began an expedition to hunt down Wallace and Murray, finding them waiting north of the River Forth near Stirling Castle. The ensuing Battle of Stirling Bridge was a disaster for the English army. Percy and his fellow commanders could only watch helplessly from the castle as their infantry, caught on the far side of the one narrow bridge were slaughtered. Murray was however killed in the battle. The English were temporarily expelled from Scotland and on the defensive, with the Scots raiding northern England. In the following spring of 1298 King Edward returned from France and assembled a large army, including many Welsh longbow archers, to begin a new and determined assault on Scotland. They caught up with Wallace at Falkirk on 22 July where Henry Percy was part of the fourth reserve division of experienced and highly mobile cavalry.[11]

    Baron and Scottish landowner

    Early in 1299 the King granted the estates of Ingram Balliol, who had been involved in the Scottish rebellions, to Henry Percy, including land in England and south west Scotland. This not only gave him greater income and status, but also a vested interest in the continuing conquest of Scotland. The king also summoned Percy to attend parliament as a peer of the realm, making him a baron by writ. His family had previously had the courtesy title of baron because of their land holdings. Percy had proved himself an able soldier and administrator and found royal favour. The rest of the year was spent skirmishing with Scottish guerilla groups, and the following summer campaigning with the king although little was achieved other than the capture of Caerlaverock Castle after a long siege, at which he was present with his elderly grandfather Earl Warenne. The Caerlaverock Poem or Roll of Arms made at the siege by the heralds records the armorials of Warenne and Percy in a single verse, translated from Norman French into modern English thus:[12]


    Arms of Warenne: Chequy or and azure
    "John the good Earl of Warenne
    Of the other squadron held the reins
    To regulate and govern,
    As he who well knew how to lead,
    Noble and honourable men.
    His banner with gold and azure
    Was nobly chequered.
    And he had in his company
    Henry de Percy, his nephew (son nevou) (sic)
    Who seemed to have made a vow
    To rout the Scots.
    A blue lion rampant on yellow
    Was his banner very conspicuous"

    Correspondence in late 1301 shows Percy at his estate at Leconfield in Yorkshire, where his wife probably lived, at a safe distance from Scottish raiding parties. In February 1303 Percy was sent north in a cavalry force led by Johannes de Seagrave which was defeated at Roslin. He then joined King Edward's summer offensive, reaching Dunfermline in early November. Robert Bruce had already changed sides to support Edward and in February 1304 most of the Scots negotiated a settlement with the English king. Henry Percy is known to have played a prominent role in the negotiations.[13] Only Stirling Castle now remained to be subdued, and was battered by catapults during the spring of 1304, while King Edward's militant queen, Marguerite of France, watched from a specially built wooden shelter.

    The siege culminated in the commissioning of Warwolf, a giant trebuchet which flattened the curtain walls. The defenders had tried to surrender four days earlier, but had been made to wait by the king while he tried out his new toy. In September 1305 the first joint English and Scottish parliament met at Westminster to agree a constitution for the unified state, with Percy playing a leading role in the negotiations, but Robert Bruce, a leading representative of the Scots, was already conspiring to rebel. On 25 March 1306 Robert Bruce was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Abbey, upon which Edward confiscated his lands and gave them to Henry Percy. The King now appointed Percy to command northwest England and southwest Scotland, with orders to suppress the rebellion without mercy. Bruce's army was soon defeated in battle, but Bruce escaped to wage a guerilla campaign against the English from the wild countryside of Galloway. For several years afterwards the English Barons held the castles of southern and central Scotland, but were ambushed and harried in the countryside.

    A new monarch

    Edward I, on his way to launch a new campaign against the Scots, died on 7 July 1307 before crossing the border. The dying Edward I, asked his assembled barons to give the succession to his only surviving son Edward. He also asked them to maintain the banishment Piers Gaveston from England. Henry Percy was not present, being left in charge of southern Scotland. The death of Edward I, with the conquest of Scotland incomplete, was a personal disaster for Percy. After years of hard fighting he now had extensive land holdings in southern Scotland, but this was of less interest to Edward II who promptly recalled Gaveston and made him Earl of Cornwall, an office of great wealth. Gaveston, a formidable tournament fighter in the melee, openly despised and insulted the old king's stalwart warriors.

    Edward II left Scotland in August 1307 after replacing his father's loyal and experienced commanders, Clifford, Valence and Percy who were sent home, only to be recalled to Scotland in October. By then, however, Robert Bruce had escaped from Galloway to the Highlands, and had raised new forces and taken eastern Scotland by the end of the year. In August 1308 Bruce captured Argyll, previously loyal to King Edward and then raided Northumberland. Percy and Clifford were again summoned to defend Galloway, at their own expense, against an onslaught by Robert Bruce's surviving brother Edward. They were able to hold the castles, but not the countryside. Percy had travelled south to Westminster in February that year for the king's coronation, where he would have seen Gaveston's arrogance.

    The ceremony was delayed for a week while the French delegation, alarmed that the king preferred Gaveston's company to that of Isabella, his 12-year-old French bride, threatened to boycott the coronation. In the event Gaveston was given precedence over the other Earls. At the following feast Gaveston dressed in an outfit of royal purple and pearls, and called the king over to sit with him, instead of Queen Isabella. The French delegation walked out and one earl drew his sword and had to be restrained from attacking Gaveston. During the spring of 1308 the barons in parliament pressed the king to exile Gaveston, developing the Doctrine of Capacities, distinguishing between loyalty to the king and loyalty to the crown. On 16 June 1308, Gaveston was appointed Lieutenant of Ireland, to get him out of the country, with Henry de Percy as a witness.

    Founding a dynasty in Northumberland

    Alnwick Castle by Canaletto
    In 1309 Henry was able to buy Alnwick Castle from Anthony Bek, the Prince Bishop of Durham, giving him a base near to the action in Scotland and a substantial annual income of about ¹475 from the associated lands. To make the purchase price of ¹4666 he borrowed ¹2666 from Italian merchant bankers, the Lombard Society.[14] When William Vesci had died in 1297 without a legitimate heir, Bek had been entrusted with the estates of the Vesci family on behalf of his son, the illegitimate William Vesci of Kildare. Vesci of Kildare did receive the other family lands in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire and it is unclear whether he was defrauded by the greedy bishop over the sale of Alnwick. In the same year of 1297 Henry obtained a royal licence to fortify his mansion at Petworth and two mansions in Yorkshire.[15]

    The return of Gaveston

    By the summer of 1309 Edward II had managed to cajole most of his earls into allowing Piers Gaveston to return to England, although the most powerful earl, Lancaster, was implacably opposed. On 27 June 1309 Gaveston, restored to the Earldom of Cornwall, returned to England and soon proved as obnoxious as before, calling Lancaster "Churl" and Warwick "Black Cur".[16] Henry Percy would have been preoccupied with the purchase of Alnwick at that time and generally tried to stay out of the trouble with Gaveston.

    At the parliament of February and March 1310 the King was forced to accept the election of twenty one Lords Ordainers to govern the country. In June the king began a campaign in Scotland in which Percy fought, although many barons senior to Percy declined to take part. Robert Bruce continued to fight a guerilla war, refusing to give battle, so little was achieved, while relations between the king and his earls further deteriorated. In May 1311 Gaveston ordered Percy to hold Perth for the summer with two hundred knights and no infantry, a dangerous task at a time when the king's army was withdrawing to England. Surviving this Percy was back in London in October.[17]

    The barons now forced the king to send Gaveston into exile in Flanders, but he was soon recalled and was in York with his heavily pregnant wife in January 1312, with his lands restored. Percy was ordered out of Scarborough Castle and Gaveston took it over. Violence was now inevitable. In April the king and Gaveston were chased out of Newcastle by the sudden arrival of an army under Lancaster, Percy and Clifford, fleeing to Scarborough. In their haste they left behind Gaveston's wife and baby daughter and a great hoard of treasure, which it took Lancaster, Percy and Clifford four days to catalogue. Lancaster held onto this for future bargaining with the king.[18] Gaveston was soon besieged at Scarborough Castle by Percy, Clifford, and the earls of Warenne and Pembroke, surrendering after a month. Percy remained in York when Gaveston was taken south to Warwick and then executed.

    Imprisonment

    The king, seeking revenge for the death of his friend, stopped short of civil war with the rebel earls but made an example of the less powerful Baron Percy by confiscating his lands on 28 July 1312, and having him imprisoned by the Sheriff of Yorkshire. The earls made Percy's release a priority in their difficult negotiations with the king and he was freed in January 1313.[19] and was formally pardoned in October. Gaveston's treasure was returned to the king soon after.

    The final year

    King Edward now prepared for a campaign in Scotland in 1314, culminating in his total defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn. Percy, along with five of the earls and many other nobles refused summonses to this campaign because it had not been sanctioned by parliament, as required by the Ordinances. There are no contemporary records of Percy being at Bannockburn[20] and it seems that he remained at Alnwick, defending his land against Scottish raiders. His friend and comrade Robert Clifford did go, and was killed in the battle. Within days of the battle Percy was summoned to Newcastle to prepare an emergency defence of northern England against an invasion. Instead of an all-out invasion, Robert Bruce sent raiding parties to extort money from the northern counties. Only a few months later in the first half of October 1314 Henry Percy died, aged forty one, of unknown causes.

    Henry — Eleanor FitzAlan. Eleanor (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel) was born 0___ 1282; died 0___ 1328; was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  14. 165.  Eleanor FitzAlan was born 0___ 1282 (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel); died 0___ 1328; was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Lady Percy

    Notes:

    Buried:
    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beverley_Minster

    Children:
    1. 82. Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick was born 0___ 1299, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ; died 0___ 1352.

  15. 166.  Robert de Clifford, Knight, 1st Baron de Clifford was born ~ 1274, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England (son of Roger de Clifford, II, Knight and Isabella Vipont); died 24 Jun 1314, Bannockburn, Scotland; was buried Shap Abbey, Cumbria, England.

    Other Events:

    • Military: Battle of Falkirk

    Notes:

    Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford (c. 1274–1314), of Appleby Castle, Westmorland, feudal baron of Appleby and feudal baron of Skipton in Yorkshire, was an English soldier who became 1st Lord Warden of the Marches, responsible for defending the English border with Scotland.

    Origins[edit]
    He was born in Clifford Castle,[citation needed] Herefordshire, a son of Roger II de Clifford (d.1282) (a grandson of Walter II de Clifford (d.1221), feudal baron of Clifford[1]) by his wife Isabella de Vipont (d.1291), one of the two daughters and co-heiresses of Robert II de Vipont (d.1264), feudal baron of Appleby, grandson of Robert I de Vieuxpont (d.1227/8). Thenceforth the Clifford family quartered the arms of Vipont: Gules, six annulets or.

    The ancient Norman family which later took the name de Clifford arrived in England during the Norman Conquest of 1066, and became feudal barons of Clifford, first seated in England at Clifford Castle in Herefordshire. The de Clifford family was directly descended in the male line from Duke Richard I of Normandy (933-996), great-grandfather of William the Conqueror:[2] the father of Walter de Clifford, 1st feudal baron of Clifford (d.1190) was Richard FitzPontz (d. circa 1138), the son of Pontz, the son of William Count of Eu, a son of Richard I of Normandy (933-996) by his wife Gunnor.[3]

    Inheritances

    As his father had predeceased his own father, in 1286 Robert inherited the estates of his grandfather, Roger I de Clifford (d.1286). Following the death of his mother Isabella de Vipont in 1291 he inherited a one-half moiety of the extensive Vipont feudal baron of Appleby in Westmorland. In 1308 he was granted the remaining moiety by his childless aunt Idonea de Vipont (d.1333)[4] and thus became one of the most powerful barons in England.

    Career

    During the reigns of Kings Edward I and Edward II, Clifford was a prominent soldier. In 1296 he was sent with Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy to quell the Scots who asked for terms of surrender at Irvine. He was appointed Governor of Carlisle. During the reign of Edward I he was styled Warden of the Marches and during the reign of Edward II, as Lord Warden of the Marches, being the first holder of this office.[5] In 1298 he fought for King Edward I at the Battle of Falkirk in which William Wallace was defeated, for which he was rewarded with Governorship of Nottingham Castle. He was summoned to Parliament by writ as a baron in 1299. He won great renown at the Siege of Caerlaverock Castle in 1300, during which his armorials (Chequy or and azure, a fesse gules) were recorded by the heralds on the famous Caerlaverock Roll or Poem, thus (translated from French):[6]

    "Strength from wisdom drawing, Robert Lord de Clifford's mind is bent on his enemies' subjection. Through his mother his descent comes from that renowned Earl Marshal at Constantinople said to have battled with a unicorn and struck the monster dead. All the merits of his grandsire, Roger, still in Robert spring. Of no praise is he unworthy; wiser none was with the King. Honoured was his banner, checky gold and blue, a scarlet fess. Were I maiden, heart and body I would yield to such noblesse!"
    He was one of many who sealed the 1301 Barons' Letter to the Pope, in the Latin text of which he is described as Robertus de Clifford, Castellanus de Appelby ("Constable of Appleby Castle").[7] After the death of King Edward I in 1307, he was appointed counsellor to Edward II, together with the Earl of Lincoln, Earl of Warwick and Earl of Pembroke. In the same year of 1307 the new king Edward II appointed him Marshal of England, and in this capacity he probably organised Edward II's coronation on 25 February 1308. On 12 March 1308 he was relieved of the marshalcy, the custodianship of Nottingham Castle and of his Forest justiceship, but on 20 August 1308 he was appointed captain and chief guardian of Scotland.[8] In 1310 Edward II also granted him Skipton Castle and the Honour of Skipton in Yorkshire, held until that date by Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln (1251-1311).[9] Henry de Lacy had married Margaret Longespâee, Robert de Clifford's cousin and heiress of the feudal barony of Clifford, which had descended in a female line from Robert de Clifford's great-great uncle, Walter II de Clifford (d.1263), Margaret Longespâee's maternal grandfather.[3]

    In 1312 together with the Earl of Lancaster he took part in the movement against Piers Gaveston Edward II's favourite, whom he besieged in Scarborough Castle.

    Marriage & progeny

    In 1295 in Clifford Castle he married Maud de Clare, eldest daughter of Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond by his wife Juliana FitzGerald. By Maud he had three children:[10]

    Roger de Clifford, 2nd Baron de Clifford.
    Robert de Clifford, 3rd Baron de Clifford.
    Idonia de Clifford, wife of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy.
    Death & burial[edit]
    Clifford was killed on 24 June 1314 fighting at the Battle of Bannockburn[5] and was buried at Shap Abbey in Westmoreland.

    References

    Jump up ^ Sanders, pp.35-6, Clifford; Vivian, p.194, Pedigree of Clifford
    Jump up ^ Vivian, Lt.Col. J.L., (Ed.) The Visitations of the County of Devon: Comprising the Heralds' Visitations of 1531, 1564 & 1620, Exeter, 1895, p.194
    ^ Jump up to: a b Vivian, p.194
    Jump up ^ Sanders, I.J. English Baronies: A Study of their Origin and Descent 1086-1327, Oxford, 1960, p.104, Appleby
    ^ Jump up to: a b Notes and Queries, Oxford University Press, 15 March 1862, p. 220
    Jump up ^ http://www.theheraldrysociety.com/articles/early_history_of_heraldry/siege_of_caerlaverock.htm
    Jump up ^ Howard de Walden, Lord, Some Feudal Lords and their Seals 1301, published 1903 reprinted 1984, image of seal p.31
    Jump up ^ Henry Summerson, Robert Clifford, first Lord Clifford, Oxford Online Dictionary of National Biography, 2004
    Jump up ^ Sanders, I.J. English Baronies: A Study of their Origin and Descent 1086-1327, Oxford, 1960, p.143
    Jump up ^ "Clifford, Robert de". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.

    Military:
    In 1298 he fought for King Edward I at the Battle of Falkirk in which William Wallace was defeated, for which he was rewarded with Governorship of Nottingham Castle.

    Buried:
    Photos, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shap_Abbey

    Died:
    during the Battle of Bannockburn ... was a significant Scottish victory in the First War of Scottish Independence, and a landmark in Scottish history.

    History ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn

    Robert married Maude de Clare 0___ 1295, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England. Maude (daughter of Thomas de Clare, Knight, Lord of Thomond and Juliana Fitzgerald, Lady of Thomond) was born 0___ 1276; died 0___ 1327. [Group Sheet]


  16. 167.  Maude de Clare was born 0___ 1276 (daughter of Thomas de Clare, Knight, Lord of Thomond and Juliana Fitzgerald, Lady of Thomond); died 0___ 1327.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Baroness of Clifford
    • Also Known As: Maud de Clare

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appleby_Castle

    Children:
    1. 83. Idonia Clifford was born ~ 1303, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England; died 24 Aug 1365, (Yorkshire, England); was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England.
    2. Robert de Clifford, Knight, 3rd Baron de Clifford was born 5 Nov 1305, (Skipton, North Yorkshire, England); died 20 May 1344.

  17. 168.  Edward II, King of EnglandEdward II, King of England was born 25 Apr 1284, Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales (son of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England); died 21 Sep 1327, Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward of Caernarfon

    Notes:

    Edward II who reigned as King of England from 1307-1327 was widely held as a weak and ineffective king, losing disastrously to the Scots at Bannockburn in 1314. His tendency to ignore his nobility, in favour of low-born favourites, led to constant political unrest and eventually to his deposition. His father, a notable military leader, made a point of training young Edward in warfare and statecraft starting in his childhood. Edward preferred less noble pursuits and although impressive physically, he was a bit of a wimp. Edward I attributed his son’s problems to Piers Gaveston, a Gascon Knight who some believe to have been the prince's lover.

    Edward II is today perhaps best remembered for a story about his alleged murder with a red-hot poker plunged anally into his entrails, which has been seen by some as evidence of his homosexuality. Although pictured in the film Braveheart as highly effeminate, this portrayal is inaccurate as Edward II's robust physical appearance was similar to his father's, right down to the drooping eyelid.

    The King was captured and condemned by Parliament in 1327 as 'incorrigible and without hope of amendment'. He was forced to abdicate in favour of his teenage son Edward III, and he died in Berkeley Castle later that year.

    Braveheart's ridiculous depiction of William Wallace being Edward III's father is impossible. Wallace was executed in 1305, seven years before Edward III was born.

    During Richard II's reign, the Peasants Revolt of 1381 was sparked off by the Poll Tax of one shilling a head on the whole population, regardless of the individual's means to pay it. A large part of society consisted of villeins, men and women tied to the land on which they were born and worked. The sum, small enough to the better-off, represented an unacceptable impost upon their slender resources, and when they refused to pay, or were unable to do so, they were pursued with the full rigour of the law. They retaliated by murdering the Royal Officials who attempted to collect the tax, and this invited further retribution from the Government.

    *

    Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir to the throne following the death of his older brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland, and in 1306 he was knighted in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Edward succeeded to the throne in 1307, following his father's death. In 1308, he married Isabella of France, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV, as part of a long-running effort to resolve the tensions between the English and French crowns.

    Edward had a close and controversial relationship with Piers Gaveston, who had joined his household in 1300. The precise nature of Edward and Gaveston's relationship is uncertain; they may have been friends, lovers or sworn brothers. Gaveston's arrogance and power as Edward's favourite provoked discontent both among the barons and the French royal family, and Edward was forced to exile him. On Gaveston's return, the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms called the Ordinances of 1311. The newly empowered barons banished Gaveston, to which Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite. Led by Edward's cousin, the Earl of Lancaster, a group of the barons seized and executed Gaveston in 1312, beginning several years of armed confrontation. English forces were pushed back in Scotland, where Edward was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Widespread famine followed, and criticism of the King's reign mounted.

    The Despenser family, in particular Hugh Despenser the Younger, became close friends and advisers to Edward, but in 1321 Lancaster and many of the barons seized the Despensers' lands and forced the King to exile them. In response, Edward led a short military campaign, capturing and executing Lancaster. Edward and the Despensers strengthened their grip on power, revoking the 1311 reforms, executing their enemies and confiscating estates. Unable to make progress in Scotland, Edward finally signed a truce with Robert. Opposition to the regime grew, and when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty in 1325, she turned against Edward and refused to return. Isabella allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and invaded England with a small army in 1326. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, where he was captured in November. Edward was forced to relinquish his crown in January 1327 in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III, and he died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September, probably murdered on the orders of the new regime.

    Edward's relationship with Gaveston inspired Christopher Marlowe's 1592 play Edward II, along with other plays, films, novels and media. Many of these have focused on the possible sexual relationship between the two men. Edward's contemporaries criticised his performance as a king, noting his failures in Scotland and the oppressive regime of his later years, although 19th-century academics later argued that the growth of parliamentary institutions during his reign was a positive development for England over the longer term. Debate has continued into the 21st century as to whether Edward was a lazy and incompetent king, or simply a reluctant and ultimately unsuccessful ruler.

    Birth:
    Iimages of Caenaron Castle ... http://bit.ly/1xgRUAj

    Died:
    One night in August 1323, a captive rebel baron, Sir Roger Mortimer, drugged his guards and escaped from the Tower of London. With the king's men-at-arms in pursuit he fled to the south coast and sailed to France. There he was joined by Isabella, the Queen of England, who threw herself into his arms. A year later, as lovers, they returned with an invading army: King Edward II's forces crumbled before them and Mortimer took power. He removed Edward II in the first deposition of a monarch in British history. Then the ex-king was apparently murdered, some said with a red-hot poker, in Berkeley Castle.

    Images of Berkeley Castle ... http://bit.ly/1yHywy3

    Edward married Isabella of France, Queen of England 0___ 1308. Isabella (daughter of Philip of France, IV, King of France and Joan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of Champagne) was born Abt 1279, Paris, France; died 22 Aug 1358, Castle Rising, Norfolk, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, London, Middlesex, England. [Group Sheet]


  18. 169.  Isabella of France, Queen of EnglandIsabella of France, Queen of England was born Abt 1279, Paris, France (daughter of Philip of France, IV, King of France and Joan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of Champagne); died 22 Aug 1358, Castle Rising, Norfolk, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, London, Middlesex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isabella Capet

    Notes:

    Click here for Queen Isabella's biography ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_of_France

    Isabella of France (1295 – 22 August 1358), sometimes described as the She-wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife of Edward II. She was the youngest surviving child and only surviving daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. Queen Isabella was notable at the time for her beauty, diplomatic skills, and intelligence.

    Isabella arrived in England at the age of 12 [2] during a period of growing conflict between the king and the powerful baronial factions. Her new husband was notorious for the patronage he lavished on his favourite, Piers Gaveston, but the queen supported Edward during these early years, forming a working relationship with Piers and using her relationship with the French monarchy to bolster her own authority and power. After the death of Gaveston at the hands of the barons in 1312, however, Edward later turned to a new favourite, Hugh Despenser the younger, and attempted to take revenge on the barons, resulting in the Despenser War and a period of internal repression across England. Isabella could not tolerate Hugh Despenser and by 1325 her marriage to Edward was at a breaking point.

    Travelling to France under the guise of a diplomatic mission, Isabella began an affair with Roger Mortimer, and the two agreed to depose Edward and oust the Despenser family. The Queen returned to England with a small mercenary army in 1326, moving rapidly across England. The King's forces deserted him. Isabella deposed Edward, becoming regent on behalf of her son, Edward III. Many have believed that Isabella then arranged the murder of Edward II. Isabella and Mortimer’s regime began to crumble, partly because of her lavish spending, but also because the Queen successfully, but unpopularly, resolved long-running problems such as the wars with Scotland.

    In 1330, Isabella’s son Edward III deposed Mortimer in turn, taking back his authority and executing Isabella’s lover. The Queen was not punished, however, and lived for many years in considerable style—although not at Edward III’s court—until her death in 1358. Isabella became a popular "femme fatale" figure in plays and literature over the years, usually portrayed as a beautiful but cruel, manipulative figure.

    Film

    In Derek Jarman's film Edward II (1991), based on Marlowe's play, Isabella is portrayed (by actress Tilda Swinton) as a "femme fatale" whose thwarted love for Edward causes her to turn against him and steal his throne. In contrast to the negative depictions, Mel Gibson's film Braveheart (1995) portrays Isabella (played by the French actress Sophie Marceau) more sympathetically. In the film, an adult Isabella is fictionally depicted as having a romantic affair with the Scottish hero William Wallace. However, in reality, she was 9-years-old at the time of Wallace's death.[153] Additionally, Wallace is incorrectly suggested to be the father of her son, Edward III, despite Wallace's death many years before Edward's birth.[154]

    *

    Buried:
    Christ Church Greyfriars, also known as Christ Church Newgate Street,[1] was a church in Newgate Street, opposite St Paul's Cathedral in the City of London. Established as a monastic church in the thirteenth century, it became a parish church after the dissolution of the monastery.

    Following its destruction in the Great Fire of London of 1666, it was rebuilt to the designs of Sir Christopher Wren. Except for the tower, the church was largely destroyed by bombing during the Second World War. The ruins are now a public garden.

    Died:
    Castle Rising is a ruined medieval fortification in the village of Castle Rising, Norfolk, England. It was built soon after 1138 by William d'Aubigny II, who had risen through the ranks of the Anglo-Norman nobility to become the Earl of Arundel.

    Map, image, history & source for Castle Rising ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castle_Rising_(castle)

    Children:
    1. 84. Edward III, King of England was born 13 Nov 1312, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was christened 20 Nov 1312; died 21 Jun 1377, Richmond Palace, London, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. Joan of the Tower, Queen of Scotland was born 5 Jul 1321, Tower Hill, London, Middlesex, England; died 7 Sep 1362, Hertford, Hertfordshire, England; was buried Grey Friars Church, London, Middlesex, England.

  19. 176.  John Howard, II, Admiral of the North Seas was born ~ 1310, East Wynch, Wiggenhall, Norfolk, England (son of John Howard, I, Knight, Duke of Norfolk and Joan de Corwall); died Aft 1388, Bath, Somerset, England; was buried East Wynch, Wiggenhall, Norfolk, England.

    John married Alice de Boys Abt 1335. Alice was born ~ 1314, of, Coningsby, Lincoln, England; died 1374-1375. [Group Sheet]


  20. 177.  Alice de Boys was born ~ 1314, of, Coningsby, Lincoln, England; died 1374-1375.
    Children:
    1. 88. Robert Howard, I, Duke of Norfolk was born ~ 1336, East Wynch, Wiggenhall, Norfolk, England; died 3 Jul 1388, Wiggenhall, Norfolk, England; was buried 18 Jul 1388, Howard Chapel, East Winch, Norfolk, England.

  21. 184.  John de Mowbray, Knight, 3rd Baron Mowbray was born 29 Nov 1310, Hovingham, Yorkshire, England (son of John de Mowbray, I, 8th Baron Mowbray and Aline de Braose); died 4 Oct 1361, York, Yorkshire, England; was buried Bedford Greyfriars, Friars Minor, Bedford, Bedforshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Baron of Axholme
    • Also Known As: Baron of Bramber, Sussex
    • Also Known As: Keeper of Berwick-Upon-Tweed
    • Military: Battle of Neville's Cross

    Notes:

    Mowbray /'mo?bri/ is an Anglo-Norman baronial house, derived from Montbray in Normandy. From this village came Geoffrey de Montbray who came to be Bishop of Coutances and accompanied Duke William of Normandy at the Conquest of England in 1066.[1]

    For his support he was granted some 280 English manors (each about the size of a village). His nephew Robert de Montbrai became Earl of Northumberland in 1080, but he rebelled against William II (Rufus) and was captured and imprisoned in Windsor Castle for thirty years. His divorced wife, Matilda, married Nigel d'Aubigny (sometimes spelt d'Albini) whose family came from Saint-Martin-d'Aubigny, 16 km. west of Saint-Lão and 15 km. north of Coutances. However, Robert was the maternal uncle of Nigel and although Nigel inherited Robert's vast landholdings, the marriage was annulled for consanguinity before any issue. By his second wife, Gundred, he had a son and heir Roger whose name was changed by royal command from d'Aubigny to de Montbray. The family flourished (Baronial Pedigree) and the name spelling evolved to Mowbray.[citation needed]

    The baronial line died out in England with a young heiress ca. 1475, although a son of an earlier generation had founded a dynasty in Scotland where issue has survived. The family was active up and down the east side of the country and settled predominantly in the counties of Durham, Lincolnshire and Leicestershire in historic times. Since then there has been the usual migration into other areas and overseas.[citation needed]

    As with any name, there are numerous spelling variations over time, but the major ones are Moubray, the Scottish version, and Mowberry which stemmed from a Leicestershire migration into Glinton, Northamptonshire, where the variant became established and eventually spread into a Lincolnshire branch. One of the many heraldic badges of the house was a mulberry tree.[citation needed]

    *

    more...

    John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray (29 November 1310 - 4 October 1361) was the only son of John de Mowbray, 2nd Baron Mowbray, by his first wife, Aline de Brewes,[1] daughter of William de Braose, 2nd Baron Braose.

    He was born 29 November 1310 at Hovingham, Yorkshire.[1]

    Mowbray's father, the 2nd Baron, sided with Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, at the Battle of Boroughbridge on 16 March 1322 against Edward II, and was taken prisoner at the battle. He was hanged at York on 23 March 1322, and his estates forfeited.[1] His wife and son John were imprisoned in the Tower of London until Edward II was deposed by his wife, Queen Isabella, and Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. The Mowbrays were released in 1327.

    The 3rd Baron de Mowbray was reportedly in Edward III's good graces, being present in France in the War of the Breton Succession for the sieges of Nantes and Aguillon. He was also on the English side at the Battle of Neville's Cross in the Second War of Scottish Independence.

    He died of the plague at York on 4 October 1361, and was buried at the Friars Minor in Bedford.[2]

    Marriages and issue

    He married firstly, before 26 February 1322, Maud de Holand, daughter of Robert de Holland, 1st Baron Holand, by Maud la Zouche, daughter and coheiress of Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby. The marriage was later declared void.[3]

    He married secondly, between 28 February 1327 and 4 June 1328, Joan of Lancaster, sixth and youngest daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, by whom he had a son and two daughters:[3]

    Blanche Mowbray (d. 21 July 1409), who was contracted to marry Edward de Montagu (d. before February 1359), son and heir apparent of Edward de Montagu, 1st Baron Montagu (died 3 July 1461), by Alice of Norfolk, daughter and heiress of Thomas of Brotherton; however the marriage did not take place.

    She married firstly, by papal dispensation dated 21 March 1349, John de Segrave (d. before 1 April 1353), son and heir apparent of John Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave by Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, daughter and heiress of Thomas of Brotherton;
    secondly, as his second wife, Sir Robert Bertam (d.1363);
    thirdly, before 5 June 1372, Thomas de Poynings, 2nd Baron Poynings (d. before 25 June 1375), son and heir of Michael de Poynings, 1st Baron Poynings;
    fourthly, before 21 March 1378, Sir John de Worth (d. before 1 June 1391); and
    fifthly, before 5 November 1394, Sir John Wiltshire. She had no issue by any of her husbands.[5]

    Eleanor Mowbray, who married firstly, as his second wife, Roger la Warr, 3rd Baron De La Warr (d. 27 August 1370),[6] by whom she had a daughter, Joan La Warr, who married Thomas West, 1st Baron West; and secondly Sir Lewis Clifford of Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire, brother of Hugh de Clifford.[6][7][8][9]

    He married thirdly, by papal dispensation of 4 May 1351, Elizabeth de Vere (d. 14 or 16 August 1375), widow of Sir Hugh Courtenay (d. before 2 September 1349), and daughter of John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford, by Maud de Badlesmere, daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere.[2]

    After Mowbray's death, his widow, Elizabeth de Vere, married, before 26 November 1368, Sir William de Cossington.[2]

    *

    more...

    3rd Lord Mowbray, Baron of Axholme, Lincolnshire, Baron of Bramber, Sussex, lord of Gower in Wales, Keeper of Berwick-Upon-Tweed.

    Only son and heir to Sir John de Mowbray and Aline de Brewes. grandson of Sir Roger de Mowbray and Rose de Clare, William de Brewse and Agnes.

    Husband of Joan of Lancaster Plantagenet, youngest daughter of Henry of Lancaster and Maud de Chaworth. They were married between 1327 and 1328 and had one son and two daughters:
    Sir John, 4th Lord Mowbray
    Blanche, who would marry John Seagrave, Sir Robert Bertram, Lord Thomas de Poynings, John de Worth and John Wiltshire.
    Eleanor, who married Roger de la Warre

    Secondly, husband of Elizabeth de Vere, daughter of John, Earl of Oxford and Maud Badlesmere, daughter of Lord Badlesmere. They married before 04 May 1351, the date of their papal dispensation as they were related in the 3rd and 4th degree. John and Elizabeth had no surviving children.

    John was baptized at Hoveringham, and betrothed to Maud de Holand, daughter of Sir Robert de Holand and Maud de la Zouche at an early age, but the marriage never took place. After his father's execution in 1322, John was twelve, he and his mother were imprisoned at the Tower of London by the Despensers. When Edward III became King, they were released, their lands and properties returned. John was summoned to Parliament 1327 to 160, and served in the Scottish and French wars.

    Sir John was one of the commanders of the English Army at the Battle of Neville's Cross, Durham in 1346, where Lanercost (one of the chroniclers of the times) loudly sang his praises: "He was full of grace and kindness - the conduct both of himself and his men was such as to resound to their perpetual honour." He was also present at the siege of Calais in 1347. In 1354 his title to Gower was contested by Thomas Beauchamp, the Earl of Warwick, and the Court of Common Pleas settled with Warwick. Sir John witnessed the surrender of Balliol of the Scottish crown in favor of Edward in 1356.

    John died of the pestilence at York, and was buried at the Church of Friars Minor at Bedford. Elizabeth would remarry to Sir William Cossington of Kent, and she died 16 August 1375.

    Military:
    The Battle of Neville's Cross took place to the west of Durham, England, on 17 October 1346. The culmination of a Scottish invasion of northern England, the battle ended with the rout of the Scots and the capture of their king, David II of Scotland.

    Died:
    He died of the plague at York...

    John married Joan Plantagenet, Baroness Mowbray 1326-1327, (Yorkshire, England). Joan (daughter of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester and Maud Chaworth) was born ~ 1312, Norfolk, England; died 7 Jul 1349, Yorkshire, England; was buried Byland Abbey, Coxwold, North Yorkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  22. 185.  Joan Plantagenet, Baroness Mowbray was born ~ 1312, Norfolk, England (daughter of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester and Maud Chaworth); died 7 Jul 1349, Yorkshire, England; was buried Byland Abbey, Coxwold, North Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Joan of Lancaster
    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1312, Monmouthshire, Wales

    Notes:

    Joan of Lancaster (c.1312-7 July 1349) sometimes called Joan Plantagenet after her dynasty's name, was the third daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth.

    Marriage

    Joan of Lancaster was born circa 1312.[1] She married John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray sometime between February and June 1327.[1][2] They had three children:[2]

    Blanche de Mowbray (died 1409), married firstly John Segrave, secondly Robert Bertram, thirdly Thomas Poynings, fourthly Sir John Worth, and fifthly Sir John Wiltshire.
    Eleanor de Mowbray, married firstly Roger La Warre, Lord La Warre and secondly Sir Lewis de Clifford.
    John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray (25 June 1340–1368), married Elizabeth de Segrave
    She died in Yorkshire, England of plague. Her husband remarried to Elizabeth de Vere, widow of Sir Hugh de Courtenay.

    *

    more...

    Joan was the fifth daughter of Henry Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster and Maud de Chaworth, granddaughter of Edmund of England, the son of King Henry III, and Blanche of Artois, Sir Patrick de Chaworth and Isabel de Beauchamp.

    Joan was the wife of Sir John de Mowbray, the son of Sir John de Mowbray and Aline de Brewes. They were married between 1327 and 1329 and had one son and two daughters:
    Sir John, 4th Lord Mowbray
    Blanche, who would marry John Seagrave, Sir Robert Bertram, Lord Thomas de Poynings, John de Worth and John Wiltshire.
    Eleanor, who married Roger de la Warre.

    Buried:
    Byland Abbey is a ruined abbey and a small village in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, England, in the North York Moors National Park.

    Images ... https://www.google.com/search?q=byland+abbey&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=815&site=webhp&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&sqi=2&ved=0ahUKEwj6svLG7MLKAhUEFh4KHfJ4BGgQsAQILg&dpr=1

    Died:
    She died in Yorkshire, England of plague...

    Notes:

    Married:
    sometime between February and June 1327 and his 2nd marriage...

    Children:
    1. Blanche Mowbray died 21 Jul 1409.
    2. 92. John de Mowbray, Knight, 4th Baron Mowbray was born 24 Jun 1340, Epworth, Lincolnshire, England; died 19 Oct 1368, Constantinople, Turkey.

  23. 186.  John Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave was born 4 May 1315 (son of Stephen Segrave, 3rd Baron Segrave and Alice FitzAlan); died 1 Apr 1353, Repton, Derbyshire, England; was buried Grey Friars, London, Middlesex, England.

    Notes:

    John Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave (4 May 1315 – 1 April 1353) was an English peer and landowner in Leicestershire and Yorkshire. His family title of Baron Segrave is drawn from a village now spelled Seagrave, which uses a coat of arms similar to that of the barons.

    Segrave was the son of Stephen Segrave, 3rd Baron Segrave, and Alice Fitzalan. Little is known of his early life.

    About 1335 Segrave married Margaret, daughter and eventual sole heir of Thomas of Brotherton, son of Edward I by his second marriage,[2] by whom he had two sons and two daughters:[3]

    John de Segrave, who died young.[4]
    John de Segrave (d. before 1 April 1353), second of that name, who was contracted to marry Blanche of Lancaster, younger daughter and coheiress of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. However the contract was later declared void.[4]

    About 1349 a double marriage was solemnized in which John Segrave married Blanche Mowbray, while John's sister, Elizabeth Segrave, married Blanche Mowbray's brother, John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray, Pope Clement VI having granted dispensations for the marriages at the request of Lancaster, in order to prevent 'disputes between the parents', who were neighbours.[5][6][4]

    Elizabeth de Segrave, 5th Baroness Segrave, who married John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray.[4]

    Margaret de Segrave, who died young, before 1353.[4]

    A year after the marriage his wife inherited her father's title and estates, becoming in her own right Countess of Norfolk and Earl Marshal of England.

    In 1350, Segrave and his wife sought a divorce, arguing that they had been contracted in marriage before Margaret was of age, and that she had never consented. The impetus for this was that Margaret wished to marry Walter Manny, 1st Baron Manny, with whom she was implicated.[7] However, Segrave died at Bretby in Repton, Derbyshire on 1 April 1353,[8] before the divorce had been granted. He was succeeded in the barony by his daughter Elizabeth.

    *

    John married Margaret Brotherton, Countess of Norfolk ~ 1335, (Norfolkshire, England). Margaret (daughter of Thomas of Brotherton, Knight, 1st Earl of Norfolk and Alice Hales, Countess of Norfolk) was born ~ 1320, Norfolk, Norfolkshire, England; died 24 Mar 1399, Tower of London, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Grey Friars, London, Middlesex, England. [Group Sheet]


  24. 187.  Margaret Brotherton, Countess of Norfolk was born ~ 1320, Norfolk, Norfolkshire, England (daughter of Thomas of Brotherton, Knight, 1st Earl of Norfolk and Alice Hales, Countess of Norfolk); died 24 Mar 1399, Tower of London, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Grey Friars, London, Middlesex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Duchess of Norfolk
    • Also Known As: Earl Marshal
    • Also Known As: Margaret Marshal

    Notes:

    Margaret, in her own right Countess of Norfolk (sometimes surnamed Brotherton or Marshal;[1] c.?1320–24 March 1399), was the daughter and eventual sole heir of Thomas of Brotherton, eldest son of Edward I, by his second marriage. In 1338 she succeeded to the earldom of Norfolk and the office of Earl Marshal.

    Family

    Born about 1320, Margaret was the daughter of Thomas of Brotherton, eldest son of Edward I by his second marriage to Margaret (1279?–1318), the daughter of Philippe III of France (d.1285).[2] Her mother was Alice de Hales (d. in or before 1330), daughter of Sir Roger de Hales of Hales Hall in Loddon in Roughton, Norfolk, by his wife, Alice.[3][4] She had a brother and sister:

    Edward of Norfolk, who married Beatrice de Mortimer, daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, but died without issue before 9 August 1334.[5]
    Alice of Norfolk, who married Sir Edward de Montagu.[6]
    Life[edit]
    In 1335 aged 15 (the typical age of marriage for maidens of that era), she was married to John Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave, and proceeded to have four children - two sons and two daughters - by him. In 1350, she sought a divorce on the ground that they had been contracted in marriage (in other words betrothed) before she was of marriageable age, and that she had never consented to cohabit with him. She made known her intention of traveling to the continent in order to plead personally with the Pope for a divorce. King Edward III prohibited her from leaving England, but she set off incognito anyway, having taken care to obtain a safe conduct from the King of France.

    The following year (1351) Edward III charged her with having crossed the English Channel in contravention of his prohibition.[7] The inquisition, regarding this incident, shows that Margaret unlawfully crossed the Channel and met with a servant of her future husband, Sir Walter de Mauny, who broke his lantern with his foot so she could pass unnoticed and acted as her guardian during her sojourn in France. This incident and the involvement of her future husband's retainer may indicate the real motivation for Margaret seeking a divorce.

    The divorce case was ultimately heard by the Pope's auditor, the Dean of St. Hilary's at Poitiers. However, Margaret's first husband died in 1353, before the divorce could be finalized. Shortly thereafter, and just before 30 May 1354, she married Sir Walter de Mauny without the King's licence. They were married 18 years, and had three children before he died at London on 8 or 13 January 1372.[8]

    On 29 September 1397, Margaret she was created Duchess of Norfolk for life.[8] She died 24 March 1399, and was buried in the choir of Grey Friars in the City of London.[8]

    The executors of her will are reported to be John Sileby & Walter fitz Piers, who in 1399 were reported to be attempting to recover money due to her estate. [9]

    Marriages and issue[edit]
    Margaret married firstly, about 1335,[4] John Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave, by whom she had two sons and two daughters:[10]

    John de Segrave, who died young.[10]
    John de Segrave (d. before 1 April 1353), second of that name, who was contracted to marry Blanche of Lancaster, younger daughter and coheiress of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. However the contract was later declared void[11] and Blanche later married John of Gaunt. About 1349, a double marriage was solemnized in which John Segrave married Blanche Mowbray, while John's sister, Elizabeth Segrave, married Blanche Mowbray's brother, John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray, Pope Clement VI having granted dispensations for the marriages at the request of Lancaster, in order to prevent 'disputes between the parents', who were neighbours.[12][13][11]
    Elizabeth de Segrave, 5th Baroness Segrave, who married John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray.[11]
    Margaret de Segrave, who died young, before 1353.[11]
    Shortly before 30 May 1354, Margaret married secondly, and without the King's licence, Sir Walter Mauny,[14] by whom she had a son and two daughters:[11]

    Thomas Mauny, who was drowned in a well at Deptford at the age of ten.[11]
    Anne Mauny, who married John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke.[11]
    Isabel Mauny, who was living in 1358, but died without issue before 30 November 1371.[11]
    Distinction[edit]
    As her brother had died without issue, she succeeded to the earldom of Norfolk and the office of Earl Marshal at her father's death in 1338. To date, she is the only woman to have held the latter office.

    Buried:
    "One substantial gift was to the Greyfriars, London, where she donated 350 marks for the new choir stalls, and where she chose to be buried, next to her grandson John Hastings, earl of Pembroke." ...
    http://www.royaldescent.net/margaret-of-brotherton-duchess-of-norfolk/

    Children:
    1. 93. Elizabeth Segrave was born 25 Oct 1338, Blaby, Leicestershire, England; died 24 May 1368, Leicestershire, England; was buried Croxton Abbey, Blaby, Leicestershire, England.

  25. 190.  William de Bohun, Knight, 1st Earl of Northampton was born 0___ 1312, Caldecot, Rutland, Northampton, England (son of Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England); died 16 Sep 1360, (England).

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Diplomat
    • Military: 30 Sep 1342; Battle of Morlaix, France

    Notes:

    William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton, KG (c. 1312 – 16 September 1360) was an English nobleman and military commander.

    Lineage

    He was the fifth son of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth of Rhuddlan. He had a twin brother, Edward. His maternal grandparents were Edward I of England and his first Queen consort Eleanor of Castile.

    Life

    William de Bohun assisted at the arrest of Roger Mortimer in 1330, allowing Edward III to take power. After this, he was a trusted friend and commander of the king and he participated in the renewed wars with Scotland.[1]

    In 1332, he received many new properties: Hinton and Spaine in Berkshire; Great Haseley, Ascott, Deddington, Pyrton and Kirtlington in Oxfordshire; Wincomb in Buckinghamshire; Longbenington in Lincolnshire; Kneesol in Nottinghamshire; Newnsham in Gloucestershire, Wix in Essex, and Bosham in Sussex.

    In 1335, he married Elizabeth de Badlesmere (1313 - 8 June 1356). Her parents Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, and Margaret de Clare had both turned against Edward II the decade before. Elizabeth and William were granted some of the property of Elizabeth's first husband, who had also been Mortimer's son and heir.

    William was created Earl of Northampton in 1337, one of the six earls created by Edward III to renew the ranks of the higher nobility. Since de Bohun was a younger son, and did not have an income suitable to his rank, he was given an annuity until suitable estates could be found.

    In 1349 he became a Knight of the Garter. He served as High Sheriff of Rutland from 1349 until his death in 1360.[2]

    Campaigns in Flanders, Brittany, Scotland, Victor at Sluys & Crecy

    In 1339 he accompanied the King to Flanders. He served variously in Brittany and in Scotland, and was present at the great English victories at Sluys and was a commander at Crâecy.

    His most stunning feat was commanding an English force to victory against a much bigger French force at the Battle of Morlaix in 1342. Some of the details are in dispute, but it is clear that he made good use of pit traps, which stopped the French cavalry.

    Renowned Diplomat

    In addition to being a warrior, William was also a renowned diplomat. He negotiated two treaties with France, one in 1343 and one in 1350. He was also charged with negotiating in Scotland for the freedom of King David Bruce, King of Scots, who was held prisoner by the English.

    Issue

    1. Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford (1341-1373)

    Mary de Bohun (1368-1394); mother of Henry V of England
    2. Elizabeth de Bohun (c. 1350-1385); married Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel

    In Historical Fiction

    In Bernard Cornwell's series the Grail Quest, the Earl of Northampton plays a minor role as Thomas of Hookton's lord.

    Notes

    Jump up ^ Mortimer, Ian (2008). The Perfect King The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation. Vintage. p. 138.
    Jump up ^ The history of the worthies of England, Volume 3 By Thomas Fuller. Retrieved 2011-07-13.

    *

    William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton, KG (c. 1312 – 16 September 1360) was an English nobleman and military commander.


    Lineage

    He was the fifth son of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth of Rhuddlan. He had a twin brother, Edward. His maternal grandparents were Edward I of England and his first Queen consort Eleanor of Castile.

    Life

    William de Bohun assisted at the arrest of Roger Mortimer in 1330, allowing Edward III to take power. After this, he was a trusted friend and commander of the king and he participated in the renewed wars with Scotland.[1]

    In 1332, he received many new properties: Hinton and Spaine in Berkshire; Great Haseley, Ascott, Deddington, Pyrton and Kirtlington in Oxfordshire; Wincomb in Buckinghamshire; Longbenington in Lincolnshire; Kneesol in Nottinghamshire; Newnsham in Gloucestershire, Wix in Essex, and Bosham in Sussex.

    In 1335, he married Elizabeth de Badlesmere (1313 – 8 June 1356). Her parents Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, and Margaret de Clare had both turned against Edward II the decade before. Elizabeth and William were granted some of the property of Elizabeth's first husband, who had also been Mortimer's son and heir.

    William was created Earl of Northampton in 1337, one of the six earls created by Edward III to renew the ranks of the higher nobility. Since de Bohun was a younger son, and did not have an income suitable to his rank, he was given an annuity until suitable estates could be found.

    In 1349 he became a Knight of the Garter. He served as High Sheriff of Rutland from 1349 until his death in 1360.[2]

    Campaigns in Flanders, Brittany, Scotland, Victor at Sluys & Crecy[edit]
    In 1339 he accompanied the King to Flanders. He served variously in Brittany and in Scotland, and was present at the great English victories at Sluys and was a commander at Crâecy.

    His most stunning feat was commanding an English force to victory against a much bigger French force at the Battle of Morlaix in 1342. Some of the details are in dispute, but it is clear that he made good use of pit traps, which stopped the French cavalry.

    Renowned Diplomat

    In addition to being a warrior, William was also a renowned diplomat. He negotiated two treaties with France, one in 1343 and one in 1350. He was also charged with negotiating in Scotland for the freedom of King David Bruce, King of Scots, who was held prisoner by the English.

    Issue

    1. Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford (1341-1373)

    Mary de Bohun (1368-1394); mother of Henry V of England
    2. Elizabeth de Bohun (c. 1350-1385); married Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel

    Military:
    The Battle of Morlaix was a battle fought in Morlaix on 30 September 1342 between England and France. The English besieged the town, but a French relief force arrived. The English constructed a strong defensive position. After repeated attacks, the French forced the English to retreat into the woods. The French force then withdrew. Notably it was the first use of a tactical withdrawal by the English in medieval warfare.

    Outcome of the battle

    Whatever the details of the fighting, the final result was that 50 French knights were killed and 150 French captured including Geoffrey de Charny and a number of ‘populari’ which seems to indicate that at least some of the infantry were involved in the melee. The English force now made apprehensive by the remaining French forces withdrew into the wood at their back where they were safe from a full blooded cavalry charge. What was left of de Blois’ force then evidently relieved Morlaix and the besieging English, now trapped in the wood, themselves became the object of a siege for several days.

    William married Elizabeth Badlesmere, Countess of Northampton 0___ 1335, Badlesmere Castle, Badlesmere, Kent, England. Elizabeth (daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, Knight, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere) was born 0___ 1313, Badlesmere Manor, Kent, England; died 8 Jun 1356, (Lancashire) England; was buried Black Friars, Blackburn, Lancashire, England. [Group Sheet]


  26. 191.  Elizabeth Badlesmere, Countess of Northampton was born 0___ 1313, Badlesmere Manor, Kent, England (daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, Knight, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere); died 8 Jun 1356, (Lancashire) England; was buried Black Friars, Blackburn, Lancashire, England.

    Notes:

    Elizabeth de Badlesmere, Countess of Northampton (1313 – 8 June 1356) was the wife of two English noblemen, Sir Edmund Mortimer and William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton. She was a co-heiress of her brother Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere.

    At the age of eight she was sent to the Tower of London along with her mother, Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere and her four siblings after the former maltreated Queen consort Isabella by ordering an assault upon her and refusing her admittance to Leeds Castle.

    Family

    Elizabeth was born at Castle Badlesmere, Kent, England in 1313 to Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare. She was the third of four daughters. She had one younger brother, Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere, who married Elizabeth Montagu, but did not have any children.

    Her paternal grandparents were Guncelin de Badlesmere and Joan FitzBernard, and her maternal grandparents were Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond and Juliana FitzGerald of Offaly.

    Elizabeth's father was hanged, drawn and quartered on 14 April 1322 for having participated in the Earl of Lancaster's rebellion against King Edward II of England; and her mother imprisoned in the Tower of London until 3 November 1322. She had been arrested the previous October for ordering an assault upon Queen consort Isabella after refusing her admittance to Leeds Castle, where Baron Badlesmere held the post of Governor.[1] Elizabeth and her siblings were also sent to the Tower along with their mother.[2] She was eight years old at the time and had been married for five years to her first husband; although the marriage had not yet been consummated due to her young age.

    In 1328, Elizabeth's brother Giles obtained a reversal of his father's attainder, and he succeeded to the barony as the 2nd Baron Badlesmere. Elizabeth, along with her three sisters, was a co-heiress of Giles, who had no children by his wife. Upon his death in 1338, the barony fell into abeyance. The Badlesmere estates were divided among the four sisters, and Elizabeth's share included the manors of Drayton in Sussex, Kingston and Erith in Kent, a portion of Finmere in Oxfordshire as well as property in London.[3]

    Marriages and issue

    On 27 June 1316, when she was just three years old, Elizabeth married her first husband Sir Edmund Mortimer (died 16 December 1331)[4] eldest son and heir of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville. The marriage contract was made on 9 May 1316, and the particulars of the arrangement between her father and prospective father-in-law are described in Welsh historian R. R. Davies' Lords and Lordship in the British Isles in the late Middle Ages. Lord Badlesmere paid Roger Mortimer the sum of ¹2000, and in return Mortimer endowed Elizabeth with five rich manors for life and the reversion of other lands.[5] The marriage, which was not consummated until many years afterward, produced two sons:

    Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March (11 November 1328 Ludlow Castle- 26 February 1360), married Philippa Montacute, daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, by whom he had issue, including Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March).
    John Mortimer (died young)
    By the order of King Edward III, Elizabeth's father-in-law, the Earl of Mortimer was hanged in November 1330 for having assumed royal power, along with other crimes. His estates were forfeited to the Crown, therefore Elizabeth's husband did not succeed to the earldom and died a year later. Elizabeth's dower included the estates of Maelienydd and Comot Deuddwr in the Welsh Marches.[6]

    In 1335, just over three years after the death of Edmund Mortimer, Elizabeth married secondly William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (1312–1360), fifth son of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth of Rhuddlan. He was a renowned military commander and diplomat. Their marriage was arranged to end the mutual hostility which had existed between the Bohun and Mortimer families.[7] A papal dispensation was required for their marriage as de Bohun and her first husband, Sir Edmund Mortimer were related in the third and fourth degrees of consanguinity by dint of their common descent from Enguerrand de Fiennes, Seigneur de Fiennes. Elizabeth and de Bohun received some Mortimer estates upon their marriage.[8]

    By her second marriage, Elizabeth had two more children:[9]

    Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford 6th Earl of Essex, 2nd Earl of Northampton (24 March 1342 - 16 January 1373), after 9 September 1359, married Joan Fitzalan, by whom he had two daughters, Eleanor de Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester, and Mary de Bohun, wife of Henry of Bolingbroke (who later reigned as King Henry IV).
    Elizabeth de Bohun (c.1350- 3 April 1385), on 28 September 1359, married Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel, by whom she had seven children including Thomas Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel, Elizabeth FitzAlan, and Joan FitzAlan, Baroness Bergavenny.
    In 1348, the earldom of March was restored to her eldest son Roger who succeeded as the 2nd Earl.

    Death

    Elizabeth de Badlesmere died on 8 June 1356, aged about forty-three years old. She was buried in Black Friars Priory, London. She left a will dated 31 May 1356, requesting burial at the priory. Mention of Elizabeth's burial is found in the records (written in Latin) of Walden Abbey which confirm that she was buried in Black Friars:

    Anno Domini MCCCIxx.obiit Willielmus de Boun, Comes Northamptoniae, cujus corpus sepelitur in paret boreali presbyterii nostri. Et Elizabetha uxor ejus sepelitur Lundoniae in ecclesia fratrum praedictorum ante major altare.[10]

    Children:
    1. Humphrey de Bohun, Knight was born 25 Mar 1341, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; died 16 Jan 1373; was buried Walden Abbey, Essex, England.
    2. 95. Elizabeth de Bohun, Countess of Arundel, Countess of Surrey was born ~ 1350, Derbyshire, England; died 3 Apr 1385, Arundel, West Sussex, England.