Sir Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot

Male 1276 - 1346  (69 years)


Generations:      Standard    |    Vertical    |    Compact    |    Box    |    Text    |    Ahnentafel    |    Media    |   Map

Generation: 1

  1. 1.  Sir Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot was born 18 Oct 1276, Wyke, Cornwall, England (son of Richard Talbot, Lord of Eccleswall and Sarah de Beauchamp); died 13 Feb 1346, Herefordshire, England.

    Notes:

    Gilbert Talbot
    Birthdate: October 18, 1276 (69)
    Birthplace: Wyke, Cornwall, England
    Death: Died February 13, 1346 in Eccleswall, Herefordshire, England
    Immediate Family:
    Son of Richard Talbot, 4th Lord and Sarah Talbot
    Husband of Anne le Boteler
    Father of Joan Talbot; Philippa de Talbot and Sir Richard Talbot, 2nd Lord Talbot, of Goodrich
    Brother of Gwenllian Talbot; Joan Talbot; Sir Richard Talbot, of Richard's Castle; Catherine Talbot and Thomas Talbot, priest
    Occupation: Justice of South Wales
    Managed by: Private User
    Last Updated: October 31, 2014

    About Sir Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot
    Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot1

    M, #203466, b. 18 October 1276, d. 13 February 1346

    Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot was born on 18 October 1276.
    1 He was the son of Sir Richard Talbot and Sarah de Beauchamp.

    3 He died on 13 February 1346 at age 69.

    Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot was created 1st Lord Talbot [England by writ] on 27 January 1331/32.4
    Child of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot

    1.Joan Talbot+1

    Child of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot and Ann le Botiler

    1.Richard Talbot, 2nd Lord Talbot+3 b. 1305, d. 23 Oct 1356

    http://thepeerage.com/p20347.htm#i203466

    Sir Gilbert Talbot1

    M, b. 18 October 1276, d. 24 February 1346, #10943

    Father Richard Talbot2,3 b. circa 1250, d. before 3 September 1306

    Mother Sarah de Beauchamp2 d. after July 1317

    Arms His arms were de goules a un lion rampand de or od la bordur' endente de or (Parl.).3

    Name Variation Sir Gilbert Talbot was also styled Talebot.3

    Birth* He was born on 18 October 1276.1,4,3

    Marriage* He married Anne le Boteler, daughter of Sir William le Boteler of Wem and Ankaret verch Griffith.1,4

    Event-Misc He had livery of his father's lands on 21 October 1306.3

    Event-Misc* He was a commissioner to view St. Briavel's Castle and the vert and venison of Dene Forest on 22 March 1311.5,3

    Note* He was given a pardon for his part in the death of Piers de Gavaston on 16 October 1313.5,3

    Event-Misc He was called to serve against the Scots between 1314 and 1315.5

    Summoned* He was summoned to serve against the Scots on 30 June 1314.3

    Feudal* He held Longhope and Blechesdon, Glou., Credenhill and Linton, Hereford on 5 March 1316.3

    Criminal* He was An order for his arrest was dated. The charges included attacking the King's subjects in Warwicckshire and attacking and burning Bridgnorth. His lands were taken into the King's (Edward II) hands. On 15 January 1321/22.6,3

    (Rebel) Battle-Boroughbridge On 16 Mar 1322, Sir John Gifford, Sir Hugh de Audley, Sir Gilbert Talbot, Sir Bartholomew de Burghersh, Sir Bartholomew de Badlesmere and Sir Humphrey VIII de Bohun fought on the side of the Earl of Lancaster at the Battle of Boroughbridge in Yorkshire He was captured, but allowed to ransom his life and lands for ¹2000.7,3,8

    Event-Misc He was released from prison on 11 July 1322.6

    Event-Misc He was empowered to arrest malefactors in Gloucestershire. On 28 October 1322 at Gloucestershire, England.6

    Event-Misc He was pardoned. On 1 November 1322.6

    Event-Misc He is to arrest disturbers of peace in Glou., Worc., and Here. He is made Custos of Gloucester Caslte, town, and barton under Hugh le Despenser, jun. On 1 November 1322.3

    Event-Misc* He is not to aggrieve Aymer, Earl of Pembroke for fishing in his ponds and taking his goods. On 27 December 1322.3

    Event-Misc He was among the knights to attend the Great Council on 9 May 1324 at Westminster.6,3

    Summoned He was summoned to serve in Guienne on 7 January 1325.3

    Event-Misc* His fines were cancelled by King Edward III on 13 February 1326/27.6,3

    Event-Misc He was styled Banneret on 24 November 1327.6

    Event-Misc He was the king's chamberlain in March 1327/28.6

    Event-Misc He obtained grants for Eccleswall and Credenhill, Hereford, and Longhope in Gloucstershire. In April 1328.6

    Event-Misc He was Justice of South Wales on 23 October 1330.6

    Event-Misc Summoned to Parliament between 27 January 1332 and 20 April 1343.6

    Event-Misc He and Hugh le Despenser were appointed to be captains against the King's enemies. On 13 July 1337.6

    Death* He died on 24 February 1346 at Eccleswall, Herefordshire, England, at age 69.1,5

    Title* He held the title of 1st Lord Talbot.6

    Inquisition Post Mor* At the inquisition post mortem of Sir Gilbert Talbot, on 1 March 1346, leaving s. h. Richard.3

    Family Anne le Boteler

    Marriage* He married Anne le Boteler, daughter of Sir William le Boteler of Wem and Ankaret verch Griffith.1,4

    Children

    Philippa Talbot

    Sir Richard Talbot M.P. b. c 1305, d. 23 Oct 1356

    Last Edited 5 Feb 2005

    Citations

    [S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 84A-30.

    [S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 84A-29.

    [S325] Rev. C. Moor, Knights of Edward I, v. 5, p. 3.

    [S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 242.

    [S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 246.

    [S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 243.

    [S325] Rev. C. Moor, Knights of Edward I, v. 2, p. 114.

    [S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 31.

    Chamberlain to Edward III. Summoned to parliament by writ directed 'Gilberto Talbot' whereby he is held to have become Baron Talbot 27 Jan 1331/2

    end

    Gilbert [Talbot], 1st Baron Talbot
    son and heir of Richard Talbot, feudal Lord of Eccleswall, co. Hereford, by his wife Sarah de Beauchamp, sister of William [de Beauchamp], 9th Earl of Warwick, and dau. of William de Beauchamp, of Elmley, co. Worcester, by his wife Isabel Mauduit, sister and hrss. of William [Mauduit], 8th Earl of Warwick, and dau. of William Mauduit, of Hanslope, co. Buckingham, by his wife Lady Alice de Beaumont, only dau. by his second wife of Waleran [de Beaumont], 4th Earl of Warwick
    born
    18 Oct 1276
    mar.
    Anne le Botiler, dau. of William le Botiler, of Wem, co. Shrewsbury
    children
    1. Sir Richard Talbot, later 2nd Baron Talbot
    died
    24 Feb 1345/6
    created
    by writ 27 Jan 1331/2 Baron Talbot
    suc. by
    son

    end

    Died:
    in Eccleswall Manor...

    Gilbert — Anne le Boteler. Anne (daughter of William le Boteler and Ankaret verch Griffith) was born ~ 1278, (Wemme) Shropshire, England; died 0___ 1340, Linton, Herefordshire, England. [Group Sheet]

    Children:
    1. Joanna Talbot
    2. Richard Talbot, 2nd Baron Talbot was born 1302-1305, Wyke, Axminster, Devon, England; died 23 Oct 1356.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  Richard Talbot, Lord of Eccleswall was born ~ 1250, Linton Manor, Bromyard, Herefordshire, England (son of Gilbert Talbot and Gwenllian ferch Rhys); died Bef 3 Sep 1306, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Richard de Talbot

    Notes:

    Baron Talbot is a title that has been created twice. The title was created first in the Peerage of England. On 5 June 1331, Sir Gilbert Talbot was summoned to Parliament, by which he was held to have become Baron Talbot.

    The title Lord Talbot, Baron of Hensol, in the County of Glamorgan, was created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1733 for Charles Talbot, a descendant of the John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury (the 8th Baron of the first creation), the Earl Talbot.

    Barons Talbot (1331)

    Gilbert Talbot (1276–1346), Lord Chamberlain of the Household to King Edward III, was summoned to Parliament as Lord Talbot in 1331, which is accepted as evidence of his baronial status at that date.

    Ancestry

    He was descended from Richard Talbot, a tenant in 1086 of Walter Giffard at Woburn and Battledsen in Bedfordshire. The Talbot family were vassals of the Giffards in Normandy.[4] Hugh Talbot, probably his son, made a grant to Beaubec Abbey, confirmed by his son Richard Talbot in 1153. This Richard (d. 1175) is listed in 1166 as holding three fees of the Honour of Giffard in Buckinghamshire. He also held a fee at Linton in Herefordshire, for which his son Gilbert Talbot (d. 1231) obtained a fresh charter in 1190.[5] Gilbert's grandson Gilbert (d. 1274) married Gwenlynn Mechyll, daughter and sole heiress of the Welsh Prince Rhys Mechyll, whose armorials the Talbots thenceforth assumed in lieu of their own former arms. Their son Sir Richard Talbot, who signed and sealed[6] the Barons' Letter, 1301 held the manor of Eccleswall in Herefordshire in right of his wife Sarah, sister of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. In 1331 Richard's son Gilbert Talbot (1276–1346) was summoned to Parliament, which is considered evidence of his baronial status.[7]

    Succession

    The first baron's grandson, the 3rd Baron Talbot, died in Spain supporting John of Gaunt's claim to the throne of Castile. Richard, the fourth Baron, married Ankaret, 7th Baroness Strange of Blackmere, daughter and heiress of John le Strange, 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere. In 1387, during his father's lifetime, Richard 4th Baron was summoned to Parliament as Ricardo Talbot de Blackmere in right of his wife. His son [Gilbert], the fifth Baron, also succeeded his mother as eighth Baron Strange of Blackmere.

    On the early death of the 5th Baron, the titles passed to his daughter, Ankaret, the sixth and ninth holder of the titles. However, she died a minor and was succeeded by her uncle, John seventh Baron Talbot. John married Maud Nevill, 6th Baroness Furnivall, and, in 1409, he was summoned to Parliament in right of his wife as Johann Talbot de Furnyvall. In 1442 John was created Earl of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England and in 1446 Earl of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland.

    Barons Talbot (1733)

    The title was created in 1733 when Charles Talbot was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain as Lord Talbot, Baron of Hensol, in the County of Glamorgan. He was eldest the son of William Talbot, Bishop of Oxford, of Salisbury and of Durham and a descendant of Sir Gilbert Talbot (died 1518), third son of John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury.

    The title fell into abeyance between the three daughters of Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury until the deaths of two of them without issue.

    List of titleholders

    Barons Talbot (1331)
    Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot (1276–1346)
    Richard Talbot, 2nd Baron Talbot (c.1305–1356)
    Gilbert Talbot, 3rd Baron Talbot (c.1332–1387)
    Richard Talbot, 4th Baron Talbot (c.1361–1396)
    Gilbert Talbot, 5th Baron Talbot, 8th Baron Strange of Blackmere (c.1383–1419)
    Ankaret Talbot, 6th Baroness Talbot, 9th Baroness Strange of Blackmere (d. 1421)
    John Talbot, 7th Baron Talbot, 10th Baron Strange of Blackmere (1390–1453) (created Earl of Shrewsbury in 1442)
    John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury, 8th Baron Talbot (1413–1460)
    John Talbot, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, 9th Baron Talbot (1448–1473)
    George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, 10th Baron Talbot (1468–1538)
    Francis Talbot, 5th Earl of Shrewsbury, 11th Baron Talbot (1500–1560)
    George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, 12th Baron Talbot (1528–1590)
    Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury, 13th Baron Talbot (1552–1616)
    abeyant 1616-1651
    Alethea Howard, Countess of Arundel, 13th Baroness Furnivall and 14th Baroness Talbot (d. 1654)
    Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk, 15th Baron Talbot (1627–1677)
    Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk, 16th Baron Talbot (1628–1684)
    Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk, 17th Baron Talbot (1655–1701)
    Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk, 18th Baron Talbot (1683–1732)
    Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk, 19th Baron Talbot (1685–1777)
    abeyant since 1777

    end

    Died:
    at Eccleswall Manor...

    Richard married Sarah de Beauchamp Aft 1268. Sarah (daughter of Walter de Beauchamp and Joan Mortimer) was born 0___ 1255, Elmley Castle, Worcester, England; died Aft 1316. [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Sarah de Beauchamp was born 0___ 1255, Elmley Castle, Worcester, England (daughter of Walter de Beauchamp and Joan Mortimer); died Aft 1316.
    Children:
    1. 1. Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot was born 18 Oct 1276, Wyke, Cornwall, England; died 13 Feb 1346, Herefordshire, England.


Generation: 3

  1. 4.  Gilbert Talbot was born ~ 1222 (son of Richard de Talbot and Aliva Basset); died 8 Sep 1274; was buried Womersley Priory, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Gilbert de Talbot

    Notes:

    grandfather of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot (died 1345/6),[3] to whom passed the ancient armorials of the House of Dinefwr, assumed as arms of alliance to a great princess in place of his own paternal arms.

    Gilbert — Gwenllian ferch Rhys. [Group Sheet]


  2. 5.  Gwenllian ferch Rhys (daughter of Rhys Mechyll and Matilda de Braose).

    Notes:

    Married:
    (dau. and heir of Rhys Mechyll, lord of Dynevor, son and heir of Rhys Grig, son of Rhys ap Griffith, Prince of Wales)

    Children:
    1. 2. Richard Talbot, Lord of Eccleswall was born ~ 1250, Linton Manor, Bromyard, Herefordshire, England; died Bef 3 Sep 1306, Herefordshire, England.

  3. 6.  Walter de Beauchamp was born 1195-1197, Worcestershire, England; died 0___ 1236.

    Notes:

    Walter de Beauchamp (1195/97–1236) was an English judge, son and heir of William de Beauchamp and Amice de Beauchamp, lord of Elmley, Worcester, and hereditary castellan of Worcester and sheriff of the county.

    A minor at his father's death, he did not obtain his shrievalty till February 1216. Declaring for Louis of France on his arrival (May 1216), he was excommunicated by the legate at Whitsuntide, and his lands seized by the Marchers. But hastening to make his peace, on the accession of Henry, he was one of the witnesses to his reissue of the charter, and was restored to his shrievalty and castellanship.

    He also Attested Henry's 'Third Charter,' on 11 February 1225. In May 1226 and in January 1227 he was appointed an itinerant justice, and 14 April 1236 he died, leaving by his wife Joane Mortimer, daughter of his guardian, Roger de Mortimer, whom he had married in 1212, and who died in 1225, a son and heir, William, who married the eventual heiress of the earls of Warwick, and was grandfather of Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick.

    *

    Walter married Joan Mortimer 0May 1212. Joan (daughter of Roger de Mortimer and Isabel de Ferrers) was born (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England); died 0___ 1225. [Group Sheet]


  4. 7.  Joan Mortimer was born (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England) (daughter of Roger de Mortimer and Isabel de Ferrers); died 0___ 1225.
    Children:
    1. William de Beauchamp was born ~ 1215, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England; died 0___ 1268, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England.
    2. 3. Sarah de Beauchamp was born 0___ 1255, Elmley Castle, Worcester, England; died Aft 1316.


Generation: 4

  1. 8.  Richard de Talbot

    Richard — Aliva Basset. [Group Sheet]


  2. 9.  Aliva Basset
    Children:
    1. 4. Gilbert Talbot was born ~ 1222; died 8 Sep 1274; was buried Womersley Priory, Herefordshire, England.

  3. 10.  Rhys MechyllRhys Mechyll was born (Wales) (son of Rhys Gryg, Prince of Deheubarth and Mathilde de Clare); died 0___ 1244.

    Notes:

    Rhys Mechyll (died 1244) was a Welsh prince of the House of Dinefwr, ruler of part of the kingdom of Deheubarth in southern Wales from 1234 to 1244. He was a son of Rhys Gryg (died 1234) ("Rhys the Hoarse"), son of Rhys ap Gruffydd (1132–1197),[1] "The Lord Rhys", ruler of the kingdom of Deheubarth.

    Marriage

    He married Matilda de Braose (died 1248) who betrayed the dynasty's chief castle of Carreg Cennen to the Anglo-Normans in 1248, against the interests of her son Rhys. A Welsh chronicle, the Brut y Tywysogyon, records under the year 1248: "Rhys Fychan ap Rhys Mechyll regained the castle of Carreg Cennen, which his mother had treacherously placed in the power of the French, out of enmity for her son."[2]

    Progeny

    He had a son Rhys Fychan (i.e. "The Younger") ap Rhys Mechyll,[1] and a daughter Gwenllian, his eventual heiress who married Gilbert Talbot (died 1274), grandfather of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot (died 1345/6),[3] to whom passed the ancient armorials of the House of Dinefwr, assumed as arms of alliance to a great princess in place of his own paternal arms.[4]

    Notes

    Walker, David. Medieval Wales, Cambridge University Press, 1990, p. 98. ISBN 978-0-521-31153-3

    end of biography

    Birth:
    Deheubarth (Welsh pronunciation: [d?'h??bar?]; lit. "Right-hand Part", thus "the South")[4] was a regional name for the realms of south Wales, particularly as opposed to Gwynedd (Latin: Venedotia). It is now used as a shorthand for the various realms united under the House of Dinefwr, but that Deheubarth itself was not considered a proper kingdom on the model of Gwynedd, Powys, or Dyfed[5] is shown by its rendering in Latin as dextralis pars or as Britonnes dexterales ("the Southern Britons") and not as a named land.[6] In the oldest British writers, Deheubarth was used for all of modern Wales to distinguish it from Y Gogledd or Hen Ogledd, the northern lands whence Cunedda and the Cymry originated.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deheubarth

    Rhys — Matilda de Braose. Matilda (daughter of Reginald de Braose, Knight and Grace Brewer) was born ~ 1172, Carmarthenshire, Wales. [Group Sheet]


  4. 11.  Matilda de Braose was born ~ 1172, Carmarthenshire, Wales (daughter of Reginald de Braose, Knight and Grace Brewer).
    Children:
    1. Rhys Fychan ap Rhys Mechyll
    2. 5. Gwenllian ferch Rhys

  5. 14.  Roger de Mortimer was born Bef 1153 (son of Hugh de Mortimer and Matilda Le Meschin); died Bef 1215.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Wales
    • Also Known As: Roger Mortimer of Wigmore

    Notes:

    Roger de Mortimer (before 1153-before 8 July 1214) was a medieval marcher lord, residing at Wigmore Castle in the English county of Herefordshire. He was the son of Hugh de Mortimer (d. 26 February 1181) and Matilda Le Meschin.

    Early life

    Roger would appear to have been of age in 1174 when he fought for King Henry II against the rebellion of his son, Henry. In 1179 Roger was instrumental in the killing of Cadwallon ap Madog, the prince of Maelienydd and Elfael, both of which Mortimer coveted. He was imprisoned until June 1182 at Winchester for this killing.

    Children

    He had married Isabel (d. before 29 April 1252), the daughter of Walchelin de Ferriers of Oakham Castle in Rutland before 1196. With Isabel, Roger had three sons and a daughter:

    Hugh de Mortimer (d.1227) - married Annora (Eleanor) de Braose, daughter of William de Braose and his wife Maud.[1]
    Ralph de Mortimer (d.1246).
    Philip Mortimer
    Joan Mortimer (d.1225) - married May 1212 to Walter de Beauchamp[2]
    He is often wrongly stated to have been the father of Robert Mortimer of Richards Castle (died 1219) - married Margary de Say,[3] daughter of Hugh de Say. But this Robert was born before 1155 and therefore could not have been a son of Roger.

    Lord of Maelienydd

    In 1195 Roger, with the backing of troops sent by King Richard I invaded Maelienydd and rebuilt Cymaron Castle. In 1196 he joined forces with Hugh de Say of Richards Castle and fought and lost the battle of New Radnor against Rhys ap Gruffydd, allegedly losing some forty knights and an innumerable number of foot in the fight. By 1200 he had conquered Maelienydd and issued a new charter of rights to Cwmhir Abbey. In the summer of 1214 he became gravely ill and bought the right for his son to inherit his lands while he still lived from King John. He died before 8 July 1214.

    *

    Roger — Isabel de Ferrers. Isabel (daughter of Walchelin de Ferriers and unnamed spouse) was born Oakham Castle, Rutland, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 15.  Isabel de Ferrers was born Oakham Castle, Rutland, England (daughter of Walchelin de Ferriers and unnamed spouse).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isabel de Ferriers

    Children:
    1. Ralph de Mortimer, Knight was born Bef 1198, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died Bef 6 Aug 1246.
    2. Hugh de Mortimer was born (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England); died 0___ 1227.
    3. Philip Mortimer was born (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England).
    4. 7. Joan Mortimer was born (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England); died 0___ 1225.


Generation: 5

  1. 20.  Rhys Gryg, Prince of Deheubarth was born 1150, (Wales) (son of Rhys ap Gruffydd, Prince of Deheubarth and Gwenllian ferch Madog); died 0___ 1233; was buried St. David's Cathedral, Pembrokeshire, Wales.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Lord of Dynevor
    • Also Known As: Rhys ap Gruffydd
    • Also Known As: Rhys ap Rhys
    • Also Known As: Rhys Fychan
    • Also Known As: Rhys the Hoarse

    Notes:

    Rhys Gryg (English "Rhys the Hoarse") (died 1234), real name Rhys ap Rhys, also known as Rhys Fychan ("The Younger") was a Welsh prince who ruled part of the Kingdom of Deheubarth.

    Lineage

    Rhys was the fourth son of Rhys ap Gruffydd (The Lord Rhys) and his wife Gwenllian, daughter of Madog ap Maredudd of Powys.[1]

    Family feud

    He married Mathilde, the daughter of Richard de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford.

    In Rhys ap Gruffydd's old age he had a great deal of trouble keeping control of his sons, and a bitter feud broke out between Gruffydd ap Rhys II and Maelgwn ap Rhys. Rhys Gryg formed an alliance with Gruffydd against Maelgwn, then in 1195 joined with another brother, Maredudd, in a conspiracy against their father and captured Dinefwr Castle. Their father however retaliated by capturing both of them and imprisoning them in Ystrad Meurig Castle.

    Power play

    Rhys Gryg reappears in 1204. Rhys ap Gruffydd had died in 1197 and Rhys Gryg's ally Gruffydd in 1201 and Maelgwn had taken possession of most of Deheubarth. In 1204 Rhys made an alliance with Gruffydd's sons, Rhys and Owain, and drove Maelgwn out of Ystrad Tywi which was then shared between them, with Rhys Gryg getting the Cantref Mawr. By 1211 Rhys had fallen out with his nephews, who were supporters of Llywelyn the Great and intervened on behalf of King John of England, attacking and capturing Llandovery from them with the help of English Royal troops. After John has forced Llywelyn to give up all his conquests outside the core area of Gwynedd, Rhys joined with Maelgwn to eject his nephews from the remainder of their lands. However, when King John built a castle at Aberystwyth, Rhys and Maelgwn changed sides, attacked the castle and burnt it. In 1212 Rhys attacked and burnt Swansea.

    Defeat, flight and capture

    The sons of Gruffydd ap Rhys, Rhys and Owain, had now made their peace with King John and gone over to the English Royal side. In 1213 and English army led by Falkes of Breautâe was sent to strip Rhys Gryg of his lands and give them to his nephews. Rhys was defeated in a battle at Llandeilo and was forced to flee to Ceredigion to seek the protection of his brother Maelgwn. Later in the year he was captured by the English and imprisoned at Carmarthen.

    Release and revolt

    In 1215 however, the sons of Gruffydd ap Rhys turned against the King and made an alliance with their uncle Maelgwn. The English released Rhys Gryg in the hope that he would start a civil war but instead Rhys joined forces with Llywelyn the Great, and he, along with Maelgwn and the sons of Gruffydd ap Rhys were with Llywelyn in the attack which captured many castles in South Wales in December of that year. At the parliament held by Llywelyn at Aberdovey in 1216, Rhys Gryg was allocated Cantref Mawr and Cantref Bychan and other lands.

    Death

    Rhys supported Llywelyn during the remainder of his career. In the war of 1231 he joined with his brother Maelgwn's son, Maelgwn the Younger, to burn Cardigan and then capture the castle for Llywelyn. In 1234 he joined with Maelgwn Fychan again to attack Carmarthen, but received wounds of which he died at Llandeilo Fawr shortly afterwards.

    Burial and succession

    He was buried in St. David's Cathedral and was succeeded by his son Maredudd. He left another son known as Rhys Mechyll (d.1244), who had a son named Rhys Fychan ap Rhys Mechyll and a daughter named Gwenllian Mechyll, who eventually became his heiress and married Gilbert Talbot (d.1274), grandfather of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot (d.1345/6).[2][3] The ancient arms of the House of Dinefwr Gules, a lion rampant or within a bordure or were inherited and assumed in lieu of the Talbot paternal arms as "arms of alliance" on marriage to a great princess.[4]

    Bibliography

    John Edward Lloyd (1911) A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest (Longmans, Green & Co.)
    Rhys Gryg in Dictionary of Welsh Biography

    end of biography

    Rhys Gryg (died 1233) married a daughter of the Earl of Clare.[65] Rhys eventually became the main power in Deheubarth, but never ruled more than a portion of his father's realm and was a client prince of Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd.

    end of note

    Birth:
    Deheubarth (Welsh pronunciation: [d?'h??bar?]; lit. "Right-hand Part", thus "the South")[4] was a regional name for the realms of south Wales, particularly as opposed to Gwynedd (Latin: Venedotia). It is now used as a shorthand for the various realms united under the House of Dinefwr, but that Deheubarth itself was not considered a proper kingdom on the model of Gwynedd, Powys, or Dyfed[5] is shown by its rendering in Latin as dextralis pars or as Britonnes dexterales ("the Southern Britons") and not as a named land.[6] In the oldest British writers, Deheubarth was used for all of modern Wales to distinguish it from Y Gogledd or Hen Ogledd, the northern lands whence Cunedda and the Cymry originated.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deheubarth

    Rhys — Mathilde de Clare. Mathilde (daughter of Richard de Clare, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hertford and Amice FitzWilliam, 4th Countess of Gloucester) was born (Hertford, Hertfordshire, England). [Group Sheet]


  2. 21.  Mathilde de Clare was born (Hertford, Hertfordshire, England) (daughter of Richard de Clare, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hertford and Amice FitzWilliam, 4th Countess of Gloucester).
    Children:
    1. Maredudd ap Rhys Gryg was born ( Wales).
    2. 10. Rhys Mechyll was born (Wales); died 0___ 1244.

  3. 22.  Reginald de Braose, KnightReginald de Braose, Knight was born 0___ 1162, (Bramber, West Sussex, England) (son of William de Braose, Knight, 3rd Lord of Bramber and Bertha of Hereford); died BY 1228; was buried Saint John's, Brecon, Wales.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Lord of Brecon, Abergavenny, Builth

    Notes:

    Died: by 1228

    Reginald is said to be buried at St. John's, Brecon (right).

    Reginald supported Giles in his rebellions against King John. They were both active against the King in the barons' war. Neither was present at the signing of Magna Carta because they were still rebels who refused to compromise. King John aquiesced to Reginald's claims to the de Braose estates in Wales in May 1216.

    He became Lord of Brecon, Abergavenny, Builth and other Marcher lordships but was very much a vassal of Llywelyn Fawr, Prince of Gwynedd and now his father-in-law.

    Henry III restored Reginald to favour and the Bramber estates (confiscated from William by King John) in 1217.

    At this seeming betrayal, Rhys and Owain, Reginald's nephews who were princes of Deheubarth, were incensed and they took Builth (except the castle). Llewelyn Fawr also became angry and besieged Brecon. Reginald eventually surrendered to Llewelyn and gave up Seinhenydd (Swansea).

    By 1221 they were at war again with Llewelyn laying siege to Builth. The seige was relieved by Henry III's forces. From this time on Llewelyn tended to support the claims of Reginald's nephew John concerning the de Braose lands.

    sealReginald was a witness to the re-issue of Magna Carta by Henry III in 1225.

    Father: William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber

    Mother: Maud de St. Valery

    Married (1) to Grace, daughter of William Brewer

    Child 1: William de Braose, Lord of Abergavenny

    Child 2 ? Matilda = Rhys Mechyll (of Deheubarth)

    Married (2) to Gwladus Ddu (1215)

    end of biography

    Reginald married Grace Brewer 19 Mar 1202, Bramber, Sussex, England. Grace (daughter of William Brewer and unnamed spouse) was born 0___ 1186, Eu, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France; died 0___ 1226. [Group Sheet]


  4. 23.  Grace Brewer was born 0___ 1186, Eu, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France (daughter of William Brewer and unnamed spouse); died 0___ 1226.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Grecian Alice De BRIWERE

    Children:
    1. William de Braose, Lord of Brycheiniog was born 0___ 1197, Brecon, Wales; died 2 May 1230, Wales; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.
    2. 11. Matilda de Braose was born ~ 1172, Carmarthenshire, Wales.

  5. 28.  Hugh de Mortimer died 26 Feb 1181.

    Hugh — Matilda Le Meschin. [Group Sheet]


  6. 29.  Matilda Le Meschin
    Children:
    1. 14. Roger de Mortimer was born Bef 1153; died Bef 1215.

  7. 30.  Walchelin de Ferriers died 0___ 1201.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Walchelin de Ferrers

    Notes:

    Walchelin de Ferrieres (or Walkelin de Ferrers) (died 1201) was a Norman baron and principal captain of King Richard I of England.

    The Ferriers family hailed from the southern marches of Normandy and had previously protected the duchy from the hostility of the counts of Maine and Anjou. With the union of the domains of Anjou and Normandy in 1144, and the investment of Geoffrey V Plantagenet as duke of Normandy, most of this land lost its strategic importance.

    Walchelin was the son of Henry de Ferrieres, a nephew of Robert de Ferrers, 1st Earl of Derby. His father Henry was son of either Enguenulf or William. Like his father, Walchelin held the castles of Ferriáeres-Saint-Hilaire and Chambray for the service of 5 knights. He had 42 and 3/4 in his service, enfeoffed in his lands. In England, Walchelin held the manors of Oakham in Rutland and Lechlade in Gloucestershire. He is known to have held this land since at least 1172.

    During the Third Crusade, he and his son and heir, Henry, served in the force of Richard I of England. A John de Ferrieres, believed to be a nephew, was also present. Walchelin had stayed with the King in Sicily. It is apparent that Walchelin was close in the counsel of the king. He and his knights arrived at Saint-Jean d'Acre sometime in April or June 1191. Some months previously, his second cousin, William de Ferrers, 3rd Earl of Derby had been killed at the siege.

    After the conclusion of the siege, Richard of England and Hugh III of Burgundy marched their forces south to the city of Jaffa. Along the road, several skirmishes broke out between the marching crusaders and the Saracen army marching parallel under Saladin. On 7 September 1191, the great battle of Arsuf was fought. Richard had made Walchelin a commander of one of the elite bodies of knights according to the chronicle attributed to Geoffrey de Vinsauf.

    Later, in 1194, Richard was imprisoned in Germany. Walchelin brought the treasure of Normandy to Speyer and gave himself as a hostage (along with many others) to the Western Emperor Henry VI. He was freed from captivity around 1197. His sons Henry and Hugh managed his estates during the years he spent in prison. Sometime prior to his death, the younger son, Hugh was granted lordship of the manor of Lechlade.

    Walchelin died in 1201 and was succeeded by his son, Henry. Henry sided with John of England over King Philip II of France until December 1203 when John left Normandy, never to return. At this point, Henry did Philip homage for his Norman lands. Hugh had left England and the care of Lechlade and Oakham went to their sister, Isabella, who was married to Roger de Mortimer of Wigmore. After her death, the land was escheated to the crown as Terra Normanorum.

    Walchelin — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  8. 31.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 15. Isabel de Ferrers was born Oakham Castle, Rutland, England.


Generation: 6

  1. 40.  Rhys ap Gruffydd, Prince of Deheubarth was born ~ 1132, Wales (son of Gruffydd ap Rhys, King of Deheubarth and Gwenllian verch Gruffudd ap Cynan); died 28 Apr 1197; was buried St. David's Cathedral, Pembrokeshire, Wales.

    Notes:

    Rhys ap Gruffydd or ap Gruffudd (often anglicised to "Griffith") (1132 – 28 April 1197) was the ruler of the kingdom of Deheubarth in south Wales from 1155 to 1197. Today, he is commonly known as The Lord Rhys, in Welsh Yr Arglwydd Rhys, although this title may have not been used in his lifetime.[2] He usually used the title "Proprietary Prince of Deheubarth" or "Prince of South Wales", but two documents have been discovered in which he uses the title "Prince of Wales" or "Prince of the Welsh".[3] Rhys was one of the most successful and powerful Welsh princes, and, after the death of Owain Gwynedd of Gwynedd in 1170, the dominant power in Wales.

    Rhys's grandfather, Rhys ap Tewdwr, was king of Deheubarth, and was killed at Brecon in 1093 by Bernard de Neufmarchâe. Following his death, most of Deheubarth was taken over by the Normans. Rhys's father, Gruffydd ap Rhys, eventually was able to become ruler of a small portion, and more territory was won back by Rhys's older brothers after Gruffydd's death. Rhys became ruler of Deheubarth in 1155. He was forced to submit to King Henry II of England in 1158. Henry invaded Deheubarth in 1163, stripped Rhys of all his lands and took him prisoner. A few weeks later he was released and given back a small part of his holdings. Rhys made an alliance with Owain Gwynedd and, after the failure of another invasion of Wales by Henry in 1165, was able to win back most of his lands.

    In 1171 Rhys made peace with King Henry and was confirmed in possession of his recent conquests as well as being named Justiciar of South Wales. He maintained good relations with King Henry until the latter's death in 1189. Following Henry's death Rhys revolted against Richard I and attacked the Norman lordships surrounding his territory, capturing a number of castles. In his later years Rhys had trouble keeping control of his sons, particularly Maelgwn and Gruffydd, who maintained a feud with each other. Rhys launched his last campaign against the Normans in 1196 and captured a number of castles. The following year he died unexpectedly and was buried in St David's Cathedral.


    Genealogy and early life

    Rhys was the second son of Gruffydd ap Rhys, ruler of part of Deheubarth, by his second wife Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd, daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd. His elder brother was Maredudd ap Gruffydd, and there were two younger brothers, Morgan and Maelgwn. He also had two older half-brothers, Anarawd and Cadell, from his father's first marriage.[4] Rhys married Gwenllian ferch Madog, daughter of Madog ap Maredudd, the last Prince of all Powys.[5]


    Deheubarth was one of the traditional kingdoms of Wales, shown here as they were in 1093 when Rhys ap Tewdwr died.
    His grandfather, Rhys ap Tewdwr, had been king of all Deheubarth until his death in 1093. Rhys ap Tewdwr was killed in Brycheiniog, and most of his kingdom was taken over by Norman lords. Gruffydd ap Rhys was forced to flee to Ireland.[6] He later returned to Deheubarth and ruled a portion of the kingdom, but was forced to flee to Ireland again in 1127. When Rhys was born in 1132, his father held only the commote of Caeo in Cantref Mawr.[7]

    The death of King Henry I of England and the ensuing rivalry between Stephen and Matilda gave the Welsh the opportunity to rise against the Normans. A revolt spread through south Wales in 1136, and Gruffydd ap Rhys, aided by his two eldest sons, Anarawd and Cadell, defeated the Normans in a battle near Loughor, killing over five hundred. After driving Walter de Clifford out of Cantref Bychan, Gruffydd set off to Gwynedd to enlist the help of his father-in-law, Gruffudd ap Cynan.[8] In the absence of her husband, Gwenllian led an army against the Norman lordship of Cydweli (Kidwelly), taking along her two youngest sons, Morgan and Maelgwn. She was defeated and killed by an army commanded by Maurice de Londres of Oystermouth Castle. Morgan was also killed and Maelgwn captured.[9]

    Gruffydd formed an alliance with Gwynedd, and later in 1136 the sons of Gruffudd ap Cynan, Owain Gwynedd and Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd, led an army to Ceredigion. Their combined forces won a decisive victory over the Normans at the Battle of Crug Mawr. Ceredigion was reclaimed from the Normans, but was annexed by Gwynedd as the senior partner in the alliance. Gruffydd ap Rhys continued his campaign against the Normans in 1137, but died later that year. The leadership of the family now passed to Rhys's half-brother Anarawd ap Gruffydd. In 1143, when Rhys was eleven, Anarawd was murdered by the bodyguard of Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd, brother of Owain Gwynedd, king of Gwynedd. Owain punished Cadwaladr by depriving him of his lands in Ceredigion.[10]

    First battles (1146–1155)

    Rhys gained his first recorded military experience at the age of fourteen when he participated in the storming of Llansteffan Castle in 1146.
    Anarawd's brother, Cadell ap Gruffydd, took over as head of the family. Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, rebuilt Carmarthen castle in 1145 then began a campaign to reclaim Ceredigion. He built a castle in the commote of Mabudryd, but Cadell, aided by Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd who held Ceredigion for Gwynedd, destroyed it in 1146. Rhys appears in the annals for the first time in 1146, fighting alongside his brothers Cadell and Maredudd in the capture by assault of Llansteffan Castle.[11] This was followed by the capture of Wiston in 1147, Carmarthen in 1150 and Loughor in 1151. In 1151 Cadell was attacked while out hunting by a group of Norman and Flemish knights from Tenby, and left for dead. He survived, but suffered injuries which left him unable to play an active role, and in 1153 he left on a pilgrimage to Rome.[12]

    Maredudd became ruler of Deheubarth and continued a campaign, begun in 1150, aimed at recovering Ceredigion, which had been held by Gwynedd since 1136. Maredudd and Rhys were able to drive Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd from Ceredigion by 1153. The same year Rhys is recorded as an independent commander for the first time, leading an army to capture the Norman castle of St Clears.[13] Maredudd and Rhys also destroyed the castles at Tenby and Aberafan that year. Maredudd died in 1155 at the age of twenty-five and left Rhys as ruler of Deheubarth. Around this time he married Gwenllian ferch Madog, daughter of Madog ap Maredudd, prince of Powys.[14]

    Early reign

    Loss of territory (1155–1163)

    Shortly after becoming ruler of Deheubarth, Rhys heard rumours that Owain Gwynedd was planning to invade Ceredigion in order to reclaim it for Gwynedd. Rhys responded by building a castle at Aberdyfi in 1156.[15] The threatened invasion did not take place, and Turvey claims that Owain's intention may have been to test the resolve of the new ruler.[16]

    King Stephen had died in October 1154, bringing to an end the long dispute with the Empress Matilda which had helped Anarawd, Cadell and Maredudd to extend their rule in Deheubarth. With disunity within the realm no longer a problem, the new king of England, Henry II, soon turned his attention to Wales. He began with an invasion of Gwynedd in 1157. This invasion was not entirely successful, but Owain Gwynedd was induced to seek terms and to give up some territory in the north-east of Wales.[17]


    In 1158 King Henry stripped Rhys of all his territories apart from Cantref Mawr; the areas in Deheubarth held by various Norman lords are shown in grey.
    The following year, Henry prepared an invasion of Deheubarth. Rhys made plans to resist, but was persuaded by his council to meet the king to discuss peace terms. The terms were much harsher than those offered to Owain: Rhys was stripped of all his possessions apart from Cantref Mawr, though he was promised one other cantref. The other territories were returned to their Norman lords.[18]

    Among the Normans who returned to their holdings was Walter de Clifford, who reclaimed Cantref Bychan, then invaded Rhys's lands in Cantref Mawr. An appeal to the king produced no response, and Rhys resorted to arms, first capturing Clifford's castle at Llandovery then seizing Ceredigion. King Henry responded by preparing another invasion, and Rhys submitted without resistance. He was obliged to give hostages, probably including his son Hywel.[19]

    The king was absent in France in 1159, and Rhys took the opportunity to attack Dyfed and then to lay siege to Carmarthen, which was saved by a relief force led by Earl Reginald of Cornwall. Rhys retreated to Cantref Mawr, where an army led by five earls, the Earls of Cornwall, Gloucester, Hertford, Pembroke and Salisbury, marched against him. The earls were assisted by Cadwaladr, brother of Owain Gwynedd, and Owain's sons, Hywel and Cynan. However they were forced to withdraw and a truce was arranged.[20] In 1162, Rhys again attempted to recover some of his lost lands, and captured Llandovery castle. The following year Henry II returned to England after an absence of four years and prepared for another invasion of Deheubarth. Rhys met the king to discuss terms and was obliged to give more hostages, including another son, Maredudd. He was then seized and taken to England as a prisoner.[21] Henry appears to have been uncertain what to do with Rhys, but after a few weeks decided to free him and allow him to rule Cantref Mawr. Rhys was summoned to appear before Henry at Woodstock to do homage together with Owain Gwynedd and Malcolm IV of Scotland.[22]

    Welsh uprising (1164–1170)

    In 1164 all the Welsh princes united in an uprising. Warren suggests that when Rhys and Owain were obliged to do homage to Henry in 1163 they were forced to accept a status of dependent vassalage instead of their previous client status, and that this led to the revolt.[23] Rhys had other reasons for rebellion, for he had returned to Deheubarth from England to find that the neighbouring Norman lords were threatening Cantref Mawr. His nephew, Einion ab Anarawd, who was the captain of his bodyguard, had been murdered at the instigation of Roger de Clare, Earl of Hertford. The murderer had been given the protection of the Clares in Ceredigion.[24] Rhys first appealed to the king to intercede; when this failed, he invaded Ceredigion and recaptured all of it apart from the town and castle of Cardigan. The Welsh revolt led to another invasion of Wales by King Henry in 1165. Henry attacked Gwynedd first, but instead of following the usual invasion route along the north coast he attacked from the south, following a route over the Berwyn hills. He was met by the united forces of the Welsh princes, led by Owain Gwynedd and including Rhys. According to Brut y Tywysogion:


    The arms attributed to Rhys ap Gruffydd are those of the princes of Deheubarth and feature a lion rampant.[25]
    ... [King Henry] gathered an innumerable host of the selected warriors of England and Normandy and Flanders and Gascony and Anjou ... and against him came Owain and Cadwaladr the sons of Gruffydd with all the host of Gwynedd, and Rhys ap Gruffydd with all the host of Deheubarth and Iorwerth the Red son of Maredudd and the sons of Madog ap Maredudd with all the host of Powys.[26]

    Torrential rain forced Henry's army to retreat in disorder without fighting a major battle, and Henry vented his spleen on the hostages, having Rhys's son Maredudd blinded. Rhys's other son, Hywel, was not among the victims. Rhys returned to Deheubarth where he captured and burned Cardigan Castle. He allowed the garrison to depart, but held the castellan, Robert Fitz-Stephen, as a prisoner. Shortly afterwards Rhys captured Cilgerran castle.[27]

    In 1167 he joined Owain Gwynedd in an attack on Owain Cyfeiliog of southern Powys, and spent three weeks helping Owain besiege the Norman castle of Rhuddlan.[28] In 1168 he attacked the Normans at Builth, destroying its castle. Rhys benefited from the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169 and 1170, which was largely led by the Cambro-Norman lords of south Wales. In 1167 the King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, who had been driven out of his kingdom, had asked Rhys to release Robert Fitz-Stephen from captivity to take part in an expedition to Ireland. Rhys did not oblige at the time, but released him the following year and in 1169 Fitz-Stephen led the vanguard of a Norman army which landed in Wexford. The leader of the Norman forces, Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, known as "Strongbow", followed in 1170. According to Warren:

    They were prompted to go by a growing suspicion that King Henry did not intend to renew his offensive against the Welsh, but was instead seeking an accommodation with the Welsh leaders.[29]

    The departure of the Norman lords enabled Rhys to strengthen his position, and the death of Owain Gwynedd in late 1170 left him as the acknowledged leader of the Welsh princes.[30]

    Later reign

    Peace with King Henry (1171–1188)

    In 1171 King Henry II arrived in England from France, on his way to Ireland. Henry wished to ensure that Richard de Clare, who had married Diarmait's daughter and become heir to Leinster, did not establish an independent Norman kingdom in Ireland.[31] His decision to try a different approach in his dealings with the Welsh was influenced by the events in Ireland, although Warren suggests that "it seems likely that Henry began rethinking his attitude to the Welsh soon after the dâebãacle of 1165".[32] Henry now wished to make peace with Rhys, who came to Newnham to meet him. Rhys was to pay a tribute of 300 horses and 4,000 head of cattle, but was confirmed in possession of all the lands he had taken from Norman lords, including the Clares. They met again in October that year at Pembroke as Henry waited to cross to Ireland. Rhys had collected 86 of the 300 horses, but Henry agreed to take only 36 of them and remitted the remainder of the tribute until after his return from Ireland. Rhys's son, Hywel, who had been held as a hostage for many years, was returned to him. Henry and Rhys met once more at Laugharne as Henry returned from Ireland in 1172, and shortly afterwards Henry appointed Rhys "justice on his behalf in all Deheubarth".[33] According to A. D. Carr:

    This meant the delegation to him of any authority which the king might have claimed over his fellow Welsh rulers; it might also have involved some authority over the king's Anglo-Norman subjects ... Rhys was more than a native Welsh ruler; he was one of the great feudatories of the Angevin empire.[34]


    Dinefwr Castle was the chief seat of the Dinefwr dynasty; the earliest surviving part of the present castle may have been built by Rhys or by his son, Rhys Gryg.[35]
    The agreement between Henry and Rhys was to last until Henry's death in 1189. When Henry's sons rebelled against him in 1173 Rhys sent his son Hywel Sais to Normandy to aid the king, then in 1174 personally led an army to Tutbury in Staffordshire to assist at the siege of the stronghold of the rebel Earl William de Ferrers.[36] When Rhys returned to Wales after the fall of Tutbury, he left a thousand men with the king for service in Normandy. King Henry held a council at Gloucester in 1175 which was attended by a large gathering of Welsh princes, led by Rhys. It appears to have concluded with the swearing of a mutual assistance pact for the preservation of peace and order in Wales.[37] In 1177 Rhys, Dafydd ab Owain, who had emerged as the main power in Gwynedd, and Cadwallon ap Madog from Rhwng Gwy a Hafren swore fealty and liege homage to Henry at a council held at Oxford.[38] At this council the king gave Meirionnydd, part of the kingdom of Gwynedd, to Rhys. There was some fighting in Meirionnydd the following year, but Rhys apparently made no serious attempt to annex it.


    Carreg Cennen Castle
    Rhys built a number of stone castles, starting with Cardigan castle, which was the earliest recorded native-built stone castle in Wales.[39] He also built Carreg Cennen castle near Llandeilo, a castle set in a spectacular position on a mountain top. He held a festival of poetry and song at his court at Cardigan over Christmas 1176. This is generally regarded as the first recorded Eisteddfod.[40] The festival was announced a year in advance throughout Wales and in England, Scotland, Ireland and possibly France. Two chairs were awarded as prizes, one for the best poem and the other for the best musical performance. J. E. Caerwyn Williams suggests that this event may be an adaptation of the similar French puys.[41] R.R. Davies suggests that the texts of Welsh law, traditionally codified by Hywel Dda at Whitland, were first assembled in book form under the aegis of Rhys.[42]


    Talley Abbey
    Rhys founded two religious houses during this period. Talley Abbey was the first Premonstratensian abbey in Wales, while Llanllyr was a Cistercian nunnery, only the second nunnery to be founded in Wales and the first to prosper.[43] He became the patron of the abbeys of Whitland and Strata Florida and made large grants to both houses.[44] Giraldus Cambrensis, who was related to Rhys, gives an account of his meetings with Rhys in 1188 when Giraldus accompanied Archbishop Baldwin around Wales to raise men for the Third Crusade. Some Welsh clerics were not happy about this visit, but Rhys was enthusiastic and gave the Archbishop a great deal of assistance. Giraldus says that Rhys decided to go on crusade himself and spent several weeks making preparations, but was eventually persuaded to change his mind by his wife Gwenllian, "by female artifices".[45]

    Final campaigns (1189–1196)

    Henry II died in 1189 and was succeeded by Richard I. Rhys considered that he was no longer bound by the agreement with King Henry and attacked the Norman lordships surrounding his territory. He ravaged Pembroke, Haverfordwest, and Gower and captured the castles of St. Clear's, Laugharne, and Llansteffan. Richard's brother, Prince John (later King John), came to Wales in September and tried to make peace. He persuaded Rhys to raise the siege of Carmarthen and accompany him to Oxford to meet Richard. Rhys arrived at Oxford to discover that Richard was not prepared to travel there to meet him, and hostilities continued.[46]


    By 1196 Rhys ruled almost all of Deheubarth, as well as controlling much of the remainder of south Wales through client princes; the remaining Norman-held areas in Deheubarth are shown in grey.
    In his later years Rhys had trouble keeping control of his sons, particularly Maelgwn and Gruffydd. In 1189 Gruffydd persuaded Rhys to imprison Maelgwn, and he was given into Gruffydd's keeping at Dinefwr. Gruffydd handed him over to his father-in-law, William de Braose. Gruffydd is also said to have persuaded his father to annex the lordship of Cemais and its chief castle of Nevern, held by William FitzMartin, in 1191. This action was criticized by Giraldus Cambrensis, who describes Gruffydd as "a cunning and artful man". William FitzMartin was married to Rhys's daughter Angharad, and, according to Giraldus, Rhys "had solemnly sworn, by the most precious relics, that his indemnity and security should be faithfully maintained".[47] Rhys had also annexed the Norman lordships of Cydweli and Carnwyllion in 1190.[48] In 1192 Rhys secured Maelgwn's release, but by now Maelgwn and Gruffydd were bitter enemies. In 1194 Rhys was defeated in battle by Maelgwn and Hywel, who imprisoned him in Nevern castle, though Hywel later released his father without Maelgwn's consent. Giraldus suggests that Rhys's incarceration in Nevern castle was divine vengeance for the dispossession of William FitzMartin.[49] In 1195 two other sons, Rhys Gryg and Maredudd, seized Llanymddyfri and Dinefwr, and Rhys responded by imprisoning them.[50] Rhys launched his last campaign against the Normans in 1196. He captured a number of castles, including Carmarthen, Colwyn, Radnor and Painscastle, and defeated an army led by Roger de Mortimer and Hugh de Say near Radnor, with forty knights among the dead. This, the Battle of Radnor, was Rhys' last battle.[51] William de Braose offered terms, and Painscastle was returned to him.[52]

    Death and aftermath (1197)

    Rhys was buried in St David's Cathedral, where an effigy said to be of him, but carved over 100 years later, can still be seen.[1]
    In April 1197 Rhys died unexpectedly and was buried in St David's Cathedral. The chronicler of Brut y Tywysogion records for 1197:

    ... there was a great pestilence throughout the island of Britain ... and that tempest killed innumerable people and many of the nobility and many princes, and spared none. That year, four days before May Day, died Rhys ap Gruffydd, Prince of Deheubarth and unconquered head of all Wales.[53]

    Rhys died excommunicate, having quarreled with the Bishop of St. David's, Peter de Leia, over the theft of some of the bishop's horses some years previously. Before he could be buried in the cathedral, the bishop had his corpse scourged in posthumous penance.[54]

    Rhys had nominated his eldest legitimate son, Gruffydd ap Rhys, as his successor, and soon after his father's death Gruffydd met the Justiciar, Archbishop Hubert Walter, on the border and was confirmed as heir. Maelgwn, the eldest son but illegitimate, refused to accept this and was given military assistance by Gwenwynwyn ab Owain of Powys. Maelgwn took the town and castle of Aberystwyth and captured Gruffydd, whom he handed over to the custody of Gwenwynwyn. Gwenwynwyn later handed him over to the king, who imprisoned him at Corfe Castle.[55] Gruffydd was set free the following year and regained most of Ceredigion. In 1201 Gruffydd died, but this did not end the fighting between rival claimants. In 1216 Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd held a council at Aberdyfi where he allocated parts of Deheubarth to several sons and grandsons of Rhys.

    Character and historical assessment

    Giraldus Cambrensis frequently mentions Rhys in his writings and describes him as "a man of excellent wit and quick in repartee".[56] Gerald tells the story of a banquet at Hereford in 1186 where Rhys sat between two members of the Clare family. What could have been a tense affair, since Rhys had seized lands in Ceredigion previously held by the Clare family, passed off with an exchange of courteous compliments, followed by some good-natured banter between Rhys and Gerald about their family connections.[57] Rhys gave Gerald and Archbishop Baldwin a great deal of assistance when they visited Wales to raise troops for the crusade in 1188, and Gerald several times refers to his "kindness" and says that Rhys accompanied them all the way from Cardigan to the northern border of Ceredigion "with a liberality peculiarly praiseworthy in so illustrious a prince".[58]

    Another contemporary writer also wrote of Rhys if Roger Turvey is correct in stating that Walter Map's piece Of the King Appollonides deals with Rhys under a pseudonym.[59] Map was less favourably disposed toward Rhys, describing him as "This king I have seen and know, and hate", but goes on to say "I would not have my hatred blacken his worth; it is not my wish ever to suppress any man's excellence through envy". He tells the following story about Apollonides/Rhys:

    This same man gave provisions to his enemies when besieged and driven by risk of famine to capitulate; he wished them to be overcome by his own strength and not by want of bread; and though he deferred victory, he increased the renown of it.[60]

    Davies provides the following assessment of Rhys:

    Rhys's career was indeed a remarkable one. Its very length was a tribute to his stamina and skill: he had occupied the stage of Welsh politics for over fifty years, from his first appearance in his early 'teens, at the capture of Llansteffan castle in 1146, to his death in 1197. But it was his achievement which was astounding: he had reconstituted the kingdom of Deheubarth and made it the premier Welsh kingdom. For once, the poet's compliment was well-deserved: Rhys had restored "the majesty of the South".[61]

    Davies also notes two flaws in Rhys's achievement. One was the personal nature of his accord with Henry II, which meant that it did not survive Henry's death. The other was his inability to control his sons and to force the other sons to accept Gruffydd as his successor.[62]

    Children

    Several of Rhys's children, including Gruffydd and Maelgwn, were buried at Strata Florida Abbey.
    Rhys had at least nine sons and eight daughters.[63] Confusingly, three of the sons were named Maredudd and two of the daughters were named Gwenllian.

    Gruffydd ap Rhys II (died 1201) was the eldest legitimate son and was nominated by Rhys as his successor. He married Maud de Braose, the daughter of William de Braose.[64]

    Maelgwn ap Rhys (died 1231), who was the eldest son but illegitimate, refused to accept Gruffydd as his father's successor. A bitter feud developed between the two, with several of Rhys's other sons becoming involved.

    Rhys Gryg (died 1233) married a daughter of the Earl of Clare.[65] Rhys eventually became the main power in Deheubarth, but never ruled more than a portion of his father's realm and was a client prince of Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd.

    Hywel ap Rhys (died 1231) spent many years as a hostage at the court of Henry II and on his return became known as Hywel Sais (Hywel the Saxon, i.e. Englishman).

    Maredudd ap Rhys (died 1239) was also given as a hostage, but was less fortunate than Hywel. He was blinded by King Henry after the failure of the invasion of Wales in 1165, and became known as Maredudd Ddall (Maredudd the Blind). He ended his days as a monk at Whitland Abbey.

    Another Maredudd (died 1227) became Archdeacon of Cardigan.[64]

    Rhys's daughter Gwenllian ferch Rhys married Rhodri ab Owain, prince of the western part of Gwynedd.

    Another Gwenllian (circa 1178 – 1236) married Ednyfed Fychan, seneschal of Gwynedd under Llywelyn the Great, and through her, Rhys became an ancestor of the Tudor dynasty. Through the Tudors inter-marrying with the House of Stuart Rhys is an ancestor to the current ruling house of the United Kingdom and also an ancestor of several ruling houses in Europe. When Henry Tudor landed in Pembrokeshire, Wales in 1485 to make a bid for the throne, his descent from Rhys was one of the factors which enabled him to attract Welsh support (Henry flew a (Welsh) dragon banner at the battle of Bosworth Field).[66]

    Angharad ferch Rhys married William FitzMartin, lord of Cemais.

    Other daughters married the Welsh rulers of Gwrtheyrnion and Elfael.[67]

    Birth:
    Deheubarth (Welsh pronunciation: [d?'h??bar?]; lit. "Right-hand Part", thus "the South")[4] was a regional name for the realms of south Wales, particularly as opposed to Gwynedd (Latin: Venedotia). It is now used as a shorthand for the various realms united under the House of Dinefwr, but that Deheubarth itself was not considered a proper kingdom on the model of Gwynedd, Powys, or Dyfed[5] is shown by its rendering in Latin as dextralis pars or as Britonnes dexterales ("the Southern Britons") and not as a named land.[6] In the oldest British writers, Deheubarth was used for all of modern Wales to distinguish it from Y Gogledd or Hen Ogledd, the northern lands whence Cunedda and the Cymry originated.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deheubarth

    Buried:
    Photos and history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_David%27s_Cathedral

    Rhys — Gwenllian ferch Madog. Gwenllian (daughter of Gruffydd ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd and unnamed spouse) was born 1125, Gwynedd, Wales. [Group Sheet]


  2. 41.  Gwenllian ferch Madog was born 1125, Gwynedd, Wales (daughter of Gruffydd ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd and unnamed spouse).
    Children:
    1. Gruffydd ap Rhys, II was born 0___ 1148, Wales; died 25 Jul 1201; was buried Strata Florida Abbey, Ceredigion, Wales.
    2. 20. Rhys Gryg, Prince of Deheubarth was born 1150, (Wales); died 0___ 1233; was buried St. David's Cathedral, Pembrokeshire, Wales.
    3. Hywel ap Rhys was born 1065; died 1115.
    4. Gwenllian ferch Rhys was born (Wales); died 0___ 1236.
    5. Angharad ferch Rhys

  3. 42.  Richard de Clare, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hertford was born ~ 1153, Tonbridge Castle, Kent, England (son of Richard de Clare, Knight, 2nd Earl Pembroke and Eva Aoife Mac Murchada, Countess Pembroke); died 28 Nov 1217.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 6th Lord of Cardigan
    • Also Known As: 6th Lord of Clare
    • Also Known As: 6th Lord of Tonbridge

    Notes:

    Richard de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford, 6th Lord of Clare, 6th lord of Tonbridge, 5th Lord of Cardigan (c.?1153–1217), was a powerful Norman nobleman with vast lands in England and Wales.

    Career

    Richard was the son of Roger de Clare, 2nd Earl of Hertford and Maud, daughter of James de St. Hillary.[1] More commonly known as the Earl of Clare, he had the majority of the Giffard estates from his ancestor, Rohese.[2] He was present at the coronations of King Richard I at Westminster, 3 September 1189, and King John on 27 May 1199. He was also present at the homage of King William of Scotland as English Earl of Huntingdon at Lincoln.[citation needed]

    Marriage

    He married (c. 1172) Amice FitzWilliam, 4th Countess of Gloucester (c. 1160–1220), second daughter, and co-heiress, of William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, and Hawise de Beaumont. Sometime before 1198, Earl Richard and his wife Amice were ordered to separate by the Pope on grounds of consanguinity. They separated for a time because of this order but apparently reconciled their marriage with the Pope later on.[citation needed]

    Magna Carta

    He sided with the Barons against King John, even though he had previously sworn peace with the King at Northampton, and his castle of Tonbridge was taken. He played a leading part in the negotiations for Magna Carta, being one of the twenty five sureties. On 9 November 1215, he was one of the commissioners on the part of the Barons to negotiate the peace with the King. In 1215, his lands in counties Cambridge, Norfolk, Suffolk and Essex were granted to Robert de Betun. He and his son were among the Barons excommunicated by the Pope in 1215. His own arms were: Or, three chevronels gules.[citation needed]

    Family

    Richard and Amice had children:

    Gilbert de Clare (ca. 1180 – 25 October 1230), 4th Earl of Hertford and 5th Earl of Gloucester, (or 1st Earl of Gloucester of new creation). Married in 1217 Isabel Marshal.
    Maud de Clare (ca. 1184–1213), married in 1206,[citation needed] Sir William de Braose, son of William de Braose and Maud de St. Valery.
    Richard de Clare (ca. 1184 – 4 Mar 1228, London)[citation needed]
    Mathilde, married Rhys Gryg son of Rhys ap Gruffydd, ruler of the kingdom of Deheubarth.

    References

    icon Normandy portal
    Jump up ^ George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, eds. H. A. Doubleday; Howard de Walden, Vol. V (London: The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., 1926), p. 736
    Jump up ^ I. J. Sanders, English Baronies: A Study of Their Origin and Descent 1086–1327) (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1963), pp. 34, 62

    end of biography

    Birth:
    Hsitory, Images, Drawing, Map & Source for Tonbridge Castle ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonbridge_Castle

    Richard married Amice FitzWilliam, 4th Countess of Gloucester 0___ 1180, England. Amice (daughter of William FitzRobert, Knight, 2nd Earl of Gloucester and Hawise de Beaumont) was born 0___ 1160, Gloucestershire, England; died 1220-1225. [Group Sheet]


  4. 43.  Amice FitzWilliam, 4th Countess of Gloucester was born 0___ 1160, Gloucestershire, England (daughter of William FitzRobert, Knight, 2nd Earl of Gloucester and Hawise de Beaumont); died 1220-1225.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Amice de Caen

    Children:
    1. Gilbert de Clare, Knight, 4th Earl of Hertford was born 0___ 1180, Hertford, Hertfordshire, England; died 25 Oct 1230, Brittany, France; was buried Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ.
    2. 21. Mathilde de Clare was born (Hertford, Hertfordshire, England).

  5. 44.  William de Braose, Knight, 3rd Lord of Bramber was born 0___ 1135, (Bramber, Sussex, England) (son of Philip de Braose, Knight, 2nd Lord Bramber and Aanor de Totnes); died > 1179.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Sheriff of Hereford
    • Also Known As: William Bruce
    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1100, Bramber, Sussex, England
    • Alt Death: 21 Oct 1190, London, England

    Notes:

    William de Braose, 3rd Lord of Bramber (fl. 1135–1179) was a 12th-century Marcher lord who secured a foundation for the dominant position later held by the Braose family in the Welsh Marches. In addition to the family's English holdings in Sussex and Devon, William had inherited Radnor and Builth, in Wales, from his father Philip. By his marriage he increased the Braose Welsh holdings to include Brecon and Abergavenny.

    William remained loyal to King Stephen during the 12th-century period of civil war. He became a trusted royal servant during the subsequent reign of Henry II, accompanying the king on campaigns in France and Ireland. He served as sheriff of Herefordshire from 1173 until 1175. The family's power reached its peak under his son William during the reigns of King Richard I and King John.

    William de Braose, 3rd Lord of Bramber
    Lord of Bramber
    Died after 1179
    Noble family House of Braose
    Spouse(s) Bertha, daughter of Miles of Gloucester and Sibyl de Neufmarchâe
    Issue
    William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber
    Father Philip de Braose
    Mother Aenor de Totnes, daughter of Juhel of Totnes

    Lands and family

    William was the eldest son of Philip de Braose, lord of Bramber.[1] His mother was Aenor, daughter of Juhel of Totnes.[1] He was the third in the line of the Anglo-Norman Braose family founded by his grandfather, the first William de Braose.[1] After his father died in the 1130s William inherited lordships, land and castles in Sussex, with his caput at Bramber. He also held Totnes in Devon and Radnor and Builth in the Welsh Marches.[2] He confirmed the grants of his father and grandfather to the abbey of St Florent in Anjou and made further grants to the abbey's dependent priory at Sele in Sussex.[3] In about 1155, he also inherited through his mother's family one half of the honour of Barnstaple in Devon, paying a fee of 1000 marks for the privilege.[2] William became an internationally recognised figure. When Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury was asked by Pope Adrian IV to inquire into the background of a certain Walter, canon of St Ruf, his reply, dated to 1154/9 read:

    The facts which you demand need but little enquiry; for they shine so brightly in themselves that they cannot be hid; so great is the brilliance of his noble birth and the glory of all his kin. For Walter, as we know for a fact, was the son of a distinguished knight and born of a noble mother in lawful wedlock, and he is closely related by blood to the noble William de Braose.[4]

    William had married Bertha, daughter of Miles of Gloucester and Sibyl de Neufmarchâe, by 1150.[1] When each of Bertha's four brothers (Walter de Hereford, Henry FitzMiles (or Henry de Hereford), Mahel de Hereford and William de Hereford) died leaving no issue, William's marriage became unexpectedly valuable. He gained control of the lordships of Brecon and Abergavenny after 1166 when the last brother died.[1] These additional land holdings greatly expanded the territorial power and income of the Braose family. They now held a vast block of territory in the Welsh Marches as well as their extensive interests in Sussex and Devon. William's daughters were able to make good marriages, notably Sibyl to William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby.[5] Maud was married to John de Brompton of Shropshire.[6] William's son and heir, another William de Braose, became a major player in national politics under King John.[7]

    Royal service

    Empress Maud, the only legitimate living child of Henry I, landed in England in 1139 in an attempt to press her claim to the monarchy. She was soon besieged by King Stephen's forces at Arundel castle. Stephen allowed Maud a safe conduct to Bristol and provided her with an escort, which included William de Braose,[8] suggesting that he was an adherent of King Stephen. William was present as a witness when three charters were issued by Stephen at Lewes dated to the years 1148–53,[9] therefore it appears that he remained loyal to the king until the Treaty of Wallingford ended the hostilities.

    William was in Sussex in 1153,[nb 1] but he followed Duke Henry, soon to become King Henry II, to Normandy in 1154.[nb 2] William was frequently with the new king. He was one of the military leaders who supported Henry at Rhuddlan in 1157.[12] He witnessed one of the king's charters at Romsey in 1158,[13] and he is recorded at the king's court in Wiltshire in 1164 when the Constitutions of Clarendon were enacted.[14] He accompanied the king on expedition to France, witnessing at Leons[nb 3] in 1161 and Chinon in 1162. William is also documented on the Irish campaign at Dublin in 1171 and Wexford 1172.[15] William's younger brother, Philip, also accompanied the king to Ireland, and remained with the garrison at Wexford. In 1177 Philip was granted the kingdom of Limerick by Henry but failed to take possession after the citizens set fire to the town.[16]

    When Henry was facing war with his sons in 1173, William was appointed as sheriff of Herefordshire at Easter. He maintained the King's interests in Herefordshire until 1175.[1]

    Later life and death

    King Henry withdrew his favour from the family after William's son organised the murder of Seisyll ap Dyfnwal and other Welsh princes at Abergavenny in 1176.[17] There is little subsequent record of William in public life, and it is likely that he retired to his estates in Sussex. William died after 1179 and was succeeded by his son, William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber,[1] who gained the favour of both King Richard I and King John and became a dominant force in the Welsh Marches during their reigns.[18]

    end of biography

    William de Braose, 3rd lord of Bramber was a Marcher lord, active during the 12th century period of anarchy and the subsequent reign of Henry II. He served as sheriff of Herefordshire from 1173 to 1175.

    William was the eldest son of Philip de Braose, lord of Bramber. His mother was Aenor, daughter of Juhel of Totnes. He was the third in the line of the Anglo-Norman Braose family. After his father died in the 1130s William held lordships, land and castles in Sussex, with his caput at Bramber, also at Totnes in Devon and Radnor and Builth in the Welsh Marches. He confirmed the grants of his father and grandfather to the abbey of St Florent in Anjou and made further grants to the abbey's dependent priory at Sele in Sussex. About 1155, he also inherited through his mother's family one half of the honour of Barnstaple in Devon, paying a fee of 1000 marks for the privilege.

    William became an internationally recognised figure. When Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury was asked by Pope Adrian IV to inquire into the background of a certain Walter, canon of St Ruf, his reply, dated to 1154/9 read:

    "The facts which you demand need but little enquiry; for they shine so brightly in themselves that they cannot be hid; so great is the brilliance of his noble birth and the glory of all his kin. For Walter, as we know for a fact, was the son of a distinguished knight and born of a noble mother in lawful wedlock, and he is closely related by blood to the noble William de Braose."

    William had married Bertha, daughter of Miles of Gloucester by 1150. When each of Bertha's four brothers died leaving no issue William's marriage became unexpectedly valuable. He gained control of the lordships of Brecon and Abergavenny after 1166 when the last brother died. These additional land holdings greatly expanded the territorial power and income of the Braose family. They now held a vast block of territory in the Middle March as well as their extensive interests in Sussex and Devon. William's daughters were able to make good marriages, notably Sibyl to William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby. William's son and heir, became a major player in national politics under King John.

    Empress Maud landed in England in 1139 in an attempt to press her claim to the monarchy. She was soon besieged by King Stephen's forces at Arundel castle. Stephen allowed Maud a safe conduct to Bristol, and provided her with an escort which included William de Braose. Thus, at the start of this conflict, William was an adherent of King Stephen. He witnessed three charters with Stephen at Lewes dated by Davis as 1148/53 so it appears that he remained loyal to the king until the Treaty of Wallingford which ended the hostilities.

    William was in Sussex in 1153, but he followed Duke Henry, soon to become King Henry II, across to Normandy in 1154. William was frequently with the new king. He was one of the great men in the army at Rhuddlan in 1157. He witnessed one of the king's charters at Romsey in 1158 and he is recorded at the king's court in Wiltshire in 1164 when the Constitutions of Clarendon were enacted. He accompanied the king on expedition to France, witnessing at Leons, in 1161 and Chinon in 1162. William is also documented on the Irish campaign at Dublin in 1171 and Wexford 1172.

    When Henry was facing war with his sons in 1173, William was appointed as sheriff of Hereford at Easter. He maintained the King's interests in Herefordshire until 1175. King Henry withdrew his favour from the family after William's son organised the murder of Seisyll ap Dyfnwal and other Welsh princes at Abergavenny in 1175. There is little record of William in public life after this and it is likely that he retired to his estates in Sussex. It is at this time that the extensions were made to St. Mary's, Shoreham. (Pictured at top)

    (The above is an adaptation of the article I wrote for Wikipedia. Sources for the information given can be found there.)

    Father: Philip de Braose

    Mother: Aanor

    Married to Bertha, daughter of Miles of Gloucester, Earl of Hereford

    Child 1: William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber

    Child 2: Maud = John de Brompton

    Child 3: Sibilla = (1)William de Ferrers =(2)Adam de Port

    Child 4: John

    Child 5: Roger

    Roger is a witness to a charter of his brother William. (Dugdales "Monasticon" iv, p616)

    (Some sources give a daughter Bertha who married a Beauchamp. I believe this Bertha is a daughter of William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber. See her page for references.)

    end of biography

    William (de Braose) BRUCEPrint Family Tree William de /Braose/ , William de /Braose/


    Born in 1100 - Bramber, Sussex, England
    Deceased 21 October 1190 - London, England , age at death: 90 years old

    Parents
    Philip (de Braose) BRUCE, born in 1073 - Bramber, Sussex, England, Deceased in 1134 - Bramber, Sussex, England age at death: 61 years old
    Married in 1104, Barnstaple, Devon, England, to
    Aenor De TOTNES, born in 1084 - Barnstaple, Devon, England, Deceased in 1102 - Bramber, Sussex, England age at death: 18 years old

    Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren

    Married in 1148, Herefordshire, England, to Bertha De PITRES, born in 1107 - Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England, Deceased - Bramber, Sussex, England (Parents : M Miles (Fitzwalter) De (1st Earl of Hereford) PITRES 1092-1143 & F Sybil (de Neufmarche) NEWMARCH 1092-1142) with
    F Bertha (de Braose) BRUCE ca 1145- married before 1180, Wales, to Gilbert De (Baron) MONMOUTH 1140-1190 with
    M John De (SIR - Lord of Monmouth) MONMOUTH ca 1180- married in 1202, Monmouth, Monmouthshire, Wales, to Cecily Waleran FitzWalter 1182-1222 with :
    F Joan Margaret De MONMOUTH ca 1201-1247
    M William De Monmouth

    John De (SIR - Lord of Monmouth) MONMOUTH ca 1180- married in April 1223, Monmouthshire, Wales, to Agnes de ** MUSCEGROS ca 1190- with :
    M Richard (de Wyesham) De MONMOUTH 1223/-
    M Walter De MONMOUTH 1223/-
    M John De (5th Lord of Monmouth) MONMOUTH 1225-1274
    Bertha (de Braose) BRUCE ca 1145- married before 1182, Bramber, Sussex, England, to Walter De BEAUCHAMP ca 1160-1235 with
    M James De BEAUCHAMP 1182-1233
    M Watchline De BEAUCHAMP 1184-1236 married to Joane De MORTIMER 1194-1268 with :
    M William De BEAUCHAMP 1210-1267
    F Matilda Maud (de Braose) ca 1146- married in 1168, England, to John De BRAMPTON ca 1136-1179 with
    M Brian De BRAMPTON 1168-1197 married in 1195, England, to Alice De Neufmenell 1172- with :
    M Brian De Brampton 1194-1262
    F Margaret (de Braose) (Lady Meath) BRUCE ca 1149- married 19 November 1200, Ewyas Harold, Herefordshire, England, to Walter De (Sir - Lord Meath) LACY ca 1150-1241 with
    F Petronilla De LACY 1195-1288 married to Ralph VI De (Lord Flamstead) TOENI 1190-1239 with :
    F Constance De TOENI ca 1220-1263
    M Roger Michaelmas De (Lord of Flamstead) TOENI 1235-1264
    F Gille Egidia De LACY 1202-1239 married 21 April 1225 to Richard Mor "The Great", De (1st Earl of Ulster) BURGH 1202-1242 with :
    M Walter De ( 1st Earl of Ulster, 2nd Lord of Cornaught) BURGH 1232-1271
    M Gilbert (Of Meath) De LACY 1206-1230 married in 1225, Norfolk, England, to Isabel BIGOD 1212-1250 with :
    F Margery De LACY ca 1232-1256
    F Sybil (de Braose) BRUCE /1151-1227 married to Philip (le Boteler) BUTLER 1157-1174 with
    F Clemence (le Boteler) BUTLER 1175-1231 married in 1188, England, to John (Lackland) (KING OF ENGLAND) PLANTAGENET 1166-1216 with :
    F Joan (Princess of WALES) PLANTAGENET 1190-1236

    Clemence (le Boteler) BUTLER 1175-1231 married in 1205 to Nicholas De (SIR - Baron of Alton, Lord of Farnham) VERDUN 1175- with :
    F Rohese De VERDUN 1204-1246
    M William (de Braose) BRUCE 1153-1211 married in 1174, Bramber, Sussex, England, to Maud (Matilda) De St VALERY 1155-1210 with
    F Matilda Maud (de Braose) 1160-1209 married in 1189 to Gruffydd Ap (Prince of South Wales) RHYS 1148-1201 with :
    M Owain Ap GRUFFYDD ca 1176-1235
    F Lleucu Verch GRUFFYDD 1202-1250
    M William (The Younger) de Braose) BRUCE 1175-1210 married in 1196, Kent, England, to Matilda De CLARE 1175-1213 with :
    F Matilda (de Braose) BRUCE ca 1195-1274
    M John (de Braose) (Lord of Bramber) BRUCE 1197-1232
    F Laurette (de Braose) BRUCE ca 1176-1266 married to Robert "Fitz-Parnell" HARCOURT ca 1156- with :
    M X Harcourt ca 1190-
    M Reginald (de Braose) BRUCE 1182-1227 married 19 March 1202, Bramber, Sussex, England, to Grecian Alice De BRIWERE 1186-1226 with
    F Matilda (de Braose) BRUCE ca 1200-1249 married in 1219, Carmarthenshire, Wales, to Rhys (Mechyll) Ap (Gryg ) RHYS 1174-1244 with :
    M Ieuan Ap RHYS ca 1220-
    F Gwenllian Verch RHYS ca 1225-1268
    M William "Black William" (de Braose) BRUCE 1204-1230 married 2 May 1230, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales, to Eve (Baroness of Abergavenny) MARSHALL 1194-1246 with :
    M William (de Braose) BRUCE 1210-1292
    F Isabella (de Braose) BRUCE 1220/-
    F Eva (de Braose) BRUCE 1220-1255
    F Maud (de Braose) (BARONESS WIGMORE) BRUCE 1226-1300

    Siblings
    F Maud (de Braose) BRUCE 1109-1200 Married about 1130, Wales, to William De BEAUCHAMP 1105-1170

    Paternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
    M William de (Braose) BRUCE 1049-1093 married (1072)
    F Agnes De SAINT CLARE 1034-1080
    M Philip (de Braose) BRUCE 1073-1134
    married (1104)
    2 children

    Maternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
    M Juhel De TOTNES 1049-1123 married (1083)
    F ** De PICQUIGNY 1060-1145
    F Aenor De TOTNES 1084-1102
    married (1104)
    2 children


    Timeline
    1100 : Birth - Bramber, Sussex, England
    1112 : Birth - Bramber, Sussex, England

    Sources: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1077681&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 1126 Birth place: Briouze, Normandy, France Death date: 1192-3 Death place: - 1,7249::1077681
    1126 : Birth - Briouze, Orne, Basse-Normandie, France
    Sources: Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Ancestry.com Operations Inc - 1,7249::0 - 1,7249::1077681
    1148 : Marriage (with Bertha De PITRES) - Herefordshire, England
    before 1190 : LORD of BRAMBER
    21 October 1190 : Death - London, England
    1192 : Death - England
    Sources: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1077681&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 1126 Birth place: Briouze, Normandy, France Death date: 1192-3 Death place: - 1,7249::1077681
    1192 : Death
    Age: 66
    Sources: Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Ancestry.com Operations Inc - 1,7249::0 - 1,7249::1077681


    Notes
    Individual Note
    Source: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1077681&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt Birth date: 1126 Birth place: Briouze, Normandy, France Death date: 1192-3 Death place: 1,7249::1077681
    Source: Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Ancestry.com Operations Inc - 1,7249::0 1,7249::1077681


    Sources
    Individual: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=8845

    Family Tree Preview
    Ancestry Chart Descendancy Chart Printable Family Tree
    _____| 16_ Rognvald Wolfs (of Orkey) BRUCE /1000-1046
    _____| 8_ Robert BRUCE 1030-1094
    _____| 4_ William de (Braose) BRUCE 1049-1093
    / \ _____| 18_ Alan III De (Count of Brittany) RENNES 1000-1040
    |2_ Philip (de Braose) BRUCE 1073-1134
    | \ _____| 20_ Mauger (de St Claire) (Seigneur) NORMANDY ca 990-1017
    | \ _____| 10_ Waldron De St CLARE 1015-1047
    | \ _____| 22_ Richard De NORMANDY 1001-1028
    |--1_ William (de Braose) BRUCE 1100-1190
    | _____| 12_ Alured De TOTNES 1015-1080
    | /
    | _____| 6_ Juhel De TOTNES 1049-1123
    | / \
    |3_ Aenor De TOTNES 1084-1102
    \
    \ _____| 14_ Arnoul De PICQUIGNY 1020-1055
    \ /
    \

    end of profile

    Name: William DE BRAOSE
    Sex: M
    Birth: 1105 in Bramber, Sussex, England
    ALIA: William de BRAOSE Lord of Bramber
    Title: Lord of Bramber
    Death: BET 1192 AND 1193 in Bramber, Sussex, England
    Note:
    Dec 08 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_de_Braose,_3rd_Lord_of_Bramber -

    William de Braose, Third Lord of Bramber (born 1112 in Brecon) (d. ca. 1192) was the eldest son of Philip de Braose, Second Lord of Bramber.

    Family and early career
    William was born into a second generation English Norman dynasty holding Lordships and land in Sussex at Bramber, also at Totnes in Devon and Radnor and Builth in the Welsh Marches of Wales. He maintained his Sussex lands and titles and extended St Mary's, Shoreham and contributed to a priory at Sele, West Sussex. His mother was Aenor Fitz Judhel of Totnes.

    He also inherited one half of the honour of Barnstaple in Devon, paying a fee of 1000 marks for the privilege.

    William married Bertha de Pitres, also known as Bertha de Hereford, daughter of Miles of Gloucester, Earl of Hereford. Through this marriage, William acquired lordships of Brecon and Abergavenny in 1166 because Bertha's four brothers all died young without heirs.

    These vast land holdings greatly expanded the territorial power and income of the de Braose dynasty. They now held the Middle March with extensive interests in Sussex and Devon.

    William's younger brother Phillip accompanied King Henry II to Ireland, receiving in 1172 the honour of Limerick.

    Marcher titles
    In 1174, William became sheriff of Hereford. He died in about 1192 and was succeeded as Lord of Bramber by his son, William. He had also fathered two daughters, Maud and Sibilla, who married well and possibly a later son, named John.

    Nov 09 from http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hwbradley/aqwg825.htm#13602 -

    William de BRAOSE Lord of Bramber [Parents] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 was born 1105 in Bramber, Sussex, England. He died 8 1192/1193 in Bramber, Sussex, England. William married Bertha of HEREFORD on 1146 in Bramber, Sussex, England.

    Bertha of HEREFORD [Parents] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 was born 1128 in Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England. She married William de BRAOSE Lord of Bramber on 1146 in Bramber, Sussex, England.

    They had the following children:

    F i Bertha de BRAOSE was born 1147.
    M ii William de BRAOSE Baron de Braose was born 1149 and died 9 Aug 1211.
    F iii Mabel de BRAOSE was born 1151 and died 1203.
    F iv Sybil de BRAOSE was born 1153 and died after 5 Feb 1228.
    M v John de BRAOSE 1 was born 1160 in Bramber, Sussex, England.

    1Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (7th ed., Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1992.), 177-5, 194-5, 222-28, Los Angeles Public Library, Gen 974 W426 1992.

    2Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant (London: St. Catherine Press, 1910.), 11:321, Los Angeles Public Library, 929.721 C682.

    3Cokayne, G., CP, 1:21-22, 14:6.

    4Sanders, Ivor John, English Baronies: A Study of Their Origin and Descent, 1086-1327 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960.), pp. 7, 21, 105, Los Angeles Public Library, 929.722 S215.

    5Keats-Rohan, K.S.B., Domesday Descendants: A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents 1066-1166 (Rochester, New York: The Boydell Press, 2002.), pp. 346-7, Library of Congress, DA177 .K4 2002.

    6Cokayne, G., CP, 1:21e.

    7Curfman, Robert Joseph, "The Yale Descent from Braiose & Clare through Pigott of Buckinghamshire," The American Genealogist 56:1 (Jan 1980), pp. 1-2, Los Angeles Public Library.

    8Sanders, I., English Baronies, p. 7.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Bertha of HEREFORD

    1Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (7th ed., Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1992.), 177-5, 194-5, 222-28, Los Angeles Public Library, Gen 974 W426 1992.

    2Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant (London: St. Catherine Press, 1910.), 1:21-2, 11:321, Los Angeles Public Library, 929.721 C682.

    3Sanders, Ivor John, English Baronies: A Study of Their Origin and Descent, 1086-1327 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960.), pp. 7, 21, Los Angeles Public Library, 929.722 S215.

    4Keats-Rohan, K.S.B., Domesday Descendants: A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents 1066-1166 (Rochester, New York: The Boydell Press, 2002.), pp. 346-7, Library of Congress, DA177 .K4 2002.

    5Curfman, Robert Joseph, "The Yale Descent from Braiose & Clare through Pigott of Buckinghamshire," The American Genealogist 56:1 (Jan 1980), p. 2, Los Angeles Public Library.




    Father: Philip DE BRAOSE b: 1074 in Briouze-Saint-Gervais, Orne, Basse-Nomandie, France
    Mother: Aenor DE TOTENEIS b: 1084 in Totnes, Devon, England

    Marriage 1 BERTHA b: 1128 in Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England
    Married: 1146 in Bramber, Sussex, England
    Children
    Has Children William DE BRAOSE b: 1149 in Bramber, Sussex, England
    Has Children Mabel DE BRAOSE b: 1151 in Bramber, Sussex, England
    Has Children Sybil DE BRAOSE b: 1153 in Bramber, Sussex, England
    Has Children Bertha DE BRAOSE b: 1147 in Bramber, Sussex, England

    end of biography

    William married Bertha of Hereford 0___ 1148, Herefordshire, England. Bertha (daughter of Miles of Gloucester, Knight, 1st Earl of Hereford and Sibyl de Neufmarche, Countess of Hereford, daughter of Bernard de Neufmarche, Lord of Brecknockshire and Nest Verch Osborn le Scrope) was born 0___ 1107, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England; died ~ 1180, Bramber, Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 45.  Bertha of Hereford was born 0___ 1107, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England (daughter of Miles of Gloucester, Knight, 1st Earl of Hereford and Sibyl de Neufmarche, Countess of Hereford, daughter of Bernard de Neufmarche, Lord of Brecknockshire and Nest Verch Osborn le Scrope); died ~ 1180, Bramber, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Bertha de Pitres
    • Also Known As: Lady of Abergavenny
    • Also Known As: Lady of Bramber
    • Also Known As: Lady of Hay

    Notes:

    Bertha of Hereford, also known as Bertha de Pitres (born c.1130), was the daughter of Miles de Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford, and a wealthy heiress, Sibyl de Neufmarchâe. She was the wife of William de Braose, 3rd Lord of Bramber to whom she brought many castles and Lordships, including Brecknock, Abergavenny, and Hay.

    Family

    Bertha was born in England in about 1130. She was a daughter of Miles, Earl of Hereford (1097- 24 December 1143) and Sibyl de Neufmarchâe.[1] She had two sisters, Margaret of Hereford,[2] who married Humphrey II de Bohun, by whom she had issue,[3] and Lucy of Hereford, who married Herbert FitzHerbert of Winchester, by whom she had issue.[citation needed] Her brothers, included Roger Fitzmiles, 2nd Earl of Hereford, Walter de Hereford, Henry Fitzmiles, William de Hereford, and Mahel de Hereford.[4]

    Her paternal grandparents were Walter FitzRoger de Pitres,Sheriff of Gloucester and Bertha de Balun of Bateden,[5] a descendant of Hamelin de Balun,[citation needed] and her maternal grandparents were Bernard de Neufmarchâe, Lord of Brecon, and Nesta ferch Osbern.[6] The latter was a daughter of Osbern FitzRichard of Richard's Castle, and Nesta ferch Gruffydd.[7] Bertha was a direct descendant, in the maternal line, of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (1007- 5 August 1063) and Edith (Aldgyth), daughter of Elfgar, Earl of Mercia.[citation needed]

    Her father Miles served as Constable to King Stephen of England. He later served in the same capacity to Empress Matilda after he'd transferred his allegiance. In 1141, she made him Earl of Hereford in gratitude for his loyalty. On 24 December 1143, he was killed whilst on a hunting expedition in the Forest of Dean.[8]

    Marriage and issue

    Abergavenny Castle in Monmouthshire, Wales, was one of the castles Bertha of Hereford brought to her husband William de Braose, 3rd Lord of Bramber
    In 1150, she married William de Braose, 3rd Lord of Bramber (1112–1192), son of Philip de Braose, 2nd Lord of Bramber and Aenor, daughter of Judael of Totnes. William and Bertha had three daughters and two sons, including William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber.

    In 1173, her brothers all having died without issue, she brought the Lordships and castles of Brecknock and Abergavenny, to her husband.[8] Hay Castle had already passed to her from her mother, Sibyl of Neufmarche in 1165, whence it became part of the de Braose holdings.

    In 1174, her husband became Sheriff of Hereford.

    Her children include

    William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber, (1144/1153- 11 August 1211, Corbeil),[9][10] married Maud de St. Valery, daughter of Bernard de St. Valery, by whom he had 16 children.
    Roger de Braose[11]
    Bertha de Braose[12] (born 1151), married c.1175, Walter de Beauchamp (died 1235), son of William de Beauchamp and Joan de Walerie, by whom she had issue, including Walcherine de Beauchamp who married Joan Mortimer.
    Sibyl de Braose (died after 5 February 1227),[13] married William de Ferrers, 3rd Earl of Derby (1136- 21 October 1190 at Acre on crusade), son of Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Earl of Derby and Margaret Peverel, by whom she had issue.
    Maud de Braose, married John de Brompton, by whom she had issue.[citation needed]

    Legacy

    Bertha died on an unknown date. She was the ancestress of many noble English families which included the de Braoses, de Beauchamps, de Bohuns and de Ferrers; as well as the Irish families of de Lacy and de Burgh.[14][not in citation given]

    end of biography

    Children:
    1. Sybil de Braose was born Bef 1151, Bramber, Sussex, England; died 5 Feb 1227, Derbyshire, England.
    2. William de Braose, III, Knight, 4th Lord of Bramber was born 0___ 1153, Bramber, Sussex, England; died 9 Aug 1211, Corbeil, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France; was buried 0___ 1211, Seine-et-Marne, Île-de-France, France.
    3. 22. Reginald de Braose, Knight was born 0___ 1162, (Bramber, West Sussex, England); died BY 1228; was buried Saint John's, Brecon, Wales.
    4. Mabel de Braose was born 0___ 1151, Bramber, Sussex, England; died 0___ 1203, (Axholme, Lincolnshire, England).

  7. 46.  William Brewer

    William — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  8. 47.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 23. Grace Brewer was born 0___ 1186, Eu, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France; died 0___ 1226.


Generation: 7

  1. 80.  Gruffydd ap Rhys, King of Deheubarth was born 0___ 1081, Llandeilo, Wales (son of Rhys ap Tewdwr, King of Deheubarth and Gwladys ferch Rhwallon ap Cynfyn); died 0___ 1137.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Prince of Wales
    • Also Known As: The Lord Rhys

    Notes:

    Gruffydd ap Rhys (c. 1081 – 1137)[1] was King of Deheubarth, in Wales. His sister was the Princess Nest ferch Rhys. He was the father of Rhys ap Gruffydd, known as 'The Lord Rhys', who was one of the most successful rulers of Deheubarth during this period.

    Early life

    Gruffydd was born in Llandeilo. Following the death of his father Rhys ap Tewdwr in 1093, Deheubarth was taken over by the Normans, and Gruffydd spent much of his early years in exile in Ireland.

    In 1113 Gruffydd visited Gruffudd ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd, at their family seat at Aberffraw on Ynys Mãon. The King of Gwynedd owed an honour debt to the House of Dinefwr, as Gruffydd's father, Rhys ap Tewdwr, had aided Gruffudd ap Cynan in his own bid to reclaim Gwynedd from rivals in 1081. In Aberffraw, Gruffydd ap Tewdwr met Gwenllian, the beautiful youngest daughter of Gwynedd's king. After a brief courtship the couple eloped, with Gwenllian joining Gruffydd ap Rhys on his military campaigns.

    After several years, Gruffydd was able to raise enough men to attack a number of Norman castles and towns with some success. However an attack on Aberystwyth was defeated and Gruffydd's army dispersed.

    Gruffydd came to terms with King Henry I of England and was allowed to rule a portion of his father's kingdom, the Cantref Mawr, although he was soon under pressure from the Normans again and was forced to flee to Ireland for a period in 1127.

    Rebellion[edit]
    In 1136 Gruffydd joined Owain Gwynedd and Cadwaladr, the sons of Gruffudd ap Cynan of Gwynedd, in a rebellion against Norman rule. While Gruffydd was away from home, his wife Gwellian raised an army and attacked the Norman castle of Kidwelly, but was defeated and killed.

    Gruffydd himself with Owain and Cadwaladr gained a crushing victory over the Normans at Crug Mawr near Cardigan the same year.

    Death and succession

    In 1137 Gruffydd gained further success in Dyfed, but died shortly afterwards in uncertain circumstances.

    Gruffydd had four sons by Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd: Maredudd, Rhys, Morgan, and Maelgwn. He also had two older sons from a previous marriage: Anarawd and Cadell, and at least three daughters: Gwladus, Elizabeth, and Nest. He was followed by his eldest son, Anarawd. Of his other sons, Cadell, Maredydd, and Rhys (later known as The Lord Rhys) all ruled Deheubarth in turn.

    References

    Jump up ^ http://www.mathematical.com/gruffyddgwenllian1085.html
    Preceded by
    Rhys ap Tewdwr King of Deheubarth
    1116–1137 Succeeded by
    Anarawd ap Gruffydd


    end of biography

    Gruffydd married Gwenllian verch Gruffudd ap Cynan 0___ 1116, Caerlleon, Monmouth, Mid Glamorgan, Wales. Gwenllian was born 0___ 1090, Caernarvonshire, Wales; died 0___ 1137, Maes Gwenllian, Outside Walls Kidwelly, Wales. [Group Sheet]


  2. 81.  Gwenllian verch Gruffudd ap Cynan was born 0___ 1090, Caernarvonshire, Wales; died 0___ 1137, Maes Gwenllian, Outside Walls Kidwelly, Wales.

    Notes:

    Gwenllian (Gwenllian verch Gruffydd) of Wales formerly Gwynedd
    Born 1090 in Caernarvonshire,Wale
    ANCESTORS ancestors
    Daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan and Angharad (Deuheubarth) ferch Owain
    Sister of Owain ap Gruffydd, Rhanullt (Gruffydd) ferch Gruffydd, Ellen (Gruffydd) ferch Gruffydd, Susanna ferch Gruffudd, Merinedd (Gruffydd) ferch Gruffydd, Cadwaladr (Gruffydd) ap Gruffydd, Membyr (Gruffydd) ap Gruffydd, Rhael (Gruffydd) ferch Gruffydd, Annes (Gruffydd) ferch Gruffydd, Margred (Gruffydd) ferch Gruffydd and Tudwal (Gruffydd) ap Gruffydd
    Wife of Gruffydd (Rhys) ap Rhys — married 1116 in Caerlleon, Monmouth, Mid Glamorgan, Wales
    DESCENDANTS descendants
    Mother of Cadell ap Gruffydd, Gwladys (Deheubarth) ferch Gruffydd, Gruffudd Hir (Gruffudd) ap Gruffudd, Morgan Gruffydd, Maredudd (Gruffydd) ap Gruffydd, Nest (Gruffydd) ferch Gruffydd, Rhys Brenin Deheubarth (Gruffydd) ap Gruffydd and Gwenllian (Gruffudd) ferch Gruffudd
    Died 1137 in Maes Gwenllian,Outside Walls Kidwelly,,Wales


    Biography

    Gwenllian was born in 1097. Gwenllian vh Gruffydd ... She passed away in 1136.

    "In this district, after the death of king Henry, whilst Gruffydh son of Rhys, then prince of South Wales, was engaged in soliciting assistance from North Wales, his wife Gwenliana (like the queen of the Amazons, and a second Penthesilea) led an army into these parts; but she was defeated by Maurice de Londres, lord of that country, and Geoffrey, the bishop's constable. Morgan, one of her sons, whom she had arrogantly brought with her in that expedition, was slain, and the other, Malgo, taken prisoner; and she, with many of her followers, was put to death."[1]

    Carmarthenshire

    "Giraldus Cambrensis, in his Itinerary, states that a few years after, Grufydd's wife Gwenllian, attended by her two sons, led in person a body of troops into the vicinity of this fortress, where she was defeated, made prisoner, and put to death, with several of her followers, by Maurice de Londres, grandson of William. Whether or not this happened, the reputation which Grufydd acquired by his expeditions greatly added to the number of his followers; and Henry, regarding this influence as important, encouraged his Norman and Flemish vassals, and such Welsh adventurers as had something to expect from his favour, to unite their forces against him. Grufydd, aware of the advantages derived by his enemies from the king's possessing so strong a fortress as Carmarthen Castle, in the heart of his little dominion, led his forces against it with great secrecy, and took it by surprise; he then marched into Cardiganshire, where he was frequently successful against the Norman lords, but experienced a severe loss in an incautious attack upon the castle of Aberystwith."[2]
    Birth

    Date: 1090
    Place: Caernarvonshire, Wales
    Date: 1085
    Place: Aberffraw Castle, Wales
    Death

    Date: 1136
    Place: Maes Gwenllian, Outside Walls, Wales
    Of Interest

    The Mabinogion – regarded as the most important text in Welsh literature – has helped spawn everything from King Arthur to Lord of the Rings.

    And the medieval masterpiece, which was first translated by Lady Charlotte Guest, is widely thought to have been written by a man, perhaps a monk.

    But now academic Andrew Breeze has published a controversial new book arguing the most important parts of the tome were written by a woman.

    He names her as the very well-connected Gwenllian. Born in 1097, she was the daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd and wife of Gruffudd ap Rhys, prince of Dyfed.

    Sources

    ? p. 393 The Itinerary through Wales, and the Description of Wales, transcribed by sir R.C. Hoare - author: Giraldus (Cambrensis)
    ? Samuel Lewis. "Carmarthen - Carmarthenshire," in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales, (London: S Lewis, 1849), 180-202. British History Online, accessed April 13, 2016, [1]
    FMG: GWENLLIAN (-1136). [2]

    end of biography

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Cantref Mawr means "The Great Cantref". Each cantref in medieval Wales was divided into cwmwdau, and a typical cantref would be made up of two or three cwmwd. Cantref Mawr was made up of seven cwmwdau, which made it one of the largest cantrefs in Wales. Cantref Mawr was an upland area, bounded by the rivers Tywi, Teifi and Gwili. The area at this period was covered in dense scrub which caused difficulties for invading armies, so that the Cantref Mawr often provided a secure refuge for the princes of Deheubarth when facing an invasion.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cantref_Mawr

    Children:
    1. Maredudd ap Gruffydd
    2. 40. Rhys ap Gruffydd, Prince of Deheubarth was born ~ 1132, Wales; died 28 Apr 1197; was buried St. David's Cathedral, Pembrokeshire, Wales.
    3. Morgan ap Gruffudd
    4. Maelgwn ap Gruffudd

  3. 82.  Gruffydd ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd was born Gwynedd, Wales.

    Gruffydd — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  4. 83.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 41. Gwenllian ferch Madog was born 1125, Gwynedd, Wales.

  5. 84.  Richard de Clare, Knight, 2nd Earl Pembroke was born 0___ 1125, Tonbridge, Kent, England (son of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Beaumont); died 20 Apr 1176, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland.

    Richard married Eva Aoife Mac Murchada, Countess Pembroke 26 Aug 1171, Waterford, Ireland. Eva (daughter of Dermot Dairmait Mac Murchada, King of Leinster and Mor Tauthail Moringen Murchertaig O'Toole, Queen of Ireland) was born 26 Apr 1141, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland; died 0___ 1188, Waterford, Ireland; was buried Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales. [Group Sheet]


  6. 85.  Eva Aoife Mac Murchada, Countess Pembroke was born 26 Apr 1141, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland (daughter of Dermot Dairmait Mac Murchada, King of Leinster and Mor Tauthail Moringen Murchertaig O'Toole, Queen of Ireland); died 0___ 1188, Waterford, Ireland; was buried Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales.
    Children:
    1. 42. Richard de Clare, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hertford was born ~ 1153, Tonbridge Castle, Kent, England; died 28 Nov 1217.
    2. Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke was born 0___ 1172, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 14 Oct 1217, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; was buried Tintern Abbey, Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales.

  7. 86.  William FitzRobert, Knight, 2nd Earl of Gloucester was born 23 Nov 1116, (Wales) (son of Robert FitzRoy, Knight, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Mabel FitzHamon, Countess of Gloucester); died 23 Nov 1183, (Wales).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: William Lord of Glamorgan

    Notes:

    William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester (died 1183) was the son and heir of Sir Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester, and Mabel FitzRobert of Gloucester, daughter of Robert Fitzhamon.

    Lineage

    William FitzRobert was the son of Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester, an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England, during whose reign William was born. Thus William was a nephew of the Empress Maud and a cousin of King Stephen, the principal combatants of the English Anarchy period. It also meant that William is the great-grandson of the famed William the Conqueror.

    Early career[edit]
    In October 1141, William looked after the Baronial estates, when his father fell into the hands of partisans at Winchester. His father was exchanged for King Stephen, and during his father's absence in Normandy in 1144 he served as Governor of Wareham. In 1147, he overthrew Henry de Tracy at Castle Cary.

    In 1154 he made an alliance with Roger de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford, by which they agreed to aid each other against all men except Henry II of England.

    FitzRobert granted Neath, a town in Glamorgan, a charter. He was Lord of the manor of Glamorgan, as well as Caerleon, residing chiefly at Cardiff Castle. It was there that in 1158 he and his wife and son were captured by the Welsh Lord of Senghenydd, Ifor Bach ("Ivor the Little") and carried away into the woods, where they were held as prisoners until the Earl redressed Ivor's grievances.

    Relationship with King Henry II

    In 1173 the earl took the King's part against his sons, but thereafter he appears to have fallen under suspicion, for the following year he submitted to the King, and in 1175 surrendered to him Bristol Castle. Because his only son and heir Robert died in 1166, Earl William made John, the younger son of King Henry II, heir to his earldom, in conformity with the King's promise that John should marry one of the Earl's daughters, if the Church would allow it, they being related in the third degree.

    Earl William was present in March 1177 when the King arbitrated between the Kings of Castile and Navarre, and in 1178, he witnessed Henry's charter to Waltham Abbey. But during the King's struggles with his sons, when he imprisoned a number of magnates of whose loyalty he was doubtful, Earl William was among them.

    Family and children

    He was married to Hawise de Beaumont of Leicester, daughter of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester and Amica de Gael and had children:

    Robert fitz William (1151, Cardiff, Glamorganshire – 1166, Cardiff, Glamorganshire).
    Mabel fitz William, married Amaury V de Montfort, her son Amaury briefly being Earl of Gloucester
    Amice fitz William, d. 1220. Married Richard de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford, their descendants eventually inherited the Earldom of Gloucester
    Isabel, Countess of Gloucester. She was married three times:
    Prince John
    Geoffrey FitzGeoffrey de Mandeville, 2nd Earl of Essex, Earl of Gloucester
    Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent
    The earl died in 1183; his wife Hawise survived him. Since their only son, Robert, predeceased his father, their daughters became co-heirs to the feudal barony of Gloucester.

    Notes

    William Lord of Glamorgan was also known as Robert de Wintona according to records found in English historical ledgers.

    William — Hawise de Beaumont. Hawise (daughter of Robert de Beaumont, Knight, 2nd Earl of Leicester and Amice de Montfort, Countess of Leicester) was born Leicestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 87.  Hawise de Beaumont was born Leicestershire, England (daughter of Robert de Beaumont, Knight, 2nd Earl of Leicester and Amice de Montfort, Countess of Leicester).
    Children:
    1. 43. Amice FitzWilliam, 4th Countess of Gloucester was born 0___ 1160, Gloucestershire, England; died 1220-1225.

  9. 88.  Philip de Braose, Knight, 2nd Lord Bramber was born 0___ 1073, Bramber, West Sussex, England (son of William de Braose, Knight, 1st Lord of Bramber and (Eve de Boissey)); died 1131-1139, Bramber, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Lord of Builth and Radnor

    Notes:

    Born 1065 at the latest.
    Died between 1131 and 1139

    Philip is recorded as consenting to his father's gifts to his canons at St Nicholas church at Bramber in 1073. He confirmed those gifts to the abbey of St Florent in 1096 after the death of his father.

    Old Shoreham was part of Philip's demesne lands where St Nicolas church (right) had stood since Saxon times. Philip expanded trade in the area by founding the port of New Shoreham.

    He became the first Braose Lord of Builth and Radnor, the family's initial holding in the Welsh Marches.

    Orderic Vitalis (Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, Book IX, Chapter IV) relates that Philip submitted his fortress in Normandy to King William II in 1096 and supported the king against his brother Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy. But, like Robert, Philip may have left Normandy at this time and joined the First Crusade to the Holy Land, returning in 1103. There is evidence in charters that Philip journeyed to the Holy Land but the date of his visit is uncertain.

    Philip's lands were confiscated by Henry I in 1110, due to his traitrous support of William, son of Robert Curthose, but they were returned in 1112.

    Father: William de Braose, 1st Lord of Bramber

    Mother: Eve de Boissey (probably)

    There are charters where Robert de Harcourt's sons, Philip and Richard, refer to Philip de Braose as "patruus" - paternal uncle. This lends weight to the theory that Robert de Harcourt and Philip de Braose were both sons of Eve de Boissey. In another record dated 1103 (Pipe Roll Soc. Vol 71 no 544) it is stated that Philip de Braose was represented by "his brother Robert, the son of Anketill".

    Philip's sealPhilip was married to Aanor, daughter of Judael (Johel) of Totnes.

    Child 1: William de Braose, 3rd Lord of Bramber

    Child 2: Philip

    Child 3: Basilia

    Child 4: Gillian

    Child 5: A daughter who married William de Tregoz, the father of Philip de Tregoz who was sheriff of Sussex in 1190. (see evidence here and here )

    Philip married Aanor de Totnes 0___ 1104, Barnstaple, Devonshire, England. Aanor was born 0___ 1084, Barnstaple, Devonshire, England; died Barnstaple, Devonshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  10. 89.  Aanor de Totnes was born 0___ 1084, Barnstaple, Devonshire, England; died Barnstaple, Devonshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Aenor De TOTNES

    Children:
    1. 44. William de Braose, Knight, 3rd Lord of Bramber was born 0___ 1135, (Bramber, Sussex, England); died > 1179.

  11. 90.  Miles of Gloucester, Knight, 1st Earl of Hereford was born 1092-1100, Gloucestershire, England; died 24 Dec 1143.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Constable of England
    • Occupation: High Sheriff of Gloucester
    • Also Known As: Lord Brecknock
    • Also Known As: Miles FitzWalter de Pitres

    Notes:

    Miles FitzWalter of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford, Lord of Brecknock (died 24 December 1143) was High Sheriff of Gloucester and Constable of England.[a]

    Biography

    Miles was the son and heir of Walter of Gloucester, hereditary castellan of Gloucester and sheriff of Gloucester, by Berta, his wife.[1] Miles' grandfather, Roger de Pitres, had been sheriff from about 1071, then was succeeded by his brother Durand, the Domesday sheriff, before 1083.[2] Durand was succeeded by his nephew Walter of Gloucester, c.?1096, who was sheriff in 1097 and in 1105–1106.[2] Walter was in favour with Henry I, three of whose charters to him are extant.[3] Walter held the post of a Constable of England. Early in 1121 his son Miles was given the hand of Sibyl, daughter of Bernard de Neufmarchâe, the conqueror of Brecknock, with the reversion of her father's possessions.[3] In the Pipe Roll of 1130 Walter is found to have been succeeded by his son,[4] having died in or around 1126.[5]

    Miles was (from 1128 at least) sheriff of Gloucestershire, a justice itinerant, and a justice of the forest,[6] and by 1130 was sheriff of Staffordshire.[5] He had also (though the fact has been doubted) been granted his father's office of constable by a special charter.[7] In conjunction with Pain Fitzjohn, sheriff of Herefordshire and Shropshire, he ruled the whole Welsh border "from the Severn to the sea".[8]

    On his accession, King Stephen set himself to secure the allegiance of these two lords-marchers, who at length, on receiving a safe-conduct and obtaining all they asked for, did him homage.[8] It was at Reading that they met the king early in 1136.[b] Miles is next found attending the Easter court at Westminster as one of the royal constables,[9] and, shortly after, the Oxford council in the same capacity.[10] He was then despatched to the aid of the widow of Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare, who was beleaguered in her castle by the Welsh and whom he gallantly rescued.[11]

    Meanwhile, Miles had married his son and heir, Roger, to Cecily, daughter of Pain Fitzjohn, who inherited the bulk of her father's possessions.[12] In the same year 1136 Miles transferred the original house of Augustinian canons at Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire to a site on the south side of Gloucester, which they named Llanthony Secunda.[13][14]

    Two years later (1138) Miles received, in his official capacity, King Stephen at Gloucester in May.[15] He has been said to have renounced his allegiance a few weeks later,[16] but careful investigation will show that he was with Stephen in August (1138) at the siege of Shrewsbury, and that his defection did not take place till 1139.[17]

    In February 1139 Stephen gave Gloucester Abbey to Miles's kinsman Gilbert Foliot at his request.[18] In the summer of 1139, however, he joined his lord, Robert, Earl of Gloucester, in inviting Empress Matilda to England.[19] On her arrival Miles met her at Bristol, welcomed her to Gloucester, recognised her as his rightful sovereign, and became thenceforth her ardent supporter. She at once gave him St. Briavels Castle and the Forest of Dean.[17]

    Miles's first achievement on behalf of Matilda was to relieve Brian Fitz Count who was blockaded in Wallingford Castle.[20] In November (1139) he again advanced from Gloucester and attacked and burnt Worcester.[21] He also captured the castles of Winchcombe, Cerne, and Hereford.[22] Meanwhile, he was deprived by Stephen of his office of constable.[23] He took part in the victory at Lincoln (2 February 1141),[24] and on the consequent triumph of the empress he accompanied her in her progress, and was one of her three chief followers on her entry (2 March) into Winchester.[25] He was with her at Reading when she advanced on London,[26] and on reaching St. Albans Matilda bestowed on him a house at Westminster.[27] He was among those who fled with her from London shortly after, and it was on his advice, when they reached Gloucester, that she ventured back to Oxford.[28] There, on 25 July 1141, she bestowed on him the town and castle of Hereford and made him earl of that shire,[29] as well as the forests of the Hay of Hereford and Trinela[30] in avowed consideration of his faithful service. With singular unanimity hostile chroniclers testify to his devotion to her cause.[22] He even boasted that she had lived at his expense throughout her stay in England.[31]

    As "Earl Miles" he now accompanied her to Winchester,[32] and on the rout of her forces on 14 September 1141 he escaped, with the greatest difficulty, to Gloucester, where he arrived "exhausted, alone, and with scarcely a rag to his back".[33] Towards the end of the year he was in Bristol making a grant to Llanthony Priory in the presence of the Empress Matilda and the Robert, Earl of Gloucester.[34] In 1142 he is proved by charters to have been with the Empress at Oxford and to have received her permission to hold Abergavenny Castle of Brian Fitz Count.[35] It is probably to the summer of this year that he made a formal deed of alliance with the Earl of Gloucester, and as a hostage for the performance of which he gave the Earl his son Mahel.[17]

    In 1143 his pressing want of money wherewith to pay his troops led him to demand large sums from the church lands. Robert de Bethune, Bishop of Hereford, withstood his demands, and, on the Earl invading his lands, excommunicated him and his followers, and laid the diocese under interdict.[36] The Earl's kinsman, Gilbert Foliot (Abbot of Gloucester),[37] appealed to the legate on his behalf against the bishop's severity.[38] On Christmas-eve of this year (1143) the Earl was slain while hunting by an arrow shot at a deer.[39] A dispute at once arose for possession of his body between the canons of Llanthony and the monks of Gloucester. The case was heard before the bishops of Worcester, Hereford, and St. David's, and was terminated by a compromise on 28 December. The Earl was then buried in the chapter-house at Llanthony.[40]

    With his death in 1143, Miles was succeeded by his son and heir, Roger.[17] Roger died without an heir twelve years later in 1155 so the Earldom of Hereford became extinct, but the shrievalty of Hereford and Gloucester passed to his brother Walter. On the death of the latter and two other brothers without issue the family possessions passed to their sisters, Bertha through her marriage bringing Abergavenny to Braose, but Margaret, the eldest sister, taking the bulk (Liber Niger) to the Bohuns afterwards (1199), in recognition of their descent from Miles, earls of Hereford, and constables of England.[41]

    Assessment

    John of Salisbury classes him with Geoffrey de Mandeville and others who were non tam comites regni quam hostes publici. The charge is justified by his public policy; but the materials for appraising his personal character do not exist.[42]

    Family

    In 1121, Miles married Sibyl de Neufmarchâe, daughter of Bernard de Neufmarchâe, Lord of Brecon and Nest, granddaughter of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn.[43] Miles and Sybil's children where:

    Margaret of Hereford,[5][44] married Humphrey II de Bohun, by whom she had issue.
    Bertha of Hereford,[45] married William de Braose before 1150, by whom she had issue.
    Roger Fitzmiles, 2nd Earl of Hereford.[46] Hereditary Sheriff of Gloucestershire until 1155.
    Walter de Hereford[46] died after 1159 in the Holy Land. He was hereditary Sheriff of Gloucestershire in 1155–1157 and High Sheriff of Herefordshire in 1155–1159.
    Henry Fitzmiles Henry of Hereford,[44] died 12 April 1165. He succeeded to the title of Baron Abergavenny in 1141/42.
    William de Hereford.[44] He died before 1160 without issue.
    Mahel de Hereford,[44] died October 1165 at Bronllys Castle, Breconshire, Wales, mortally hurt when a stone dropped from the tower during a fire; died without issue. Buried at Llanthony Priory.
    Lucy of Gloucester,[47] married Herbert FitzHerbert of Winchester, Lord Chamberlain, by whom she had issue. Buried at Llanthony Priory.

    Notes

    Jump up ^ In some sources Miles's name is not translated from the Latin Milo
    Jump up ^ "[This is known] from two charters there tested, one of which was printed by Madox (History of the Exchequer, p. 135), by which Stephen confirms to Miles, 'sicut baroni et justiciario meo', the shrievalty of Gloucestershire, the constableship of Gloucester Castle, and the 'honour' of Brecknock" (Round 1890, p. 438).
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1926, pp. 451–452.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Morris 1918, p. 154, n. 62.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Round 1890, p. 438 cites Duchy of Lancaster: Royal Charters.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 438 cites Rot. Pip.. 31 Hen. I.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c Walker 2012, "Gloucester, Miles of".
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 438.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 438 cites Dugdale MSS.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Round 1890, p. 438 cites Gesta Stephani, p. 17.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 438 cites Rymer, Fœdera, new ed. i. 16.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 438 cites Rich. Hexham, p. 149.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Gesta, p. 13.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Duchy Charters.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Mon. Angl. vi. (1), 127, 132.
    Jump up ^ Ward1995, p. 107.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Cont. Flor. Wig. ii. 105.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439; Norgate 1887, p. 295.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Round 1890, p. 439.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439; Norgate 1887, pp. 493, 494.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439; Norgate 1887, pp. 294, 295.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Gesta, p. 59.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Cont. Flor. Wig. p. 119.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Round 1890, p. 439 cites Gesta, p. 60.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Cont. Flor. Wig. p. 121.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Gesta, p. 69.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Cont. Flor. Wig. p. 130; Will. Malm. p. 743.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Add. Cart. pp. 19, 576.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Duchy Charters, No. 16.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Cont. Flor. Wig. p. 132.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Fœdera, i. 14.
    Jump up ^ Francis Beaufort Palmer (February 2007), Peerage Law in England, Lawbook Exchange, ISBN 9781584777489, 1584777486 See Appendix, p242; also Theophilus Jones (1805), A history of the county of Brecknock (A history of the county of Brecknock. ed.), Brecknock: Printed and sold by Wm. & Geo. North ... for the author; and sold by J. Booth ... London. p67
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Cont. Flor. Wig. p. 133.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Gesta, p. 79
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Cont. Flor. Wig. p. 135.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Mon. Angl. vi. 137.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Duchy Charters, No. 17.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Gesta, p. 102; Mon. Angl. vi. (1), 133.
    Jump up ^ Knowles, Brooke & London 1972, p. 52–53.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Foliot, Letters, No. 3.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Symeon of Durham ii. 315; Gervase, i. 126; Gesta, pp. 16, 95, 103.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 439 cites Gloucester Cartulary, i. lxxv; Foliot, Letters, No. 65.
    Jump up ^ Round 1890, p. 440.
    Jump up ^ Chisholm 1911, pp. 479.
    Jump up ^ Roderick 1968, p. 5.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Lundy 2011, p. 10257 cite Cokayne 2000, p. 21
    Jump up ^ Lundy 2011, p. 10257 cite Cokayne 2000a, p. 457
    ^ Jump up to: a b Lundy 2011, p. 10257 cite Cokayne 2000, p. 20
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012 cites Dugdale 1823, p. 615

    References

    Cawley, Charles (10 April 2012), English Earls 1067–1122: Miles of Gloucester (–1143), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
    Dugdale, William, Sir (1823), ""Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartµ I"", Monasticon Anglicanum, 4 (Revised ed.), London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Browne, p. 615
    Cokayne, George Edward (1926), Doubleday, H. A.; Walden, Howard de, eds., The Complete Peerage; or, a History of the House of Lords and all its members from the earliest times, 6, London: The St. Catherine Press
    Knowles, David; Brooke, Christopher; London, Veria (1972), The Heads of Religious Houses: England and Wales 940–1216, Cambridge University Press, pp. 52–53, ISBN 0-521-08367-2
    Lundy, Darryl (17 May 2011). "Miles of Gloucester". p. 10257 § 102564. Retrieved November 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
    Cokayne, George E (2000), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, 1 (new, reprint in 6 volumes ed.), Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, pp. 20, 21
    Cokayne, George E (2000a), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, 4 (new, reprint in 6 volumes ed.), Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, p. 457
    Morris, W.A (April 1918), "The Office of Sheriff in the Early Norman Period", The English Historical Review, 33 (130): 145–175, doi:10.1093/ehr/xxxiii.cxxx.145
    Norgate, Kate (1887), England under the Angevin Kings, 1, London: Macmillan
    Roderick, A. J. (June 1968), "Marriage and Politics in Wales, 1066–1282", The Welsh History Review, 4 (1): 1–20
    Ward, Jennifer C (1995), Women of the English nobility and gentry, 1066–1500, Manchester medieval sources series, Manchester: Manchester University Press, p. 107, ISBN 0-7190-4115-5, retrieved 25 October 2010
    Walker, David (May 2012) [2004]. "Gloucester, Miles of, earl of Hereford (d. 1143)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/10820. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
    B Thorpe, 1848–1849) (ed.), Continuation of Florence of Worcester
    The Cartulary of Gloucester Abbey (Rolls series);
    Round, John Horace (1892), Geoffrey de Mandeville
    Domesday Book, (Record Commission);
    Rymer, Thomas, Fœdera, (Record Commission), i (new ed.);
    Pipe Roll, 31 Hen. I (Record Commission);
    Cartulary of St. Peter's, Gloucester, (Rolls Ser.);
    Symeon of Durham, Regum Historia, (Rolls Ser.);
    "Gesta Stephani", Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, &c, (Rolls Ser.), ii;
    Gervase of Canterbury, Chronica, (Rolls Ser.);
    Florence of Worcester (1848–49), Thorpe, Benjamin, ed., Florentii Wigorniensis monachi Chronicon ex chronicis (2 volumes ed.), English Historical Society
    William of Malmesbury, Chronicle of the Kings of England: From the Earliest Period to the Reign of King Stephen, English Historical Society;
    Dugdale, Sir William, Westrum Monasticum, Bodleian Library;
    Additional Charters, (British Museum);
    Duchy of Lancaster Charters, Public Record Office;
    Dugdale, William, Sir (1823), Monasticon Anglicanum
    Madox, Thomas, History of the Exchequer;
    Hearne, Thomas, ed. (1728), Liber Niger Scaccarii;
    Foliot, Gilbert, "Letters", in Giles, John Allen, Patres Ecclesiµ Anglicanµ;
    Crawley-Boevey, Arthur William, Cartulary of Flaxley Abbey;
    Ellis, A. S. (1879–1880). "On the Landholders of Gloucestershire named in Domesday Book". Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. 4 vol.: 86–198.
    Walker, David (1958). "Miles of Gloucester, Earl of Hereford". Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. 77: 66–84.

    Miles married Sibyl de Neufmarche, Countess of Hereford 0___ 1121, Gloucestershire, England. Sibyl (daughter of Bernard de Neufmarche, Lord of Brecknockshire and Nest Verch Osborn le Scrope) was born ~ 1100, Brecon Castle, Brecon, Wales; died 24 Dec 1143, Llanthony Secunda, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Llanthony Secunda Priory, Gloucestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 91.  Sibyl de Neufmarche, Countess of Hereford was born ~ 1100, Brecon Castle, Brecon, Wales (daughter of Bernard de Neufmarche, Lord of Brecknockshire and Nest Verch Osborn le Scrope); died 24 Dec 1143, Llanthony Secunda, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Llanthony Secunda Priory, Gloucestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Burial: Hempsted, Gloucestershire, England
    • Also Known As: Lady of Brecknock
    • Also Known As: Sybil de Neufmarche NEWMARCH
    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1092, Aberhonddu, Breconshire, Wales

    Notes:

    Sibyl de Neufmarchâe, Countess of Hereford, suo jure Lady of Brecknock (c. 1100 – after 1143), was a Cambro-Norman noblewoman, heiress to one of the most substantial fiefs in the Welsh Marches. The great-granddaughter of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, king of Wales, Sibyl was also connected to the nobility of England and Normandy. Sibyl inherited the titles and lands of her father, Bernard de Neufmarchâe, Lord of Brecon, after her mother, Nest ferch Osbern, had declared her brother Mahel to have been illegitimate. Most of these estates passed to Sibyl's husband, Miles de Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford, as her dowry. Their marriage had been arranged personally by King Henry I of England in the spring of 1121. Sibyl, with her extensive lands, was central to the King's plans of consolidating Anglo-Norman power in south-east Wales by the merging of her estates with those of Miles, his loyal subject on whom he relied to implement Crown policy.

    As an adult, Sibyl lived through King Stephen's turbulent reign, known to history as the Anarchy, in which her husband played a pivotal role. Following Miles' accidental death in 1143, Sibyl entered a religious life at Llanthony Secunda Priory, Gloucestershire, England, which she had endowed up to six years previously. Sibyl is buried at the priory, founded by Miles in 1136.

    Family

    Ancestry

    A small, ruined castle of rough stone comprising two connected, castellated towers, partly covered in ivy, surrounded by much vegetation. Numerous arrowslits indicate the walls to be three to four storeys tall. The upward direction of the image suggests that the castle is at the top of a hill
    Ruins of Brecon castle
    Sibyl's birthplace and a part of her vast inheritance
    Sibyl was born in about 1100 in Brecon Castle, Brecon, Wales, the only daughter of Marcher Lord Bernard de Neufmarchâe, Lord of Brecon, and Nest ferch Osbern.[1][2] Nest was the daughter of Osbern FitzRichard and Nest ferch Gruffydd.[2] Sybil's maternal great-grandparents were Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, king of Wales, and Ealdgyth (Edith of Mercia).[2][3] Ealdgyth, the daughter of ¥lfgar, Earl of Mercia, was briefly Queen consort of England by her second marriage to Harold Godwinson, the last Anglo-Saxon king of England, who was killed at the Battle of Hastings.[4]

    Sibyl's father, Bernard, was born at the castle of Le Neuf-Marchâe-en-Lions, on the frontier between Normandy and Beauvais.[5] Bernard was a knight who had fought under English kings William I, William Rufus and Henry I.[6] According to historian Lynn H Nelson, Bernard de Neufmarchâe was "the first of the original conquerors of Wales".[7] He led the Norman army at the Battle of Brecon in 1093, during which Rhys ap Tewdwr was killed.[6][8] Kingship in Wales ended with Rhys' death, and allowed Bernard to confirm his hold on Brycheiniog, becoming the first ruler of the lordship of Brecon.[8] The title and lands would remain in his family's possession until 1521.[9] The name Neufmarchâe, Novo Mercato in Latin, is anglicised into 'Newmarket' or 'Newmarch'.[10][a][11]

    Inheritance

    Sibyl had two brothers, Philip, who most likely died young, and Mahel. Nest had Mahel disinherited by swearing to King Henry I of England that Mahel had been fathered by another man. According to Giraldus Cambrensis, this was done out of vengeance when Mahel had multilated Nest's lover, a knight whose identity is not disclosed.[10] In the 19th century, Bernard Bolingbroke Woodward proposed that, after Bernard's death, Nest "disgraced herself with an intrigue" with one of his soldiers. Mahel, who had by this time inherited Bernard's estates, disapproved of the liaison to such an extent that he killed Nest's lover. Nest's revenge was to have Mahel disinherited by claiming that Bernard was not Mahel's father.[12] The maritagium (marriage charter) arranged by King Henry I in 1121 for the marriage between Sibyl and her future husband Miles, however, makes it clear that Bernard was still alive when it was written; showing Bernard Bolingbroke Woodward's version of the story to diverge from the known facts.[13] Author Jennifer C. Ward suggests that, although the marriage charter recorded that King Henry was acting at the request of Bernard, Nest, and the barons, it was probable he had put considerable pressure on the Neufmarchâes to disinherit Mahel in favour of Sibyl and, thereby, Miles.[14] Nevertheless, whatever the timing or reason, the outcome of Nest's declaration was that Sibyl (whom Nest acknowledged as Bernard's child) became the sole lawful heiress to the vast Lordship of Brecon, one of the most important and substantial fiefs in the Welsh Marches.[15] Henry's maritagium referred specifically to Sibyl's parents' lands as "comprising Talgarth, the forest of Ystradwy, the castle of Hay, the whole land of Brecknock, up to the boundaries of the land of Richard Fitz Pons,[b] namely up to Brecon and Much Cowarne, a vill in England";[16] the fees and services of several named individuals were also granted as part of the dowry.[16] This made her suo jure Lady of Brecknock on her father's death, and one of the wealthiest heiresses in south Wales.[17][18]

    Marriage

    Medieval illumination

    King Henry I of England who granted Sibyl in marriage to Miles de Gloucester Sometime in April or May 1121, Sibyl married Miles (or Milo) FitzWalter de Gloucester,[19] who on his father's death in 1129, became sheriff of Gloucester,[20] and Constable of England.[21][22] The marriage was personally arranged by King Henry I, to whom Miles was a trusted royal official.[13][23] A charter written in Latin (the maritagium), which dates to 10 April/29 May 1121, records the arrangements for the marriage of Sibyl and Miles.[13][24] Historian C. Warren Hollister found the charter's wording telling, noting that "the king gave the daughter as if he were making a grant of land": "Know that I [King Henry I] have given and firmly granted to Miles of Gloucester Sibyl, daughter of Bernard de Neufmarchâe, together with all the lands of Bernard her father and of her mother after their deaths … ".[13][25] Her parents' lands would be conveyed to Miles after their deaths or earlier during "their life if they so wish".[13] Henry also commanded that the fief's tenants were to pay Miles liege homage as their lord.[13]

    By arranging a series of matrimonial alliances, similar to that between Sibyl and Miles, King Henry I of England transformed "the map of territorial power in south-east Wales". Such arrangements were mutually advantageous. Hollister describes Miles' marriage to Sibyl as having been a "crucial breakthrough in his career". The new lords, in similar positions to Miles, were the King's own loyal vassals, on whom he could rely to implement royal policy.[25][26] Sibyl's father died sometime before 1128 (most probably in 1125), and Miles came into possession of her entire inheritance, which when merged with his own estates, formed one honour.[6][27]

    Children

    Together Sibyl and Miles had eight children:[original research?][28][not in citation given]

    Margaret of Hereford (1122/1123- 6 April 1197), married Humphrey II de Bohun, by whom she had children. She received the office of constable of England and exercised lordship of Herefordshire as a widow until her death.[29]

    Roger Fitzmiles, 2nd Earl of Hereford (before 1125- 22 September 1155). Roger's marriage settlement with Cecily FitzJohn (her first marriage), daughter of Payn FitzJohn and Sibyl de Lacy, was ratified by King Stephen in 1137.[18] The marriage was childless as were Cecily's subsequent marriages.

    Walter de Hereford (died 1159/60), whether he married is unknown; however, Walter departed for Palestine on Michaelmas 1159, and died shortly afterwards without leaving legitimate issue[30][31]

    Henry Fitzmiles (died c.1162), married a woman named Isabella, surname unknown; Henry died without legitimate issue.

    Mahel de Hereford (died 1164), no record of marriage; died without legitimate issue.

    William de Hereford (died 1166), no record of marriage; died without legitimate issue.

    Bertha of Hereford (c.1130-), married William de Braose, 3rd Lord of Bramber, by whom she had issue.

    Lucy of Hereford, Lady of Blaen Llyfni and Bwlch y Dinas (died 1219/20), married Herbert FitzHerbert of Winchester, by whom she had issue.

    The Anarchy

    Medieval illumination
    Stephen of Blois
    whose chaotic reign in England became known as the Anarchy
    After Henry I's death in 1135, the throne of England was seized by Stephen of Blois, a grandson of William I of England. Henry's daughter, Empress Matilda (Maud), also claimed the throne, and had the support of the Marcher Lords. On the death of her husband, the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V, in 1125, Matilda had returned to England for the first time in 16 years. At the insistence of her father, the barons (including Stephen) swore to uphold Matilda's rights as his heir. Matilda married Geoffrey of Anjou in 1128. They lived together in France, having three sons; the eldest of whom was to become King Henry II of England.[32] Initially, Miles supported Stephen.[33] In about 1136, Stephen granted Sibyl's husband the entire honour of Gloucester and Brecknock, and appointed him Constable of Gloucester Castle,[34] whereby Miles became known as one of Stephen's "henchmen".[33]

    Llanthony Priory had been established near Crucorney, in the Vale of Ewyas, in 1118; Wales' earliest Augustine monastery. Miles' father, Walter de Gloucester, had retired there by 1126.[23] The unrest that had been simmering in Wales during the last years of Henry's reign, boiled over in 1135 on his death. The area around the priory returned to Welsh rule, coming under such “hostile mollestation” from the Welsh that the non-Welsh canons decided to leave.[18][35][36][37] Miles established a new Priory for them in Gloucester, England, which they called Llanthony Secunda, in 1136.[38] Sometime after 1137, Sibyl, together with her husband, made a further endowment to Llanthony Secunda.[34]

    Medieval illumination
    Empress Matilda
    whom Sibyl supported
    in opposition to King Stephen
    Miles transferred his allegiance to Empress Matilda, on her return to England in 1139.Matthew 2002, pp. 95, 96 According to Professor Edmund King, Miles' decision to support Matilda was guided by expediancy rather than principle, and the necessity of joining forces with Matilda's illegitimate half-brother, the powerful Robert, Earl of Gloucester, who was the overlord of some of Miles' fiefs.[17] Stephen stripped Miles of the title 'Constable of England' in punishment for having deserted him. On 25 July 1141, in gratitude for his support and military assistance and, according to historian R.H.C. Davis, possibly to compensate Miles for having appeared to have lost the constableship, Matilda invested him as 1st Earl of Hereford.[39] He also received St. Briavels Castle and the Forest of Dean. At the time Matilda was the de facto ruler of England, Stephen having been imprisoned at Bristol following his capture the previous February after the Battle of Lincoln. Sibyl was styled Countess of Hereford, until Miles' unexpected death over two years later. In 1141, Miles received the honour of Abergavenny from Brien FitzCount, the (likely illegitimate) son of Duke Alan IV of Brittany. This was in appreciation of the skilled military tactics Miles had deployed which had spared Brien's castle of Wallingford during King Stephen's besiegement in 1139/1140. Matilda gave her permission for the transfer.[40]

    During the Anarchy, which the period of Stephen's reign as King of England was to become known, life was greatly disrupted in her husband's lands. Sibyl would have doubtless suffered as a result, especially after Miles' decision to support Matilda's claim to the throne and to oppose Stephen.[33] When Matilda was defeated at Winchester in late 1141, Miles was compelled to return to Gloucester in disgrace: "weary, half-naked and alone".[41] In November of that same year, Stephen was released from prison and restored to the English throne.[18]

    Sibyl's distress would have been heightened in 1143 after the Bishop of Hereford, Robert de Bethune placed an interdict upon Hereford, blocked all the cathedral's entrances with thorns, and excommunicated Miles. In order to raise money to pay his troops and to assist Matilda financially, Miles had imposed a levy on all the churches in his earldom, an act which the bishop had regarded as unlawful.[23][42] When the bishop protested and threatened Miles with excommunication, Miles in response, sent his men to plunder the diocese of its resources.[23] In retaliation against Miles' earlier attacks on the royalist city of Worcester and the castles of Hereford and Wallingford, King Stephen bestowed the title "Earl of Hereford" on Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester; Miles, however, never surrendered the earldom nor the title to Robert de Beaumont.[42]

    Widowhood and death

    While on a deer-hunting expedition in his own Forest of Dean, Sibyl's husband was accidentally shot in the chest by an arrow which killed him on 24 December 1143.[41][43] He had been involved in legal proceedings against the bishop's jurisdiction when he died.[42] Their eldest son, Roger succeeded him in the earldom.[22] In protest against his father's excommunication, Roger remained an outspoken enemy of the Church until close to the end of his life when he entered a Gloucester monastery as a monk.[43][44] After her husband's death, Sibyl entered a religious life at Llanthony Secunda Priory, Gloucester,[38] which she had previously endowed.[34] Sibyl was buried in the same priory,[45] the dates of death and burial unrecorded.[citation needed]

    Sibyl's legacy

    Upon the childless death of Roger in 1155, the Earldom of Hereford fell into abeyance until 1199 when King John bestowed the title on Henry de Bohun, Sibyl's grandson through her eldest daughter, Margaret. As her sons all died without legitimate offspring, Sibyl's three daughters became co-heirs to the Brecon honour, with Bertha, the second daughter, passing Sibyl's inheritance on (through marriage) to the de Braoses, thereby making them one of the most powerful families in the Welsh Marches.[46][47]

    The Brecknock lordship would eventually go to the de Bohuns, by way of Eleanor de Braose. Eleanor, a descendant of Sibyl's through Bertha of Hereford,[c] married Humphrey de Bohun, son of the 2nd Earl of Hereford. Eleanor and Humphrey's son, Humphrey de Bohun, succeeded his grandfather to the titles in 1275.[48]

    Through the advantageous marriages of her daughters, Sibyl was an ancestress of many of England and Ireland's noblest families including among others, the de Bohun's, de Beauchamps, Mortimers, Fitzalans, de Burghs, de Lacy's, and Bonvilles. Four of her descendants, Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster, Eleanor de Bohun, and Mary de Bohun married into the English royal family, while another, Anne Mortimer was the grandmother of Yorkist kings Edward IV and Richard III. By way of Edward's daughter, Elizabeth of York, every monarch of England and, subsequently, the United Kingdom, from Henry VIII up to and including Elizabeth II, descended from Sibyl de Neufmarchâe, as did the various royal sovereigns of Europe who shared a common descent from Mary, Queen of Scots.[49]

    Notes

    Jump up ^ According to Gerald of Wales, when Bernard witnessed a charter issued by William I in 1086-87, he signed his name in Latin as Bernardus de Novo Mercato (Gerald of Wales, p.88)
    Jump up ^ Richard Fitz Pons was Miles' brother-in-law, being the husband of his sister, Matilda (Cawley 2012a, "English Earls 1067-1122: Matilda"; Cawley 2012b, "Richard FitzPons" cites Round 1888, Part I, 12, p. 20).
    Jump up ^ Cawley 2012d gives the lineage as:
    Bertha daughter of Sibylle de Neufmarchâe married William [II] de Briouse (died after 1175))
    William [III] de Briouse (died 1211)
    Reynold de Briouse (died 1227)
    William de Briouse (hanged 1230)
    Eleanor de Briouse

    end of biography

    Children:
    1. 45. Bertha of Hereford was born 0___ 1107, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England; died ~ 1180, Bramber, Sussex, England.
    2. Margaret of Hereford was born 1122-1123, England; died 6 Apr 1197; was buried Llanthony Secunda, Gloucestershire, England.


Generation: 8

  1. 160.  Rhys ap Tewdwr, King of Deheubarth was born 997, Carmarthenshire, Wales (son of Tudor Mawr Cadwell, Prince of South Wales and Gwenllian Verch Gwyn); died 0Apr 1093, Brecon, Wales.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: "last king fo the Britons"
    • Also Known As: Prince of South Wales
    • Also Known As: Prince of Wales
    • Also Known As: Rhys Ap TUDOR

    Notes:

    Rhys ap Tewdwr (before 1065 – 1093) was a king of Deheubarth in Wales and member of the Dinefwr dynasty, a branch descended from Rhodri the Great. He was born in the area which is now Carmarthenshire and died at the battle of Brecon in April 1093.

    Family

    Rhys ap Tewdwr, a member of the House of Dinefwr, claimed the throne of Deheubarth following the death of his second cousin Rhys ab Owain, who was beheaded after the battle of Gwdig (modern day Goodwick) against Caradog ap Gruffydd in 1078.

    He was a grandson of Cadell ab Einion ab Owain ab Hywel Dda, and a great-grandson of Einon ab Owain, thus a descendant of Hywel Dda, king of the Britons.[1]

    He married Gwladys ferch Rhiwallon daughter of Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn of the Mathrafal dynasty of Powys, by whom he had four sons, Gruffudd, Hywel ap Rhys[disambiguation needed], Goronwy and Cadwgan, and a daughter Nest who married Gerald de Windsor, Constable of Pembroke, progenitors of the FitzGerald and de Barry dynasties of Ireland. These Hiberno-Norman, or Cambro-Norman, families have been Peers of Ireland since at least the 14th century.

    The English variant of Tewdwr is Tudor. Henry Tudor, King of England was a matrilineal descendant of Rhys ap Tewdwr.

    Rule

    St. David's Cathedral today
    In 1081 Caradog ap Gruffydd invaded Deheubarth and drove Rhys to seek sanctuary in the St David's Cathedral.

    Rhys however made an alliance with Gruffudd ap Cynan who was seeking to regain the throne of the Kingdom of Gwynedd, and at the Battle of Mynydd Carn in the same year they defeated and killed Caradog ap Gruffydd and his allies Trahaearn ap Caradog of Gwynedd and Meilyr ap Rhiwallon.

    The same year William the Conqueror visited Deheubarth, ostensibly on a pilgrimage to St David's, but with a major show of power as well, traversing the width of southern Wales, and it seems likely he came to an arrangement with Rhys, whereby Rhys paid him homage and was confirmed in possession of Deheubarth. Rhys paid William ¹40 a year for his kingdom, ensuring good future relations with William that lasted until the end of his lifetime. Rhys was content with the arrangement as it meant that he only had to deal with the jealousy of his fellow Welsh princes.

    In 1088 Cadwgan ap Bleddyn of Powys attacked Deheubarth and forced Rhys to flee to Ireland. However, Rhys returned later the same year with a fleet from Ireland and defeated the men of Powys, in a battle in which two of Cadwgan's brothers, Madog and Rhiryd, were killed.

    In 1091 he faced another challenge in the form of an attempt to put Gruffydd, the son of Maredudd ab Owain, on the throne of Deheubarth. Rhys was able to defeat the rebels in a battle at St. Dogmaels, killing Gruffydd.

    Death and succession

    Part of the Welsh version of Brut y Tywysogion found in the Red Book of Hergest
    Rhys was unable to withstand the increasing Norman pressure. The Welsh Bruts (chronicles) state that "Rhys ap Tewdwr, king of Deheubarth, was slain by the Frenchmen who were inhabiting Brycheiniog." The Brut y Tywysogion adds "and with him fell the kingdom of the Britons". This passage lends evidence to the belief that the conquest of Brycheiniog (Brecon), led by Bernard de Neufmarche, was mostly finished by Eastertide 1093. The battle of Brecon opened the way to the conquest of Deheubarth.

    Upon Rhys's death, the Normans seized much of south Wales, and fighting over the spoils with the chieftains of Powys and Gwynedd. Eventually, Rhys's eldest son, Gruffydd, was allowed to inherit a small portion of his father's kingdom. Rhys's daughter Nest was briefly one of the numerous concubines of Henry I, to whom she bore a son, and thereafter the wife of Gerald FitzWalter of Pembroke; their sons and grandsons, the FitzGerald conquerors of Ireland, were known collectively as the "sons of Nest". Through his son Gruffydd, Rhys was an ancestor of the Tudor dynasty.

    end of biography

    HISTORY / Remember 1093 and all that?: David Keys reports on the forgotten anniversary of the Norman conquest of Wales

    THE YEAR of the Battle of Hastings - 1066 - is unquestionably the most famous date in English history. William the Conqueror and the possibly fictitious story of how King Harold perished from an arrow in his eye, have been drummed into the heads of countless schoolchildren. And back in 1966 half the nation celebrated the 900th anniversary.
    Yet this year a similarly significant anniversary (for at least part of the United Kingdom) is passing without even a murmur. Exactly 900 years ago, the year 1093 saw the start, in earnest, of the Norman conquest of Wales. It was a year of utter disaster for the Welsh. A series of young Norman freebooters marched into the south of the country and seized around 35 per cent of Wales. Already in the previous decade the northern third of the country had come under indirect Norman control.

    1093 was one of the most significant watershed dates in Welsh history. It marked the beginning of the anglicization of key parts of south Wales and the end of its independent kingship.

    A contemporary Welsh chronicler lamented that 1093 had witnessed 'the fall of the kingdom of the Britons'. Indeed the Welsh saw themselves as the heirs of the Ancient Britons, the word Welsh being an Anglo-Saxon term meaning 'foreigners' or even 'slaves'

    1093 would have been viewed by many Welsh as merely a recommencement of 'English' aggression against them - the Britons who had once (in pre-Anglo-Saxon times) controlled England as well as Wales. The sequence of events started at Easter when the ruler of south Wales - King Rhyf ap Tewdwr, King of Deheubarth (modern Dyfed) - was killed near Brecon in a battle against a coalition of Norman and local Welsh enemies. His death created a huge power vacuum into which thousands of competing Norman knights and English and other settlers poured.

    What was until recent years Brecknockshire came immediately under the control of Bernard of Neufmarche, a Norman baron who had married into a French family which had been settled in Herefordshire since before 1066. News of the Welsh king's death spread fast and King William II's probable gay lover - Robert Fitz Hammond - took over the whole of lowland Glamorgan at the instigation of the English king, who had already awarded him the lands traditionally held by successive queens of England.

    Then Arneulf of Montgomery marched across Wales, seized Pembrokeshire and took the title of Count. His rule was brief, for in 1101 he joined an abortive family rebellion against Henry I and as a result Pembrokeshire became Crown property and was settled by Flemish people imported for the purpose.

    Arneulf also took temporary control of South Carmarthenshire. Cardiganshire was also seized - by some of Arneulf's brothers - and although retaken by the Welsh in 1095, was reconquered by the Anglo-Normans 20 years later. In the east of Wales another young Norman nobleman, Philip de Briouze, had taken over much of what was, until recently, Radnorshire by 1095 and had erected a huge castle at Builth.

    Although the Norman conquest of South Wales was brazen enough, the situation in Wales as a whole was very complicated. In the 1080s in North Wales, Norman barons had gained indirect control through a series of puppet Welsh kings. Then in 1096 a minor Welsh prince Gruffudd ap Cynan, who had been kept prisoner by the Normans, was put on public display in the market place at Chester but was rescued while the Normans got drunk at a feast.

    Gruffudd drove the Norman barons out of much of North Wales - but then opted to become the agent of King Henry I in North Wales, ruling it on the Anglo-Norman king's behalf. Indeed on Henry's instruction he even tried to arrest the main Welsh resistance leader - the son of Rhys ap Pewdwr.

    To confuse matters still further, Rhys' son ran his resistance movement from the home of the Norman Lord of Pembroke. The battle lines were equally blurred in South Wales where Hywel ap Gronw - another agent of Henry I - was betrayed by the Welsh to the Norman barons in 1107. The confused situation stemmed from the fact that successive Norman kings, each Welsh ruler and each Norman baron in Wales, had different political agendas.

    In South Wales the events of 1093 had dire repercussions. Many Welsh freemen who stayed in the conquered areas would have lost status and wealth - and some may well have lost their freedom and become serfs. Most South Welsh nobles lost their power and many must have fled to the mountainous areas, some of which were not under the control of the Normans.

    The Welsh Church also suffered in the long term. Some married hereditary Welsh Catholic priests lost their lands to imported celibate Norman monks. Ultimately some 20 per cent of South Welsh land was given to Anglo-Norman religious houses. Upland Glamorgan and north-east Wales fell to the English between 1150 - 1280 while north-west Wales finally succumbed in 1286. The battle for Wales had taken almost 200 years.

    Yet the real launch date of the conquest of Wales - 1093 - has been largely forgotten and totally ignored. The contrast between this Welsh amnesia over 1093 and English enthusiasm over 1066 can perhaps best be explained by examing the two national identities. Wales still sees itself as a Celtic land - the land of the Britons - dominated by its English neighbour ever since the medieval conquest. Their rulers were (and are) the Norman kings of England and their successors - not the kings of Wales.

    Conversely England came to identify (and indeed still identifies) with its Norman originating monarchy. Under Norman leadership, England started on its path towards imperialist expansion (first within the British Isles and France - and then later in other parts of the world).

    1093 can be seen not only as the beginning of the conquest of Wales - but also, in some ways, as the launch date of the process of English expansion which was ultimately to see all of Britain and then half the world under London's control.

    Perhaps that is why 1066 and 1093 are today respectively remembered to such different degrees in England and Wales.

    end of article

    "House of Dinefwr"

    House of Dinefwr
    Flag of Deheubarth.svg
    Banner of the House of Dinefwr
    Country Wales
    Parent house House of Gwynedd
    Titles King of the Britons, King of Dyfed, King of Deheubarth, King of Powys, Prince of Seisyllwg, Prince of Gwynedd, Prince of Deheubarth
    Founded 854
    Founder Cadell ap Rhodri, Prince of Seisyllwg
    Cadet branches
    House of Mathrafal

    The House of Dinefwr was a royal house of Wales and refers to the descendants of Cadell ap Rhodri King of Seisyllwg, son of Rhodri the Great.

    With the death of Rhodri Mawr, the kingdom of Gwynedd passed to his eldest son Anarawd ap Rhodri. Rhodri's second son Cadell ap Rhodri, however, looked outside Gwynedd's traditional borders and took possession of the Dark Ages kingdom of Dyfed by the late 9th century, establishing his capital at the citadel of Dinefwr. Cadell ap Rhodri's descendants are designated Dinefwr after the citadel from which they would rule Dyfed. The Dinefwr dynasty under king Hywel Dda would unite Dyfed and Seisyllwg into the kingdom of Deheubarth in the early 10th century. The Dinefwr dynasty would rule in Deheubarth until their conquest by the Anglo-Normans in the 13th century. This branch would compete with House Aberffraw for supremacy and influence in Wales throughout the 10th, 11th, and 12th century, with Powys variously ruled between them. Eventually, a cadet branch of Dinefwr would establish itself in Powys by the mid 11th century, designated Mathrafal after the castle there.

    Descendant houses[edit]
    The Tudor dynasty of Wales and England were female line descendants of the House of Dinefwr through their ancestor Owen Tudor.

    The FitzGerald dynasty and related families of Ireland are female line descendants of the Welsh royal family through Nest, daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, last King of Deheubarth, whose descendants include Elizabeth I, John F. Kennedy, and Diana Princess of Wales.

    end of article

    Rhys Ap TUDORPrint Family Tree Rhys Ap Tewdwr /Deheubarth/ , Rhys (Prince of So.Wales) ap /Tudor (Tewdwr)/ , Rhys Ap /Tewdwr/ , Rhys ap (Tewdwr) /Tudor/ , Rhys ap /Tewdwr (Tudor)/ , Rhys /Ap Tewdwr/


    Born in 997 - Carmarthenshire, Wales
    Deceased in 1093 - Brecon, Breconshire, Wales , age at death: 96 years old

    Parents
    Tudor Mawr Ap (Prince of South Wales) CADWELL, born about 995 - Carmarthenshire, Wales, Deceased in 1056 - Breconshire, Wales age at death: possibly 61 years old
    Married to
    Gwenllian Verch GWYN, born in 1000 - Carmarthenshire, Wales, Deceased in 1069 - Wales age at death: 69 years old

    Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
    Married to Gwladus Verch RHIWALLON, born in 1041 - Powys, Wales, Deceased in 1139 - Wales age at death: 98 years old (Parents : M Rhiwallon Ap CYNFYN 1020-1070 & F ? ?) with
    M Hywel Ap RHYS ca 1065-1115 married to ? ? with
    F Margaret Verch HYWEL ca 1105- married about 1125, Monmouthshire, Wales, to (Rhydderch) Ap RHYDDERCH ca 1090- with :
    M Gronwy Ap ** RHYDDERCH 1118-
    F Nesta Verch (Mistress of Henry I) (Princess of Deheubarth) RHYS 1073-1163 married before 1095 to Henry I (Beauclerc) (KING OF ENGLAND) NORMANDY 1068-1135 with
    M Robert (Rufus - de Caen) (SIR - 1st Earl of Gloucester) FITZROY 1090-1147 married in 1115, Gloucestershire, England, to Mabel De (Countess of Gloucestershire and Glamorgan) CORBEIL 1085-1157 with :
    M William De (Earl of Gloucester) CAEN 1116-1183
    F Christina De CAEN 1118-1153
    F Maud (Mabel) De CAEN 1120-1189
    M Philip De CAEN 1122-
    M Meyler (Fitzhenry) FITZROY ca 1093-1157 married before 1116, Llandeilo, Carmarthenshire, Wales, to Matilda( (Countess of Anjou) ? ca 1100- with :
    M Meiler (Justicar of IRELAND) FITZROY ca 1118-1220
    F Amabilia FITZROY ca 1120-1185
    M Robert (Fitzhenry) FITZROY ca 1120-1180
    M Henry FITZROY ca 1120-
    Nesta Verch (Mistress of Henry I) (Princess of Deheubarth) RHYS 1073-1163 married in 1095, Windsor, Berkshire, England, to Geraldus (de Windsor) FITZGERALD 1070-/1136 with
    M Robert FITZGERALD ca 1090-1141 married in 1110, Berkshire, England, to Alice Noers 1092-1110 with :
    M Alexander (SIR) FITZGERALD 1110-1178
    M David (Bishop) FITZGERALD 1095/-1173
    F Angharad FITZGERALD 1099-1175 married in 1134 to William De BARRY 1116-1175 with :
    M Philip De BARRY 1145-1185
    M Robert De Barry 1145-
    M Gerald (of Wales) De BARRY 1146-1223
    M Maurice FITZGERALD 1100-1177 married in 1148, Windsor, Berkshire, England, to Alice de ** MONTGOMERY 1100-1176 with :
    M Gerald FITZGERALD 1150-1203
    M Thomas (Fitzmaurice) FITZGERALD 1153-1213
    M William (Fitzgerald) De WINDSOR 1100-1173 married in 1130, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales, to Maria ** MONTGOMERY 1102- with :
    F Rohesia De (Lady FARNHAM) WINDSOR 1145-1215
    Nesta Verch (Mistress of Henry I) (Princess of Deheubarth) RHYS 1073-1163 married about 1135, Wales, to Stephen Cemais (Constable of Cardigan Castle) KEMEYS ca 1075- with
    M Robert (Fitzstephen) KEMEYS 1136/-1183 married to ? ? with :
    F Meredith (Fitzstephen) KEMEYS 1160-1178
    M Ralph (Fitzstephen) KEMEYS 1173-
    M Gruffydd Ap (Prince of Wales) RHYS 1075-1136 married in 1116, Monmouthshire, Wales, to Gwenllian (Verch Gruffydd) (Princess) TUDOR 1085- with
    F Gwladus Verch GRUFFYDD 1105- married before 1125, Wales, to Caradog (Ap Iestyn) MORGAN 1062- with :
    M Morgan (Ap Caradog) (Lord of AVAN) MORGAN ca 1125-1208
    M Meuric (Ap Carodog) MORGAN ca 1125-
    M Cadwallon (Ap Carodog) MORGAN 1134-
    F Nest Verch GRUFFYDD 1110-1180 married about 1134 to Ifor Bach Ap (Fychan ??) MEURIC 1110-1170 with :
    F Gwenllian Verch (BACH) IFOR ca 1132-1150
    M Gruffydd (Bach - Ap) IFOR 1140-1211

    Nest Verch GRUFFYDD 1110-1180 married before 1150, Wales, to Moriddig (Ap Drymbenog) VAUGHAN 1097-1154 with :
    F Anne (Verch Moridigg) VAUGHAN 1150-
    M Moridigg (Vychan - Ap Moridigg) VAUGHAN ca 1151-
    M Llywelyn (Ap Moridigg) VAUGHAN 1154-1184
    M Rhys Ap GRUFFYDD 1120-1153 married in 1150, Llandeilo, Carmarthenshire, Wales, to Gwenllian Verch MADOG ca 1125-1148 with :
    F Angharad Verch RHYS ca 1140-1226
    M Meirchion Ap RHYS 1145-1175
    M Gruffydd Ap (Prince of South Wales) RHYS 1148-1201
    M Rhys (Gryg) Ap (Lord of Dynevor) RHYS 1150-1233
    M Maredydd (Gethin) Ap RHYS 1152-1201
    F Tangwystl Verch RHYS 1156-1216
    F Gwenllian Verch RHYS ca 1158-1236
    M Rhys Gloff Ap Rhys 1167-1234
    M Maelgwn Ap Rhys 1170-1231
    F Gwladus Verch RHYS ca 1174-1209
    F Margred Verch RHYS ca 1085-1097 married in 1099, Radnorshire, Wales, to Gwrgeneu Ap HYWEL ca 1080-1125 with
    F Gwerful Verch Gwrgeneu 1097- married in 1116 to Gruffydd (Ap Maredydd) KYNASTON 1093-1128 with :
    M Owain Ap GRUFFYDD 1117-ca 1197
    F Alswn Verch Gwrgeneu 1100-
    F Agnes Ap (Rees) RHYS 1092- married in 1120, Hereford, Herefordshire, England, to Robert ** BASKERVILLE 1086- with
    M Ralph BASKERVILLE 1135-1194 married in 1154, Hereford, Herefordshire, England, to Jane de (Fair Rosamond) (mistress Henry II) CLIFFORD 1137-1176 with :
    M Walter BASKERVILLE 1179-1213

    Siblings
    F Nesta Verch TUDOR 1003-1065 Married before 1050, Carmarthenshire, Wales, to Sutric (Olaf) Ap (King of Dublin, Lord of Desmond) AFLEOD 1000-1050/
    M Gwyn Ap TUDOR 1049-
    F Elen Verch TUDOR ca 1055-1065 Married in 1076, Wales, to Bleddyn (Ap Maenyrch) (LLOYD) LLOYD ca 1055-1093

    Paternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
    M Cadwell Ap EINION ca 970-1018 married
    F ? ?
    M Tudor Mawr Ap (Prince of South Wales) CADWELL ca 995-1056
    married
    4 children



    Maternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
    M Gwyn Ap RHYDDERCH 970-1030 married
    F ? ?
    F Gwenllian Verch GWYN 1000-1069
    married
    4 children
    M Collwyn Ap (Lord of Dyfed) GWYN 1000-1069
    married (1024)
    1 child


    (hide)

    Timeline
    997 : Birth - Carmarthenshire, Wales
    Sources:
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1039679&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 0997 Birth place: Carmarthan, Wales Death date: 1093 Death place: Brecknock, Brecon, Wales - 1,7249::1039679
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1017858&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 0997 Birth place: Carmarthan, Wales Death date: 1093 Death place: Brecknock, Brecon, Wales - 1,7249::1017858
    997 : Birth - Carmarthenshire, Wales
    Sources: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1039679&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 0997 Birth place: Carmarthan, Wales Death date: 1093 Death place: Brecknock, Brecon, Wales - 1,7249::1039679
    1010 : Birth - Llandeilo, Carmarthenshire, Wales
    1035 : Birth - Monmouthshire, Wales
    1037 : Birth - Llandeilo, Carmarthenshire, Wales
    1037 : Birth - Carmarthenshire, Wales
    about 1040 : Birth - Carmarthenshire, Wales
    before 1065 : King of DEHEUBARTH - Monmouthshire, Wales
    1093 : WILLIAM II Advance into WALES - Wales
    1093 : Death - Brecon, Breconshire, Wales
    Sources: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1039679&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 0997 Birth place: Carmarthan, Wales Death date: 1093 Death place: Brecknock, Brecon, Wales - 1,7249::1039679
    April 1093 : Death - Brecon, Breconshire, Wales
    Sources:
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1039679&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 0997 Birth place: Carmarthan, Wales Death date: 1093 Death place: Brecknock, Brecon, Wales - 1,7249::1039679
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1017858&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 0997 Birth place: Carmarthan, Wales Death date: 1093 Death place: Brecknock, Brecon, Wales - 1,7249::1017858
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Dictionary of National Biography, Volumes 1-20, 22 - Ancestry.com - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. This collection was indexed by Ancestry World Archives Project contributors.Original data - Stephen, Sir Leslie, ed. Dictionary of National Biography, 1921–1922. London, England: Oxf - 1,1981::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=dictnatbiogv1&h=45990&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Death date: Apr 1093 Death place: Brecknock, South Wales - 1,1981::45990
    April 1093 : Death - Aberhonddu, Breconshire, Wales
    April 1093 : Death - Brecknock, Breconshire, Wales
    1093 : Death
    Killed fighting Norman English, , , Wales
    30 April 1093 : Death - Breconshire, Wales
    Battle of Brecon, Breconshire, Wales
    1103 : Death - Bretagne, France


    Notes
    Individual Note
    Source: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1039679&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt Birth date: 0997 Birth place: Carmarthan, Wales Death date: 1093 Death place: Brecknock, Brecon, Wales 1,7249::1039679
    Source: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1017858&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt Birth date: 0997 Birth place: Carmarthan, Wales Death date: 1093 Death place: Brecknock, Brecon, Wales 1,7249::1017858
    Source: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Dictionary of National Biography, Volumes 1-20, 22 - Ancestry.com - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. This collection was indexed by Ancestry World Archives Project contributors.Original data - Stephen, Sir Leslie, ed. Dictionary of National Biography, 1921–1922. London, England: Oxf - 1,1981::0
    http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=dictnatbiogv1&h=45990&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt Death date: Apr 1093 Death place: Brecknock, South Wales 1,1981::45990
    Source: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1039679&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt Birth date: 0997 Birth place: Carmarthan, Wales Death date: 1093 Death place: Brecknock, Brecon, Wales 1,7249::1039679


    Sources
    Individual: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=8211
    Birth:
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1039679&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 0997 Birth place: Carmarthan, Wales Death date: 1093 Death place: Brecknock, Brecon, Wales - 1,7249::1039679
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1017858&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 0997 Birth place: Carmarthan, Wales Death date: 1093 Death place: Brecknock, Brecon, Wales - 1,7249::1017858
    Death: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=1039679&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 0997 Birth place: Carmarthan, Wales Death date: 1093 Death place: Brecknock, Brecon, Wales - 1,7249::1039679

    Family Tree Preview
    Ancestry Chart Descendancy Chart Printable Family Tree
    _____| 16_ Owain (Dha) Ap (Prince of South Wales) Hywel ca 905-987
    _____| 8_ Einion Ap Owain ca 933-983
    _____| 4_ Cadwell Ap EINION ca 970-1018
    / \
    /
    |2_ Tudor Mawr Ap (Prince of South Wales) CADWELL ca 995-1056
    | \
    |--1_ Rhys Ap TUDOR 997-1093
    | _____| 12_ Rhydderch Ap ELGAN 940-
    | /
    | _____| 6_ Gwyn Ap RHYDDERCH 970-1030
    | / \
    |3_ Gwenllian Verch GWYN 1000-1069
    \

    end of report

    Died:
    at The Battle of Brecon - The Norman Conquest of Wales

    Rhys married Gwladys ferch Rhwallon ap Cynfyn (Powys, Wales). Gwladys (daughter of Rhiwallon Ap Cynfyn and unnamed spouse) was born 0___ 1041, Powys, Wales; died 1136-1139. [Group Sheet]


  2. 161.  Gwladys ferch Rhwallon ap Cynfyn was born 0___ 1041, Powys, Wales (daughter of Rhiwallon Ap Cynfyn and unnamed spouse); died 1136-1139.
    Children:
    1. Nest ferch Tewdwr, Princess of Deheubarth was born ~ 1085, Wales; died Bef 1136.
    2. 80. Gruffydd ap Rhys, King of Deheubarth was born 0___ 1081, Llandeilo, Wales; died 0___ 1137.
    3. Hywel ap Rhys was born ~ 1065, (Llandeilo, Wales); died 1115.
    4. Cadwgan ap Rhys was born (Llandeilo, Wales).
    5. Goronwy ap Rhys was born (Llandeilo, Wales).

  3. 168.  Gilbert de Clare, Knight, 1st Earl of Pembroke was born ~ 1100, Tonbridge, Kent, England (son of Gilbert Fitz Richard, Knight, 2nd Lord of Clare and Adeliza de Claremont); died 6 Jan 1148.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Gilbert Fitz Gilbert de Clare

    Notes:

    Gilbert fitz Gilbert de Clare (c.?1100 – 6 January 1148), was created Earl of Pembroke in 1138. He was commonly known as Strongbow.[a]

    Life

    Born at Tonbridge, Gilbert de Clare was a son of Gilbert Fitz Richard de Clare and Alice de Claremont.[1] He started out without land and wealth of his own but was closely related to very powerful men, specifically his uncles Walter de Clare and Roger de Clare.[2]

    In 1136 Gilbert fitz Gilbert led an expedition against Exmes and burned parts of the town, including the church of Notre Dame, but was interrupted by the forces of William III, Count of Ponthieu and escaped the resulting melee only after suffering heavy losses.[3] Gilbert was a Baron, that is, a tenant-in-chief in England, and inherited the estates of his paternal uncles, Roger and Walter, which included the baronies and castles of Bienfaite and Orbec in Normandy. He held the lordship of Nether Gwent and the castle of Striguil (later Chepstow). King Stephen created him Earl of Pembroke, and gave him the rape and castle of Pevensey.

    After Stephen's defeat at Lincoln on 2 February 1141, Gilbert was among those who rallied to Empress Matilda when she recovered London in June, but he was at Canterbury when Stephen was recrowned late in 1141.[4] He then joined Geoffrey's plot against Stephen, but when that conspiracy collapsed, he again adhered to Stephen, being with him at the siege of Oxford late in 1142. In 1147 he rebelled when Stephen refused to give him the castles surrendered by his nephew Gilbert, 2nd Earl of Hertford, whereupon the King marched to his nearest castle and nearly captured him. However, the Earl appears to have made his peace with Stephen before his death the following year.[5]

    Family

    He married Isabel de Beaumont, before 1130, daughter of Sir Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester, Count of Meulan, and Elizabeth de Vermandois.[6] Isabel had previously been the mistress of King Henry I of England.[7]

    By her Gilbert had:

    Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke[b][8]
    Basilia, who married (1) Raymond FitzGerald (Raymond le Gros) and (2) Geoffrey FitzRobert.[9]
    a daughter who married William Bloet.[10]

    end

    Gilbert — Isabel de Beaumont. [Group Sheet]


  4. 169.  Isabel de Beaumont (daughter of Robert de Beaumont, Knight, 1st Earl of Leicester and Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester).
    Children:
    1. 84. Richard de Clare, Knight, 2nd Earl Pembroke was born 0___ 1125, Tonbridge, Kent, England; died 20 Apr 1176, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland.

  5. 170.  Dermot Dairmait Mac Murchada, King of Leinster was born 0___ 1110, Dublin, Ireland (son of Donnchad Enna Mac Murchada and Orlaith Ingen O'Brien, Queen of Leinster); died 1 May 1171, Ireland.

    Notes:

    Dermot Dairmait Mac MURCHADA (King of Leinster)Print Family Tree(Dermot Dairmait Mac MURCHADA)


    Born in 1110 - Dublin, Ireland
    Deceased 1 May 1171 - Ireland , age at death: 61 years old

    Parents
    Donnchad Enna Mac MURCHADA, born in 1085 - Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, Deceased 8 December 1115 - Wexford, Ireland age at death: 30 years old
    Married to
    Orlaith Ingen (Queen of Leinster) O'BRIEN, born in 1080 - Dublin, Ireland, Deceased in 1113 - Dublin, Ireland age at death: 33 years old

    Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
    Married in 1140, Wexford, Ireland, to Mor Tauthail Moringen Murchertaig (Queen of Ireland) O'TOOLE, born in 1114 - Wexford, Ireland, Deceased 1 May 1191 - Wexford, Ireland age at death: 77 years old (Parents : M Mouirchertach (King of Ui Muiredaig) O'TOOLE 1089-1164 & F Cacht Ingen (Princess of Loigsig, Queen of Muiredaig O'Toole) O'MORDA 1094-1149) with
    F Eva Aoife Mac (Countess Pembroke) MURCHADA 1141-1188 married 26 August 1171, Waterford, Waterford, Ireland, to Richard (Strongbow) De ( 2nd Earl Pembroke, Lord Marshall) CLARE 1125-1176 with
    M Richard III De (SIR) CLARE, MAGNA CARTA BARON ca 1153-1217 married in 1180, England, to Amicie De CAEN 1160-1225 with :
    F Matilda De CLARE 1175-1213
    M Gilbert III De (Earl of Gloucester - Hertford) CLARE, MAGNA CARTA BARON ca 1180-1230
    F Maud Matilda De CLARE 1184-1213
    F Isabel De CLARE 1172-1217 married in August 1189, London, England, to William (SIR - Knight Templar)(Earl Pembroke) MARSHALL 1146-1219 with :
    F Maud (Countess of Norfolk Countess of Surrey) MARSHALL 1192-1248
    F Eve (Baroness of Abergavenny) MARSHALL 1194-1246
    M Gilbert MARSHALL 1196-1241
    M William (4th Earl of Pembroke/ChiefJusticar of Ireland) MARSHALL 1198-1231
    F Isabel (Fitzgilbert) (Countess MARSHALL) MARSHALL 1200-1239
    F Sibyl MARSHALL ca 1201-1245
    F Joane MARSHALL 1202-1234
    F Joan De ( Baroness of Gamage) CLARE 1175-1222/ married in 1196, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales, to Godfrey De (Sir) ( Lord of Gamage) GAMAGE 1176-1253 with :
    M Payne De GAMAGE 1211-
    F Elizabeth GAMAGE 1222-1272
    F Urlachen Mac MURCHADA 1154-1200 married in 1171 to Domnall Mor (Ua) (King of Leinster) O'BRIEN 1137-1194 with
    F Mor O'BRIEN 1172-1218 married in 1185, Ireland, to William De (Lord of Connaught) BURGH 1158-1204 with :
    M Richard Mor "The Great", De (1st Earl of Ulster) BURGH 1202-1242
    M Domnall Cairbreach (King of Munster) O'BRIEN 1175-1242 married in 1194 to Sabia O'KENNEDY 1177- with :
    M Connor Conchobar Suidaine (King of Thormond) O'BRIEN 1195-1258

    Paternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
    M Murchad Macdairmata MURCHADA 1032-1070 married
    F Sadb Ingen Mac BRICC 1020-1070
    M Donnchad Enna Mac MURCHADA 1085-1115
    married
    1 child



    Maternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
    M Gilla Michil O'BRIEN 1055-1068 married
    F Iuchdelb Hui GARBITA 1062-
    F Orlaith Ingen (Queen of Leinster) O'BRIEN 1080-1113
    married
    1 child



    Notes
    Individual Note
    Source: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Irish Landed Gentry - Ancestry.com - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2002.Original data - O'Hart, John. Irish Landed Gentry When Cromwell Came to Ireland. Dublin, Ireland: James Duffy and Sons, 1887.Original data: O'Hart, John. Irish Landed Gentry When Crom - 1,6308::0
    http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=uki1-irish-landed_gnty&h=170&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt 1,6308::170
    Source: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=105913193&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt Birth date: 1100 Birth place: Leinster, Ireland Death date: 1 May 1171 Death place: Ferns, Wexford, Ire, Ireland 1,7249::105913193
    Source: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Dictionary of National Biography, Volumes 1-20, 22 - Ancestry.com - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. This collection was indexed by Ancestry World Archives Project contributors.Original data - Stephen, Sir Leslie, ed. Dictionary of National Biography, 1921–1922. London, England: Oxf - 1,1981::0
    http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=dictnatbiogv1&h=34636&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt Birth date: 1110 Birth place: Death date: 1171 Death place: Ferns 1,1981::34636


    Sources
    Individual:
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=10182
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=10182
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=10182
    Birth, death:
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=105913193&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 1100 Birth place: Leinster, Ireland Death date: 1 May 1171 Death place: Ferns, Wexford, Ire, Ireland - 1,7249::105913193
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Dictionary of National Biography, Volumes 1-20, 22 - Ancestry.com - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. This collection was indexed by Ancestry World Archives Project contributors.Original data - Stephen, Sir Leslie, ed. Dictionary of National Biography, 1921–1922. London, England: Oxf - 1,1981::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=dictnatbiogv1&h=34636&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 1110 Birth place: Death date: 1171 Death place: Ferns - 1,1981::34636

    Family Tree Preview
    Ancestry Chart Descendancy Chart Printable Family Tree
    _____| 16_ Donnchad Mâael Na Mbâo (O'CHEINNSELAIG) MURCHADA ca 960-1006
    _____| 8_ Diarmait Macmail Na Mbo (177th High King of Ireland) MURCHADA 974-1072
    _____| 4_ Murchad Macdairmata MURCHADA 1032-1070
    / \ _____| 18_ Donnchad (King of MUNSTER) O'BRIEN 982/-1064
    |2_ Donnchad Enna Mac MURCHADA 1085-1115
    | \ _____| 20_ Brecc (Na Dessi) Mac BRICC 950-1051
    | \ _____| 10_ Muirchertach Mac BRICC 1005-1051
    | \
    |--1_ Dermot Dairmait Mac (King of Leinster) MURCHADA 1110-1171
    | _____| 12_ Echmarcach O'BRIEN 1009-
    | /
    | _____| 6_ Gilla Michil O'BRIEN 1055-1068
    | / \
    |3_ Orlaith Ingen (Queen of Leinster) O'BRIEN 1080-1113
    \
    \ _____| 14_ Cearnachan GAIRBITA 1040-
    \ /
    \

    end of report

    Dermot married Mor Tauthail Moringen Murchertaig O'Toole, Queen of Ireland 0___ 1140, Wexford, Ireland. Mor was born 0___ 1114, Wexford, Ireland; died 1 May 1191, Wexford, Ireland. [Group Sheet]


  6. 171.  Mor Tauthail Moringen Murchertaig O'Toole, Queen of Ireland was born 0___ 1114, Wexford, Ireland; died 1 May 1191, Wexford, Ireland.
    Children:
    1. 85. Eva Aoife Mac Murchada, Countess Pembroke was born 26 Apr 1141, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland; died 0___ 1188, Waterford, Ireland; was buried Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales.
    2. Orlacan Nâi Murchada was born 0___ 1154, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland; died 0___ 1200, Ireland.

  7. 172.  Robert FitzRoy, Knight, 1st Earl of Gloucester was born Bef 1100, (France) (son of Henry I, King of England and unnamed partner); died 31 Oct 1147.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Robert Rufus, Robert de Caen, Robert Consul

    Notes:

    Robert Fitzroy, 1st Earl of Gloucester (before 1100 – 31 October 1147[1]) (alias Robert Rufus, Robert de Caen, Robert Consul[2][3]) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England. He was the half-brother of the Empress Matilda, and her chief military supporter during the civil war known as The Anarchy, in which she vied with Stephen of Blois for the throne of England.

    Early life

    Robert was probably the eldest of Henry's many illegitimate children.[1] He was born before his father's accession to the English throne, either during the reign of his grandfather William the Conqueror or his uncle William Rufus.[4] He is sometimes and erroneously designated as a son of Nest, daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, last king of Deheubarth, although his mother has been identified as a member of "the Gay or Gayt family of north Oxfordshire",[5] possibly a daughter of Rainald Gay (fl. 1086) of Hampton Gay and Northbrook Gay in Oxfordshire. Rainald had known issue Robert Gaay of Hampton (died c. 1138) and Stephen Gay of Northbrook (died after 1154). A number of Oxfordshire women feature as the mothers of Robert's siblings.[5][6]

    He may have been a native of Caen[1][7] or he may have been only Constable and Governor of that city, jure uxoris.[2]

    His father had contracted him in marriage to Mabel FitzHamon, daughter and heir of Robert Fitzhamon, but the marriage was not solemnized until June 1119 at Lisieux.[1][8] His wife brought him the substantial honours of Gloucester in England and Glamorgan in Wales, and the honours of Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe and âEvrecy in Normandy, as well as Creully. After the White Ship disaster late in 1120, and probably because of this marriage,[9] in 1121 or 1122 his father created him Earl of Gloucester.[10]

    Family

    Robert and his wife Mabel FitzHamon had seven children:[11]

    William FitzRobert (111?–1183): succeeded his father as 2nd Earl of Gloucester
    Roger FitzRobert (died 1179): Bishop of Worcester
    Hamon FitzRobert (died 1159): killed at the siege of Toulouse.
    Philip FitzRobert (died after 1147): lord of Cricklade
    Matilda FitzRobert (died 1190): married in 1141 Ranulf de Gernon, 4th Earl of Chester.
    Mabel FitzRobert: married Aubrey de Vere
    Richard FitzRobert (1120/35-1175): succeeded his mother as Sire de Creully.
    He also had four illegitimate children:

    Richard FitzRobert (died 1142): Bishop of Bayeux [mother: Isabel de Douvres, sister of Richard de Douvres, bishop of Bayeux (1107–1133)]
    Robert FitzRobert (died 1170): Castellan of Gloucester, married in 1147 Hawise de Reviers (daughter of Baldwin de Reviers, 1st Earl of Devon and his first wife Adelisa), had daughter Mabel FitzRobert (married firstly Jordan de Chambernon and secondly William de Soliers)
    Mabel FitzRobert: married Gruffud, Lord of Senghenydd, son of Ifor Bach. This couple were ancestors of Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the U.S.A.[12]
    Father of Thomas

    Relationship with King Stephen

    There is evidence in the contemporary source, the Gesta Stephani, that Robert was proposed by some as a candidate for the throne, but his illegitimacy ruled him out:

    "Among others came Robert, Earl of Gloucester, son of King Henry, but a bastard, a man of proved talent and admirable wisdom. When he was advised, as the story went, to claim the throne on his father's death, deterred by sounder advice he by no means assented, saying it was fairer to yield it to his sister's son (the future Henry II of England), than presumptuously to arrogate it to himself."
    This suggestion cannot have led to any idea that he and Stephen were rivals for the Crown, as Geoffrey of Monmouth in 1136 referred to Robert as one of the 'pillars' of the new King's rule.

    The capture of King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln on 2 February 1141 gave the Empress Matilda the upper hand in her battle for the throne, but by alienating the citizens of London she failed to be crowned Queen. Her forces were defeated at the Rout of Winchester on 14 September 1141, and Robert of Gloucester was captured nearby at Stockbridge.

    The two prisoners, King Stephen and Robert of Gloucester, were then exchanged, but by freeing Stephen, the Empress Matilda had given up her best chance of becoming queen. She later returned to France, where she died in 1167, though her son succeeded Stephen as King Henry II in 1154.

    Robert of Gloucester died in 1147 at Bristol Castle, where he had previously imprisoned King Stephen, and was buried at St James' Priory, Bristol, which he had founded.

    In popular culture

    Robert of Gloucester was a central character in the struggle during The Anarchy as portrayed in Ken Follet's 2003 novel The Pillars of the Earth and in the 2010 mini-series of the same name.

    Robert is also a figure in many of the novels by Ellis Peters in the Cadfael Chronicles, where he is seen as a strong moderating force to his half-sister (see Saint Peter's Fair). His efforts to gain the crown for his sister by capturing King Stephen and her own actions in London are part of the plot in The Pilgrim of Hate. His capture by Stephen's wife Queen Mathilda is in the background of the plot of An Excellent Mystery. The exchange of the imprisoned Robert for the imprisoned Stephen is in the background of the plot of The Raven in the Foregate. Robert's travels to persuade his brother-in-law to aid his wife Empress Maud militarily in England is in the background of the novel The Rose Rent. His return to England when Empress Maud is trapped in Oxford Castle figures in The Hermit of Eyton Forest. Robert's return to England with his young nephew Henry, years later the king succeeding Stephen, is in the background of the plot of The Confession of Brother Haluin, as the battles begin anew with Robert's military guidance. Robert's success in the Battle of Wilton (1143) leads to the death of a fictional character, part of the plot of The Potter's Field. In the last novel, he is a father who can disagree with then forgive his son Philip (see the last novel, Brother Cadfael's Penance). In that last novel, Brother Cadfael speculates on the possibly different path for England if the first son of old King Henry, the illegitimate Robert of Gloucester, had been recognised and accepted. In Wales of that era, a son was not illegitimate if recognized by his father, and to many in the novels, Robert of Gloucester seemed the best of the contenders to succeed his father.

    Footnotes

    ^ Jump up to: a b c d David Crouch, ‘Robert, first earl of Gloucester (b. before 1100, d. 1147)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2006 accessed 1 Oct 2010
    ^ Jump up to: a b "Complete Peerage" Vol IV(1892), p38, "Gloucester", "Robert filius Regis" quoting Round "Consul is often used for Earl in the time of the first age of the Norman Kings"
    Jump up ^ The Complete Peerage claims only that he is "described" as consul, as are most Earls of his time.
    Jump up ^ William of Malmesbury
    ^ Jump up to: a b David Crouch, Historical Research, 1999
    Jump up ^ C. Given-Wilson & A. Curteis. The Royal Bastards of Medieval England (London, 1984) (ISBN 0-415-02826-4), page 74
    Jump up ^ Cawley, Charles, "Henry I", Medlands, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    Jump up ^ "Complete Peerage", "Gloucester"
    Jump up ^ "In the aftermath of the White Ship disaster of 1120, when his younger and legitimate half-brother, William, died, Robert shared in the largesse that the king distributed to reassert his political position. Robert was given the marriage of Mabel, the heir of Robert fitz Haimon, whose lands in the west country and Glamorgan had been in royal wardship since 1107. The marriage also brought Robert the Norman honours of Evrecy and St Scholasse-sur-Sarthe. Robert was raised to the rank of earl of Gloucester soon after, probably by the end of 1121." David Crouch, ‘Robert, first earl of Gloucester (b. before 1100, d. 1147)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2006 accessed 1 Oct 2010
    Jump up ^ CP citing Round for between May 1121 and the end of 1122, but see William of Malmesbury, ed Giles who cites 1119
    Jump up ^ Cawley, Charles. Cawley, Charles, Medieval Lands: England, Earls Created 1067–1122, Chapter 11, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    Jump up ^ Descent of Franklin Pierce from Henry I Beauclerc

    Sources

    J. Bradbury, Stephen and Matilda: The Civil War of 1139–53 (Stroud, 1996)
    D. Crouch, "Robert of Gloucester's Mother and Sexual Politics in Norman Oxfordshire", Historical Research, 72 (1999) 323–332.
    D. Crouch, 'Robert, earl of Gloucester and the daughter of Zelophehad,' Journal of Medieval History, 11 (1985), 227–43.
    D. Crouch, The Reign of King Stephen, 1135–1154 (London, 2000).
    C. Given-Wilson & A. Curteis. The Royal Bastards of Medieval England (London, 1984)
    The Personnel of the Norman Cathedrals during the Ducal Period, 911–1204, ed. David S. Spear (London, 2006)
    Earldom of Gloucester Charters, ed. R.B. Patterson (Oxford, 1973)
    R.B. Patterson, 'William of Malmesbury's Robert of Gloucester: a re-evaluation of the Historia Novella,' American Historical Review, 70 (1965), 983–97.
    K. Thompson, 'Affairs of State: the illegitimate children of Henry I,' Journal of Medieval History, 29 (2003), 129–151.
    W.M.M. Picken, 'The Descent of the Devon Family of Willington from Robert Earl of Gloucester' in 'A Medieval Cornish Miscellany', Ed. O.J. Padel. (Phillimore, 2000)

    Robert married Mabel FitzHamon, Countess of Gloucester 0___ 1107. Mabel (daughter of Robert Fitzhamon, Knight, Lord of Glamorgan and Sybil de Montgomery) was born 0___ 1090, Gloucestershire, England; died 29 Sep 1157, Bristol, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 173.  Mabel FitzHamon, Countess of Gloucester was born 0___ 1090, Gloucestershire, England (daughter of Robert Fitzhamon, Knight, Lord of Glamorgan and Sybil de Montgomery); died 29 Sep 1157, Bristol, England.

    Notes:

    Mabel FitzRobert, Countess of Gloucester (1090 – 29 September 1157[1]) was an Anglo-Norman noblewoman, and a wealthy heiress who brought the lordship of Gloucester, among other prestigious honours to her husband, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester upon their marriage. He was the illegitimate son of King Henry I of England.

    Her father was Robert Fitzhamon, Lord of Gloucester and Glamorgan. As she was the eldest daughter of four, and her younger sisters had become nuns, Mabel inherited all of his honours and properties upon his death in 1107.

    As Countess of Gloucester, Mabel was significant politically and she exercised an important administrative role in the lordship.[2]


    Family[edit]
    Mabel was born in Gloucestershire, England c1090 or later, the eldest of the four daughters of Robert FitzHamon, Lord of Gloucester and Glamorgan, and his wife, Sybil de Montgomery. Her three younger sisters, Hawise, Cecile and Amice[3] all became nuns, making Mabel the sole heiress to her father's lordships and vast estates in England, Wales, and Normandy.

    Her paternal grandfather was Hamon, Sheriff of Kent, and her maternal grandparents were Roger de Montgomery, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Mabel Talvas of Belleme.

    In March 1107, her father died in Normandy, leaving his lordships and estates to Mabel. Her mother married secondly Jean, Sire de Raimes.[4]

    Cardiff Castle in Wales, was one of the properties Mabel brought her husband, Robert upon their marriage

    Marriage

    In 1107, Mabel married Robert of Caen,(also called FitzRoy and FitzEdith), an illegitimate son of King Henry I (not by his mistress Sybil Corbet - other sources say Robert's mother was of the Gai family of Oxfordshire). Their marriage is recorded by Orderic Vitalis who also names her parents.[5] He would later become an important figure during the turbulent period in English history known as The Anarchy which occurred in the reign of King Stephen of England. Throughout the civil war, he was a loyal supporter of his half-sister Empress Matilda who would make him the chief commander of her army. He had originally sworn fealty to King Stephen, but after quarrelling with him in 1137, his English and Welsh possessions were forfeited, and thus he joined forces with Matilda.[6]

    Countess of Gloucester

    Mabel brought to her husband the honours of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales, Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe, Evrecy and Creully in Normandy. By right of his wife, he became the 2nd Lord of Glamorgan, and gained possession of her father's castle of Cardiff in Wales. In August 1122, he was created 1st Earl of Gloucester; henceforth, Mabel was styled as Countess of Gloucester.

    As countess, Mabel exercised a prominent administrative role in the Gloucester lordship.[7] Her political importance was evident when she was made responsible for seeing that her husband upheld his side of the agreement in the treaty he made with Miles de Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford.[8] She also witnessed four of Robert's charters; as well as giving her personal consent for his foundation of the Abbey of Margam, whose endowment came from her own lands.[9] Later, after Robert's death, Mabel assumed control of the honour of Gloucester's Norman lands on behalf of her eldest son William.[10]

    Issue

    Together Robert and Mabel had at least eight children:

    William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester (23 November 1112- 23 November 1183), married Hawise de Beaumont by whom he had five children, including Isabella of Gloucester, the first wife of King John of England, and Amice FitzRobert, Countess of Gloucester.
    Roger, Bishop of Worcester (died 9 August 1179)
    Hamon FitzRobert, (died 1159), killed in the Siege of Toulouse.
    Robert FitzRobert of Ilchester (died before 1157), married Hawise de Redvers, by whom he had a daughter Mabel who in her turn married Jordan de Cambernon.
    Richard FitzRobert, Sire de Creully (died 1175), inherited the seigneury of Creully from Mabel, and became the ancestor of the Sires de Creully. He married the daughter of Hughes de Montfort by whom he had five children.
    Philip FitzRobert, (died after 1147), Castellan of Cricklade. He took part in the Second Crusade.
    Maud FitzRobert (died 29 July 1190), married Ranulf de Gernon, 4th Earl of Chester by whom she had three children.
    Mabel FitzRobert, married Aubrey de Vere
    Robert also sired an illegitimate son, Richard, Bishop of Bayeux by Isabel de Douvres.

    Death

    Mabel's husband died on 31 October 1147. Mabel herself died on 29 September 1157 in Bristol at the age of sixty-seven years.

    References

    Jump up ^ Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Gloucester 1122-1225
    Jump up ^ Ward, p.106
    Jump up ^ Cawley states in Medieval Lands that Amice might have married a count of Brittany, but no further details are known
    Jump up ^ Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earl of Gloucester 1122-1225)
    Jump up ^ Cawley
    Jump up ^ Cawley
    Jump up ^ Jennifer C. Ward (2006). Women in England in the Middle Ages. London: Hambledon Continuum. p.106. Google Books, retrieved 27-10-10 ISBN 1-85285-346-8
    Jump up ^ Ward, p.106
    Jump up ^ Ward, p.106
    Jump up ^ Ward, p.106
    Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Gloucester 1122-1225

    Children:
    1. 86. William FitzRobert, Knight, 2nd Earl of Gloucester was born 23 Nov 1116, (Wales); died 23 Nov 1183, (Wales).
    2. Maud of Gloucester, Countess of Chester was born (Gloucestershire, England); died 29 Jul 1189.

  9. 174.  Robert de Beaumont, Knight, 2nd Earl of Leicester was born 0___ 1104, (Meulan, France) (son of Robert de Beaumont, Knight, 1st Earl of Leicester and Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester); died 5 Apr 1168, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Justiciar of England, 1155-1168
    • Also Known As: Earl of Hereford
    • Military: The Anarchy

    Notes:

    Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1104 - 5 April 1168) was Justiciar of England 1155-1168.

    The surname "de Beaumont" is given him by genealogists. The only known contemporary surname applied to him is "Robert son of Count Robert". Henry Knighton, the fourteenth-century chronicler notes him as Robert "Le Bossu" (meaning "Robert the Hunchback" in French).

    Early life and education

    Robert was an English nobleman of Norman-French ancestry. He was the son of Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and 1st Earl of Leicester, and Elizabeth de Vermandois, and the twin brother of Waleran de Beaumont. It is not known whether they were identical or fraternal twins, but the fact that they are remarked on by contemporaries as twins indicates that they were probably identical.

    The two brothers, Robert and Waleran, were adopted into the royal household shortly after their father's death in June 1118 (upon which Robert inherited his father's second titles of Earl of Leicester). Their lands on either side of the Channel were committed to a group of guardians, led by their stepfather, William, Earl of Warenne or Surrey. They accompanied King Henry I to Normandy, to meet with Pope Callixtus II in 1119, when the king incited them to debate philosophy with the cardinals. Both twins were literate, and Abingdon Abbey later claimed to have been Robert's school, but though this is possible, its account is not entirely trustworthy. A surviving treatise on astronomy (British Library ms Royal E xxv) carries a dedication "to Earl Robert of Leicester, that man of affairs and profound learning, most accomplished in matters of law" who can only be this Robert. On his death he left his own psalter to the abbey he founded at Leicester, which was still in its library in the late fifteenth century. The existence of this indicates that like many noblemen of his day, Robert followed the canonical hours in his chapel.

    Career at the Norman court

    In 1120 Robert was declared of age and inherited most of his father's lands in England, while his twin brother took the French lands. However in 1121, royal favour brought Robert the great Norman honors of Breteuil and Pacy-sur-Eure, with his marriage to Amice de Gael, daughter of a Breton intruder the king had forced on the honor after the forfeiture of the Breteuil family in 1119. Robert spent a good deal of his time and resources over the next decade integrating the troublesome and independent barons of Breteuil into the greater complex of his estates. He did not join in his brother's great Norman rebellion against King Henry I in 1123–24. He appears fitfully at the royal court despite his brother's imprisonment until 1129. Thereafter the twins were frequently to be found together at Henry I's court.

    Robert held lands throughout the country. In the 1120s and 1130s he tried to rationalise his estates in Leicestershire. Leicestershire estates of the See of Lincoln and the Earl of Chester were seized by force. This enhanced the integrity of Robert's block of estates in the central midlands, bounded by Nuneaton, Loughborough, Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough.

    In 1135, the twins were present at King Henry's deathbed. Robert's actions in the succession period are unknown, but he clearly supported his brother's decision to join the court of the new king Stephen before Easter 1136. During the first two years of the reign Robert is found in Normandy fighting rival claimants for his honor of Breteuil. Military action allowed him to add the castle of Pont St-Pierre to his Norman estates in June 1136 at the expense of one of his rivals. From the end of 1137 Robert and his brother were increasingly caught up in the politics of the court of King Stephen in England, where Waleran secured an ascendancy which lasted till the beginning of 1141. Robert participated in his brother's political coup against the king's justiciar, Roger of Salisbury (the Bishop of Salisbury).

    Civil war in England

    The outbreak of civil war in England in September 1139 brought Robert into conflict with Earl Robert of Gloucester, the bastard son of Henry I and principal sponsor of the Empress Matilda. His port of Wareham and estates in Dorset were seized by Gloucester in the first campaign of the war. In that campaign the king awarded Robert the city and castle of Hereford as a bid to establish the earl as his lieutenant in Herefordshire, which was in revolt. It is disputed by scholars whether this was an award of a second county to Earl Robert. Probably in late 1139, Earl Robert refounded his father's collegiate church of St Mary de Castro in Leicester as a major Augustinian abbey on the meadows outside the town's north gate, annexing the college's considerable endowment to the abbey.

    The battle of Lincoln on 2 February 1141 saw the capture and imprisonment of King Stephen. Although Count Waleran valiantly continued the royalist fight in England into the summer, he eventually capitulated to the Empress and crossed back to Normandy to make his peace with the Empress's husband, Geoffrey of Anjou. Earl Robert had been in Normandy since 1140 attempting to stem the Angevin invasion, and negotiated the terms of his brother's surrender. He quit Normandy soon after and his Norman estates were confiscated and used to reward Norman followers of the Empress. Earl Robert remained on his estates in England for the remainder of King Stephen's reign. Although he was a nominal supporter of the king, there seems to have been little contact between him and Stephen, who did not confirm the foundation of Leicester Abbey till 1153. Earl Robert's principal activity between 1141 and 1149 was his private war with Ranulf II, Earl of Chester. Though details are obscure it seems clear enough that he waged a dogged war with his rival that in the end secured him control of northern Leicestershire and the strategic Chester castle of Mountsorrel. When Earl Robert of Gloucester died in 1147, Robert of Leicester led the movement among the greater earls of England to negotiate private treaties to establish peace in their areas, a process hastened by the Empress's departure to Normandy, and complete by 1149. During this time the earl also exercised supervision over his twin brother's earldom of Worcester, and in 1151 he intervened to frustrate the king's attempts to seize the city.

    Earl Robert and Henry Plantagenet

    The arrival in England of Duke Henry, son of the Empress Mathilda, in January 1153 was a great opportunity for Earl Robert. He was probably in negotiation with Henry in that spring and reached an agreement by which he would defect to him by May 1153, when the duke restored his Norman estates to the earl. The duke celebrated his Pentecost court at Leicester in June 1153, and he and the earl were constantly in company till the peace settlement between the duke and the king at Winchester in November 1153. Earl Robert crossed with the duke to Normandy in January 1154 and resumed his Norman castles and honors. As part of the settlement his claim to be chief steward of England and Normandy was recognised by Henry.

    Earl Robert began his career as chief justiciar of England probably as soon as Duke Henry succeeded as King Henry II in October 1154.[1] The office gave the earl supervision of the administration and legal process in England whether the king was present or absent in the realm. He appears in that capacity in numerous administrative acts, and had a junior colleague in the post in Richard de Luci, another former servant of King Stephen. The earl filled the office for nearly fourteen years until his death,[1] and earned the respect of the emerging Angevin bureaucracy in England. His opinion was quoted by learned clerics, and his own learning was highly commended.

    He died on 5 April 1168,[1] probably at his Northamptonshire castle of Brackley, for his entrails were buried at the hospital in the town. He was received as a canon of Leicester on his deathbed, and buried to the north of the high altar of the great abbey he had founded and built. He left a written testament of which his son the third earl was an executor, as we learn in a reference dating to 1174.

    Church patronage

    Robert founded and patronised many religious establishments. He founded Leicester Abbey and Garendon Abbeyin Leicestershire, the Fontevraldine Nuneaton Priory in Warwickshire, Luffield Abbey in Buckinghamshire, and the hospital of Brackley, Northamptonshire. He refounded the collegiate church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester, as a dependency of Leicester abbey around 1164, after suppressing it in 1139. Around 1139 he refounded the collegiate church of Wareham as a priory of his abbey of Lyre, in Normandy. His principal Norman foundations were the priory of Le Dâesert in the forest of Breteuil and a major hospital in Breteuil itself. He was a generous benefactor of the Benedictine abbey of Lyre, the oldest monastic house in the honor of Breteuil. He also donated land in Old Dalby, Leicestershire to the Knights Hospitallers who used it to found Dalby Preceptory.

    Family and children

    He married after 1120 Amice de Montfort, daughter of Raoul II de Montfort, himself a son of Ralph de Gael, Earl of East Anglia. Both families had lost their English inheritances through rebellion in 1075. They had four children:

    Hawise de Beaumont, who married William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester and had descendants.
    Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester who married Petronilla de Grandmesnil and had descendants.
    Isabel, who married: Simon de St. Liz, Earl of Huntingdon and had descendants.
    Margaret, who married Ralph V de Toeni and had descendants through their daughter, Ida de Tosny.

    Occupation:
    In medieval England and Scotland the Chief Justiciar (later known simply as the Justiciar) was roughly equivalent to a modern Prime Minister[citation needed] as the monarch's chief minister. Similar positions existed on the European Continent, particularly in Norman Italy. The term is the English form of the medieval Latin justiciarius or justitiarius ("man of justice", i.e. judge).

    source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justiciar

    Military:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Anarchy

    Robert married Amice de Montfort, Countess of Leicester Aft 1120, Brittany, France. Amice was born 0___ 1108, Norfolk, England; died 31 Aug 1168, Nuneaton, Warwickshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  10. 175.  Amice de Montfort, Countess of Leicester was born 0___ 1108, Norfolk, England; died 31 Aug 1168, Nuneaton, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Amicia de Gael

    Notes:

    Click this link to view 5 generations of her issue ... http://www.wikitree.com/genealogy/Gael-Descendants-3

    Children:
    1. Margaret de Beaumont was born 0___ 1125, (Leicestershire, England); died Aft 1185.
    2. 87. Hawise de Beaumont was born Leicestershire, England.
    3. Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester was born ~ 1120, Leicestershire, England; died 31 Aug 1190, Albania.

  11. 176.  William de Braose, Knight, 1st Lord of Bramber was born (Briouze, Normandy, France); died 1093-1096.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Hastings, East Sussex, England
    • Also Known As: Guillaume de Briouze

    Notes:

    William de Braose arrived in England with William the Conqueror. His mother’s name was Gunnor. She became a nun at the Abbaye aux Dames in Caen, Normandy, which was established by the Conqueror’s queen, Matilda. Some of the property Gunnor gave to the abbey was associated with members of the the Ivry family - Albereda, Hugh and Roger. Emma d’Ivry was the mother of William the Conqueror’s most powerful favourite, William fitz Osbern.

    These are the best clues we have as to William de Braose’s parentage. He was entrusted with a key Sussex position at Bramber and land in other English counties, besides Briouze, a strategic location in Normandy. It seems likely that he came from the extended family of the Dukes of Normandy but for genealogists his ancestry is still a frustrating loose end. William probably married the widow of Anchetil de Harcourt, Eve de Boissey, but even this detail remains inconclusive.

    Images for Braose coats of arms:

    https://www.google.com/search?q=braose+coat+of+arms&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=834&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjU4oegvMHQAhVFbSYKHTtHB1gQsAQILQ&dpr=1

    *

    Died 1093-6

    Guillaume de Briouze is recorded in lists of those present at the Battle of Hastings. He became the first Lord of Bramber Rape by 1073 and built Bramber Castle. (Right - remains of the gatehouse) William made considerable grants to the abbey of Saint Florent, Saumur to endow the foundation of Sele Priory near Bramber and a priory at Briouze. He continued to fight alongside King William in the campaigns in Britain, Normandy and Maine.

    The latest evidence for William is his presence at the consecration of his church at Briouze in 1093. In 1096 his son Philip was issuing charters. From this we can deduce that William died between 1093 and 1096.

    Father: Uncertain.

    Mother: Gunnor (See Round, Cal. Doc. Fra. p148)

    Brydges edition of Collins' Peerage claims he was first married to Agnes, dau of Waldron de Saint Clare but no evidence for this can be found. It may be an example of Bruce - Braose confusion.
    According to L C Perfect, a 13th century genealogy in the Bibliotháeque de Paris gives the name of his wife as Eve de Boissey, widow of Anchetil de Harcourt. There is a lot of evidence from contemporary charters which supports this view.

    Child 1: Philip

    *

    Birth:
    Briouze is a commune in the Orne department of Normandy in northwestern France. It is considered the capital of the pays d'Houlme at the western end of the Orne in the Norman bocage. The nearby Grand Hazâe marshland is a heritage-listed area (Natura 2000).

    William de Braose, First Lord of Bramber (Guillaume de Briouze) was granted lands in England after the Norman conquest and used his wealth to build a priory in his home town.

    The name Briouze probably comes from an older Norman form of the word "boue", or "mud".

    Map & commentary ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Briouze

    Residence:
    Images, maps & history of Hastings and the "Battle of 1066" ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hastings

    William — (Eve de Boissey). [Group Sheet]


  12. 177.  (Eve de Boissey)

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Bramber Castle is a Norman motte-and-bailey castle formerly the caput of the large feudal barony of Bramber long held by the Braose family. It is situated in the village of Bramber, West Sussex overlooking the River Adur.

    Image, map and history of Bramber Castle ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bramber_Castle

    More images and history of Bramber Castle & the Braose family ... http://steyningmuseum.org.uk/braose.htm

    Children:
    1. 88. Philip de Braose, Knight, 2nd Lord Bramber was born 0___ 1073, Bramber, West Sussex, England; died 1131-1139, Bramber, Sussex, England.

  13. 182.  Bernard de Neufmarche, Lord of Brecknockshire was born 0___ 1050, Neufmarchâe, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France; died 0___ 1093, Breconshire, Wales.

    Bernard married Nest Verch Osborn le Scrope ~ 1100, England. Nest was born 0___ 1079, Herefordshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  14. 183.  Nest Verch Osborn le Scrope was born 0___ 1079, Herefordshire, England.
    Children:
    1. 91. Sibyl de Neufmarche, Countess of Hereford was born ~ 1100, Brecon Castle, Brecon, Wales; died 24 Dec 1143, Llanthony Secunda, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Llanthony Secunda Priory, Gloucestershire, England.
    2. Bertha of Hereford was born 0___ 1107, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England; died ~ 1180, Bramber, Sussex, England.