1427 - Bef 1461 (~ 34 years)
|1. ||Thomas Carew was born ~ 1427 (son of Nicholas Carew and Joan Courtenay); died Bef 10 Nov 1461, Mohuns Ottery, Devonshire, England. |
Thomas — Joan Carminow. Joan was born ~ 1424; died Bef 1502, Boconnoc, Cornwall, England. [Group Sheet]
- Nicholas Carew, Baron Carew was born ~ 1444; died ~ 21 Nov 1470, Mohuns Ottery, Devonshire, England.
|3. ||Joan Courtenay was born 0___ 1411, Haccombe, Devonshire, England (daughter of Hugh Courtenay and Philippa L'Arcedekne); died Bef 3 Aug 1465; was buried St. Blaise's Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England. |
Joan Courtenay (born 1411/14 – d. before 3 August 1465), who eventually became her mother's sole heiress.
She married twice, firstly to Sir Nicholas Carew (d. before 20 April 1448), Baron Carew, of Mohuns Ottery in Devon, of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire and of Moulesford in Berkshire, by whom she had five sons and three daughters. She was the heiress of 16 manors, which she divided amongst her younger sons. She gave Haccombe to her second son Nicholas Carew, founder of the Carew family of Haccombe (see Carew baronets (1661) of Haccombe).
Secondly, by royal licence dated 5 October 1450, she married Sir Robert Vere, second son of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford, by whom she had a son, John Vere, father of John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford.
- 1. Thomas Carew was born ~ 1427; died Bef 10 Nov 1461, Mohuns Ottery, Devonshire, England.
|5. ||Elizabeth Bonville was born ~ 1362; died 0___ 1451, Chewton, Devonshire, England. |
- 2. Nicholas Carew was born ~ 1409; died 3 May 1447, Moulsford, Berkshire, England.
|6. ||Hugh Courtenay was born 0___ 1358, Haccombe, Devonshire, England (son of Edward Courtenay and Emeline Dawney); died 6 Mar 1425, (England). |
Sir Hugh I Courtenay (after 1358 – 5 or 6 March 1425), of Boconnoc in Cornwall and of Haccombe in Devon, was Sheriff of Devon for 1418/19 and was thrice elected knight of the shire for Devon in 1395, 1397 and 1421. He was a grandson of Hugh de Courtenay, 2nd/10th Earl of Devon (1303–1377), was the younger brother of Edward de Courtenay, 3rd/11th Earl of Devon (1357–1419), "The Blind Earl", and was the grandfather of Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon (d.1509), KG, created Earl of Devon in 1485 by King Henry VII. He was the link between the senior line of the Courtenay Earls of Devon made extinct following the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471 (his elder brother's line) and the post-Wars of the Roses creation of a new Earldom for his grandson made in 1485 by King Henry VII.
Hugh Courtenay was born in 1358, the younger of two sons of Sir Edward de Courtenay (d. between 2 February 1368 –1 April 1371) of Goodrington, Devon, by his wife Emeline (or Emme) Dawney (or Dauney, Daunay, etc.) (c.1329 – 28 February 1371/2), daughter and heiress of Sir John Dawnay (d.1346/7) of Sheviock in Cornwall, Mudford Terry and Hinton in Somerset by his wife Sybil Treverbyn. Emmeline Dauney was a great heiress who brought to her husband several manors and estates, including Boconnoc. Hugh Courtenay was the grandson of Hugh de Courtenay, 2nd/10th Earl of Devon (1303–1377). At the 2nd/10th Earl's death on 2 May 1377, Courtenay's elder brother, Edward, became the 3rd/11th Earl of Devon.
His elder brother was due to inherit the earldom and the vast Courtenay estates under primogeniture or entail, and thus as the second son with no prospective patrimony, Hugh Courtenay was given the estate of Boconnoc by his mother, the heiress Emmeline Dauney, which he made his seat. The practice of raising up a younger son in this way was common in the case of a wealthy heiress who married an already wealthy husband, and frequently the younger son beneficiary was required to adopt the maternal surname and armorials. Furthermore, his mother requested his elder brother the Earl to give him the estates of "Goderington" (Goodrington), Stancombe (alias Slancomb (sic) Dawney) and South Allington, which he duly performed by deed of indenture dated 1414.
Courtenay's elder brother, Edward Courtenay, 11th Earl of Devon (c.1357 – 5 December 1419), succeeded to the earldom of Devon in 1377, and by 1384 Hugh was serving as one of his brother's esquires. Earlier, in 1378 Courtenay had taken part with his uncles, Sir Philip Courtenay and Sir Peter Courtenay, in an unsuccessful naval expedition against Spain at which Courtenay was captured, but quickly ransomed. He had been knighted by 1387, and in March of that year served at sea in his brother's retinue under the Lord Admiral, the Earl of Arundel.
Little else is known of his career until he went to Ireland with King Richard II's expedition in April 1399, serving under the Duke of Aumale, who had earlier been granted custody of the lands of Courtenay's stepson, Fulk FitzWarin.
Over the years Courtenay acquired considerable property, much of it by way of his marriages. At his death he held 14 manors, principally in the West Country, but also in Essex and Herefordshire.
Courtenay served on commissions during the reigns of both Richard II and his successor, Henry IV, including commissions concerned with inquiry into the possessions of Richard II's former supporters, suggesting that he accommodated himself to both regimes.
He was made Commissioner of Survey to Devon and Cornwall in 1388, and again by Lords Appellant to the two counties in October 1397. In 1395 he was elected as MP for Devon and again in September 1397. At the height of the Crisis, King Richard II betrayed his uncle, Earl of Arundel, and as a consequence he lost his main supporters.
After the usurpation by King Henry IV Hugh was made Commissioner of Array for Devon in December 1399 - responsible for raising troops and bringing the south-west to the Lancastrian cause. He proved a successful recruiter for the wars in France, as he was made commissioner again in July 1402 to fight the Welsh Rebellion. The commission met again in August, September, and October 1403, after King Henry had defeated Harry Hotspur and the Mortimers at Shrewsbury.
In February 1400, Sir Hugh was a Commissioner of oyer and terminer dispensing the king's justice in the south-west. There was also a Commission of Inquiry into waste lands. King Henry made Hugh a Commissioner in the region and in Hampshire, a traditional land area of Courtenay holdings, to look into the concealment of possessions owned by adherents of the late king. He was also on the commission for "concealment of alnage" in Devon from July 1401.
The south-western counties disliked the new king and interference of parliament and in 1405 the Cornish rebelled with widespread rioting. In January a commission was set up to look into "unlawful assemblies" during 1406. Sir Hugh, however was a known Lancastrian: in May 1402 he had been forced to proclaim the intention of Henry IV to govern well. Also he was a JP for Devon, appointed on 16 February 1400 for the period until 1407; instructed to enforce the law and collect the king's taxes. He was appointed Tax Collector for Devon in March 1404.
He was made High Sheriff of Devon on 4 November 1418, holding the office for the year until 23 November 1419. When his brother the Earl of Devon died the new earl was fighting the French abroad, and so Sir Hugh was the most senior member of the family at home and probably felt compelled to represent Devon in parliament again in May 1421.
Henry IV died in 1413, and during the new reign Sir Hugh found favour with Henry V. King Henry V had travelled triumphantly through France, securing the future accession of his son as King of both England and France. Sir Hugh was thus present as knight of the shire for the County of Devon.
Hugh's brother, the 11th Earl, died in 1419, and was succeeded by his son, Hugh Courtenay, 12th Earl of Devon (1389 — 16 June 1422). The 12th Earl spent considerable time abroad in service to the crown, leaving Hugh as the senior member of the family in England. After the death of his nephew in 1422, Courtenay was again the senior member of the family during the minority of Thomas Courtenay, 13th Earl of Devon.
Courtenay died on 5 or 6 March 1425, leaving two daughters, Joan and Eleanor, by his third wife Philippa, and two sons and a daughter by his fourth wife, Maud. The lands which had belonged to Philippa were divided between their two daughters, Joan and Eleanor. Courtenay's heir was his elder son, Edward, who was eight years of age at his father's death. Courtenay's younger son, Hugh (d.1471) of Boconnoc, was the father of Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon of the 1485 creation.
Courtenay was buried at Haccombe beside his third wife, Philippa.
Marriages and issue
Sir Hugh Courtenay (& David A. Hennessee) married four times:
Firstly to Elizabeth FitzPayn (d. by 1392), widow of Sir Thomas de Audley (d. pre-1386), slain in France in the Hundred Years' War, and daughter of Sir Robert FitzPayn by his wife Elizabeth Bryan, daughter of Guy de Bryan, Lord Bryan. Without issue.
Secondly, before 11 February 1393, to Elizabeth Cogan (d. 29 October 1397), widow of Sir Fulk FitzWarin (d.1391), 5th Baron FitzWarin and daughter of Sir William Cogan Feudal baron of Bampton in Devon, by his wife Isabel Loring, the daughter of Sir Nigel Loring. Without surviving issue.
Arms of Archdekne of Haccombe, Devon: Argent, three chevronels sable
Thirdly, before 1407, to Philippa Archdekne (alias Ercedecne), daughter and co-heiress of Sir Warin Archdekne, MP, of Haccombe in Devon, by his wife Elizabeth Talbot, a "co-heiress" of Sir John Talbot. By Philippa he had two daughters, co-heiresses of their mother:
Elizabeth (or Alianore) Courtenay (born c.1413), who died unmarried;
Joan Courtenay (born 1411/14 – d. before 3 August 1465), who eventually became her mother's sole heiress. She married twice, firstly to Sir Nicholas Carew (d. before 20 April 1448), Baron Carew, of Mohuns Ottery in Devon, of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire and of Moulesford in Berkshire, by whom she had five sons and three daughters. She was the heiress of 16 manors, which she divided amongst her younger sons. She gave Haccombe to her second son Nicholas Carew, founder of the Carew family of Haccombe (see Carew baronets (1661) of Haccombe). Secondly, by royal licence dated 5 October 1450, she married Sir Robert Vere, second son of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford, by whom she had a son, John Vere, father of John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford.
Arms of Beaumont of Youlston, Shirwell: Barry of six vair and gules
Fourthly, by royal licence dated 16 October 1417, to Maud Beaumont (d. 3 July 1467), daughter of Sir William Beaumont of Shirwell by his wife Isabel Willington, daughter of Sir Henry Willington of Umberleigh in Devon. They had two sons as follows:
Sir Edward Courtenay (b.1417), eldest son, who died without progeny
Sir Hugh II Courtenay (c.1427 – 6 May 1471) of Boconnoc, twice MP for Cornwall in 1446 and 1449, who married Margaret Carminow, widow firstly of Sir John de Saint Looe and secondly of William Bottreaux, and daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Carminow by his wife Joan Hill, the daughter of Robert Hill. He was beheaded after the Battle of Tewkesbury (1471), having fought for the defeated House of Lancaster. His eldest son was Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon (d.1509), KG, created Earl of Devon in 1485 by King Henry VII, following the ending of the Wars of the Roses.
Cherry, Martin (1981). "'The Crown and the Political Community in Devonshire, 1377-1461'". Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Wales. Swansea.
Cherry, Martin (1986). "The Disintegration of a Dominant Medieval Affinity: the Courtenay family". Southern History.
Cokayne, George Edward (1916). The Complete Peerage, edited by Vicary Gibbs. IV. London: St. Catherine Press.
Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. I (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966373
Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. II (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966381
Hugh COURTENAY of Haccombe (Sir)
Born: BET 1358/60, probably Haccombe, Devonshire, England
Died: 15 Mar 1424/25
Father: Edward COURTENAY of Godlington
Mother: Emeline DAUNEY
Married 1: Elizabeth COGAN
Married 2: Phillipa ARCHDEKNE (dau. of Sir Warren Archdekne of Haccombe)
1. Joan COURTENAY
Married 3: Matilda BEAUMONT (d. 3 Jul 1467) (dau. of Sir John Beaumont of Sherwell) ABT 1372
2. Margaret COURTENAY
3. Edward COURTENAY (Sir)
4. Hugh COURTENAY of Boconnoc (Sir)
Hugh married Philippa L'Arcedekne Bef 1407, (Haccombe, Devonshire, England). Philippa (daughter of Warin L'Archdekne and Elizabeth Talbot) was born (Haccombe, Devonshire, England); died (Devonshire, England); was buried Saint Blaise Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England. [Group Sheet]
|7. ||Philippa L'Arcedekne was born (Haccombe, Devonshire, England) (daughter of Warin L'Archdekne and Elizabeth Talbot); died (Devonshire, England); was buried Saint Blaise Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England. |
- Alt Birth: 0___ 1386, Cornwall, England
Warin L'Arcedekne (1355 - 1400)
Elizabeth Talbot L'Arcedekne (1364 - 1407)
Hugh Courtenay (1351 - 1425)
Margery L'Arcedekne Arundell (____ - 1420)*
Eleanor L'Arcedekne Lucy (1383 - 1447)*
Philippa L'Arcedekne Courtenay (1386 - ____)
Saint Blaise Church
Maintained by: Carol M.
Originally Created by: Jerry Ferren
Record added: Nov 14, 2010
Find A Grave Memorial# 61595016
- 3. Joan Courtenay was born 0___ 1411, Haccombe, Devonshire, England; died Bef 3 Aug 1465; was buried St. Blaise's Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England.
|8. ||Leonard Carew was born 0___ 1342 (son of John Carew and Margaret Mohun); died 4 Oct 1369, Castle Carew, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wale. |
Leonard — Elizabeth FitzAlan. Elizabeth (daughter of Edmund FitzAlan, Knight and Sybil Montacute) was born ~ 1349, (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England); died ~ 1386, Arundel, Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]
|9. ||Elizabeth FitzAlan was born ~ 1349, (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England) (daughter of Edmund FitzAlan, Knight and Sybil Montacute); died ~ 1386, Arundel, Sussex, England. |
- 4. Thomas Carew was born ~ 1368; died 25 Jan 1431, Mohuns Ottery, Devonshire, England.
|14. ||Warin L'Archdekne was born 0___ 1355, Haccombe, Devonshire, England; died 0___ 1400. |
Warin — Elizabeth Talbot. Elizabeth was born 0___ 1364; died 3 Aug 1407; was buried Saint Blaise Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England. [Group Sheet]
|15. ||Elizabeth Talbot was born 0___ 1364; died 3 Aug 1407; was buried Saint Blaise Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England. |
- 7. Philippa L'Arcedekne was born (Haccombe, Devonshire, England); died (Devonshire, England); was buried Saint Blaise Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England.
|17. ||Margaret Mohun was born ~ 1322; died Dunster, Somerset, England. |
- 8. Leonard Carew was born 0___ 1342; died 4 Oct 1369, Castle Carew, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wale.
|18. ||Edmund FitzAlan, Knight was born ~ 1327, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (son of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Isabe le Despenser, Countess of Arundel); died 1376-1382, Sussex, England. |
Sir Edmund de Arundel, knt (b ca 1327; d 1376-1382), bastardized by the annulment. Edmund was nevertheless knighted, married at the age of twenty, in the summer of 1347  Sybil de Montacute, a younger daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, whose elder sister Elizabeth was married to his maternal uncle (the uncle may have arranged this marriage).
Edmund protested his bastardization bitterly in 1347, but was apparently ignored. After his father's death in 1376, Edmund disputed his half-brother Richard's inheritance of the earldom and associated lands and titles in 1376 and apparently tried to claim the six manors allotted to his deceased mother. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1377, and finally freed through the intervention of two of his brothers-in-law (his wife's brother John de Montacute and the second husband of Elizabeth de Montacute, Lady Le Despencer). They had three daughters who were his co-heiresses and who brought a failed suit in 1382 against their half-uncle the Earl:
Elizabeth de Arundel, who married Sir Leonard Carew and has descendants
Philippa de Arundel (died 18 May 1452), married (as his 2nd wife) Sir Richard Sergeaux, Knt, of Colquite, Cornwall. A Victorian historical novel ascribes the following five children to her: a) Richard, born 21 December 1376, and died childless, 24 June 1396; b) Elizabeth, born 1379, wife of Sir William Marny; c) Philippa, born 1381, wife of Robert Passele; d) Alice, born at Kilquyt, 1 September 1384, wife of Guy de Saint Albino; e) Joan, born 1393, died 21 February 1400. "Philippa became a widow, 30 September 1393, and died 13 September 1399." (I.P.M., 17 Ric. II., 53; 21 Ric. II., 50; 1 H. IV., 14, 23, 24.)*** Alice Sergeaux later Countess of Oxford (c. 1386-18 May 1452), married 1stly Guy de St Aubyn of St. Erme, Cornwall, and 2ndly about 1406-7 as his 2nd wife, the 11th Earl of Oxford and widower of Alice de Holand (dsp. 1406, niece of Henry IV, and mother of two sons by him
John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
Robert de Vere, whose grandson, John, became the 15th Earl of Oxford.
Edmund married Sybil Montacute ~ 1356. Sybil (daughter of William Montagu, Knight, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury) was born (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England). [Group Sheet]
|19. ||Sybil Montacute was born (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England) (daughter of William Montagu, Knight, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury). |
- Philippa Arundel was born ~ 1351, (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England); died 18 May 1452.
- 9. Elizabeth FitzAlan was born ~ 1349, (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England); died ~ 1386, Arundel, Sussex, England.
|24. ||Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon was born 12 Jul 1303, Okehampton, Devon, England (son of Hugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon and Agnes St. John); died 3 May 1377, Exeter, Devonshire, England; was buried Exter Cathedral, Devonshire, England. |
Hugh COURTENAY (2° E. Devon)
Born: 12 Jul 1303, Okehampton, Devon, England
Died: 2 May 1377, Exeter, Devon, England
Buried: Exeter Cathedral, Devonshire, England
Father: Hugh COURTENAY (1° E. Devon)
Mother: Agnes St. JOHN
Married: Margaret De BOHUN (C. Devon) 11 Aug 1325
1. Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)
2. Edward COURTENAY of Godlington
3. Margaret COURTENAY
4. Thomas COURTENAY (Sir Knight)
5. Phillip COURTENAY of Powderham (Sir)
6. Elizabeth COURTENAY
7. Catherine COURTENAY
8. Joan COURTENAY
10. Matilda COURTENAY
11. Eleanor COURTENAY
12. Guinora COURTENAY (b. ABT 1348)
13. Isabel COURTENAY
14. Phillipa COURTENAY
15. William COURTENAY (Archbishop of Canterbury)
16. John COURTENAY
17. Peter COURTENAY (Sir)
18. Humphrey COURTENAY (Sir) (b. ABT 1355)
19. Anne COURTENAY
Hugh married Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon 11 Aug 1325. Margaret (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England) was born 3 Apr 1311; died 16 Dec 1391. [Group Sheet]
|32. ||John Carew was born ~ 1277, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales (son of Nicholas Carew and Amicia Peverell); died 26 Jun 1324, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales. |
- Also Known As: John de Carew
Sir John de CAREW formerly Carew
Born about 1277 in Carew, Pembrokeshire, Walesmap
Son of [father unknown] and [mother unknown]
Husband of Eleanor (Mohun) de Mohun — married about 1300 in Carew, Pembrokeshire, Walesmap
Husband of Joanna Talbot — married 1309 in Carew, Pembrokeshire, Walesmap
Father of Nicholas Carew and John Carew
Died 26 Jun 1324 in Carew, Pembrokeshire, Walesmap
Sir John de Carew was the son of Sir Nicholas Carew and Amicia Peverell.He married, firstly, Eleanor Mohun daughter of Sir William de Mohun in 1300 at Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales. He married, secondly, Joan Talbot, daughter of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot in 1309 at Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales. He died on the 26th of Jun 1324 in Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales.
? Mosley, Charles, editor. Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes. Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003. volume 1, page 682.
Maxwell-Lyte, Henry Churchill, A History of Dunster and of the Families of Mohun & Luttrell (London: St. Catherine Press, 1909.), p. 33
Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant (London: St. Catherine Press, 1910.), 4:199, 5:463
Nicolas, Nicholas Harris, The Controversy between Sir Richard Scrope and Sir Robert Grosvenor in the Court of Chivalry (London: Bentley, 1832.), p. 245
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_Carew_(died_1311). see Marriage & progeny for son John
John married Joanna Talbot 0___ 1309, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales. [Group Sheet]
|36. ||Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel was born 1306-1313, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (son of Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel); died 24 Jan 1376, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England. |
- Occupation: Governor of Caernarfon Castle
- Occupation: High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire
- Occupation: Justiciar of North Wales
- Also Known As: 8th Earl of Surrey
- Military: Commander of the English Army in the North
- Will: 5 Dec 1375
Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and 8th Earl of Surrey (c. 1306/1313 – 24 January 1376) was an English nobleman and medieval military leader.
Family and early life
Richard's birth date was uncertain perhaps 1313 or maybe 1306 in Sussex, England. FitzAlan was the eldest son of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel (8th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots), and his wife Alice de Warenne. His maternal grandparents were William de Warenne and Joan de Vere. William was the only son of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (himself son of Maud Marshal by her second marriage), and his wife Alice de Lusignan (d. 1356), half-sister of Henry III of England.
Alliance with the Despensers
Around 1321, FitzAlan's father allied with King Edward II's favorites, Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester and his namesake son, and Richard was married to Isabel le Despenser, daughter of Hugh the Younger. Fortune turned against the Despenser party, and on 17 November 1326, FitzAlan's father was executed, and he did not succeed to his father's estates or titles.
However, political conditions had changed by 1330, and over the next few years Richard was gradually able to reacquire the Earldom of Arundel as well as the great estates his father had held in Sussex and in the Welsh Marches.
Beyond this, in 1334 he was made Justiciar of North Wales (later his term in this office was made for life), High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire for life and Governor of Caernarfon Castle. He was one of the most trusted supporters of Edward the Black Prince in Wales.
Military service in Scotland
Despite his high offices in Wales, in the following decades Arundel spent much of his time fighting in Scotland (during the Second Wars of Scottish Independence) and France (during the Hundred Years' War). In 1337, Arundel was made Joint Commander of the English army in the north, and the next year he was made the sole Commander.
In 1340 he fought at the Battle of Sluys, and then at the siege of Tournai. After a short term as Warden of the Scottish Marches, he returned to the continent, where he fought in a number of campaigns, and was appointed Joint Lieutenant of Aquitaine in 1340.
Arundel was one of the three principal English commanders at the Battle of Crâecy. He spent much of the following years on various military campaigns and diplomatic missions.
In a campaign of 1375, at the end of his life, he destroyed the harbour of Roscoff.
In 1347, he succeeded to the Earldom of Surrey (or Warenne), which even further increased his great wealth. (He did not however use the additional title until after the death of the Dowager Countess of Surrey in 1361.) He made very large loans to King Edward III but even so on his death left behind a great sum in hard cash.
Marriages and children
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2012)
He married firstly February 9, 1321 at Havering-atte-Bower, Isabel le Despenser (born 1312). At that time, the future earl was eight (or fifteen) and his bride nine. He later repudiated this bride, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI in December 1344 on the grounds that he had been underaged and unwilling. He had a son Edmund (b. 1327) when he was fourteen (or twenty-one) and his wife fifteen; this son was bastardized by the annulment.
His second wife, whom he married on 5 April 1345, was a young widow Eleanor of Lancaster, the second youngest daughter and sixth child of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth; by Papal dispensation he was allowed to marry his first wife's first cousin by their common grandmother Isabella de Beauchamp. Eleanor was the widow of John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont. The king, Edward III, himself a kinsman of both wives, attended this second marriage. By now, the Earl of Arundel had rebuilt the family wealth and was apparently a major financier of the Crown, and financial sweeteners may have been used to reconcile both the Church and the Crown. By his first marriage to Isabel le Despenser (living 1356, and may have died circa 1376-7), which marriage he had annulled December 1344 , he had one son:
Sir Edmund de Arundel, knt (b ca 1327; d 1376-1382), bastardized by the annulment. Edmund was nevertheless knighted, married at the age of twenty, in the summer of 1347  Sybil de Montacute, a younger daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, whose elder sister Elizabeth was married to his maternal uncle (the uncle may have arranged this marriage). Edmund protested his bastardization bitterly in 1347, but was apparently ignored. After his father's death in 1376, Edmund disputed his half-brother Richard's inheritance of the earldom and associated lands and titles in 1376 and apparently tried to claim the six manors allotted to his deceased mother. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1377, and finally freed through the intervention of two of his brothers-in-law (his wife's brother John de Montacute and the second husband of Elizabeth de Montacute, Lady Le Despencer). They had three daughters who were his co-heiresses and who brought a failed suit in 1382 against their half-uncle the Earl:
Elizabeth de Arundel, who married Sir Leonard Carew and has descendants
Philippa de Arundel (died 18 May 1452), married (as his 2nd wife) Sir Richard Sergeaux, Knt, of Colquite, Cornwall. A Victorian historical novel ascribes the following five children to her: a) Richard, born December 21, 1376, and died issueless, June 24, 1396; b) Elizabeth, born 1379, wife of Sir William Marny; c) Philippa, born 1381, wife of Robert Passele; d) Alice, born at Kilquyt, September 1, 1384, wife of Guy de Saint Albino [this ; e) Joan, born 1393, died February 21, 1400. "Philippa became a widow, September 30, 1393, and died September 13, 1399." (I.P.M., 17 Ric. II., 53; 21 Ric. II., 50; 1 H. IV., 14, 23, 24.)
Alice Sergeaux later Countess of Oxford (c. 1386 - 18 May 1452), married 1stly Guy de St Aubyn of St. Erme, Cornwall, and 2ndly about 1406-7 as his 2nd wife, the 11th Earl of Oxford and widower of Alice de Holand (dsp. 1406, niece of Henry IV, and mother of two sons by him
John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
Robert de Vere, whose grandson, John, became the 15th Earl of Oxford.
Mary (died 29 Aug 1396), married John le Strange, 4th Lord Blackmere (from Genealogy of Fitzalans).
By the second marriage 5 February 1345, by Papal dispensation, to Eleanor of Lancaster, he had 3 sons and 3 surviving daughters:
Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who succeeded him as 11th Earl of Arundel as his "eldest legitimate" son.
John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel, 1st Baron Maltravers, who was a Marshall of England, and drowned in 1379.
Thomas Arundel, who became Archbishop of Canterbury
Lady Joan FitzAlan (1348 - 7 April 1419) who married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. They were the maternal grandparents of Henry V of England through their daughter Mary de Bohun.
Lady Alice FitzAlan (1350 - 17 March 1416), who married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, uterine brother of King Richard II. They were ancestors to Queen consorts Anne Neville (wife of King Richard III), Elizabeth of York (wife of King Henry VII), and Catherine Parr (wife of King Henry VIII).
Lady Eleanor Fitzalan (1356 - before 1366).
The current Dukes of Norfolk descend from Lady Mary, Duchess of Norfolk, a daughter and co-heiress of Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel; the 19th Earl descended from John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel.
Death and legacy
Richard died on 24 January 1376 in Sussex, England. (Another source says he wrote his will on 5 December 1375, and died on 14 January 1376 at Arundel Castle).. In his will, he mentioned his three surviving sons by his second wife, his two surviving daughters Joan, Dowager Countess of Hereford and Alice, Countess of Kent, his grandchildren by his second son John, etc., but left out his bastardized eldest son Edmund.
The memorial effigies attributed to Richard FitzAlan and his second wife Eleanor of Lancaster in Chichester Cathedral are the subject of the poem "An Arundel Tomb" by Philip Larkin.
FitzAlan died an incredibly wealthy man, despite his various loans to Edward III
Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery on Christmas Day 1067. Roger became the first to hold the earldom of Arundel by the graces of William the Conqueror. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War and then restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.
From the 11th century, the castle has served as a home and has been in the ownership of the family of the Duke of Norfolk for over 400 years. It is the principal seat of the Norfolk family. It is a Grade I listed building.
Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle
The Justiciar of North Wales was responsible for the royal administration in these counties as well as the administration of justice. English law was applied to criminal law, but in other matters Welsh law was allowed to continue.
List of Justiciars
Otton de Grandson, 1284–1294
Robert Tibetot, 1295–1301
Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, 1334–1352
Arundel sold the office to Edward the Black Prince in 1352
John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp 1385–1388
Henry Percy (Hotspur) 1399?–1403?
Caernarfon Castle (Welsh: Castell Caernarfon) is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, north-west Wales. Click here to view its history, map & picture ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caernarfon_Castle
Lewes Priory is a ruined medieval Cluniac priory in Southover, East Sussex in the United Kingdom. The ruins have been designated a Grade I listed building.
The Priory of St Pancras was the first Cluniac house in England and had one of the largest monastic churches in the country. It was set within an extensive walled and gated precinct laid out in a commanding location fronting the tidal shore-line at the head of the Ouse valley to the south of Lewes in the County of Sussex. The Priory had daughter houses, including Castle Acre Priory in Norfolk, and was endowed with churches and extensive holdings throughout England. In Lewes it had hospitiums dedicated to St James and to St Nicholas.
In 1264, during the Battle of Lewes, King Henry III installed his forces in the Priory precinct which came under attack from those of Simon de Montfort after his victory over Henry in battle. Henry was forced, in the Mise of Lewes, to accept the Council that was the start of Parliamentary government in England.
Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewes_Priory
Richard married Isabe le Despenser, Countess of Arundel 9 Feb 1321, Havering-atte-Bower, Essex, England. Isabe (daughter of Hugh le Despencer, IV, Knight, Baron Despenser and Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer) was born 0___ 1312; died ~ 1376. [Group Sheet]
|37. ||Isabe le Despenser, Countess of Arundel was born 0___ 1312 (daughter of Hugh le Despencer, IV, Knight, Baron Despenser and Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer); died ~ 1376. |
At that time, the future earl was either eight or fifteen, and his bride nine. He later repudiated this bride, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI in December 1344 on the grounds that he had been underage and unwilling.
By this marriage, Richard and Isabel had one son (when Richard was either fourteen or twenty-one, and Isabel fifteen). This son was bastardized by the annulment.
- 18. Edmund FitzAlan, Knight was born ~ 1327, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 1376-1382, Sussex, England.
|38. ||William Montagu, Knight, 1st Earl of Salisbury was born 0___ 1301, Cassington, Oxfordshire, England; died 30 Jan 1344, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was buried Bisham Abbey, Berkshire, England. |
- Also Known As: Baron Montacute
- Also Known As: King of Mann
- Also Known As: Salisbury
- Also Known As: William Montacute
William Montagu, alias de Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury, 3rd Baron Montagu, King of Mann (1301 – 30 January 1344) was an English nobleman and loyal servant of King Edward III.
The son of William Montagu, 2nd Baron Montagu, he entered the royal household at an early age and became a close companion of the young Prince Edward. The relationship continued after Edward was crowned king following the deposition of Edward II in 1327. In 1330, Montagu was one of Edward's main accomplices in the coup against Roger Mortimer, who up until then had been acting as the king's protector.
In the following years Montagu served the king in various capacities, primarily in the Scottish Wars. He was richly rewarded, and among other things received the lordship of the Isle of Man. In 1337, he was created Earl of Salisbury, and given an annual income of 1000 marks to go with the title. He served on the Continent in the early years of the Hundred Years' War, but in 1340 he was captured by the French, and in return for his freedom had to promise never to fight in France again. Salisbury died of wounds suffered at a tournament early in 1344.
Legend has it that Montagu's wife Catherine was raped by Edward III, but this story is almost certainly French propaganda. William and Catherine had six children, most of whom married into the nobility. Modern historians have called William Montague Edward's "most intimate personal friend" and "the chief influence behind the throne from Mortimer's downfall in 1330 until his own death in 1344."
William Montagu, born at Cassington, Oxfordshire in 1301, was the second but eldest surviving son of William Montagu, 2nd Baron Montagu, and Elizabeth de Montfort, daughter of Sir Peter Montfort of Beaudesert, Warwickshire. by Matilda/Maud de la Mare daughter and heiress of Henry de la Mare of Ashtead, Surrey, Royal Justice, Seneschal of William Longspree II Earl of Salisbury. The Montagu family, a West Country family with roots going back to the Conquest, held extensive lands in Somerset, Dorset and Devon. The father, William Montagu, distinguished himself in the Scottish Wars during the reign of Edward I, and served as steward of Edward II's household. Some members of the nobility, including Thomas of Lancaster, viewed Montagu with suspicion, as a member of a court party with undue influence on the king. For this reason he was sent to Aquitaine, to serve as seneschal. Here he died on 18 October 1319. Even though he sat in parliament as a baron, the second lord Montagu never rose above a level of purely regional importance.
The younger William was still a minor at the time of his father's death, and entered the royal household as a ward of the king in 1320. On 21 February 1323 he was granted his father's lands and title. His service to Edward II took him abroad to the Continent in both 1320 and 1325. In 1326 he was knighted. After the deposition of Edward II in 1327, Montagu continued in the service of Edward's son Edward III. He helped the new king in repelling the Scottish invasion of 1327, and was created knight banneret in 1328.
Montagu enjoyed a close relationship with Edward III, and accompanied him abroad on a diplomatic mission in 1329. That same year he was sent on an embassy to negotiate a marriage alliance with King Philip VI of France. His most important task, however, came in connection with a mission to the Papacy in Avignon. The young king—along with his government—was under the dominance of his mother Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer, who had been responsible for the deposition of the king's father. Montagu explained the king's situation, and Pope John XXII asked for a special signal that assure him that he was dealing with the king in person. After Montagu's return, Richard Bury, Keeper of the Privy Seal, wrote to inform the pope that only letters containing the words pater sancte (holy father), in Edward's own handwriting, were indeed from the king. Only Edward, Bury and Montagu were party to the scheme.
Coup against Mortimer
When Mortimer discovered the conspiracy against him, Montagu was brought in for interrogation – along with the king – but gave nothing away. Afterward he supposedly advised Edward to move against his protector, because "It was better that they should eat the dog than that the dog should eat them". On 19 October 1330, while Mortimer and Isabella were entrenched in Nottingham Castle, the constable of the castle showed Montagu a secret entrance through an underground tunnel. Along with Edward de Bohun, Robert Ufford, and John Neville and others, he entered the castle, where he met up with the king. A short brawl followed before Mortimer was captured. The queen stormed into the chamber shouting "Good son, have pity on noble Mortimer". Edward did not obey his mother's wishes, and a few weeks later Mortimer was executed for treason in London. As a reward for his part in the coup, Montagu was given lands worth ¹1000, including the Welsh lordship of Denbigh that had belonged to Mortimer. His family also benefited; his brother Simon Montacute became Bishop of Worcester and later of Ely. Another brother, Edward Montagu, 1st Baron Montagu, married Alice of Norfolk, a co-heir of Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk.
Service under Edward III
Edward III founded the Order of the Garter in 1348, and included Salisbury's son among the founding members.
In the years to come, Montagu acted as Edward's closest companion. In April 1331, the two went on a secret expedition to France, disguised as merchants so they would not be recognised. In September of the same year, Montagu held a tournament at Cheapside, where he and the king were costumed as Tartars. From 1333 onwards, Montagu was deeply engaged in the Scottish Wars, and distinguished himself at the Siege of Berwick and the Battle of Halidon Hill. It was after this event that his lordship over the Isle of Man was recognised, a right he held from his grandfather. The lordship was at the moment of a purely theoretical nature, however, since the island was still under Scottish control.
In February 1334 Montagu was sent on a commission to Edinburgh, to demand Edward Balliol's homage to Edward. In the great summer campaign of 1335, it was Montagu who provided the largest English contingent, with 180 men-at-arms and 136 archers. He was well rewarded for his contributions: after the Scots had been forced to cede the Lowlands, Montagu was granted the county of Peeblesshire. He was also allowed to buy the wardship of Roger Mortimer's son Roger for 1000 marks, a deal that turned out to be very lucrative for Montagu. At this point, however, the fortunes were turning for the English in Scotland. Montagu campaigned in the north again in 1337, but the siege of Dunbar met with failure. Following the abortive attempt in Scotland, Edward III turned his attention to the continent.
The Hundred Years' War
Montagu was created Earl of Salisbury on 16 March 1337. This was one of six comital promotions Edward III made that day, in preparation for what was to become the Hundred Years' War. To allow Montagu to support his new status, the king granted him land and rent of a value of 1000 marks a year. The money was provided from the royal stannaries of Cornwall. A contemporary poem tells of a vow made by the earl on the eve of the wars – he would not open one of his eyes while fighting in France. The story is probably a satire; the truth was that Montagu had already lost the use of one of his eyes in a tournament.
In April 1337, Montagu was appointed to a diplomatic commission to Valenciennes, to establish alliances with Flanders and the German princes. In July 1338, he accompanied the king on another mission to the continent, again providing the greatest number of soldiers, with 123 men-at-arms and 50 archers. In September of that year he was made Marshal of England. After the death of Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, this office had come into the hands of Norfolk's daughter Margaret. The king did not trust the office with her husband, so he decided instead to bestow it on his trusted companion, Montagu. Edward's policy of building alliances put him in great debt, and when he left the Low Countries to return to England late in 1338, Salisbury had to stay behind as surety to the king's debtors, along with the king's family and the Earl of Derby. The earl had earlier voiced concerns about the costly alliances, but he nevertheless remained loyal to the king's strategy.
While Edward was away, Salisbury was captured by the French at Lille in April 1340, and imprisoned in Paris. Reportedly, King Philip VI of France wanted to execute Salisbury and Robert Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, who was captured with him. Philip was, however, dissuaded by John of Bohemia, who argued that the earls could come in handy in an exchange, should any French noblemen be captured. Though released on parole in September, it was not until May 1342 that he reached a final settlement with the French. Salisbury was freed in a prisoner exchange, but only on the condition that he never fight in France again.
Salisbury's residence of Bisham Manor in Berkshire.
Salisbury had long been frustrated by the failure of the government in England to provide sufficient funds for the war effort. On his return, however, he played little part in the conflict of 1341 between King Edward and Chancellor John Stratford. In May that year he was appointed to a committee to hear the king's charges against Stratford, but little came from this. In 1342–43 he fought with Robert of Artois in the Breton War of Succession, and in 1343 helped negotiate the Truce of Malestroit. It was probably sometime after this he made good his claim on the Isle of Man, by conquering the island which was until then held by the Scots.
His final international commission took place late in 1343, when he accompanied Henry of Grosmont, Earl of Derby, on a diplomatic mission to Castile. Early in 1344 he was back in England, where he took part in a great tournament at Windsor. It was during this tournament, according to the chronicler Adam Murimuth, that he received wounds that would prove fatal. Salisbury died on 30 January 1344. He was buried at Bisham Priory in Berkshire, adjoining his home, Bisham Manor. He had founded the priory himself in 1337, on his elevation to the earldom. King Edward's financial obligations were never paid in full during the earl's lifetime, and at Salisbury' death the king owed him ¹11,720. Of this, some ¹6374 were written off by his executors in 1346.
In or before 1327 Salisbury married Catherine, daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison. Two anecdotal stories revolve around Catherine Montagu; in one she is identified as the "Countess of Salisbury" from whose dropped garter Edward III named the Order of the Garter. In the other, Edward III falls in love with the countess, and arranges to be alone with her so he can rape her. Neither story is supported by contemporary evidence, and the latter almost certainly is a product of French propaganda.
William and Catherine had six children, most of whom made highly fortunate matches with other members of the nobility. The first Earl of Salisbury made enormous additions to the family fortune; at the time of his father's death, the lands had been valued at just over ¹300. In 1344, only the annual income of the lands has been estimated to more than ¹2,300, equivalent to about ¹1.82 million in present day terms. Edward was also free with granting franchises to Salisbury, including the return of writs, which gave the earl authority in his lands normally held by the royally appointed sheriff. Salisbury's oldest son William succeeded his father in July 1349, while still a minor, as William Montagu, 2nd Earl of Salisbury. The younger William was one of the founding members of the Order of the Garter, but he never enjoyed the same favour with the king as his father had.
The children of William and Catherine were as follows:
Name Birth Death Notes
Elizabeth Montagu — 1359 Married Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer before 27 April 1341
Married Guy de Brian, 4th Baron Brian, after 1349
William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury 1328 1397 Succeeded his father 11 June 1349
John de Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute 1330 1390 Father of John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury
Philippa Montagu 1332 1381 Married Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March
Sibyl Montagu — — Married Edmund FitzAlan, the disinherited son of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel
Agnes Montagu — — Was contracted to marry John, eldest son of Roger Grey, 1st Baron Grey de Ruthyn
Alice Montagu — — Married Ralph Daubeney, son of Helias Daubeney, 1st Baron Daubeney
Born: 1301 at Cassington, Oxfordshire
Earl of Salisbury
Died: 30th January 1344 at Windsor, Berkshire
William was born in 1301, the eldest son of William Montacute, 2nd Baron Montacute (d. 1319) and his wife, Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir Piers de Montfort of Beaudesert in Warwickshire. William Junior succeeded his father as 3rd Baron on 6th November 1319, being granted wardship of his own lands, though yet a minor. In 1322, he came of age and received livery of his lands, together with a grant of Lundy Isle off the Devon coast. In 1325, he was knighted and received letters of protection on his departure for France. In 1327, he went with Edward III to repel the Scottish invasion, when the latter nearly missed capture. In 1329, he accompanied the King abroad and was sent, in June, to treat for a marriage between the eldest son of the King of France and Edward's sister, Eleanor. In September, he was despatched, with Bartholomew de Burghersh (d. 1355), on an embassy to the Pope at Avignon, returning before the end of the year, when, in his capacity as executor of Blanche, Queen of Navarre, he lent the King two thousand marks that had belonged to her, and were deposited at Whitefriars.
Next year, the young king took him into his confidence about his plans for the arrest of Mortimer. During the parliament held at Nottingham in October 1330, Montacute, with a band of retainers, including Sir John de Molines, penetrated by a secret passage into the castle, where they found Mortimer in the Queen-Mother's apartments. After a struggle, in which two of Mortimer's attendants were killed, his arrest was effected and he was sent to London for trial. Edward obtained, from Parliament, indemnity on Montacute's behalf for all consequences of the death of Mortimer's attendants, and rewarded him with various grants of land forfeited by Mortimer in Hampshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Kent and Wales, including Sherborne, Corfe Castle and Purbeck Chase in Dorset, and the lordship of Denbigh in North Wales. On 4th April 1331, Montacute accompanied Edward III when, disguised as a merchant and attended by only a handful of men-at-arms, the King paid a secret visit to France. He was also present when Edward repeated his homage to the French King at Amiens on 13th April, and returned with him to Dover on 20th April. In September, Montacute held a great tournament in Cheapside, entertaining his guests in the Bishop of London's palace.
Next year, he attended the King in Scotland and, in 1333, was present at the Siege of Berwick and the Battle of Halidon Hill. In the same year, Edward made over to him all his rights to the Isle of Man. He appears to have accompanied Balliol to Scotland and, in February 1334, was deputed by him to excuse his absence from the parliament held at York. On 30th March, Montacute was appointed envoy to France, with the Archbishop of Canterbury and two others; but, in June, was again in Scotland, where, in 1335, he was left in command of the army, with Arundel. In the same year, he was granted the forests of Selkirk and Ettrick and the town of Peebles, made Governor of the Channel Islands and Constable of the Tower of London, as well as acquiring Bisham Manor which, being so close to the King at Windsor, he made his principal family seat. In November, he was given power to treat with Andrew Murray, Constable of Scotland. On 27th January 1336, he commenced the Siege of Dunbar Castle, but, after nineteen weeks, the blockade was raised by Alexander Ramsay and Montacute gave it up in despair, making a truce that was strongly disapproved of in England. In the same year, he was appointed Admiral of the Fleet from the mouth of the Thames westward.
On 16 March 1337, at the parliament held in London, Montacute was created Earl of Salisbury. In the following April, he was sent to King Philip VI to declare Edward's claim to the French Crown, and thence on an embassy to the Emperor Louis, Rupert, Count Palatine, the Duke of Bavaria and other princes of Germany and the Netherlands, to organise a league against France. In October, he was commissioned to treat with Scotland, but, in July 1338, commanded a successful raid into Scotland from Carlisle. Later on in the year, he sailed, with Edward, from the Orwell to Flanders, and by a patent, dated Antwerp 20th September 1338, was appointed Marshal of England, an office then vacant by the death of Thomas, Earl of Norfolk. He remained in Flanders, where he was one of the captains of the English forces, for the next two years, during part of which he was in garrison at Ypres. In November 1338, he was one of those appointed to treat with Philip of Valois at the desire of the Pope. Shortly after, he made an inroad into the territories of the Bishop of Liege and, in February 1339, negotiated an agreement with the Archbishop of Treves and the Duke of Brabant, and was subsequently employed in various other negotiations. In 1340, induced, perhaps, by treachery within the walls, Salisbury and Suffolk, with a small force, made an attempt on Lille. The attack failed and both were taken prisoners and conveyed to Paris, when Salisbury, it is said, owed his life to the intervention of the King of Bohemia. On 18th October, Edward demanded a levy of wools to secure his liberation. He was set free - on condition of never serving against King Philip in France - at the peace negotiated after the Siege of Tournay, in exchange for the Earl of Moray, who had been captured in the Scottish Wars.
Salisbury returned to England in November and took part in Edward's arrest of the treasury officials and others. In May 1341, he was commissioned to investigate the charges against Stratford. Perhaps it was at this time that he conquered the Isle of Man from the Scots and was crowned King there; but the event has also been assigned to 1340 and 1342. In May 1343, Salisbury embarked, with Robert d'Artois, for Brittany, captured Vannes and proceeded to besiege Rennes. After the death of Artois and some months of ineffectual fighting, a truce was signed and, in August, Salisbury was sent on an embassy to the court of Castile. There, he took part in the Siege of Algeciras, which King Alfonso XI was then prosecuting against the Moors. He was soon recalled to England, however, and sent north against the Scots. He died on 30th January 1344 from bruises, it is said, received during a tournament held at Windsor, and was buried at Bisham Priory which he had founded in 1337. He married Katharine, daughter of Sir William Grandisson, by whom he had two sons, William, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, and John, and four daughters, one of whom, Philippa, married Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March
Injuries from a tournament...
William married Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury ~ 1320. Catherine (daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison and Sibylla de Tregoz) was born ~ 1304; died 23 Nov 1349. [Group Sheet]
|39. ||Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury was born ~ 1304 (daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison and Sibylla de Tregoz); died 23 Nov 1349. |
- Also Known As: Catherine Montacute
Catherine Montacute (or Montagu), Countess of Salisbury (c. 1304 - 23 November 1349) was an English noblewoman, remembered for her relationship with King Edward III of England and possibly the woman in whose honour the Order of the Garter was originated. She was born Catherine Grandison, daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison, and Sibylla de Tregoz. Her mother was one of two daughters of John de Tregoz, Baron Tregoz (whose arms were blazoned Gules two bars gemels in chief a lion passant guardant or), maternal granddaughter of Fulk IV, Baron FitzWarin). Catherine married William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury in about 1320.
Their children were:
Elizabeth Montacute (b. before 1325); married Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer before 27 April 1341.
William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury (1329–1397)
John de Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute, (1330–1390); father of John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury.
Anne Montacute, (b. 1331); married John De Grey on 12 June 1335.
Philippa Montacute (1332–1381); married Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March.
Sibyl Montacute (b. before 1339); married Edmund FitzAlan about 1356.
According to rumour, King Edward III was so enamoured of the countess that he forced his attentions on her in around 1341, after having relieved a Scottish siege on Wark Castle[disambiguation needed], where she lived, while her husband was out of the country. An Elizabethan play, Edward III, deals with this incident. In the play, the Earl of Warwick is the unnamed Countess's father, though he was not her father in real life.
In around 1348, the Order of the Garter was founded by Edward III and it is recorded  that he did so after an incident at a ball when the "Countess of Salisbury" dropped a garter and the king picked it up. It is assumed that Froissart is referring either to Catherine or to her daughter-in-law, Joan of Kent.
- John Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute was born ~ 1330, (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England); died ~ 1390.
- 19. Sybil Montacute was born (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England).
- Philippa Montagu was born 0___ 1332, (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England); died 0___ 1381, (England).
|48. ||Hugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon was born 14 Sep 1276, (Okehampton, Devon, England) (son of Hugh Courtenay and Eleanor Despencer); died 23 Dec 1340, Tiverton, Devon, England. |
- Also Known As: 9th Earl of Devon
Hugh de Courtenay, 1st/9th Earl of Devon (14 September 1276 – 23 December 1340) was the son of Sir Hugh de Courtenay (died 1292), feudal baron of Okehampton in Devon, by his wife Eleanor le Despenser (died 1328), sister of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester. Forty-one years after the death of his cousin, Isabel de Forz, suo jure 8th Countess of Devon (1237–1293) (nâee de Redvers, eldest daughter of Baldwin de Redvers, 6th Earl of Devon (1217-1245)), letters patent were granted by King Edward III, dated 22 February 1335, declaring him Earl of Devon, and stating that he 'should assume such title and style as his ancestors, Earls of Devon, had wont to do'. This thus made him 1st Earl of Devon, if the letters patent are deemed to have created a new peerage, otherwise 9th Earl of Devon if it is deemed a restitution of the old dignity of the de Redvers family and he is deemed to have succeeded the suo jure 8th Countess. Authorities differ in their opinions and thus alternative ordinal numbers exist for this Courtenay earldom.
Hugh de Courtenay was born 14 September 1276, the son of Sir Hugh de Courtenay (died 28 February 1292) feudal baron of Okehampton in Devon, by his wife Eleanor le Despenser (died 30 September 1328), sister of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester, an important adviser to King Edward II. He was the grandson of John de Courtenay (died c. 3 May 1274) of Okehampton by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford. John's father, Robert de Courtenay (died 1242), the son of Reginald de Courtenay (died 1190) by Hawise de Curci (died 1219), the heiress of the feudal barony of Okehampton), had married Mary de Redvers (sometimes called "de Vernon"), the daughter of William de Redvers, 5th Earl of Devon (died 1217).
On 28 February 1292, about the time of his marriage, Hugh succeeded to the Okehampton estate and to those de Redvers estates that had not yet been alienated to the Crown. He may then have been styled Earl of Devon, the first of the Courtenay family, although was not recognised in the de facto Earldom until 1333.
Campaign against Scotland, 1297–1300
He did homage to Edward I on 20 June 1297 and was granted his own livery. At the time the King was with his army crossing the Tweed into Scotland. It is probable that the honour was in acknowledgement of Hugh's military achievements. That July the English defeated and humiliated the Scots at Irvine. However the following year the tables were turned on the advent of the remarkable campaign of William Wallace.
The following February 6, 1298 he was summoned as a Lord in Parliament, and sat throughout the reign of Edward II and into the Mortimer Regency for Edward's son. He remained an important noble at Parliaments into the reign of Edward III. He was summoned as Hugoni de Curtenay with the confusing suffix of senior being known as Lord Courtenay.
Courtenay joined King Edward at the long siege of Caerlaverock Castle, just over the Solway Firth for a fortnight in July 1300. He proved himself a fine soldier and loyal adherent to the English crown. He had not been present at the disastrous encounter outside Stirling Castle in 1298, during which half the English contingent were killed, including commander Hugh Cressingham. But Edward was determined to march into Ayrshire to devastate Robert Bruce's estates. Unfortunately the English army melted away into the forests as the army moved further northwards. Courtenay may have been with the English King when he sat down in Sweetheart Abbey to receive Robert Winchelsey, Archbishop of Canterbury who had travelled north with a demanding missive from Pope Boniface to cease hostilities. The King could not ignore this order. In September he disbanded troops and withdrew over the Solway Firth to Carlisle. The campaign had failed due to a shortage of money, so Parliament was recalled for January 1301. Before returning to London the English drew up a six months truce.
Parliament of 1301
Parliament met at Lincoln. The agenda included redrafting the Royal Forest Charter, which had no precedent since it was first introduced in the reign of Henry II, 150 years earlier. Local juries were expected to "perambulate the forests" to gather evidence. But the King needed money and was required by Parliament to surrender his absolute authority and ownership of what became community forests.
Campaigns against Scotland, 1301–1308
In 1306 the Prince of Wales was despatched into Scotland; the vanguard led by Aymer de Valence, the King's half uncle. On 22 May, Courtenay was knighted by the Prince, presumably for his efforts against the Scots. In June the English occupied Perth. On 19 June, Valence, who had cut a swathe through the Lowlands fell on the Scots army at Methven in the early dawn. The Bruce fled into the hills. Edward I was merciless as many prisoners were punished. That autumn the army returned to Hexham. The war was all but over: there were however sieges at Mull of Kintyre and Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire. Edward I committed many atrocities rounding up the Scots aristocracy and their women.
Then as Robert Bruce returned from exile in Ireland the English army started losing battles. The ailing King had one last campaign in which Courtenay played a major part. Struggling into the saddle to the Solway Firth, Edward I died at Burgh-on-Sands awaiting a crossing. In 1308 a new campaign was sent to quell Robert Bruce, and Courtenay was made a knight banneret, one of the King's elite household.
During the reign of Edward II he was made a Lord Ordainer, one of the ruling council in the Lords. He was appointed to the King's Council on 9 Augustus 1318. He was appointed the Warden of the coast of Devon and Cornwall in 1324 and then again in 1336, because his estates stretched across what is now Exmoor and Dartmoor. But he took the honours reluctantly and played a guarded game with King and Parliament. A veteran campaigner he aimed to ingratiate himself with the young Edward III, and so refused the Third Penny from the Exchequer. He was investigated; and on 22 February 1335 elevated to the Earldom of Devon, restored to his ancestral line.
Forty-one years after the death of his cousin, Isabel de Fortibus, Countess of Devon, letters patent were issued dated 22 February 1335 declaring him Earl of Devon, and stating that he 'should assume such title and style as his ancestors, Earls of Devon, had wont to do'. He was the 9th Earl of Devon, but the first in the Courtenay line.
He married Agnes de Saint John, daughter of John de Saint John, Baron St John, of Basing, Hampshire, by Alice, daughter of Sir Reynold Fitz Peter. They had four sons and two daughters:
John Courtenay (1300–1349), Prior of Lewes and Abbot of Tavistock.
Hugh de Courtenay, 2nd/10th Earl of Devon (1303-1377), second son, who married Margaret de Bohun, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford by Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King Edward I and Eleanor of Castile.
Robert Courtenay (1309–1334), 3rd son, of Moreton Hampstead in Devon.
Sir Thomas Courtenay (1315-1356), 4th son, of Wootton Courtenay in Somerset, and of Woodhuish, Brixham in Devon, a military commander against the French, who died in 1356, the date of the Battle of Poitiers. He married a great Somerset heiress, Muriel de Moels, the eldest of the two daughters and co-heiresses of John Moels, 4th Baron Moels, feudal baron of North Cadbury in Somerset. His wife's share of her paternal inheritance included the manors of Kings Carswell and Dunterton in Devon, and Blackford, Holton and Lattiford in Somerset.
Eleanor Courtenay (c.1309 – c.1330), who married John de Grey, 3rd Baron Grey of Codnor.
Elizabeth Courtenay (born c.1313), who married Bartholomew de Lisle.
Courtenay died at Tiverton, Devon, 23 December 1340, and was buried at Cowick Priory near Exeter on 5 Feb 1341.
Hugh COURTENAY (1° E. Devon)
Born: 14 Sep 1273
Died: 23 Dec 1340
Father: Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)
Mother: Eleanor DESPENCER
Married 1: Elizabeth PLANTAGENET
Married 2: Agnes St. JOHN 1292
1. Hugh COURTENAY (2° E. Devon)
2. John COURTENAY
3. Eleanor COURTENAY
4. Robert COURTENAY
5. Thomas COURTENAY
6. Elizabeth COURTENAY (b. ABT 1313)
Hugh married Agnes St. John 0___ 1292. [Group Sheet]
|49. ||Agnes St. John|
- 24. Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon was born 12 Jul 1303, Okehampton, Devon, England; died 3 May 1377, Exeter, Devonshire, England; was buried Exter Cathedral, Devonshire, England.
- John Courtenay was born (Okehampton, Devon, England).
- Eleanor Courtenay was born (Okehampton, Devon, England).
- Robert Courtenay was born (Okehampton, Devon, England).
- Thomas Courtenay was born 0___ 1312, (Okehampton, Devon, England); died 0___ 1362.
- Elizabeth Courtenay was born ~ 1313, (Okehampton, Devon, England).
|50. ||Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1276, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England (son of Humphrey de Bohun, V, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Fiennes); died 16 Mar 1322, Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, England; was buried Friars Minor, York, Yorkshire, England. |
- Occupation: Lord High Constable of England
- Also Known As: Count of Holland
- Also Known As: Earl of Essex
- Military: Battle of Bannockburn, June 1314
- Military: Battle of Boroughbridge
Sir Humphrey (VII) de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford (1276 - 16 March 1322) was a member of a powerful Anglo-Norman family of the Welsh Marches and was one of the Ordainers who opposed Edward II's excesses.
Arms of Bohun: Azure, a bend argent cotised or between six lions rampant or
Counter seal of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, showing the so-called "Bohun swan" above the escutcheon
Humphrey de Bohun's birth year is uncertain although several contemporary sources indicate that it was 1276. His father was Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and his mother was Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand II de Fiennes, chevalier, seigneur of Fiennes. He was born at Pleshey Castle, Essex.
Humphrey (VII) de Bohun succeeded his father as Earl of Hereford and Earl of Essex, and Constable of England (later called Lord High Constable). Humphrey held the title of Bearer of the Swan Badge, a heraldic device passed down in the Bohun family. This device did not appear on their coat of arms, (az, a bend ar cotised or, between 6 lioncels or) nor their crest (gu, doubled erm, a lion gardant crowned), but it does appear on Humphrey's personal seal (illustration).
Humphrey was one of several earls and barons under Edward I who laid siege to Caerlaverock Castle in Scotland in 1300 and later took part in many campaigns in Scotland. He also loved tourneying and gained a reputation as an "elegant" fop. In one of the campaigns in Scotland Humphrey evidently grew bored and departed for England to take part in a tournament along with Piers Gaveston and other young barons and knights. On return all of them fell under Edward I's wrath for desertion, but were forgiven. It is probable that Gaveston's friend, Edward (the future Edward II) had given them permission to depart. Later Humphrey became one of Gaveston's and Edward II's bitterest opponents.
He would also have been associating with young Robert Bruce during the early campaigns in Scotland, since Bruce, like many other Scots and Border men, moved back and forth from English allegiance to Scottish. Robert Bruce, King Robert I of Scotland, is closely connected to the Bohuns. Between the time that he swore his last fealty to Edward I in 1302 and his defection four years later, Bruce stayed for the most part in Annandale, rebuilding his castle of Lochmaben in stone, making use of its natural moat. Rebelling and taking the crown of Scotland in February 1306, Bruce was forced to fight a war against England which went poorly for him at first, while Edward I still lived. After nearly all his family were killed or captured he had to flee to the isle of Rathlin, Ireland. His properties in England and Scotland were confiscated.
Humphrey de Bohun received many of Robert Bruce's forfeited properties. It is unknown whether Humphrey was a long-time friend or enemy of Robert Bruce, but they were nearly the same age and the lands of the two families in Essex and Middlesex lay very close to each other. After Bruce's self-exile, Humphrey took Lochmaben, and Edward I awarded him Annandale and the castle. During this period of chaos, when Bruce's queen, Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter of the Earl of Ulster, was captured by Edward I and taken prisoner, Hereford and his wife Elizabeth became her custodians. She was exchanged for Humphrey after Bannockburn in 1314. Lochmaben was from time to time retaken by the Scots but remained in the Bohun family for many years, in the hands of Humphrey's son William, Earl of Northampton, who held and defended it until his death in 1360.
Battle of Bannockburn
At the Battle of Bannockburn (23-24 June 1314), Humphrey de Bohun should have been given command of the army because that was his responsibility as Constable of England. However, since the execution of Piers Gaveston in 1312 Humphrey had been out of favour with Edward II, who gave the Constableship for the 1314 campaign to the youthful and inexperienced Earl of Gloucester, Gilbert de Clare. Nevertheless, on the first day, de Bohun insisted on being one of the first to lead the cavalry charge. In the melee and cavalry rout between the Bannock Burn and the Scots' camp he was not injured although his rash young cousin Henry de Bohun, who could have been no older than about 22, charged alone at Robert Bruce and was killed by Bruce's axe.
On the second day Gloucester was killed at the start of battle. Hereford fought throughout the day, leading a large company of Welsh and English knights and archers. The archers might have had success at breaking up the Scots schiltrons until they were overrun by the Scots cavalry. When the battle was lost Bohun retreated with the Earl of Angus and several other barons, knights and men to Bothwell Castle, seeking a safe haven. However, all the refugees who entered the castle were taken prisoner by its formerly pro-English governor Walter fitz Gilbert who, like many Lowland knights, declared for Bruce as soon as word came of the Scottish King's victory. Humphrey de Bohun was ransomed by Edward II, his brother-in-law, on the pleading of his wife Isabella. This was one of the most interesting ransoms in English history. The Earl was traded for Bruce's queen, Elizabeth de Burgh and daughter, Marjorie Bruce, two bishops amongst other important Scots captives in England. Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan, who had crowned Robert Bruce in 1306 and for years had been locked in a cage outside Berwick, was not included; presumably she had died in captivity.
Like his father, grandfather, and great-great-grandfather, this Humphrey de Bohun was careful to insist that the king obey Magna Carta and other baronially-established safeguards against monarchic tyranny. He was a leader of the reform movements that promulgated the Ordinances of 1311 and fought to insure their execution.
The subsequent revival of royal authority and the growing ascendancy of the Despensers (Hugh the elder and younger) led de Bohun and other barons to rebel against the king again in 1322. De Bohun had special reason for opposing the Despensers, for he had lost some of his estates in the Welsh Marches to their rapacity and he felt they had besmirched his honour. In 1316 De Bohun had been ordered to lead the suppression of the revolt of Llywelyn Bren in Glamorgan which he did successfully. When Llewelyn surrendered to him the Earl promised to intercede for him and fought to have him pardoned. Instead Hugh the younger Despenser had Llewelyn executed without a proper trial. Hereford and the other marcher lords used Llywelyn Bren's death as a symbol of Despenser tyranny.
Death at Boroughbridge
Main article: Battle of Boroughbridge
The rebel forces were halted by loyalist troops at the wooden bridge at Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, where Humphrey de Bohun, leading an attempt to storm the bridge, met his death on 16 March 1322.
Although the details have been called into question by a few historians, his death may have been particularly gory. As recounted by Ian Mortimer:
"[The 4th Earl of] Hereford led the fight on the bridge, but he and his men were caught in the arrow fire. Then one of de Harclay's pikemen, concealed beneath the bridge, thrust upwards between the planks and skewered the Earl of Hereford through the anus, twisting the head of the iron pike into his intestines. His dying screams turned the advance into a panic."'
Humphrey de Bohun may have contributed to the failure of the reformers' aims. There is evidence that he suffered for some years, especially after his countess's death in 1316, from clinical depression.
Marriage and children
His marriage to Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (Elizabeth Plantagenet), daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, on 14 November 1302, at Westminster gained him the lands of Berkshire.
Elizabeth had an unknown number of children, probably ten, by Humphrey de Bohun.
Until the earl's death the boys of the family, and possibly the girls, were given a classical education under the tutelage of a Sicilian Greek, Master "Digines" (Diogenes), who may have been Humphrey de Bohun's boyhood tutor. He was evidently well-educated, a book collector and scholar, interests his son Humphrey and daughter Margaret (Courtenay) inherited.
Mary or Margaret (the first-born Margaret) and the first-born Humphrey were lost in infancy and are buried in the same sarcophagus in Westminster Abbey. Since fraternal twins were known in the Castilian royal family of Elizabeth Bohun, who gave birth to a pair who lived to manhood, Mary (Margaret?) and Humphrey, see next names, may have been twins, but that is uncertain. The name of a possible lost third child, if any, is unknown—and unlikely.
Hugh de Bohun? This name appears only in one medieval source, which gives Bohun names (see Flores Historiarum) and was a probably a copyist's error for "Humphrey". Hugh was never used by the main branch of the Bohuns in England. Date unknown, but after 1302, since she and Humphrey did not marry until late in 1302.
Eleanor de Bohun (17 October 1304 – 1363), married James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde and Thomas Dagworth, 1st Baron Dagworth.
Humphrey de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Mary or Margaret) Infant.
Mary or Margaret de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Humphrey) Infant.
John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (About 1307 – 1336)
Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (About 1309 to 1311 – 1361).
Margaret de Bohun (3 April 1311 – 16 December 1391), married Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon. Gave birth to about 16 to 18 children (including an Archbishop, a sea commander and pirate, and more than one Knight of the Garter) and died at the age of eighty.
William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (About 1310-1312 –1360). Twin of Edward. Married Elizabeth de Badlesmere, daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare, by whom he had issue.
Edward de Bohun (About 1310-1312 –1334). Twin of William. Married Margaret, daughter of William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros, but they had no children. He served in his ailing elder brother's stead as Constable of England. He was a close friend of young Edward III, and died a heroic death attempting to rescue a drowning man-at-arms from a Scottish river while on campaign.
Eneas de Bohun, (Birth date unknown, died after 1322, when he's mentioned in his father's will). Nothing known of him.
Isabel de Bohun (b. ? May 1316). Elizabeth died in childbirth, and this child died on that day or very soon after. Buried with her mother in Waltham Abbey, Essex.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2012)
Jump up ^ Ronald McNair Scott, Robert the Bruce - King of Scots, Canongate, 1988; pp. 75-76 and 164.
Jump up ^ Mortimer, The Greatest Traitor, page 124.
Jump up ^ See Conway-Davies, 115, footnote 2, from a contemporary chronicler's account of Humphrey de Bohun, Cotton MS. Nero C. iii, f. 181, "De ce qe vous auez entendu qe le counte de Hereford est moreis pensifs qil ne soleit." "There were some. . . [fine] qualities about the earl of Hereford, and he was certainly a bold and able warrior, though gloomy and thoughtful."
Jump up ^ Le Melletier, 16-17, 38-45, 138, in his comprehensive research into this family, cites no one named Hugh Bohun.
Jump up ^ See Cokayne, Complete Peerage, s.v. "Dagworth" p. 28, footnote j.: "She was younger than her sister, Margaret, Countess of Devon (Parl. Rolls. vol. iv., p. 268), not older, as stated by genealogists."
Cokayne, G. (ed. by V. Gibbs). Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom (Vols II, IV, V, VI, IX: Bohun, Dagworth, Essex, Hereford, Earls of, Montague), London: 1887–1896.
Conway-Davies, J. C. The Baronial Opposition to Edward II: Its Character and Policy. (Many references, esp. 42 footnote 1, 114, 115 & footnote 2, 355-367, 426–9, 435–9, 473–525) Cambridge(UK): 1918.
Le Melletier, Jean, Les Seigneurs de Bohun, 1978, p. 16, 39–40.
Mortimer, Ian. The Greatest Traitor: The Life of Sir Roger Mortimer, Ruler of England 1327–1330 (100–9, 114, 122–6), London: 2003
Scott, Ronald McNair. Robert the Bruce: King of Scots (144–164) NY: 1989
Wikisource has the text of the 1885–1900 Dictionary of National Biography's article about Bohun, Humphrey VIII de.
Altschul, Michael. A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares 1217–1314. (132–3, ) Baltimore:1965.
Barron, Evan MacLeod. The Scottish War of Independence. (443, 455) Edinburgh, London:1914, NY:1997 (reprint).
Barrow, G. W. S. Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland. (222, 290, 295–6, 343–4) Berkeley, Los Angeles:1965.
Beltz, George Frederick. Memorials of the Order of the Garter. (148–150) London:1841.
Bigelow, M[elville] M. "The Bohun Wills" I. American Historical Review (v.I, 1896). 415–41.
Dictionary of National Biography. [Vol II: Bohun; Vol. VI: Edward I, Edward II; Vol. XI: Lancaster]. London and Westminster. Various dates.
Eales, Richard and Shaun Tyas, eds., Family and Dynasty in Late Medieval England, Shaun Tyas, Donington:2003, p. 152.
Fryde, E. B. and Edward Miller. Historical Studies of the English Parliament vol. 1, Origins to 1399, (10–13, 186, 285–90, 296) Cambridge (Eng.): 1970.
Hamilton, J. S. Piers Gaveston Earl of Cornwall 1307-1312: Politics and Patronage in the Reign of Edward II (69, 72, 95–98, 104–5) Detroit: 1988
Hutchison, Harold F. Edward II. (64–86, 104–5, 112–3) London: 1971.
Jenkins, Dafydd. "Law and Government in Wales Before the Act of Union". Celtic Law Papers (37–38) Aberystwyth:1971.
McNamee, Colin. The Wars of the Bruces. (51, 62–66) East Linton (Scotland):1997.
Tout, T. F. and Hilda Johnstone. The Place of the Reign of Edward II in English History. (86, 105–6, 125 & footnote 3, 128–34) Manchester: 1936.
Flores historiarum. H. R. Luard, ed. (vol. iii, 121) London: 1890.
Vita Edwardi Secundi. (117–119) N. Denholm-Young, Ed. and Tr.
Pleshey Castle was originally a motte and bailey castle, which consisted of a wooden palisade and tower on a high man-made hill (motte) surrounded by two baileys (castle yard or ward), which at some time in the castle's early history was surrounded by a moat. Later, probably in the 12th century, the motte was fortified with a stone castle. The motte at Pleshey is now about 15 metres high, and is one of the largest mottes in England. The castle was dismantled in 1158 but was subsequently rebuilt at the end of the 12th century. The castle was passed to the Dukes of Gloucester through marriage and after Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester had been executed by Richard II in 1397, it decayed and became ruined. Most of the masonry was dismantled for building material in 1629, leaving just the motte and other earthworks.
Map and more history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleshey
The Lord High Constable of England is the seventh of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Great Chamberlain and above the Earl Marshal. His office is now called out of abeyance only for coronations. The Lord High Constable was originally the commander of the royal armies and the Master of the Horse. He was also, in conjunction with the Earl Marshal, president of the Court of Chivalry or Court of Honour. In feudal times, martial law was administered in the court of the Lord High Constable.
The constableship was granted as a grand serjeanty with the Earldom of Hereford by the Empress Matilda to Miles of Gloucester, and was carried by his heiress to the Bohuns, Earls of Hereford and Essex. They had a surviving male heir, and still have heirs male, but due to the power of the monarchy the constableship was irregularly given to the Staffords, Dukes of Buckingham; and on the attainder of Edward Stafford, the third Duke, in the reign of King Henry VIII, it became merged into the Crown. Since that point it has not existed as a separate office, except as a temporary appointment for the Coronation of a monarch; in other circumstances the Earl Marshal exercises the traditional duties of the office.
more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_High_Constable_of_England
The Battle of Bannockburn (Bláar Allt nam Báanag, often mistakenly called Bláar Allt a' Bhonnaich in Scottish Gaelic) (24 June 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the First War of Scottish Independence, and a landmark in Scottish history.
Stirling Castle, a Scots royal fortress, occupied by the English, was under siege by the Scottish army. The English king, Edward II, assembled a formidable force to relieve it. This attempt failed, and his army was defeated in a pitched battle by a smaller army commanded by the King of Scots, Robert the Bruce.
More ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn
The Battle of Boroughbridge was a battle fought on 16 March 1322 between a group of rebellious barons and King Edward II of England, near Boroughbridge, north-west of York. The culmination of a long period of antagonism between the King and Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, his most powerful subject, it resulted in Lancaster's defeat and execution. This allowed Edward to re-establish royal authority, and hold on to power for another five years.
Not in itself a part of the Wars of Scottish Independence, the battle is significant for its employment of tactics learned in the Scottish wars in a domestic, English conflict. Both the extensive use of foot soldiers rather than cavalry, and the heavy impact caused by the longbow, represented significant steps in military developments.
More ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Boroughbridge
Humphrey married Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England 14 Nov 1302, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. Elizabeth (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England) was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales; died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]
|51. ||Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England); died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England. |
- Also Known As: Elizabeth of Rhuddlan
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (7 August 1282 - 5 May 1316) was the eighth and youngest daughter of King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castile. Of all of her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother King Edward II, as they were only two years apart in age.
In April 1285 there were negotiations with Floris V for Elizabeth's betrothal to his son John I, Count of Holland. The offer was accepted and John was sent to England to be educated. On 8 January 1297 Elizabeth was married to John at Ipswich. In attendance at the marriage were Elizabeth's sister Margaret, her father, Edward I of England, her brother Edward, and Humphrey de Bohun. After the wedding Elizabeth was expected to go to Holland with her husband, but did not wish to go, leaving her husband to go alone.
After some time travelling England, it was decided Elizabeth should follow her husband. Her father accompanied her, travelling through the Southern Netherlands between Antwerp, Mechelen, Leuven and Brussels, before ending up in Ghent. There they remained for a few months, spending Christmas with her two sisters Eleanor and Margaret. On 10 November 1299, John died of dysentery, though there were rumours of his murder. No children had been born from the marriage.
On her return trip to England, Elizabeth went through Brabant to see her sister Margaret. When she arrived in England, she met her stepmother Margaret, whom Edward had married while she was in Holland. On 14 November 1302 Elizabeth was married to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, 3rd of Essex, also Constable of England, at Westminster Abbey.
The children of Elizabeth and Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford were:
Hugh de Bohun (September 1303 – 1305)
Lady Eleanor de Bohun (17 October 1304 – 1363)
Humphrey de Bohun (b&d 1305) (buried with Mary or Margaret)
Mary or Margaret de Bohun (b&d 1305) (buried with Humphrey)
John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (23 November 1306 – 1335)
Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (6 December c. 1309 – 1361)
Margaret de Bohun, 2nd Countess of Devon (3 April 1311 – 1391)
William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (1312–1360).
Edward de Bohun (1312–1334), twin of William
Eneas de Bohun, (1314 - after 1322); he is mentioned in his father's will
Isabel de Bohun (b&d 5 May 1316)
During Christmas 1315, Elizabeth, who was pregnant with her eleventh child, was visited by her sister-in-law, Queen Isabella of France. This was a great honour, but the stress of it may have caused unknown health problems that later contributed to Elizabeth's death in childbirth. On 5 May 1316 she went into labour, giving birth to her daughter Isabella. Both Elizabeth and her daughter Isabella died shortly after the birth, and were buried together in Waltham Abbey.
Rhuddlan Castle (Welsh: Castell Rhuddlan) is a castle located in Rhuddlan, Denbighshire, Wales. It was erected by Edward I in 1277 following the First Welsh War.
View images, map & history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhuddlan_Castle
Waltham Abbey is a market town of about 20,400 people in Epping Forest District in the southwest of the county of Essex, 24 km (15 mi) NNE of central London on the Greenwich Meridian, between the River Lea in the west and Epping Forest in the east.
Waltham Abbey takes its name from the Abbey Church of Waltham Holy Cross, a scheduled ancient monument that was prominent in the town's early history.
more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waltham_Abbey_(town)
shortly after childbirth...
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the most notable religious buildings in the United Kingdom and has been the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556 the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, however, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the original abbey church.
According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site (then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island)) in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III.
Since 1066, when Harold Godwinson and William the Conqueror were crowned, the coronations of English and British monarchs have been held there. There have been at least 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100. Two were of reigning monarchs (Henry I and Richard II), although, before 1919, there had been none for some 500 years.
more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Abbey
- Eleanor de Bohun, Countess of Ormonde was born 17 Oct 1304, Knaresborough Castle, North Yorkshire, England; died 7 Oct 1363.
- 25. Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon was born 3 Apr 1311; died 16 Dec 1391.
- William de Bohun, Knight, 1st Earl of Northampton was born 0___ 1312, Caldecot, Rutland, Northampton, England; died 16 Sep 1360, (England).
- Agnes (Margaret) de Bohun, Baroness Ferrers of Chartley was born 0___ 1313, Caldecot, Rutland, Northampton, England.
|64. ||Nicholas Carew was born (Carew Castle, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales) (son of Nicholas de Carew and Avice Tuitt); died 0___ 1311. |
Nicholas Carew (died 1311), feudal lord of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire, feudal lord of Odrone (mod. Idrone, County Carlow) in Ireland and lord of the manor of Moulsford in Berkshire (since 1974 in Oxfordshire), was a soldier. He was the first of the Carew family to form a connection with the English county of Devon, where his descendants became very prominent until modern times. His descendants obtained three Carew baronetcies and four peerage titles, namely Baron Carew (1605) in the Peerage of England (for Sir Sir George Carew (1555–1629), created in 1626 Earl of Totnes) and Baron Carew (1834) in the Peerage of Ireland and Baron Carew (1838) of Castle Boro in the County of Wexford, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom (both for Robert Shapland Carew (1787–1856)).
He was the eldest son and heir of Nicholas de Carew (died 1297), feudal lord of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire, lord of the manor of Molesford in Berkshire and jure uxoris feudal lord of Odrone, by his wife Avice Tuitt, daughter and heiress of Richard Tuitt of Marston in County Westmeath, Ireland, whose family had acquired the Barony of Odrone by an earlier marriage to the heiress of Odrone.
As Nic(olae)us de Carru, D(omi)n(u)s de Mulesford ("Nicholas de Carew, lord of the manor of Moulsford") he was one of 103 signatories of the Barons' Letter of 1301 addressed to Pope Boniface VIII as a repudiation of his claim of feudal overlordship of Scotland and as a defence of the rights of King King Edward I of England as overlord of that kingdom.
In 1300–1 he was summoned to Parliament by writ of King Edward I (1272–1307) as Dominus de Moulsford ("lord of the manor of Moulsford") by which he is deemed to have become Baron Carew. He is called "Baron Carew" in various sources, but a peerage title Baron Carew at this early date is not mentioned in the authoritative Complete Peerage (1887–98) by George Edward Cokayne. Pole however states that he was summoned to Parliament by writ of King Edward I (1272–1307), which would have made him a baron. If so, there is no clear descent of such barony, and no explanation of why it had no clear ending. According to Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage, 1968: "For several generations the heads of the family are described as Barons of Carew and Hidron, but none of them sat in Parliament with the exception of Nicholas de Carew who subscribed to the celebrated Barons' letter to the Pope in 1300".
He was present at the Siege of Caerlaverock Castle in Scotland in 1301, during which his armorials were amongst those blazoned in French verse by English heralds in the Caerlaverock Roll of Arms, as follows:
An vaillant home e de grant los
O lui, Nichole de Karru,
Dont meinte foiz orent paru
Li fait en couvert e en lande
Sur la felloune gent d'Irlande;
Baniere ot jaune bien passable,
O treis lyouns passans de sable.
("A valliant man ... Nicholas de Carew, who many times appeared ... a banner of gold ... three lions passant of sable")
Marriage and children
Arms of Peverell of Ermington: Or, an eagle displayed azure
He married Amicia (or Amy) Peverell, daughter of Hugh Peverell lord of the manor of Ermington in Devon, and heiress of her brother Sir John Peverell of Ermington, the last in the male line. By Amicia he had children including:
John Carew (died 1324), eldest son and heir, who married twice:
Firstly to Elinor de Mohun, daughter and heiress of Sir William de Mohun of Mohuns Ottery in the parish of Luppit, Devon, by whom he had a son Nicholas Carew (died 1323) who married Elinor Talbot, daughter of Richard Lord Talbot,(sic, Vivian, 1895) (should be Sir Richard Talbot, who signed and sealed the Barons' Letter, 1301 and held the manor of Eccleswall in Herefordshire in right of his wife Sarah, sister of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick) but died childless. Sir William de Mohun of Mohuns Ottery was a younger son of Reginald de Mohun (1206–1258), feudal baron of Dunster (son), by his second wife Isabel de Ferrers, widow of Gilbert Basset (died 1241) and daughter of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby (1193–1254) by his wife Sibyl Marshal, a daughter and co-heiress of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1146/7-1219). Reginald de Mohun gave the manor of Ottery to his younger son Sir William Mohun.
Secondly John Carew married Joan Talbot, daughter of Sir Gilbert Talbot, by whom he had a son John Carew (died 1363), the heir of his half-brother Nicholas Carew (died 1323), from whom he inherited Mohuns Ottery, an important future seat of the Carew family. Joan Talbot survived him and remarried to John Dartmouth (alias Tuckett).
Thomas de Carew (died 1331).
William de Carew (died 1359), died childless.
David de Carew
Nicholas Carew (died 1390) of Beddington in Surrey, Keeper of the Privy Seal during the reign of King Edward III. He married Lucy de Willoughby, daughter and heiress of Sir Richard de Willoughby (c. 1290 – 1362), Chief Justice of the King's Bench, of Beddington, and widow of Sir Thomas
Huscarle (d. by 1352), MP, of Purley Magna, Berkshire and established a prominent and long-lived branch of the Carew family at Beddington.
Through his wife he inherited several manors including:
Weston Peverell, near Plymouth;
The Life of Sir Peter Carew, of Mohun Ottery, co. Devon., edited by Sir Thomas Phillipps, 1st Baronet (1792–1872), published 1840 in Archaeologia, the journal of the Society of Antiquaries of London. Concerning early history of the Carew family, source quoted by Vivian, 1895.
Hamilton-Rogers, William Henry, Memorials of the West, Historical and Descriptive, Collected on the Borderland of Somerset, Dorset and Devon, Exeter, 1888, chapter The Nest of Carew (Ottery-Mohun), pp. 269–330, esp. pp. 286 et seq. 
Hey Cousiin Christine:
Click on the following link and see images and read history about the old Carew Castle in Wales ... http://www.pembrokeshirecoast.org.uk/default.asp?PID=262
Nicholas — Amicia Peverell. [Group Sheet]
|65. ||Amicia Peverell|
- 32. John Carew was born ~ 1277, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 26 Jun 1324, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales.
- Thomas Carew was born Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 0___ 1331.
- William de Carew was born Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 0___ 1359.
- David de Carew was born Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales.
- Nicholas Carew was born 0___ 1322, Sandford, Devon, England; died 17 Aug 1390, Mallerforde, Buckinghamshire, England.
|66. ||Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot was born 18 Oct 1276, Wyke, Cornwall, England (son of Richard Talbot, Lord of Eccleswall and Sarah de Beauchamp); died 13 Feb 1346, Herefordshire, England. |
Birthdate: October 18, 1276 (69)
Birthplace: Wyke, Cornwall, England
Death: Died February 13, 1346 in Eccleswall, Herefordshire, England
Son of Richard Talbot, 4th Lord and Sarah Talbot
Husband of Anne le Boteler
Father of Joan Talbot; Philippa de Talbot and Sir Richard Talbot, 2nd Lord Talbot, of Goodrich
Brother of Gwenllian Talbot; Joan Talbot; Sir Richard Talbot, of Richard's Castle; Catherine Talbot and Thomas Talbot, priest
Occupation: Justice of South Wales
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated: October 31, 2014
About Sir Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot
Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot1
M, #203466, b. 18 October 1276, d. 13 February 1346
Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot was born on 18 October 1276.
1 He was the son of Sir Richard Talbot and Sarah de Beauchamp.
3 He died on 13 February 1346 at age 69.
Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot was created 1st Lord Talbot [England by writ] on 27 January 1331/32.4
Child of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot
Child of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot and Ann le Botiler
1.Richard Talbot, 2nd Lord Talbot+3 b. 1305, d. 23 Oct 1356
Sir Gilbert Talbot1
M, b. 18 October 1276, d. 24 February 1346, #10943
Father Richard Talbot2,3 b. circa 1250, d. before 3 September 1306
Mother Sarah de Beauchamp2 d. after July 1317
Arms His arms were de goules a un lion rampand de or od la bordur' endente de or (Parl.).3
Name Variation Sir Gilbert Talbot was also styled Talebot.3
Birth* He was born on 18 October 1276.1,4,3
Marriage* He married Anne le Boteler, daughter of Sir William le Boteler of Wem and Ankaret verch Griffith.1,4
Event-Misc He had livery of his father's lands on 21 October 1306.3
Event-Misc* He was a commissioner to view St. Briavel's Castle and the vert and venison of Dene Forest on 22 March 1311.5,3
Note* He was given a pardon for his part in the death of Piers de Gavaston on 16 October 1313.5,3
Event-Misc He was called to serve against the Scots between 1314 and 1315.5
Summoned* He was summoned to serve against the Scots on 30 June 1314.3
Feudal* He held Longhope and Blechesdon, Glou., Credenhill and Linton, Hereford on 5 March 1316.3
Criminal* He was An order for his arrest was dated. The charges included attacking the King's subjects in Warwicckshire and attacking and burning Bridgnorth. His lands were taken into the King's (Edward II) hands. On 15 January 1321/22.6,3
(Rebel) Battle-Boroughbridge On 16 Mar 1322, Sir John Gifford, Sir Hugh de Audley, Sir Gilbert Talbot, Sir Bartholomew de Burghersh, Sir Bartholomew de Badlesmere and Sir Humphrey VIII de Bohun fought on the side of the Earl of Lancaster at the Battle of Boroughbridge in Yorkshire He was captured, but allowed to ransom his life and lands for ¹2000.7,3,8
Event-Misc He was released from prison on 11 July 1322.6
Event-Misc He was empowered to arrest malefactors in Gloucestershire. On 28 October 1322 at Gloucestershire, England.6
Event-Misc He was pardoned. On 1 November 1322.6
Event-Misc He is to arrest disturbers of peace in Glou., Worc., and Here. He is made Custos of Gloucester Caslte, town, and barton under Hugh le Despenser, jun. On 1 November 1322.3
Event-Misc* He is not to aggrieve Aymer, Earl of Pembroke for fishing in his ponds and taking his goods. On 27 December 1322.3
Event-Misc He was among the knights to attend the Great Council on 9 May 1324 at Westminster.6,3
Summoned He was summoned to serve in Guienne on 7 January 1325.3
Event-Misc* His fines were cancelled by King Edward III on 13 February 1326/27.6,3
Event-Misc He was styled Banneret on 24 November 1327.6
Event-Misc He was the king's chamberlain in March 1327/28.6
Event-Misc He obtained grants for Eccleswall and Credenhill, Hereford, and Longhope in Gloucstershire. In April 1328.6
Event-Misc He was Justice of South Wales on 23 October 1330.6
Event-Misc Summoned to Parliament between 27 January 1332 and 20 April 1343.6
Event-Misc He and Hugh le Despenser were appointed to be captains against the King's enemies. On 13 July 1337.6
Death* He died on 24 February 1346 at Eccleswall, Herefordshire, England, at age 69.1,5
Title* He held the title of 1st Lord Talbot.6
Inquisition Post Mor* At the inquisition post mortem of Sir Gilbert Talbot, on 1 March 1346, leaving s. h. Richard.3
Family Anne le Boteler
Marriage* He married Anne le Boteler, daughter of Sir William le Boteler of Wem and Ankaret verch Griffith.1,4
Sir Richard Talbot M.P. b. c 1305, d. 23 Oct 1356
Last Edited 5 Feb 2005
[S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 84A-30.
[S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 84A-29.
[S325] Rev. C. Moor, Knights of Edward I, v. 5, p. 3.
[S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 242.
[S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 246.
[S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 243.
[S325] Rev. C. Moor, Knights of Edward I, v. 2, p. 114.
[S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 31.
Chamberlain to Edward III. Summoned to parliament by writ directed 'Gilberto Talbot' whereby he is held to have become Baron Talbot 27 Jan 1331/2
Gilbert [Talbot], 1st Baron Talbot
son and heir of Richard Talbot, feudal Lord of Eccleswall, co. Hereford, by his wife Sarah de Beauchamp, sister of William [de Beauchamp], 9th Earl of Warwick, and dau. of William de Beauchamp, of Elmley, co. Worcester, by his wife Isabel Mauduit, sister and hrss. of William [Mauduit], 8th Earl of Warwick, and dau. of William Mauduit, of Hanslope, co. Buckingham, by his wife Lady Alice de Beaumont, only dau. by his second wife of Waleran [de Beaumont], 4th Earl of Warwick
18 Oct 1276
Anne le Botiler, dau. of William le Botiler, of Wem, co. Shrewsbury
1. Sir Richard Talbot, later 2nd Baron Talbot
24 Feb 1345/6
by writ 27 Jan 1331/2 Baron Talbot
in Eccleswall Manor...
Gilbert — Anne le Boteler. Anne (daughter of William le Boteler and Ankaret verch Griffith) was born ~ 1278, (Wemme) Shropshire, England; died 0___ 1340, Linton, Herefordshire, England. [Group Sheet]
|67. ||Anne le Boteler was born ~ 1278, (Wemme) Shropshire, England (daughter of William le Boteler and Ankaret verch Griffith); died 0___ 1340, Linton, Herefordshire, England. |
Anne le Boteler
Also Known As: "Anne le Botiler"
Birthdate: circa 1278 (62)
Birthplace: Probably Wemme, Shropshire, England
Death: Died 1340 in Linton, Herefordshire, England
Daughter of Sir William le Boteler of Wem and Angharad verch Griffith
Wife of Sir Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot
Mother of Joan Talbot; Philippa de Talbot and Sir Richard Talbot, 2nd Lord Talbot, of Goodrich
Sister of John le Boteler; Sir Nigel le Boteler; Gawine Le Boteler; William le Boteler, 1st Baron Boteler and Denise de Cokesey
Managed by: Noah Tutak
Last Updated: September 23, 2016
About Anne le Boteler
Ann le Botiler1
F, #213398 Last Edited=4 Dec 2006
Ann le Botiler is the daughter of William le Botiler.1
Child of Ann le Botiler and Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot
1.Richard Talbot, 2nd Lord Talbot+1 b. 1305, d. 23 Oct 1356
He [Gilbert Talbot] is said to have married Anne, daughter of William LE BOTILER, of Wem. He died 24 February 1345/6 at Eccleswall. [Complete Peerage XII/1:610-12, (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)]
Anne le Boteler1
Father Sir William le Boteler of Wem2 d. before 11 December 1283
Mother Ankaret verch Griffith1 b. circa 1248, d. after 22 June 1308
Name Variation Anne le Boteler was also styled Anne le Botiler.2
Marriage* She married Sir Gilbert Talbot, son of Richard Talbot and Sarah de Beauchamp.2,3
Family Sir Gilbert Talbot b. 18 October 1276, d. 24 February 1346
Sir Richard Talbot M.P. b. c 1305, d. 23 Oct 1356
Last Edited 5 Feb 2005
[S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 33.
[S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 84A-30.
[S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 242.
Anne le Boteler1
Father Sir William le Boteler of Wem2 d. before 11 December 1283
Mother Ankaret verch Griffith1 b. circa 1248, d. after 22 June 1308
Name Variation Anne le Boteler was also styled Anne le Botiler.2
Marriage* She married Sir Gilbert Talbot, son of Richard Talbot and Sarah de Beauchamp.2,3
Family Sir Gilbert Talbot b. 18 October 1276, d. 24 February 1346
Sir Richard Talbot M.P. b. c 1305, d. 23 Oct 1356
Last Edited 5 Feb 2005
[S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 33.
[S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 84A-30.
[S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 242.
|72. ||Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel was born 1 May 1285, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England (son of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel); died 17 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England. |
- Residence: Paris, France
- Also Known As: 3rd Earl of Arundel
Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel[a] (1 May 1285 – 17 November 1326) was an English nobleman prominent in the conflict between Edward II and his barons. His father, Richard FitzAlan, 2nd Earl of Arundel, died on 9 March 1301, while Edmund was still a minor. He therefore became a ward of John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, and married Warenne's granddaughter Alice. In 1306 he was styled Earl of Arundel, and served under Edward I in the Scottish Wars, for which he was richly rewarded.
After Edward I's death, Arundel became part of the opposition to the new king Edward II, and his favourite Piers Gaveston. In 1311 he was one of the so-called Lords Ordainers who assumed control of government from the king. Together with Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, he was responsible for the death of Gaveston in 1312. From this point on, however, his relationship to the king became more friendly. This was to a large extent due to his association with the king's new favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger, whose daughter was married to Arundel's son. Arundel supported the king in suppressing rebellions by Roger Mortimer and other Marcher Lords, and eventually also Thomas of Lancaster. For this he was awarded with land and offices.
His fortune changed, however, when the country was invaded in 1326 by Mortimer, who had made common cause with the king's wife, Queen Isabella. Immediately after the capture of Edward II, the queen, Edward III's regent, ordered Arundel executed, his title forfeit and his property confiscated. Arundel's son and heir Richard only recovered the title and lands in 1331, after Edward III had taken power from the regency of Isabella and Mortimer. In the 1390s, a cult emerged around the late earl. He was venerated as a martyr, though he was never canonised.
Family and early life
Edmund FitzAlan was born in the Castle of Marlborough, in Wiltshire, on 1 May 1285. He was the son of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel, and his wife, Alice of Saluzzo, daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo in Italy. Richard had been in opposition to the king during the political crisis of 1295, and as a result he had incurred great debts and had parts of his land confiscated. When Richard died in 09/03/1301, Edmund's wardship was given to John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. Warenne's only son, William, had died in 1286, so his daughter Alice was now heir apparent to the Warenne earldom. Alice was offered in marriage to Edmund, who for unknown reasons initially refused her. By 1305 he had changed his mind, however, and the two were married.
In April 1306, shortly before turning twenty-one, Edmund was granted possession of his father's title and land. On 22 May 1306, he was knighted by Edward I, along with the young Prince Edward – the future Edward II. The knighting was done in expectation of military service the Scottish Wars, and after the campaign was over, Arundel was richly rewarded. Edward I pardoned the young earl a debt of ¹4,234. This flow of patronage continued after the death of Edward I in 1307; in 1308 Edward II returned the hundred of Purslow to Arundel, an honour that Edward I had confiscated from Edmund's father. There were also official honours in the early years of Edward II's reign. At the new king's coronation on 25 February 1308, Arundel officiated as chief butler (or pincerna), a hereditary office of the earls of Arundel.
Opposition to Edward II
Though the reign of Edward II was initially harmonious, he soon met with opposition from several of his earls and prelates. At the source of the discontent was the king's relationship with the young Gascon knight Piers Gaveston, who had been exiled by Edward I, but was recalled immediately upon Edward II's accession. Edward's favouritism towards the upstart Gaveston was an offence to the established nobility, and his elevation to the earldom of Cornwall was particularly offensive to the established nobility. A group of magnates led by Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, forced Gaveston into exile in 1308. By 1309, however, Edward had reconciled himself with the opposition, and Gaveston was allowed to return.
Arundel joined the opposition at an early point, and did not attend the Stamford parliament in July 1309, where Gaveston's return was negotiated. After Gaveston returned, his behaviour became even more offensive, and opposition towards him grew. In addition to this, there was great discontent with Edward II's failure to follow up his father's Scottish campaigns. On 16 March 1310, the king had to agree to the appointment of a committee known as the Lords Ordainers, who were to be in charge of the reform of the royal government. Arundel was one of eight earls among the twenty-one Ordainers.
The Ordainers once more sent Gaveston into exile in 1311, but by 1312 he was back. Now the king's favourite was officially an outlaw, and Arundel was among the earls who swore to hunt him down. The leader of the opposition – after Lincoln's death the year before – was now Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. In June 1312 Gaveston was captured, tried before Lancaster, Arundel and the earls of Warwick and Hereford, and executed. A reconciliation was achieved between the king and the offending magnates, and Arundel and the others received pardons, but animosity prevailed. In 1314 Arundel was among the magnates who refused to assist Edward in a campaign against the Scottish, resulting in the disastrous English defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn.
Return to loyalty
Around the time of Bannockburn, however, Arundel's loyalty began to shift back towards the king. Edward's rapprochement towards the earl had in fact started earlier, when on 2 November 1313, the king pardoned Arundel's royal debts. The most significant factor in this process though, was the marriage alliance between Arundel and the king's new favourites, the Despensers. Hugh Despenser the Younger and his father Hugh Despenser the elder were gradually taking over control of the government, and using their power to enrich themselves. While this alienated most of the nobility, Arundel's situation was different. At some point in 1314–1315, his son Richard was betrothed to Isabel, daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger. Now that he found himself back in royal favour, Arundel started receiving rewards in the form of official appointments. In 1317 he was appointed Warden of the Marches of Scotland, and in August 1318, he helped negotiate the Treaty of Leake, which temporarily reconciled the king with Thomas of Lancaster.
Clun Castle was the source of the personal animosity between Arundel and Roger Mortimer.
With Arundel's change of allegiance came a conflict of interest. In August 1321, a demand was made to the king that Hugh Despenser and his father, Hugh Despenser the elder, be sent into exile. The king, facing a rebellion in the Welsh Marches, had no choice but to assent. Arundel voted for the expulsion, but later he claimed that he did so under compulsion, and also supported their recall in December. Arundel had suffered personally from the rebellion, when Roger Mortimer seized his castle of Clun. Early in 1322, Arundel joined King Edward in a campaign against the Mortimer family. The opposition soon crumbled, and the king decided to move against Thomas of Lancaster, who had been supporting the marcher rebellion all along. Lancaster was defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge in March, and executed.
In the aftermath of the rebellion, the Despensers enriched themselves on the forfeited estates of the rebels, and Hugh Despenser the elder was created Earl of Winchester in May 1322. Also Arundel, who was now one of the king's principal supporters, was richly rewarded. After the capture of Roger Mortimer in 1322, he received the forfeited Mortimer lordship of Chirk in Wales. He was also trusted with important offices: he became Chief Justiciar of North and South Wales in 1323, and in 1325 he was made Warden of the Welsh Marches, responsible for the array in Wales. He also extended his influence through marriage alliances; in 1325 he secured marriages between two of his daughters and the sons and heirs of two of Lancaster's main allies: the deceased earls of Hereford and Warwick.[b]
Final years and death
In 1323, Roger Mortimer, who had been held in captivity in the Tower of London, escaped and fled to France. Two years later, Queen Isabella travelled to Paris on an embassy to the French king. Here, Isabella and Mortimer developed a plan to invade England and replace Edward II on the throne with his son, the young Prince Edward, who was in the company of Isabella. Isabella and Mortimer landed in England on 24 September 1326, and due to the virulent resentment against the Despenser regime, few came to the king's aid. Arundel initially escaped the invading force in the company of the king, but was later dispatched to his estates in Shropshire to gather troops. At Shrewsbury he was captured by his old enemy John Charlton of Powys, and brought to Queen Isabella at Hereford. On 17 November – the day after Edward II had been taken captive – Arundel was executed, allegedly on the instigation of Mortimer. According to a chronicle account, the use of a blunt sword was ordered, and the executioner needed 22 strokes to sever the earl's head from his body.
The ruins of Haughmond Abbey, Arundel's final resting place.
Arundel's body was initially interred at the Franciscan church in Hereford. It had been his wish, however, to be buried at the family's traditional resting place of Haughmond Abbey in Shropshire, and this is where he was finally buried. Though he was never canonised, a cult emerged around the late earl in the 1390s, associating him with the 9th-century martyr king St Edmund. This veneration may have been inspired by a similar cult around his grandson, Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who was executed by Richard II in 1397.
Arundel was attainted at his execution; his estates were forfeited to the crown, and large parts of these were appropriated by Isabella and Mortimer. The castle and honour of Arundel was briefly held by Edward II's half-brother Edmund, Earl of Kent, who was executed on 3 September 1330. Edmund FitzAlan's son, Richard, failed in an attempted rebellion against the crown in June 1330, and had to flee to France. In October the same year, the guardianship of Isabella and Mortimer was supplanted by the personal rule of King Edward III. This allowed Richard to return and reclaim his inheritance, and on 8 February 1331, he was fully restored to his father's lands, and created Earl of Arundel.
Edmund and Alice had at least seven children:
Name Birth date Death date Notes
Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel c. 1313 24 January 1376 Married (1) Isabel le Despenser, (2) Eleanor of Lancaster
Edmund — c. 1349
Michael — —
Mary — 29 August 1396 Married John le Strange, 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere
Aline — 20 January 1386 Married Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Knockin
Alice — 1326 Married John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford
Katherine — d. 1375/76 Married (1) Henry Hussey, 2nd Baron Hussey, (2) Andrew Peverell
Eleanor — — Married Gerard de Lisle, 1st Baron Lisle
Elizabeth - - Married William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer
Edmund married Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel 0___ 1305. Alice (daughter of William de Warenne and Joan de Vere) was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England; died 23 May 1338. [Group Sheet]
|73. ||Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England (daughter of William de Warenne and Joan de Vere); died 23 May 1338. |
Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel (15 June 1287 -23 May 1338) was an English noblewoman and heir apparent to the Earldom of Surrey. In 1305, she married Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel.
Alice, the only daughter of William de Warenne (1256-1286) and Joan de Vere, was born on 15 June 1287 in Warren, Sussex, six months after her father was accidentally killed in a tournament on 15 December 1286. On the death of her paternal grandfather, John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey in 1304, her only sibling John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey succeeded to the earldom. He became estranged from his childless wife and they never reconciled, leaving Alice as the heir presumptive to the Surrey estates and title.
Marriage to the Earl of Arundel
In 1305, Alice married Edmund Fitzalan, 9th Earl of Arundel, the son of Richard Fitzalan, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo. He had initially refused her, for reasons which were not recorded; however, by 1305, he had changed his mind and they were wed. They had nine recorded children, and their chief residence was Arundel Castle in Sussex. Arundel inherited his title on 9 March 1302 upon his father's death. He was summoned to Parliament as Lord Arundel in 1306, and was later one of the Lords Ordainers. He also took part in the Scottish wars.
The Earl of Arundel and his brother-in-law John de Warenne were the only nobles who remained loyal to King Edward II, after Queen Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March returned to England in 1326. He had allied himself to the King's favourite Hugh le Despenser, and agreed to the marriage of his son to Despenser's granddaughter. Arundel had previously been granted many of the traitor Mortimer's forfeited estates, and was appointed Justice of Wales in 1322 and Warden of the Welsh Marches in 1325. He was also made Constable of Montgomery Castle which became his principal base.
The Earl of Arundel was captured in Shropshire by the Queen's party. On 17 November 1326 in Hereford, Arundel was beheaded by order of the Queen, leaving Alice de Warenne a widow. Her husband's estates and titles were forfeited to the Crown following Arundel's execution, but later restored to her eldest son, Richard.
Alice died before 23 May 1338, aged 50. Her brother died in 1347 without legitimate issue, thus the title of Surrey eventually passed to Alice's son, Richard.
Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, known as Copped Hat, (1306 Arundel Castle, Sussex – 24 January 1376), also succeeded to the title of Earl of Surrey on 12 April 1361. He married firstly Isabel le Despenser, whom he later repudiated, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI. He had a son Edmund who was bastardised by the annulment. His second wife, whom he married on 5 February 1345, by Papal dispensation, was Eleanor of Lancaster, the daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth. She was the widow of John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont. Richard and Eleanor had three sons and four daughters, including Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel and Joan de Bohun, Countess of Hereford.
Edward FitzAlan (1308–1398)
Alice FitzAlan (born 1310), married John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford.
Joan FitzAlan (born 1312), married Warin Gerard, Baron L'Isle.
Aline FitzAlan (1314–1386), married Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Knockyn, by whom she had issue.
John FitzAlan (born 1315)
Catherine FitzAlan (died 1376), married firstly Andrew Peverell, and secondly Henry Hussey of Cockfield. Had issue by her second husband.
Elizabeth FitzAlan (1320–1389), married William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, by whom she had one daughter, Elizabeth.
Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery on Christmas Day 1067. Roger became the first to hold the earldom of Arundel by the graces of William the Conqueror. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War and then restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.
View image, history & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle
- 36. Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel was born 1306-1313, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 24 Jan 1376, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.
- Mary de Arundel was born Corfham Castle, Diddlebury, Shropshire, England; died 29 Aug 1396, Corfham, Shropshire, England.
- Aline FitzAlan was born 0___ 1314, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 20 Jan 1386.
- Elizabeth FitzAlan was born 0___ 1320, (England); died 0___ 1389.
|74. ||Hugh le Despencer, IV, Knight, Baron Despenser was born ~ 1286, England (son of Hugh le Despenser, Knight, 1st Earl of Winchester and Isabella Beauchamp); died 24 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried (Hulton Abbey, Staffordshire, England). |
- Also Known As: 1st Lord Despenser
Hugh le Despenser, 1st Lord Despenser (c. 1286 – 24 November 1326), also referred to as "the younger Despenser", was the son and heir of Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester (the elder Despenser) by his wife Isabella de Beauchamp daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. He rose to national prominence as royal chamberlain and a favourite of Edward II of England. A series of subsequent controversies eventually led to him being hanged, drawn and quartered.
Titles and possessions
Hugh le Despenser the younger was knight of Hanley Castle, Worcestershire, King's Chamberlain, Constable of Odiham Castle, Keeper of Porchester Castle and town, Keeper of the royal Bristol Castle, the town and barton of Bristol and, in Wales, Keeper of Dryslwyn Castle and town and of Dryslwyn, and the region of Cantref Mawr, Carmarthenshire.
Also in Wales, by marriage he became Lord of Glamorgan, seated at Cardiff Castle.
He was also Keeper of the castles, manor, and lands of Brecknock, Hay, Cantref Selyf, etc., in County Brecon, and, in England of Huntington, Herefordshire.
He was given Wallingford Castle although this had previously been given to Queen Isabella for life.
In May 1306 Hugh le Despenser the younger was knighted, and that summer he married Eleanor de Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 9th Lord of Clare and 7th Earl of Hertford and Joan of Acre.
Eleanor's grandfather, Edward I, owed the elder Despenser 2,000 marks (¹1,000,000 at today's prices) and the marriage settled this debt, and was a reward for the elder Hugh's loyal service.
When Eleanor's brother, Gilbert, was killed in 1314 at the Battle of Bannockburn, she unexpectedly became one of the three co-heiresses to the rich Gloucester earldom, and in her right, Hugh inherited Glamorgan and other properties. In just a few years Hugh went from a landless knight to one of the wealthiest magnates in the kingdom.
Eleanor was also the niece of the new king, Edward II of England, and this connection brought Despenser closer to the English royal court. He joined the baronial opposition to Piers Gaveston, the king's favourite (and Hugh's brother-in-law, as Gaveston was married to Eleanor's sister Margaret).
Eager for power and wealth, Despenser seized Tonbridge Castle in 1315, after his brother-in-law's death under the misapprehension that it belonged to his mother-in-law (he relinquished it on discovering that the rightful owner was the Archbishop of Canterbury). In 1318 he murdered Llywelyn Bren, a Welsh hostage in his custody.
Eleanor and Hugh had nine children to survive infancy:
Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer (1308–1349), 2nd Baron Le Despencer, who was restored to his grandfather's title of Baron le Despencer in 1338. At his death without issue, his nephew Edward, son of Edward (below), was created Baron Le Despencer in a new creation of 1357.
Gilbert le Despenser, (1309–1381).
Edward le Despenser, (1310–1342), soldier, killed at the siege of Vannes; father of Edward II le Despenser, Knight of the Garter, who became Baron Le Despencer in a new creation of 1357. His son was Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester and 2nd Baron Le Despencer of the 1357 creation, who was married to a daughter of Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, youngest son of Edward III, and was attainted and beheaded in 1400 for his attempts to restore Richard II, his wife's cousin, to the throne. His attainder was reversed in 1461, with the victory of Edward IV, and the barony of the first creation (1264/1295) was eventually awarded in 1604 to Dame Mary Fane, heiress of Thomas's daughter Isabel Le Despencer, who married two cousins. The barony is now held by the Viscounts Falmouth.
Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Arundel (1312–1356), married, as his 1st wife, Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel. The marriage was annulled and their child, Edmund, was disinherited.
John le Despenser, (1311 – June 1366).
Eleanor le Despenser, (c. 1315–1351), nun at Sempringham Priory
Joan le Despenser, (c. 1317–1384), nun at Shaftesbury Abbey
Margaret le Despenser, (c. 1319–1337), nun at Whatton Priory
Elizabeth le Despenser, Baroness Berkeley|Elizabeth le Despenser]], born 1325, died 13 July 1389, married Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley.
Hugh le Despenser the younger became royal chamberlain in 1318. As a royal courtier, Despenser manoeuvred into the affections of King Edward, displacing the previous favourite, Roger d'Amory. This was much to the dismay of the baronage as they saw him both taking their rightful places at court and being a worse version of Gaveston. By 1320 his greed was running free. He also supposedly vowed to be revenged on Roger Mortimer because Mortimer's grandfather had killed Hugh's grandfather, and once stated (though probably in jest) that he regretted he could not control the wind. By 1321 he had earned many enemies in every stratum of society, from Queen Isabella to the barons to the common people. There was even a plot to kill Despenser by sticking his wax likeness with pins.
Finally the barons prevailed upon King Edward and forced Despenser and his father into exile in August 1321. Following the exile of the Despensers, the barons who opposed them fell out among themselves, and the King summoned the two men back to England. Early in the following year, King Edward took advantage of these divisions to secure the surrender of Marcher Lord Roger Mortimer, and the defeat and execution of the Earl of Lancaster, the Despensers' chief opponents. The pair returned and King Edward quickly reinstated Despenser as royal favourite. The time from the Despensers' return from exile until the end of Edward II's reign was a time of uncertainty in England. With the main baronial opposition leaderless and weak, having been defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and Edward willing to let them do as they pleased, the Despensers were left unchecked. This maladministration caused hostile feeling for them and, by proxy, Edward II. Despenser repeatedly pressed King Edward to execute Mortimer, who had been held prisoner in the Tower of London, following his surrender. However, Mortimer escaped from the Tower and fled to France.
Like his father, Hugh Despenser the Elder, the younger Despenser was accused by a significant number of people of widespread criminality. Examples include;
Theft from Relatives - Despenser seized the Welsh lands of his wife's inheritance, ignoring the claims of his two brothers-in-law and cheated his sister-in-law Elizabeth de Clare out of Gower and Usk.
Theft - forced Alice de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, to give up her lands,
Torture - he had Lady Baret's arms and legs broken until she went insane.
Murder - unlawfully killing a prisoner (Llweyn Bren) who was awaiting trial
Piracy - during his exile he became a pirate in the English Channel, "a sea monster, lying in wait for merchants as they crossed the sea".
False Imprisonment & Death Threats - he imprisoned Sir William Cokerell in the Tower of London, where Cokerell was forced to pay to save his life
Accusations of sodomy
14th century court historian Froissart wrote that "he was a sodomite." According to Froissart, Despenser's penis was severed and burned in his execution as a punishment for his sodomy and heresy.
Relationship with Isabella and downfall
Queen Isabella had a special dislike for Hugh le Despenser the younger. Alison Weir, in her 2005 book Queen Isabella: Treachery, Adultery, and Murder in Medieval England, speculates that he had raped Isabella and that was the source of her hatred. While Isabella was in France to negotiate between her husband and the French king, she formed a liaison with Roger Mortimer and began planning an invasion. Despenser supposedly tried to bribe French courtiers to assassinate Isabella, sending barrels of silver as payment. Roger Mortimer and the Queen invaded England in October 1326. Their forces numbered only about 1,500 mercenaries to begin with, but the majority of the nobility rallied to them throughout October and November. By contrast, very few people were prepared to fight for Edward II, mainly because of the hatred that the Despensers had aroused.
The Despensers fled West with the King, with a sizeable sum from the treasury. The escape was unsuccessful. Separated from the elder Despenser, the King and the younger Despenser were deserted by most of their followers, and were captured near Neath in mid-November. King Edward was placed in captivity and later forced to abdicate in favour of his son. The elder Despenser (the father) was hanged at Bristol on 27 October 1326, and younger Despenser (the son) was brought to trial.
Trial and execution
The execution of Hugh le Despenser the younger, from a manuscript of Jean Froissart.
Hugh le Despenser the Younger tried to starve himself before his trial, but he did face trial on 24 November 1326, in Hereford, before Mortimer and the Queen. In Froissart's account of the execution, Despenser was then tied firmly to a ladder, and—in full view of the crowd—had his genitals sliced off and burned in his still-conscious sight, then his entrails slowly pulled out, and, finally, his heart cut out and thrown into the fire. Froissart (or rather Jean le Bel's chronicle, on which he relied) is the only source to describe castration, where all other contemporary accounts have Despenser hanged, drawn and quartered (which usually involved castration).
Finally, his corpse was beheaded, his body cut into four pieces, and his head mounted on the gates of London.
Four years later, in December 1330, his widow was given permission to gather and bury his remains at the family's Gloucestershire estate, but only the head, a thigh bone and a few vertebrae were returned to her.
What may be the body of Despenser was identified in February 2008 in the village of Abbey Hulton in Staffordshire, the former site of Hulton Abbey. The skeleton, which was first uncovered during archaeological work in the 1970s, appeared to be that of a victim of a drawing and quartering as it had been beheaded and chopped into several pieces with a sharp blade, suggesting a ritual killing. Furthermore, it lacked several body parts, including the ones given to Despenser's wife. Radiocarbon analysis dated the body to between 1050 and 1385, and later tests suggested it to be that of a man over 34 years old. Despenser was 40 at the time of his death. In addition, the Abbey is located on lands that belonged to Hugh Audley, Despenser's brother-in-law, at the time.
No book-length biographical study of Hugh le Despenser exists, although The Tyranny and Fall of Edward II: 1321–1326 by historian Natalie Fryde is a study of Edward's reign during the years that the Despensers' power was at its peak. Fryde pays particular attention to the subject of the Despensers' ill-gotten landholdings. The numerous accusations against the younger Despenser at the time of his execution have never been the subject of close critical scrutiny, although Roy Martin Haines called them "ingenuous" and noted their propagandistic nature.
Despite the crucial and disastrous role he played in the reign of Edward II, Despenser is almost a minor character in Christopher Marlowe's play Edward II (1592), where, as "Spencer", he is little more than a substitute for the dead Gaveston. In 2006, he was selected by BBC History Magazine as the 14th century's worst Briton.
His image on the stained glass window of the Banqueting Hall of Cardiff Castle, shows his coat of arms inverted—a symbol of disgrace.
Edward II of England and Hugh Despenser the elder extorted the lands of Alice de Lacy, 4th Countess of Lincoln, and to make the transfers of title appear legitimate, declared Hugh the younger her "kinsman".
[show]Ancestors of Hugh Despenser the Younger
Anne Neville, the queen consort of King Richard III of England, is a direct descendant of Hugh le Despenser the younger. Anne's grandmother, Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Worcester and Warwick, was the granddaughter of Edward le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer, who in turn was the grandson of the younger Despenser.
The sixth and last queen consort to Henry VIII, Catherine Parr, also descended from the 1st Baron le Despencer, through his daughter Margaret, who married Robert de Ferrers, 4th Baron Ferrers of Chartley.
The New England Protestant reformer Anne (Marbury) Hutchinson was a descendant of Hugh through his grandson Edward. Through her, many Americans including Franklin D. Roosevelt and George W. Bush, can claim Hugh the younger as an ancestor.
Hanged, drawn and quartered for High treason...
Hugh married Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer 1 May 1306, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. Eleanor (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre) was born 0Oct 1292, Caerphilly Castle, Caerphilly, Urban, Glamorgan, Wales; died 30 Jun 1337, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England; was buried (Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ). [Group Sheet]
|75. ||Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer was born 0Oct 1292, Caerphilly Castle, Caerphilly, Urban, Glamorgan, Wales (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre); died 30 Jun 1337, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England; was buried (Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ).
|96. ||Hugh Courtenay was born 25 Mar 1249, Oakhampton, Devonshire, England (son of John Courtenay, 2nd Baron Okehampton and Isabel de Vere); died 28 Feb 1292, Colcombe, Devonshire, England; was buried Cowick Priory, Exeter, Devonshire, England. |
Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)
Born: 25 Mar 1249, Oakhampton, Devon, England
Died: 28 Feb 1290/91, Cullicomb, Devon, England
Buried: Cowick, Devonshire, England
Father: John COURTENAY (2° B. Okehampton)
Mother: Isabel De VERE
Married: Eleanor DESPENCER (BET 1245/1260-30 Sep 1328) BEF 1273
1. Eleanor COURTENAY
2. Phillip COURTENAY
3. Thomas COURTENAY
4. Avelina (Ada)COURTENAY
5. John COURTENAY
6. Robert COURTENAY
7. Alice COURTENAY
8. Hugh COURTENAY (1° E. Devon)
9. Margaret COURTENAY
10. Isabel COURTENAY
11. Egeline COURTENAY
Sir Hugh de Courtenay (1251–1292) was the son and heir of John de Courtenay, feudal baron of Okehampton, Devon, by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford. His son inherited the earldom of Devon.
Sir Hugh de Courtenay, born 25 March 1251, was the son and heir of John de Courtenay of Okehampton, Devon, by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford, and Hawise de Quincy. John's father, Robert de Courtenay (d. 26 July 1242), son of Reginald de Courtenay (d.1190) by Hawise de Curci (d.1219), heiress of the feudal barony of Okehampton, married Mary de Redvers (sometimes called 'de Vernon'), daughter of William de Redvers, 5th Earl of Devon (d.1217).
In order to avoid military service Courtenay paid a fine on 12 December 1276. He was called to arms on the emergency against the Welsh princes, fighting in the 1282 campaign. He attended upon the King at Shrewsbury on 28 June 1283. He again absented himself from the wars on 14 June 1287 by paying the King's justice a fine.
Marriage and issue
Courtenay married Eleanor le Despenser (d.1328), daughter of Hugh le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer, Justiciar of England, of Loughborough, Leicestershire and Ryhall, Rutland by his wife Aline Basset, daughter of Sir Philip Basset, Justiciar of England, of Wycombe, Buckinghamshire and Compton Bassett and Wootton Bassett, Wiltshire. By his wife he had four sons and five daughters:
Hugh de Courtenay, 1st/9th Earl of Devon (1276–1340) of Tiverton Castle, eldest son and heir.
Sir Philip Courtenay (d.1314) of Moreton Hampstead in Devon, slain at Stirling on 24 June 1314, according to Vivian. Died childless, when Moreton Hampstead was inherited by his elder brother the Earl of Devon.
John Courtenay, died young.
Robert Courtenay, died young.
Isabel de Courtenay, wife of John de Saint John, 1st Baron St John (died 1329) of Basing.
Aveline de Courtenay, wife of Sir John Giffard
Egeline (or Eleanor) de Courtenay, wife of John le Scales
Margaret (or Margery) de Courtenay, wife of John de Moels. Other sources give her husband as Nicholas de Moels, 2nd Baron Moels (d.1316), feudal baron of North Cadbury, Somerset. Without progeny.
Alice Courtenay, died young
Courtenay died at Colcombe, Devon, on 28 February 1292. He was buried at Cowick Priory, near Exeter.
Hugh married Eleanor Despencer Bef 1273. Eleanor died 30 Sep 1328. [Group Sheet]
|100. ||Humphrey de Bohun, V, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1249 (son of Humphrey de Bohun, VI, 2nd Earl of Hereford and Eleanor de Braose); died 31 Dec 1298, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England; was buried Walden Priory, Essex, England. |
- Alt Birth: ~ 1256, Herefordshire, England
Humphrey (V) de Bohun (c. 1249[nb 1] – 31 December 1298), 3rd Earl of Hereford and 2nd Earl of Essex, was an English nobleman known primarily for his opposition to King Edward I over the Confirmatio Cartarum. He was also an active participant in the Welsh Wars and maintained for several years a private feud with the earl of Gloucester. His father, Humphrey (V) de Bohun, fought on the side of the rebellious barons in the Barons' War. When Humphrey (V) predeceased his father, Humphrey (VI) became heir to his grandfather, Humphrey (IV). At Humphrey (IV)'s death in 1275, Humphrey (VI) inherited the earldoms of Hereford and Essex. He also inherited major possessions in the Welsh Marches from his mother, Eleanor de Braose.
Bohun's spent most of his early career reconquering Marcher lands captured by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd during the Welsh war in England. This was finally accomplished through Edward I's war in Wales in 1277. Hereford also fought in Wales in 1282–83 and 1294–95. At the same time he also had private feuds with other Marcher lords, and his conflict with Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, eventually ended with the personal intervention of King Edward himself. Hereford's final years were marked by the opposition he and Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, mounted against the military and fiscal policy of Edward I. The conflict escalated to a point where civil war threatened, but was resolved when the war effort turned towards Scotland. The king signed the Confirmatio Cartarum – a confirmation of Magna Carta – and Bohun and Bigod agreed to serve on the Falkirk Campaign. Bohun died in 1298, and was succeeded by his son, Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.
Family background and inheritance
Humphrey (VI) de Bohun was part of a line of Anglo-Norman aristocrats going back to the Norman Conquest, most of whom carried the same name. His grandfather was Humphrey (IV) de Bohun, who had been part of the baronial opposition of Simon de Montfort, but later gone over to the royal side. He was taken prisoner at the Battle of Lewes in May 1264, but was restored to favour after the royalist victory at the Battle of Evesham the next year. Humphrey (IV)'s son, Humphrey (V) de Bohun, remained loyal to the baronial side throughout the Barons' War, and was captured at Evesham on 4 August 1265. In October that year Humphrey (V) died in captivity at Beeston Castle in Cheshire from injuries he had sustained in the battle.
Humphrey (V) had been excluded from succession as a result of his rebellion, but when Humphrey (IV) died in 1275, Humphrey (VI) inherited the earldoms of Hereford and Essex. Humphrey (VI) had already served as deputy Constable of England under Humphrey (IV). Humphrey (IV) had reserved the honour of Pleshey for his younger son Henry, but the remainder of his lands went to Humphrey (VI). The inheritance Humphrey (VI) received – in addition to land in Essex and Wiltshire from Humphrey (IV) – also consisted of significant holdings in the Welsh Marches from his mother. His mother Eleanor was a daughter and coheir of William de Braose and his wife Eva Marshal, who in turn was the daughter and coheir of William Marshal, regent to Henry III.
Since Humphrey (VI) was only sixteen years old at the time of his father's death, the Braose lands were taken into the king's custody until 1270. Part of this inheritance, the Marcher lordship of Brecon, was in the meanwhile given to the custody of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Hertford. Humphrey technically regained his lordship from Clare in 1270, but by this time these lands had effectively been taken over by the Welsh prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, who had taken advantage of the previous decade's political chaos in England to extend his territory into the Marches.
He granted his brother Gilbert de Bohun all of their mother's lands in Ireland and some land in England and Wales.
See also: Conquest of Wales by Edward I
Over the next years, much of Hereford's focus was on reconquering his lost lands in the Marches, primarily through private warfare against Llywelyn. Henry III died in 1272, while his son – now Edward I – was crusading; Edward did not return until 1274. Llywelyn refused to pay homage to the new king, partly because of the military actions of Bohun and other Marcher lords, which Llywelyn saw as violations of the Treaty of Montgomery. On 12 November 1276, Hereford was present at a royal assembly where judgment was passed on Llewelyn, and in 1277, Edward I declared war on the Welsh prince. Rebellion in his own Brecon lands delayed Hereford's participation in the early days of the Welsh war. He managed, however, to both suppress the rebellion, and conquer lands further west. He then joined up with the royal army and served for a while in Anglesey, before returning to Brecon, where he received the surrender of certain Welsh lords. After the campaign was over, on 2 January 1278, he received protection from King Edward to go on pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.
In 1282, war with Wales broke out again; this time it would not be simply a punitive campaign, but a full-scale war of conquest. Initially, the king wanted to fight the war with paid forces, but the nobility insisted on the use of the feudal summons. To men like Hereford, this was preferable, because as part of a feudal army the participants would have both a stake in the war and a justifiable claim on conquered land. In the end, although the earls won, none of them were paid for the war effort. Hereford jealously guarded his authority as hereditary Constable of England, and protested vigorously when the Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester was appointed commander of the forces in South Wales. In the post war settlement, however, neither Hereford nor Gloucester received any significant rewards of land, the way several other magnates did. Hereford fought again in Wales, in the suppression of the rebellion of 1294–95, when he again had to pacify the territory of Brecon before joining the king in the north.
Private war in the Marches
The historic county of Brecknockshire, which corresponds roughly to Hereford's lordship of Brecon.
Parallel with the Welsh Wars, Hereford was also struggling to assert his claims to lands in the Marches against other Marcher lords. In 1284 Edward I granted the hundred of Iscennen in Carmarthenshire to John Giffard. Hereford believed the land belonged to him by right of conquest, and started a campaign to win the lands back, but the king took Giffard's side. Problems also arose with the earl of Gloucester. As Gloucester's former ward, Hereford had to buy back his own right of marriage, but Gloucester claimed he had not received the full sum. There was also remaining resentment on Hereford's part for his subordination to Gloucester in the 1282–83 campaign. The conflict came to a head when Gloucester's started construction of a castle at Morlais, which Hereford claimed was his land. In 1286, the Crown ordered Gloucester to cease, but to no avail.
It had long been established Marcher custom to solve conflicts through private warfare. Hereford's problem, however, was his relative weakness in the Marches, and now he was facing open conflict with two different enemies. He therefore decided to take the issue to the king instead, in a break with tradition. King Edward again ordered Gloucester to stop, but the earl ignored the order and initiated raids on Hereford's lands. Hostilities continued and Hereford responded, until both earls were arrested and brought before the king. The real offense was not the private warfare in itself, but the fact that the earls had not respected the king's injunction to cease. In the parliament of January 1292, Gloucester was fined 10,000 marks and Hereford 1,000. Gloucester's liberty of Glamorgan was declared forfeit, and confiscated by the crown, as was Hereford's of Brecon.
In the end the fines were never paid, and the lands were soon restored. Edward had nevertheless demonstrated an important point. After the conquest of Wales, the strategic position of the Marcher lordships was less vital to the English crown, and the liberty awarded to the Marcher lords could be curtailed. For Edward this was therefore a good opportunity to assert the royal prerogative, and to demonstrate that it extended also into the Marches of Wales.
Opposition to Edward I
In 1294 the French king declared the English duchy of Aquitaine forfeit, and war broke out between the two countries. Edward I embarked on a wide-scale and costly project of building alliances with other princes on the Continent, and preparing an invasion. When the king, at the parliament of March 1297 in Salisbury, demanded military service from his earls, Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, refused in his capacity of marshal of England. The argument was that the king's subjects were not obliged to serve abroad if not in the company of the king, but Edward insisted on taking his army to Flanders while sending his earls to Gascony.
Bohun and Bigod confront King Edward. Early 20th-century imaginary illustration
At the time of the Salisbury parliament, Hereford was accompanying two of the king's daughters to Brabant, and could not be present. On his return, however, as Constable of England, he joined Bigod in July in refusing to perform feudal service. The two earls were joined in their opposition by the earls of Arundel and Warwick. The main reasons for the magnates' defiance was the heavy burden of taxation caused by Edward's continuous warfare in Wales, France and Scotland. In this they were also joined by Robert Winchelsey, the Archbishop of Canterbury, who was in the midst of an ongoing dispute with the king over clerical taxation. At one point Bohun and Bigod turned up in person at the Exchequer to protest a tax they claimed did not have the consent of the community of the realm. For Hereford there was also a personal element in the opposition to the king, after the humiliation and the affront to his liberties he had suffered over the dispute in the Marches. At a meeting just outside London, Bohun gave an impassioned speech objecting to the king's abuse of power and demanding the restoration of ancient liberties. The grievances were summarised in a document known as the Remonstrances.
Neither party showed any inclination to back down, and the nation seemed on the brink of another civil war. Just as the conflict was coming to a head, however, external events intervened to settle it. In September 1297, the English suffered a heavy defeat to the Scots at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. The Scottish victory exposed the north of England to Scottish raids led by William Wallace. The war with Scotland received wider support from the English magnates, now that their own homeland was threatened, than did the war in France to protect the king's continental possessions. Edward abandoned his campaign in France and negotiated a truce with the French king. He agreed to confirm Magna Carta in the so-called Confirmatio Cartarum (Confirmation of the Charters). The earls consequently consented to serve with the king in Scotland, and Hereford was in the army that won a decisive victory over the Scots in the Battle of Falkirk in 1298. Hereford, not satisfied that the king had upheld the charter, withdrew after the battle, forcing Edward to abandon the campaign.
Death and family
The earthwork remains of Pleshey Castle where Humphrey de Bohun died.
In 1275 Bohun married Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand de Fiennes, chevalier, seigneur of Fiennes, by his 2nd wife, Isabel (kinswoman of Queen Eleanor of Provence). She predeceased him, and was buried at Walden Priory in Essex. Hereford himself died at Pleshey Castle on 31 December 1298, and was buried at Walden alongside his wife. They had one son Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, born around 1276. The son was given possession of his father's lands and titles on 16 February 1299. The young Humphrey also inherited his father's title of Constable of England.
A common theme in Humphrey de Bohun's actions was his fierce protection of what he regarded as his feudal privileges. His career was marked by turbulence and political strife, particularly in the Marches of Wales, but eventually he left a legacy of consolidated possessions there. In 1297, at the height of the conflict between Edward I and rebellious barons, the king had actively tried to undermine Hereford's authority in the Marches, but failed due to the good relations the earl enjoyed with the local men.
Jump up ^ He was reported to be 18 ½ years old in the 51st year of the reign of Henry III, and 24 or 26 after the death of his grandfather in 1275. Cokayne (1910–59), pp. 463–6.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Fritze and Robison, (2002).
^ Jump up to: a b c d Hicks (1991).
Jump up ^ White, Graeme (2004). "Bohun, Humphrey (III) de (b. before 1144, d. 1181)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2774.
^ Jump up to: a b Vincent (2004).
Jump up ^ Powicke (1953), p. 202.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Waugh (2004).
^ Jump up to: a b c d Cokayne (1910–59), pp. 463–6.
Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 21.
Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 112.
Jump up ^ Davies (2000), pp. 322–3.
Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), pp. 225–6.
Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 174–5.
Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), p. 408.
Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 171.
Jump up ^ Morris (1901), pp. 178–9, 194.
Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 188.
Jump up ^ Prestwich (1972), pp. 71–3.
Jump up ^ Prestwich (1972), p. 72.
Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 204.
Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 256.
Jump up ^ Morris (1901), pp. 201–2.
^ Jump up to: a b Prestwich (2007), p. 136.
Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 348.
Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 226.
Jump up ^ Carpenter (2003), p. 478.
Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), p. 350
Jump up ^ Davies (1978), pp. 259–60, 255–7.
Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 378–9.
Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 387–8.
Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), pp. 666, 678.
Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), p. 680 n.
Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 419.
Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 420.
Jump up ^ Carpenter (2003), p. 485.
Jump up ^ Morris (2008), p. 297.
Jump up ^ Morris (1901), pp. 274–5.
Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 420–1.
Jump up ^ Davies (1978), p. 269.
Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 283.
Jump up ^ Prestwich (2007), p. 170.
Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 427–8.
Jump up ^ Cokayne (1910–59), p. 467.
Jump up ^ Fryde, E. B. (1961). Handbook of British Chronology (Second ed.). London: Royal Historical Society. p. 431.
Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 300.
Jump up ^ Davies (1978), p. 290.
Carpenter, David (2003). The Struggle for Mastery: Britain, 1066-1284. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-522000-5.
Cokayne, George (1910–59). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. VI (New ed.). London: The St. Catherine Press.
Davies, R. R. (1978). Lordship and Society in the March of Wales, 1282-1400. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822454-0.
Davies, R. R. (2000). The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063-1415. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820878-2.
Fritze, Ronald H.; William Baxter Robison (2002). "Bohoun, Humphrey de, 3rd Earl of Hereford and 2nd Earl of Essex (c. 1249-98)". Historical dictionary of late medieval England, 1272-1485. Westport, London: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 61–3. ISBN 0-313-29124-1. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
Hicks, Michael (1991). Who's Who in Late Medieval England (1272-1485). Who's Who in British History Series. 3. London: Shepheard-Walwyn. pp. 29–30. ISBN 0-85683-092-5.
Morris, J. E. (1901). The Welsh Wars of Edward I. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Morris, Marc (2008). A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and the Forging of Britain (updated ed.). London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-179684-6.
Prestwich, Michael (1972). War, Politics and Finance under Edward I. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-09042-7.
Prestwich, Michael (1997). Edward I (updated ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07209-0.
Prestwich, Michael (2007). Plantagenet England: 1225-1360 (new ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822844-9.
Powicke, F. M. (1953). The Thirteenth Century: 1216-1307. Oxford: Clarendon. ISBN 0-19-285249-3.
Vincent, Nicholas (2004). "Bohun, Humphrey (IV) de, second earl of Hereford and seventh earl of Essex (d. 1275)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2775.
Waugh, Scott L. (2004). "Bohun, Humphrey (VI) de, third earl of Hereford and eighth earl of Essex (c.1249–1298)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2776.
Humphrey married Maud de Fiennes 20 Jul 1275. Maud (daughter of Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde) was born ~ 1251, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England; died 6 Nov 1298; was buried Saffron Walden, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]
|101. ||Maud de Fiennes was born ~ 1251, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England (daughter of Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde); died 6 Nov 1298; was buried Saffron Walden, Essex, England. |
- 50. Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1276, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England; died 16 Mar 1322, Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, England; was buried Friars Minor, York, Yorkshire, England.
|102. ||Edward I, King of England was born 17 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was christened 22 Jun 1239, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom (son of Henry III, King of England and Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile); died 7 Jul 1307, Burgh by Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria, England; was buried 28 Oct 1307, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. |
- Also Known As: Edward Longshanks
More on King Edward I ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England
Remember Mel Gibson's role as William Wallace in his 1995 movie, "Braveheart", about the 13th c. Scottish Rebellion? Here is the fellow he battled, brilliantly portrayed by Patrick McGoohan... Here's a clip of that movie... http://www.cinemagia.ro/trailer/braveheart-braveheart-inima-neinfricata-1054/
Edward I, called Longshanks (1239-1307), king of England (1272-1307), Lord of Gascony, of the house of Plantagenet. He was born in Westminster on June 17, 1239, the eldest son of King Henry III, and at 15 married Eleanor of Castile. In the struggles of the barons against the crown for constitutional and ecclesiastical reforms, Edward took a vacillating course. When warfare broke out between the crown and the nobility, Edward fought on the side of the king, winning the decisive battle of Evesham in 1265. Five years later he left England to join the Seventh Crusade.
Following his father's death in 1272, and while he was still abroad, Edward was recognized as king by the English barons; in 1273, on his return to England, he was crowned.
The first years of Edward's reign were a period of the consolidation of his power. He suppressed corruption in the administration of justice, restricted the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to church affairs, and eliminated the papacy's overlordship over England. On the refusal of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd (died 1282), ruler of Wales, to submit to the English crown, Edward began the military conflict that resulted, in 1284, in the annexation of Llewelyn's principality to the English crown. In 1290 Edward expelled all Jews from England. War between England and France broke out in 1293 as a result of the efforts of France to curb Edward's power in Gascony. Edward lost Gascony in 1293 and did not again come into possession of the duchy until 1303. About the same year in which he lost Gascony, the Welsh rose in rebellion.
Greater than either of these problems was the disaffection of the people of Scotland. In agreeing to arbitrate among the claimants to the Scottish throne, Edward, in 1291, had exacted as a prior condition the recognition by all concerned of his overlordship of Scotland. The Scots later repudiated him and made an alliance with France against England. To meet the critical situations in Wales and Scotland, Edward summoned a parliament, called the Model Parliament by historians because it was a representative body and in that respect was the forerunner of all future parliaments. Assured by Parliament of support at home, Edward took the field and suppressed the Welsh insurrection. In 1296, after invading and conquering Scotland, he declared himself king of that realm. In 1298 he again invaded Scotland to suppress the revolt led by Sir William Wallace. In winning the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, Edward achieved the greatest military triumph of his career, but he failed to crush Scottish opposition.
The conquest of Scotland became the ruling passion of his life. He was, however, compelled by the nobles, clergy, and commons to desist in his attempts to raise by arbitrary taxes the funds he needed for campaigns. In 1299 Edward made peace with France and married Margaret, sister of King Philip III of France. Thus freed of war, he again undertook the conquest of Scotland in 1303. Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. No sooner had Edward established his government in Scotland, however, than a new revolt broke out and culminated in the coronation of Robert Bruce as king of Scotland. In 1307 Edward set out for the third time to subdue the Scots, but he died en route near Carlisle on July 7, 1307. He also had a daughter with Eleanor of Castile that died young.
Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.
There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.
Edward I  Burgh by Sands, Cumbria, England
is the 22nd great-grandfather of David Hennessee:
and also of Sheila Ann Mynatt Hennessee (1945-2016):
Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church, St. Michael's, until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.
There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.
Photos, maps & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgh_by_Sands
Edward married Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England 18 Oct 1254, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain. Eleanor (daughter of Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu) was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain; died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. [Group Sheet]
|103. ||Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain (daughter of Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu); died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. |
- Also Known As: Countess of Ponthieu
Eleanor of Castile (1241 - 28 November 1290) was the first queen consort of Edward I of England. She was also Countess of Ponthieu in her own right from 1279 until her death in 1290, succeeding her mother and ruling together with her husband.
Eleanor was better-educated than most medieval queens, and exerted a strong cultural influence on the nation. She was a keen patron of literature, and encouraged the use of tapestries, carpets and tableware in the Spanish style, as well as innovative garden designs. She was also a successful businesswoman, endowed with her own fortune as Countess of Ponthieu.
Daughter, stillborn in May 1255 in Bordeaux, France. Buried in Dominican Priory Church, Bordeaux, France.
Katherine (c 1261 – 5 September 1264) and buried in Westminster Abbey.
Joanna (January 1265 - before 7 September 1265), buried in Westminster Abbey.
John (13 July 1266 – 3 August 1271), died at Wallingford, in the custody of his granduncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall. Buried in Westminster Abbey.
Henry (before 6 May 1268 – 16 October 1274), buried in Westminster Abbey.
Eleanor (18 June 1269 – 29 August 1298). She was long betrothed to Alfonso III of Aragon, who died in 1291 before the marriage could take place, and in 1293 she married Count Henry III of Bar, by whom she had one son and one daughter.
Daughter (1271 Palestine ). Some sources call her Juliana, but there is no contemporary evidence for her name.
Joan (April 1272 – 7 April 1307). She married (1) in 1290 Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, who died in 1295, and (2) in 1297 Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer. She had four children by each marriage.
Alphonso (24 November 1273 - 19 August 1284), Earl of Chester.
Margaret (15 March 1275 – after 1333). In 1290 she married John II of Brabant, who died in 1318. They had one son.
Berengaria (1 May 1276 – before 27 June 1278), buried in Westminster Abbey.
Daughter (December 1277/January 1278 - January 1278), buried in Westminster Abbey. There is no contemporary evidence for her name.
Mary (11 March 1279 – 29 May 1332), a Benedictine nun in Amesbury.
Son, born in 1280 or 1281 who died very shortly after birth. There is no contemporary evidence for his name.
Elizabeth (7 August 1282 – 5 May 1316). She married (1) in 1297 John I, Count of Holland, (2) in 1302 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex. The first marriage was childless; by Bohun, Elizabeth had ten children.
Edward II of England, also known as Edward of Caernarvon (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327). In 1308 he married Isabella of France. They had two sons and two daughters.
It is often said, on the basis of antiquarian genealogies from the 15th-17th centuries, that Eleanor delivered 2 daughters in the years after Edward II's birth. The names most often associated with these ephemeral daughters are "Beatrice" and "Blanche"; later writers also mention "Juliana" and "Euphemia," and even a "Berenice," probably by confusion with the historical daughter Berengaria. At least one eighteenth-century writer made "Beatrice" and Berengaria into twins, presumably because of the alliteration of names; but Berengaria's birth in 1276 (not the 1280s) was noted by more than one chronicler of the day, and none of them reports that Berengaria had a twin sister. Queen Eleanor's wardrobe and treasury accounts survive almost intact for the years 1288-1290 and record no births in those years, nor do they ever refer to daughters with any of those names. Even more records survive from King Edward's wardrobe between 1286 and 1290 than for his wife's, and they too are silent on any such daughters. It is most unlikely that they ever existed in historical fact. It is more likely that there were other pregnancies and short-lived children in the years prior to 1266, when records for Eleanor's movements are very slight.
Eleanor as a mother
It has been suggested that Eleanor and Edward were more devoted to each other than to their children. As king and queen, however, it was impossible for them to spend much time in one place, and when they were very young, the children could not travel constantly with their parents. The children had a household staffed with attendants carefully chosen for competence and loyalty, with whom the parents corresponded regularly. The children lived in this comfortable establishment until they were about seven years old; then they began to accompany their parents, if at first only on important occasions. By their teens they were with the king and queen much of the time. In 1290, Eleanor sent one of her scribes to join her children's household, presumably to help with their education. She also sent gifts to the children regularly, and arranged for the entire establishment to be moved near to her when she was in Wales. In 1306 Edward sharply scolded Margerie de Haustede, Eleanor's former lady in waiting who was then in charge of his children by his second wife, because Margerie had not kept him well informed of their health. Edward also issued regular instructions for the care and guidance of these children.
Two incidents cited to imply Eleanor's lack of interest in her children are easily explained in the contexts of royal childrearing in general, and of particular events surrounding Edward and Eleanor's family. When their six-year-old son Henry lay dying at Guildford in 1274, neither parent made the short journey from London to see him; but Henry was tended by Edward's mother Eleanor of Provence. The boy had lived with his grandmother while his parents were absent on crusade, and since he was barely two years old when they left England in 1270, he could not have had many worthwhile memories of them at the time they returned to England in August 1274, only weeks before his last illness and death. In other words, the dowager queen was a more familiar and comforting presence to her grandson than his parents would have been at that time, and it was in all respects better that she tended him then. Furthermore, Eleanor was pregnant at the time of his final illness and death; exposure to a sickroom would probably have been discouraged. Similarly, Edward and Eleanor allowed her mother, Joan of Dammartin, to raise their daughter Joan in Ponthieu (1274–78). This implies no parental lack of interest in the girl; the practice of fostering noble children in other households of sufficient dignity was not unknown and Eleanor's mother was, of course, dowager queen of Castile. Her household was thus safe and dignified, but it does appear that Edward and Eleanor had cause to regret their generosity in letting Joan of Dammartin foster young Joan. When the girl reached England in 1278, aged six, it turned out that she was badly spoiled. She was spirited and at times defiant in childhood, and in adulthood remained a handful for Edward, defying his plans for a prestigious second marriage for her by secretly marrying one of her late first husband's squires. When the marriage was revealed in 1297 because Joan was pregnant, Edward was enraged that his dignity had been insulted by her marriage to a commoner of no importance. Joan, at twenty-five, reportedly defended her conduct to her father by saying that nobody saw anything wrong if a great earl married a poor woman, so there could be nothing wrong with a countess marrying a promising young man. Whether or not her retort ultimately changed his mind, Edward restored to Joan all the lands he had confiscated when he learned of her marriage, and accepted her new husband as a son-in-law in good standing. Joan marked her restoration to favour by having masses celebrated for the soul of her mother Eleanor.
Maps & History of Burgos ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Burgos
- Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre was born 0Apr 1272, Acre, Israel; died 23 Apr 1307, Clare Castle, Clare, Suffolk, England; was buried Clare Priory, Clare, Suffolk, England.
- 51. Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales; died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.
- Edward II, King of England was born 25 Apr 1284, Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales; died 21 Sep 1327, Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England.
|132. ||Richard Talbot, Lord of Eccleswall was born ~ 1250, Linton Manor, Bromyard, Herefordshire, England; died Bef 3 Sep 1306, Herefordshire, England. |
Baron Talbot is a title that has been created twice. The title was created first in the Peerage of England. On 5 June 1331, Sir Gilbert Talbot was summoned to Parliament, by which he was held to have become Baron Talbot.
The title Lord Talbot, Baron of Hensol, in the County of Glamorgan, was created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1733 for Charles Talbot, a descendant of the John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury (the 8th Baron of the first creation), the Earl Talbot.
Barons Talbot (1331)
Gilbert Talbot (1276–1346), Lord Chamberlain of the Household to King Edward III, was summoned to Parliament as Lord Talbot in 1331, which is accepted as evidence of his baronial status at that date.
He was descended from Richard Talbot, a tenant in 1086 of Walter Giffard at Woburn and Battledsen in Bedfordshire. The Talbot family were vassals of the Giffards in Normandy. Hugh Talbot, probably his son, made a grant to Beaubec Abbey, confirmed by his son Richard Talbot in 1153. This Richard (d. 1175) is listed in 1166 as holding three fees of the Honour of Giffard in Buckinghamshire. He also held a fee at Linton in Herefordshire, for which his son Gilbert Talbot (d. 1231) obtained a fresh charter in 1190. Gilbert's grandson Gilbert (d. 1274) married Gwenlynn Mechyll, daughter and sole heiress of the Welsh Prince Rhys Mechyll, whose armorials the Talbots thenceforth assumed in lieu of their own former arms. Their son Sir Richard Talbot, who signed and sealed the Barons' Letter, 1301 held the manor of Eccleswall in Herefordshire in right of his wife Sarah, sister of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. In 1331 Richard's son Gilbert Talbot (1276–1346) was summoned to Parliament, which is considered evidence of his baronial status.
The first baron's grandson, the 3rd Baron Talbot, died in Spain supporting John of Gaunt's claim to the throne of Castile. Richard, the fourth Baron, married Ankaret, 7th Baroness Strange of Blackmere, daughter and heiress of John le Strange, 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere. In 1387, during his father's lifetime, Richard 4th Baron was summoned to Parliament as Ricardo Talbot de Blackmere in right of his wife. His son [Gilbert], the fifth Baron, also succeeded his mother as eighth Baron Strange of Blackmere.
On the early death of the 5th Baron, the titles passed to his daughter, Ankaret, the sixth and ninth holder of the titles. However, she died a minor and was succeeded by her uncle, John seventh Baron Talbot. John married Maud Nevill, 6th Baroness Furnivall, and, in 1409, he was summoned to Parliament in right of his wife as Johann Talbot de Furnyvall. In 1442 John was created Earl of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England and in 1446 Earl of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland.
Barons Talbot (1733)
The title was created in 1733 when Charles Talbot was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain as Lord Talbot, Baron of Hensol, in the County of Glamorgan. He was eldest the son of William Talbot, Bishop of Oxford, of Salisbury and of Durham and a descendant of Sir Gilbert Talbot (died 1518), third son of John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury.
The title fell into abeyance between the three daughters of Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury until the deaths of two of them without issue.
List of titleholders
Barons Talbot (1331)
Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot (1276–1346)
Richard Talbot, 2nd Baron Talbot (c.1305–1356)
Gilbert Talbot, 3rd Baron Talbot (c.1332–1387)
Richard Talbot, 4th Baron Talbot (c.1361–1396)
Gilbert Talbot, 5th Baron Talbot, 8th Baron Strange of Blackmere (c.1383–1419)
Ankaret Talbot, 6th Baroness Talbot, 9th Baroness Strange of Blackmere (d. 1421)
John Talbot, 7th Baron Talbot, 10th Baron Strange of Blackmere (1390–1453) (created Earl of Shrewsbury in 1442)
John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury, 8th Baron Talbot (1413–1460)
John Talbot, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, 9th Baron Talbot (1448–1473)
George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, 10th Baron Talbot (1468–1538)
Francis Talbot, 5th Earl of Shrewsbury, 11th Baron Talbot (1500–1560)
George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, 12th Baron Talbot (1528–1590)
Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury, 13th Baron Talbot (1552–1616)
Alethea Howard, Countess of Arundel, 13th Baroness Furnivall and 14th Baroness Talbot (d. 1654)
Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk, 15th Baron Talbot (1627–1677)
Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk, 16th Baron Talbot (1628–1684)
Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk, 17th Baron Talbot (1655–1701)
Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk, 18th Baron Talbot (1683–1732)
Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk, 19th Baron Talbot (1685–1777)
abeyant since 1777
at Eccleswall Manor...
Richard married Sarah de Beauchamp Aft 1268. Sarah (daughter of Walter de Beauchamp and Joan Mortimer) was born 0___ 1255, Elmley Castle, Worcester, England; died Aft 1316. [Group Sheet]
|134. ||William le Boteler was born ~ 1245, Wem, Shropshire, England; died 11 Dec 1283. |
- Also Known As: William le Botiller
William le BOTILLER and Ankaret verch GRUFFYDD
William le BOTILLER. (Boteler).
Born (in 1230)(about 1245) in Wemme, Shropshire, England; son of Ralph le BOTELER and Maud PANTULF.
He married Ankaret verch Gruffydd after 1261.
He died on 11 December 1283.
Ankaret verch GRUFFYDD Maelor.
Born (in 1236)(about 1248) (in Powys)(at Bromfield; Lower Powys), Montgomeryshire, Wales; daughter of Gruffydd ap Madog and Emma de Aldithley. (Audley). She died on 22 June 1308.
Genealogy of Ankaret:
Ankaret verch Gruffydd (Gruffydd "Griffith" ap Madoc79, Madoc ap Gruffydd Maelor78, Angharad77, Cristin verch Gronwy76, Gronwy75, Owain74, Eadwine "Edwin" ap Gronwy73, Gronwy ap Einion72, Einion ap Owain71, Owain ap Hywel "Dda"70, Hywel "Dda" ap Cadell69, Cadell ap Rhodri Mawr68, Rhodri Mawr ap Merfyn67, Merfyn "the Freckled" ap Gwriad66, Gwriad ap Elidir of Man65, Elidir ap Sandde64, Sandde ap Alewn63, Alewn ap Tegid62, Tegid ap Gwair61, Gwair ap Dwywg60, Dwywg ap Llywarch59, Llywarch Hen ap Elidir58, Elidir ap Meirchion57, Meirchion Gul ap Gwrst56, Gwrst Lledlwin ap Ceneu55, Ceneu54, Coel *53, Tegfan Gloff52, Deheuwaint51, Telpwyll50, Urban49, Gradd "Grat"48, Remetel "Jumetel" Rhyfedel47, Rhydeyrn Rhyfedel46, Euddigan45, Eudeyrn44, Eifudd43, Eudos42, Euddolen41, Eugein40, Afallach39, Beli "Mawr" * the Great38, Manogan * ap Eneid37, Eneid *36, Cerwyd *35, Crydon *34, Dyfnarth Cynfarch *33, Prydain *32, Aedd * Mawr31, Antonius *30, Sisillius *29, Gwrst ? *28, Rhiwallon *27, Cunedda *26, Henwyn * ap Bleiddud25, Bleiddud Cyngen ap Asser24, Asser ap Cyngen23, Cyngen Bleiddud22, Dyfnwal ap Gorbonian21, Gorbonian20, Cymryw Camber19, Brutus *18, Silivius *17, Iulus * Ascanius16, Aeneas *15, Anchisa Anchises14, Capps13, Assaracus12, Tros11, Erichthonius10, Dardanus9, Zerah8, Judah *7, Jacob *6, Isaac *5, Abraham *4, Terah *3, Nahor.
CHILDREN of William le BOTILLER and Ankaret verch GRUFFYDD.
(Sir) William le BOTILER. First Baron Boteler. Born on 11 January 1274, (of Wemme, Shropshire)(in Oversley, Warwickshire), England. He married (1) Beatrice about 1295. He married (2) Ela de HERDEBURGH before February 1316. He died before 14 September 1334, when an inquest post mortem was held for him.
Anne le BOTELER. Born (in 1272)(in 1280) in Wemme, Shropshire, England. She married Gilbert TALBOT.
John Le Boteler was born on 17 Jul 1266.
Gawaine Le Boteler was born on 2 Feb 1269/1270.
Ralph le BOTELER. Born about 1244. Died before 5 June 1307.
[S1]. McMahan/Kilsdonk Ancestors. RootsWeb. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=REG&db=kmcmahan&id=I12491.
[S2]. Wikipedia, the Free Ecyclopedia.
William married Ankaret verch Griffith Aft 1261. Ankaret was born 1236-1248, Powys, Wales; died 22 Jun 1308. [Group Sheet]
|135. ||Ankaret verch Griffith was born 1236-1248, Powys, Wales; died 22 Jun 1308. |
- Also Known As: Ankaret verch Gruffydd
- 67. Anne le Boteler was born ~ 1278, (Wemme) Shropshire, England; died 0___ 1340, Linton, Herefordshire, England.
- William le Boteler, 1st Baron Boteler was born 11 Jun 1274, Oversley, Warwickshire, England; died 14 Sep 1334, Wem, Shropshire, England.
|144. ||Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel was born 2 Mar 1266, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (son of John FitzAlan, Knight, 7th Earl of Arundel and Isabella Mortimer); died 9 Mar 1302, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England. |
Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel (7th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots) (3 February 1266/7 – 9 March 1301/2) was an English Norman medieval nobleman.
He was the son of John FitzAlan, 7th Earl of Arundel (6th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots) and Isabella Mortimer, daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Wigmore and Maud de Braose. His paternal grandparents were John Fitzalan, 6th Earl of Arundel and Maud le Botiller.
Richard was feudal Lord of Clun and Oswestry in the Welsh Marches. After attaining his majority in 1289 he became the 8th Earl of Arundel, by being summoned to Parliament by a writ directed to the Earl of Arundel.
He was knighted by King Edward I of England in 1289.
Fought in Wales, Gascony & Scotland
He fought in the Welsh wars, 1288 to 1294, when the Welsh castle of Castell y Bere (near modern-day Towyn) was besieged by Madog ap Llywelyn. He commanded the force sent to relieve the siege and he also took part in many other campaigns in Wales ; also in Gascony 1295-97; and furthermore in the Scottish wars, 1298-1300.
Marriage & Issue
He married sometime before 1285, Alice of Saluzzo (also known as Alesia di Saluzzo), daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo in Italy. Their issue:
Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel.
John, a priest.
Alice FitzAlan, married Stephen de Segrave, 3rd Lord Segrave.
Margaret FitzAlan, married William le Botiller (or Butler).
Eleanor FitzAlan, married Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy.[a]
Richard and his mother are buried together in the sanctuary of Haughmond Abbey, long closely associated with the FitzAlan family.
[show]Ancestors of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel
Jump up ^ Standard accounts of the Percy family identify Eleanor as the daughter of the "Earl of Arundel". Arrangements for Eleanor's marriage to Lord Percy are found in the recognizance made in 1300 by Eleanor's father, Richard, Earl of Arundel, for a debt of 2,000 marks which he owed Sir Henry Percy. Eleanor was styled as a "kinswoman" of Edward II on two separate occasions; once in 1318 and again in 1322 presumably by her descent from Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy who was the brother of Edward II's great-grandmother, Beatrice of Savoy. Eleanor's brothers, Edmund and John were also styled as "kinsmen" of the king. Eleanor's identity is further indicated by the presence of the old and new arms of FitzAlan (or Arundel) at her tomb.
Jump up ^ www.briantimms.net, Charles's Roll
Jump up ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.833
Wikisource link to Fitzalan, Richard (1267-1302) (DNB00). Wikisource.
Weis, Frederick Lewis. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700.
Medieval Lands Project on Richard FitzAlan
Richard married Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel Bef 1285. Alice (daughter of Thomas of Saluzzo and Luigia de Ceva) was born 0___ 1269, Saluzzo, Italy; died 25 Sep 1292; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England. [Group Sheet]
|145. ||Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel was born 0___ 1269, Saluzzo, Italy (daughter of Thomas of Saluzzo and Luigia de Ceva); died 25 Sep 1292; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England. |
- Also Known As: Alesia di Saluzzo
Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel (died 25 September 1292), also known as Alesia di Saluzzo, was an Italian-born noblewoman and an English countess. She was a daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo, and the wife of Richard Fitzalan, 8th Earl of Arundel. Alice was one of the first Italian women to marry into an English noble family. She assumed the title of Countess of Arundel in 1289.
Alesia was born on an unknown date in Saluzzo (present-day Province of Cuneo, Piedmont); the second eldest daughter of Thomas I, 4th Margrave of Saluzzo, and Luigia di Ceva (died 22 August 1291/1293), daughter of Giorgio, Marquis of Ceva and Menzia d'Este. Alesia had fifteen siblings. Her father was a very wealthy and cultured nobleman under whose rule Saluzzo achieved a prosperity, freedom, and greatness it had never known previously.
Marriage and issue
Sometime before 1285, Alice married Richard Fitzalan, feudal Lord of Clun and Oswestry in the Welsh Marches, the son of John Fitzalan, 7th Earl of Arundel and Isabella Mortimer. Richard would succeed to the title of Earl of Arundel in 1289, thus making Alice the 8th Countess of Arundel. Along with her aunt, Alasia of Saluzzo who married Edmund de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln in 1247, Alice was one of the first Italian women to marry into an English noble family. Her marriage had been arranged by the late King Henry III's widowed Queen consort Eleanor of Provence.
Richard and Alice's principal residence was Marlborough Castle in Wiltshire, but Richard also held Arundel Castle in Sussex and the castles of Clun and Oswestry in Shropshire. Her husband was knighted by King Edward I in 1289, and fought in the Welsh Wars (1288–1294), and later in the Scottish Wars. The marriage produced four children:
Edmund Fitzalan, 9th Earl of Arundel (1 May 1285- 17 November 1326 by execution), married Alice de Warenne, by whom he had issue.
John Fitzalan, a priest
Alice Fitzalan (died 7 September 1340), married Stephen de Segrave, 3rd Lord Segrave, by whom she had issue.
Margaret Fitzalan, married William le Botiller, by whom she had issue.
Eleanor Fitzalan, married Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy, by whom she had issue.
Alice died on 25 September 1292 and was buried in Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire. Her husband Richard died on 09/03/1301 and was buried alongside Alice. In 1341, provision was made for twelve candles to be burned beside their tombs. The Abbey is now a ruin as the result of a fire during the English Civil War. Her many descendants included the Dukes of Norfolk, the English queen consorts of Henry VIII, Sir Winston Churchill, Diana, Princess of Wales, and the current British Royal Family.
^ Jump up to: a b Cawley, Charles, Saluzzo, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
^ Jump up to: a b The Complete Peerage, vol.1, page 241.[full citation needed]
Jump up ^ Cawley, Charles, Earls of Arundel, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
Categories: 13th-century births1292 deathsPeople from SaluzzoWomen of medieval Italy
- Eleanor FitzAlan was born 0___ 1282; died 0___ 1328; was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England.
- 72. Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel was born 1 May 1285, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England; died 17 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England.
- Alice FitzAlan was born 0___ 1291, Arundel, Sussex, England; died 7 Feb 1340, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Chacombe Priory, Chacombe, Northamptonshire, England.
|146. ||William de Warenne was born 9 Feb 1256, Lewes Castle, Lewes, East Sussex, England (son of John de Warenne, Knight, 6th Earl of Surrey and Alice de Lusignan); died 15 Dec 1296, Croydon, England. |
William de Warenne (9 February 1256 - 15 December 1286) was the only son of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey and his wife Alice de Lusignan.
William married Joan, daughter of Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford. They had the following children:
John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey (30 June 1286 – June 1347)
Alice de Warenne (15 June 1287 - 23 May 1338), wife of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel.
William was killed in a tournament at Croydon in 1286, predeceasing his father. It has been suggested that this was murder, planned in advance by William's enemies. On the 5th Earl's death the title went to John, the only son of William. John died without legitimate children, so on his death the title passed to Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, eldest son of Edmund FitzAlan and John' sister Alice.
William — Joan de Vere. [Group Sheet]
|148. ||Hugh le Despenser, Knight, 1st Earl of Winchester was born 1 Mar 1261; died 27 Oct 1326, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England. |
- Also Known As: "the Elder Despnser"
Hugh le Despenser (1 March 1261 – 27 October 1326), sometimes referred to as "the Elder Despenser", was for a time the chief adviser to King Edward II of England.
He was the son of Hugh le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer (or Despenser), and Aline Basset, only daughter and heiress of Philip Basset. His father was killed at the Battle of Evesham when Hugh was just a boy, but Hugh's patrimony was saved through the influence of his maternal grandfather (who had been loyal to the king). He married Isabella de Beauchamp, daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud FitzJohn.
He served Edward I on numerous occasions in battle and in diplomacy and was created a baron by writ of summons to Parliament in 1295. His son, Hugh Despenser the Younger, became a favourite of Edward II, in what is believed to be a homosexual relationship.  Hugh the Elder was loyal to his son and the King, which worried the barons. To that time, his highest office was justice of the forests.
He was one of the few barons to remain loyal to Edward during the controversy regarding Piers Gaveston. Despenser became Edward's loyal servant and chief administrator after Gaveston was executed in 1312, but the jealousy of other barons - and, more importantly, his own corruption and unjust behaviour - led to his being exiled along with his son Hugh Despenser the younger in 1321, when Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent replaced him as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.
Edward found it difficult to manage without them, and recalled them to England a year later, an action which enraged the queen, Isabella, the more so when Despenser was created Earl of Winchester in 1322. Although not as bad as his son, Despencer the Elder was accused by a significant number of people of widespread criminality during the next few years, often involving false accusations of trespass or theft and the extortion of money or land.
When Isabella, Queen of England, and her lover, Roger Mortimer, led a rebellion against her husband Edward, they captured both Despensers—first the elder, later the younger. Queen Isabella interceded for Hugh the elder, but his enemies, notably Roger Mortimer and Henry, Earl of Lancaster, insisted both father and son should face trial and execution.
The elder Despenser was hanged immediately in his armour at Bristol on 27 October 1326. He was then beheaded and his body cut into pieces for the dogs. His head was sent for display to Winchester, which had supported the king.
Pardons were issued to thousands of people who had been falsely accused by Despencer following his death.
Hugh and his wife, Isabella, had also two daughters, Aline (c. - 1353) and Isabel (d. 1334). Isabel married, as his second wife, John Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings and had issue. Shouldn't it say "Isabel married, as her second husband, (not wife) John Hastings......etc.
Jump up ^ "Despenser, Hugh le (1262-1326)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
Jump up ^ Fryde 28
Jump up ^ "Abbey body identified as gay lover of Edward II". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
Jump up ^ Gwilym Dodd, Anthony Musson, The Reign of Edward II: New Perspectives, pp. 214-217.
Jump up ^ Rev. John Milner, History of Antiquities of Winchester, p. 213.
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 72-31, 74-31, 74A-31, 93A-29
Fryde, Natalie (1979). The tyranny and fall of Edward II, 1321-1326. ISBN 0-521-54806-3.
Karau, Bjèorn: Gèunstlinge am Hof Edwards II. von England - Aufstieg und Fall der Despensers, MA-Thesis, Kiel 1999. (Free Download: http://www.despensers.de/download.htm)
Wikisource link to Despenser, Hugh le (1262-1326) (DNB00). Wikisource.
Hunt, William (1888). "Hugh Despenser". Dictionary of National Biography. 14.
...was hanged immediately in his armour at Bristol on 27 October 1326. He was then beheaded and his body cut into pieces for the dogs. His head was sent for display to Winchester, which had supported the king.
Hugh — Isabella Beauchamp. Isabella (daughter of William de Beauchamp, Knight, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud Fitzgeoffrey) was born ~ 1263, Warwickshire, England; died Bef 30 May 1306. [Group Sheet]
|149. ||Isabella Beauchamp was born ~ 1263, Warwickshire, England (daughter of William de Beauchamp, Knight, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud Fitzgeoffrey); died Bef 30 May 1306. |
- Also Known As: Isabel de Beauchamp
- Also Known As: Lady Despencer
- Also Known As: Lady Kidwelly
Isabella de Beauchamp, Lady Kidwelly, Lady Despenser (born c. 1263 - died before 30 May 1306), was an English noblewoman and wealthy heiress.
Isabella was born in about 1263 in Warwickshire, England. She was the only daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud FitzJohn who appears to have married; two sisters who were nuns at Shouldham are mentioned in her father's will. She had a brother, Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick who married Alice de Toeni, by whom he had seven children. Her paternal grandparents were William de Beauchamp of Elmley Castle and Isabel Maudit, and her maternal grandparents were Sir John FitzGeoffrey, Lord of Shere, and Isabel Bigod.
Marriages and issue
Sometime before 1281, she married firstly Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Lord of Kidwelly in Carmarthenshire, South Wales. The marriage produced one daughter:
Maud Chaworth (2 February 1282- 1322), married Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, by whom she had seven children.
Following Patrick's death in 1286, Isabella had in her possession four manors in Wiltshire and two manors in Berkshire, assigned to her until her dowry should be set forth along with the livery of Chedworth in Gloucestershire and the Hampshire manor of Hartley Mauditt which had been granted to her and Sir Patrick in frankmarriage by her father.
That same year 1286, she married secondly Sir Hugh le Despenser without the King's licence for which Hugh had to pay a fine of 2000 marks. He was created Lord Despenser by writ of summons to Parliament in 1295, thereby making Isabella Lady Despenser.
Together Hugh and Isabella had four children:
Hugh le Depenser, Lord Despenser the Younger (1286- executed 24 November 1326), married Eleanor de Clare, by whom he had issue.
Aline le Despenser (died before 28 November 1353), married Edward Burnell, Lord Burnell
Isabella le Despenser (died 4/5 December 1334), married firstly as his second wife, John Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, by whom she had three children. Their descendants became the Lords Hastings; she married secondly as his second wife, Sir Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer.
Phillip le Despenser (died 1313), married as his first wife Margaret de Goushill, by whom he had issue.
Isabella died sometime before 30 May 1306. Twenty years later, her husband and eldest son, favourites of King Edward II, were both executed by the orders of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Queen Isabella. The couple were by that time the de facto rulers of England, and along with most of the people in the kingdom, they had resented the power both Despensers wielded over the King.
As her husband had been made Earl of Winchester in 1322, Isabella was never styled as the Countess of Winchester.
Jump up ^ Testamenta Vestusta by Nicholas Harris Nicolas.
^ Jump up to: a b http://www.powernet.co.uk/barfield/chap1.htm.[dead link]
Jump up ^ Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Winchester
Jump up ^ Richardson, D. (2011) Magna Carta Ancestry 2nd Edition, pg 325 (via Google)
Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Warwick
Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Winchester
- 74. Hugh le Despencer, IV, Knight, Baron Despenser was born ~ 1286, England; died 24 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried (Hulton Abbey, Staffordshire, England).
- Aline le Despencer was born (England).
- Isabel le Despencer was born (England).
- Elizabeth le Despenser was born 0___ 1297, Barton, Gloucestershire, England; died 0___ 1370.
|150. ||Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford was born 2 Sep 1243, Christchurch, Hampshire, England (son of Richard de Clare, Knight, 6th Earl of Gloucester and Maud de Lacy); died 7 Dec 1295, Monmouth Castle, Monmouth, Monmouthshire, Wales; was buried Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ. |
- Also Known As: 7th Earl of Gloucester
- Also Known As: 9th Earl Clare
- Also Known As: Gilbert "The Red"
- Also Known As: Lord of Glamorgan
Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 9th Lord of Clare (2 September 1243 - 7 December 1295) was a powerful English noble. Also known as "Red" Gilbert de Clare or "The red earl", probably because of his hair colour or fiery temper in battle. He held the Lordship of Glamorgan which was one of the most powerful and wealthy of the Welsh Marcher Lordships as well as many other English manors such as the Manor of Chilton.
Gilbert de Clare was born at Christchurch, Hampshire, the son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester, and of Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, daughter of John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy. Gilbert inherited his father's estates in 1262. He took on the titles, including Lord of Glamorgan, from 1263. Being under age at his father's death, he was made a ward of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford.
Massacre of the Jews at Canterbury
In April 1264, Gilbert de Clare led the massacre of the Jews at Canterbury, as Simon de Montfort had done in Leicester. Gilbert de Clare’s castles of Kingston and Tonbridge were taken by the King, Henry III. However, the King allowed de Clare's Countess Alice de Lusignan, who was in the latter, to go free because she was his niece; but on 12 May de Clare and de Montfort were denounced as traitors.
The Battle of Lewes
Two days later, just before the Battle of Lewes, on 14 May, Simon de Montfort knighted the Earl and his brother Thomas. The Earl commanded the central division of the Baronial army, which formed up on the Downs west of Lewes. When Prince Edward had left the field in pursuit of Montfort's routed left wing, the King and Earl of Cornwall were thrown back to the town. Henry took refuge in the Priory of St Pancras, and Gilbert accepted the surrender of the Earl of Cornwall, who had hidden in a windmill. Montfort and the Earl were now supreme and de Montfort in effect de facto King of England.
On 20 October 1264, Gilbert and his associates were excommunicated by Pope Clement IV, and his lands placed under an interdict. In the following month, by which time they had obtained possession of Gloucester and Bristol, the Earl was proclaimed to be a rebel. However at this point he changed sides as he fell out with de Montfort and the Earl, in order to prevent de Montfort's escape, destroyed ships at the port of Bristol and the bridge over the River Severn at Gloucester.Having changed sides, de Clare shared the Prince's victory at Kenilworth on 16 July, and in the Battle of Evesham, 4 August, in which de Montfort was slain, he commanded the second division and contributed largely to the victory.On 24 June 1268 he took the Cross at Northampton in repentance and contrition for his past misdeeds.[clarification needed]
Activities as a Marcher Lord
In October 1265, as a reward for supporting Prince Edward, Gilbert was given the castle and title of Abergavenny and honour and castle of Brecknock.At Michaelmas his disputes with Llewelyn the Last were submitted to arbitration, but without a final settlement. Meanwhile, he was building Caerphilly Castle into a fortress. At the end of the year 1268 he refused to obey the King's summons to attend parliament, alleging that, owing to the constant inroads of Llewelyn the Last, his Welsh estates needed his presence for their defence. At the death of Henry III, 16 November 1272, the Earl took the lead in swearing fealty to Edward I, who was then in Sicily on his return from the Crusade. The next day, with the Archbishop of York, he entered London and proclaimed peace to all, Christians and Jews, and for the first time, secured the acknowledgment of the right of the King's eldest son to succeed to the throne immediately.Thereafter he was joint Guardian of England, during the King's absence, and on the new King's arrival in England, in August 1274, entertained him at Tonbridge Castle.
The Welsh war in 1282
See also: Conquest of Wales by Edward I
During Edward's invasion of Wales in 1282, de Clare insisted on leading an attack into southern Wales. King Edward made de Clare the commander of the southern army invading Wales. However, de Clare's army faced disaster after being heavily defeated at the Battle of Llandeilo Fawr. Following this defeat, de Clare was relieved of his position as the southern commander and was replaced by William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke (whose son had died during the battle).
Private Marcher War
In the next year, 1291, he quarrelled with the Earl of Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, grandson of his onetime guardian, about the Lordship of Brecknock, where de Bohun accused de Clare of building a castle on his land culminated in a private war between them. Although it was a given right for Marcher Lords to wage private war the King tested this right in this case, first calling them before a court of their Marcher peers, then realising the outcome would be coloured by their likely avoidance of prejudicing one of their greatest rights they were both called before the superior court, the Kings own. At this both were imprisoned by the King, both sentenced to having their lands forfeit for life and de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester, as the aggressor, was fined 10,000 marks, and the Earl of Hereford 1,000 marks.They were released almost immediately and both of their lands completely restored to them - however they had both been taught a very public lesson and their prestige diminished and the King's authority shown for all.
Marriage and succession
Gilbert's first marriage was to Alice de Lusignan, also known as Alice de Valence, the daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan and of the family that succeeded the Marshal family to the title of the Earl of Pembroke in the person of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke. They married in 1253, when Gilbert was ten years old. She was of high birth, being a niece of King Henry, but the marriage floundered. Gilbert and Alice separated in 1267; allegedly, Alice's affections lay with her cousin, Prince Edward. Previous to this, Gilbert and Alice had produced two daughters: Isabella de Clare (10 March 1262 – 1333), after a marriage with Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick having been contemplated, or possibly having taken place and then annulled, married Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley Joan de Clare (1264-after 1302), married (1) Duncan Macduff, 7th Earl of Fife; (2) Gervase Avenel.
After his marriage to Alice de Lusignan was annulled in 1285, Gilbert married Joan of Acre, a daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife Eleanor of Castile. King Edward sought to bind de Clare, and his assets, more closely to the Crown by this means. By the provisions of the marriage contract, their joint possessions and de Clare's extensive lands could only be inherited by a direct descendant, i.e. close to the Crown, and if the marriage proved childless, the lands would pass to any children Joan may have by further marriage.
On 3 July 1290, the Earl gave a great banquet at Clerkenwell to celebrate his marriage of 30 April 1290 with Joan of Acre (1272 - 23 April 1307) after waiting for the Pope to sanction the marriage. Edward then gave large estates to Gilbert, including one in Malvern. Disputed hunting rights on these led to several armed conflicts with Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, that Edward resolved. Gilbert made gifts to the Priory, and also had a "great conflict" about hunting rights and a ditch that he dug, with Thomas de Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford, that was settled by costly litigation. Gilbert had a similar conflict with Godfrey Giffard, Bishop and Administrator of Worcester Cathedral (and formerly Chancellor of England. Godfrey, who had granted land to the Priory, had jurisdictional disputes about Malvern Priory, resolved by Robert Burnell, the then Chancellor. Thereafter, Gilbert and Joan are said to have taken the Cross and set out for the Holy Land. In September, he signed the Barons' letter to the Pope, and on 2 November, surrendered to the King his claim to the advowson of the Bishopric of Llandaff.
Gilbert and Joan had one son: also
Gilbert, and three daughters: Eleanor, Margaret and Elizabeth.
Gilbert, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester (1291–1314) succeeded to his father's titles and was killed at the Battle of Bannockburn.
Eleanor de Clare (1292–1337) married Hugh Despenser the Younger, favourite of her uncle Edward II. Hugh was executed in 1326, and Eleanor married secondly William de la Zouche.
Margaret de Clare (1293–1342) married firstly Piers Gaveston (executed in 1312) and then Hugh de Audley.
The youngest sister Elizabeth de Clare (1295–1360) married John de Burgh in 1308 at Waltham Abbey, then Theobald of Verdun in 1316, and finally Roger d'Amory in 1317. Each marriage was brief, produced one child (a son by the 1st, daughters by the 2nd and 3rd), and left Elizabeth a widow.
Death and burial
He died at Monmouth Castle on 7 December 1295, and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey, on the left side of his grandfather Gilbert de Clare. His extensive lands were enjoyed by his surviving wife Joan of Acre until her death in 1307. Gilbert and Joan had a descendant named Ursula Hildyard of Yorkshire, who in 1596 married (Sir) Richard Jackson of Killingwoldgraves, near Beverley in the East Riding. Jackson died in 1610 and was interred at Bishop Burton. In 1613, James posthumously awarded a coat of arms and a knighthood to Richard for meretorious military service in the Lowlands of Scotland.
image, map & history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tewkesbury_Abbey
Images for Monmounth Castle ... https://www.google.com/search?q=monmouth+castle+wales&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=815&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjGlI_Uj4nLAhWFkh4KHWskBTsQsAQIMg
Gilbert — Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre. Joan (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England) was born 0Apr 1272, Acre, Israel; died 23 Apr 1307, Clare Castle, Clare, Suffolk, England; was buried Clare Priory, Clare, Suffolk, England. [Group Sheet]
|151. ||Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre was born 0Apr 1272, Acre, Israel (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England); died 23 Apr 1307, Clare Castle, Clare, Suffolk, England; was buried Clare Priory, Clare, Suffolk, England. |
- Also Known As: Countess of Gloucester
- Also Known As: Countess of Hertford
- Also Known As: Joan of Acre
Joan of Acre (April 1272 - 23 April 1307) was an English princess, a daughter of King Edward I of England and Queen Eleanor of Castile. The name "Acre" derives from her birthplace in the Holy Land while her parents were on a crusade.
She was married twice; her first husband was Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, one of the most powerful nobles in her father's kingdom; her second husband was Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in her household whom she married in secret.
Joan is most notable for the claim that miracles have allegedly taken place at her grave, and for the multiple references to her in literature.
Birth and childhood
Joan (or Joanna, as she is sometimes called) of Acre was born in the spring of 1272 in the Kingdom of Acre, Outremer, now in modern Israel, while her parents, Edward I and Eleanor of Castile, were on crusade. At the time of Joan's birth, her grandfather, Henry III, was still alive and thus her father was not yet king of England. Her parents departed from Acre shortly after her birth, traveling to Sicily and Spain before leaving Joan with Eleanor's mother, Joan, Countess of Ponthieu, in France. Joan lived for several years in France where she spent her time being educated by a bishop and “being thoroughly spoiled by an indulgent grandmother.” Joan was free to play among the “vine clad hills and sunny vales” surrounding her grandmother’s home, although she required “judicious surveillance.”
As Joan was growing up with her grandmother, her father was back in England, already arranging marriages for his daughter. He hoped to gain both political power and more wealth with his daughter's marriage, so he conducted the arrangement in a very “business like style”. He finally found a man suitable to marry Joan (aged 5 at the time), Hartman, son of King Rudoph I, of Germany. Edward then brought her home from France for the first time to meet him. As she had spent her entire life away from Edward and Eleanor, when she returned she “stood in no awe of her parents” and had a fairly distanced relationship with them.
Unfortunately for King Edward, his daughter’s suitor died before he was able to meet or marry Joan. The news reported that Hartman had fallen through a patch of shallow ice while “amusing himself in skating” while a letter sent to the King himself stated that Hartman had set out on a boat to visit his father amidst a terrible fog and the boat had smashed into a rock, drowning him.
Edward arranged a second marriage almost immediately after the death of Hartman. Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, who was almost thirty years older than Joan and newly divorced, was his first choice. The earl resigned his lands to Edward upon agreeing to get them back when he married Joan, as well as agreed on a dower of two thousand silver marks. By the time all of these negotiations were finished, Joan was twelve years old. Gilbert de Clare became very enamored with Joan, and even though she had to marry him regardless of how she felt, he still tried to woo her. He bought her expensive gifts and clothing to try to win favor with her. The couple were married on 30 April 1290 at Westminster Abbey, and had four children together. They were:
Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford
Eleanor de Clare
Margaret de Clare
Elizabeth de Clare
Joan's first husband, Gilbert de Clare died on 7 December 1295.
Secret second marriage
Joan had been a widow for only a little over a year when she caught the eye of Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in Joan’s father’s household. Joan fell in love and convinced her father to have Monthermer knighted. It was unheard of in European royalty for a noble lady to even converse with a man who had not won or acquired importance in the household. However, in January 1297 Joan secretly married  Ralph. Joan's father was already planning another marriage for Joan to Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, to occur 16 March 1297. Joan was in a dangerous predicament, as she was already married, unbeknownst to her father.
Joan sent her four young children to their grandfather, in hopes that their sweetness would win Edward's favor, but her plan did not work. The king soon discovered his daughter's intentions, but not yet aware that she had already committed to them, he seized Joan’s lands and continued to arrange her marriage to Amadeus of Savoy. Soon after the seizure of her lands, Joan told her father that she had married Ralph. The king was enraged and retaliated by immediately imprisoning Monthermer at Bristol Castle. The people of the land had differing opinions on the princess’ matter. It has been argued that the ones who were most upset were those who wanted Joan’s hand in marriage.
With regard to the matter, Joan famously said, “It is not considered ignominious, nor disgraceful for a great earl to take a poor and mean woman to wife; neither, on the other hand, is it worthy of blame, or too difficult a thing for a countess to promote to honor a gallant youth.” Joan's statement in addition to a possibly obvious pregnancy seemed to soften Edward’s attitude towards the situation. Joan's first child by Monthermer was born in October 1297; by the summer of 1297, when the marriage was revealed to Edward I, Joan's condition would certainly have been apparent, and would have convinced Edward that he had no choice but to recognize his daughter's marriage. Edward I eventually relented for the sake of his daughter and released Monthermer from prison in August 1297. Monthermer paid homage 2 August, and being granted the titles of Earl of Gloucester and Earl of Hertford, he rose to favour with the King during Joan's lifetime.
Monthermer and Joan had four children:
Mary de Monthermer, born October 1297. In 1306 her grandfather King Edward I arranged for her to wed Duncan Macduff, 8th Earl of Fife.
Joan de Monthermer, born 1299, became a nun at Amesbury.
Thomas de Monthermer, 2nd Baron Monthermer, born 1301.
Edward de Monthermer, born 1304 and died 1339.
Relationship with family
Joan of Acre was the seventh of Edward I and Eleanor’s fourteen children. Most of her older siblings died before the age of seven, and many of her younger siblings died before adulthood. Those who survived to adulthood were Joan, her younger brother, Edward of Caernarfon (later Edward II), and four of her sisters: Eleanor, Margaret, Mary, and Elizabeth.
Joan, like her siblings, was raised outside her parents' household. She lived with her grandmother in Ponthieu for four years, and was then entrusted to the same caregivers who looked after her siblings. Edward I did not have a close relationship with most of his children while they were growing up, yet “he seemed fonder of his daughters than his sons.”
However, Joan of Acre’s independent nature caused numerous conflicts with her father. Her father disapproved of her leaving court after her marriage to the Earl of Gloucester, and in turn “seized seven robes that had been made for her.” He also strongly disapproved of her second marriage to Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in her household, even to the point of attempting to force her to marry someone else. While Edward ultimately developed a cordial relationship with Monthermer, even giving him the title of Earl, there appears to have been a notable difference in the Edward’s treatment of Joan as compared to the treatment of the rest of her siblings. For instance, her father famously paid messengers substantially when they brought news of the birth of grandchildren, but did not do this upon birth of Joan’s daughter.
In terms of her siblings, Joan kept a fairly tight bond. She and Monthermer both maintained a close relationship with her brother, Edward, which was maintained through letters. After Edward became estranged from his father and lost his royal seal, “Joan offered to lend him her seal” .
Joan died on 23 April 1307, at the manor of Clare in Suffolk. The cause of her death remains unclear, though one popular theory is that she died during childbirth, a common cause of death at the time. While Joan's age in 1307 (about 35) and the chronology of her earlier pregnancies with Ralph de Monthermer suggest that this could well be the case, historians have not confirmed the cause of her death.
Less than four months after her death, Joan’s father died. Joan's widower, Ralph de Monthermer, lost the title of Earl of Gloucester soon after the deaths of his wife and father-in-law. The earldom of Gloucester was given to Joan’s son from her first marriage, Gilbert, who was its rightful holder. Monthermer continued to hold a nominal earldom in Scotland, which had been conferred on him by Edward I, until his death.
Joan’s burial place has been the cause of some interest and debate. She is interred in the Augustinian priory at Clare, which had been founded by her first husband's ancestors and where many of them were also buried. Allegedly, in 1357, Joan’s daughter, Elizabeth De Burgh, claimed to have “inspected her mother's body and found the corpse to be intact,”, which in the eyes of the Roman Catholic Church is an indication of sanctity. This claim was only recorded in a fifteenth-century chronicle, however, and its details are uncertain, especially the statement that her corpse was in such a state of preservation that "when her paps [breasts] were pressed with hands, they rose up again." Some sources further claim that miracles took place at Joan's tomb, but no cause for her beatification or canonization has ever been introduced.
- Margaret de Clare was born 12 Oct 1293, Tonbridge Castle, Kent, England; died 9 Apr 1342, Chebsey, Staffordshire, England; was buried Tonbridge Priory, Kent, England.
- 75. Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer was born 0Oct 1292, Caerphilly Castle, Caerphilly, Urban, Glamorgan, Wales; died 30 Jun 1337, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England; was buried (Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ).
- Elizabeth de Clare was born 14 Sep 1295, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.
|192. ||John Courtenay, 2nd Baron Okehampton was born ~ 1218, Okehampton, Devon, England (son of Robert de Courtenay and Mary de Redvers); died 3 May 1274, Okehampton, Devon, England. |
John — Isabel de Vere. Isabel (daughter of Hugh de Vere, Knight, 4th Earl of Oxford and Hawise de Quincy) was born ~ 1222, (Essex, England); died Aft 11 Aug 1299. [Group Sheet]
|193. ||Isabel de Vere was born ~ 1222, (Essex, England) (daughter of Hugh de Vere, Knight, 4th Earl of Oxford and Hawise de Quincy); died Aft 11 Aug 1299. |
Isabel De VERE
Born: ABT 1222
Died: AFT 11 Aug 1299
Father: Hugh De VERE (4° E. Oxford)
Mother: Hawise QUINCY (C. Oxford)
Married: John COURTENAY (2° B. Okehampton)
1. Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)
- 96. Hugh Courtenay was born 25 Mar 1249, Oakhampton, Devonshire, England; died 28 Feb 1292, Colcombe, Devonshire, England; was buried Cowick Priory, Exeter, Devonshire, England.
|200. ||Humphrey de Bohun, VI, 2nd Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1219, Hungerford, Berkshire, England (son of Humphrey de Bohun, IV, Knight, 2nd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Lusignan); died 27 Oct 1265. |
Humphrey married Eleanor de Braose Aft 1241, Breconshire, Wales. Eleanor (daughter of William de Braose, Lord of Brycheiniog and Eva Marshal) was born ~ 1228, Breconshire, Wales; died 0___ 1251; was buried Llanthony Priory, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England. [Group Sheet]
|201. ||Eleanor de Braose was born ~ 1228, Breconshire, Wales (daughter of William de Braose, Lord of Brycheiniog and Eva Marshal); died 0___ 1251; was buried Llanthony Priory, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England. |
Eleanor de Braose (c. 1228–1251) was a Cambro-Norman noblewoman and a wealthy co-heiress of her father, who was the powerful Marcher lord William de Braose, and of her mother, Eva Marshal, a co-heiress of the Earls of Pembroke. Her husband was Humphrey de Bohun, heir of the 2nd Earl of Hereford, by whom she had children, including Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford.
Eleanor was born in about 1228. She was the youngest of four daughters and a co-heiress of the powerful Marcher lord William de Braose, and Eva Marshal, both of whom held considerable lordships and domains in the Welsh Marches and Ireland. Eva was one of the daughters of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke by Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke, daughter of Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, "Strongbow". Eleanor's three sisters were Isabella de Braose, Maud de Braose, Baroness Mortimer, and Eva de Braose, wife of William de Cantelou.
While Eleanor was a young girl, her father - known to the Welsh as Gwilym Ddu (Black William) - was hanged on the orders of Llewelyn the Great, Prince of Wales for alleged adultery with Llewelyn's wife, Joan, Lady of Wales. Following the execution, her mother held de Braose lands and castles in her own right.
Marriage and issue
On an unknown date after August 1241, Eleanor became the first wife of Humphrey de Bohun, the son of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Lusignan. The marriage took place after the death of Humphrey's mother, Maud.
Humphrey and Eleanor had the following children:
Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford (c.1249- 31 December 1298), married Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand II de Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde, by whom he had issue, including Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.
Gilbert de Bohun. His brother granted him Eleanor's lands in Ireland. 
Eleanor de Bohun (died 20 February 1314, buried Walden Abbey). She married Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby on 26 June 1269. They had at least two sons and one daughter.
Margery de Bohun (fl.1265 – 1280) married Theobald de Verdun and had a son also Theobald de Verdun, both of whom were hereditary Constables of Ireland.
Eleanor died in 1251, and was buried at Llanthony Secunda Priory. She passed on her considerable possessions in the Welsh Marches to her eldest son Humphrey. Her husband survived her, married Joan de Quincy, and died in 1265.
Jump up ^ Dugdale 1894, p. 134.
Jump up ^ Lundy 2010, p. 19081 § 190805 cites Cokayne 2000a, p. 462.
^ Jump up to: a b Lundy 2012, p. 63 § 623 cites Cokayne 2000, p. 22
Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Dugdale 1894, pp. 134,135
^ Jump up to: a b Cawley 2012a, "William de Briouse" cites Dugdale 1894, p. 134.
Jump up ^ Cawley 2012a, "William de Briouse" cites several sources including Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 319.
Jump up ^ Lundy 2010, p. 19081 § 190805 cites Cokayne 2000a, p. 463.
Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Cokayne 2000a, p. 463 footnote g, citing Lambeth Library, Carew MS, no. 613, fol. 66.
Jump up ^ Richardson 2004, p. 307
Jump up ^ Richardson 2004, p. 734
Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, Vol. I (1834), XX, p. 168.
Jump up ^ Cokayne 2000a, p. 464
Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. I, Henry III, 587, p. 187.
Jump up ^ Cawley 2012, "Humphrey [VI] de Bohun" cites Dugdale 1894, p. 135
Cawley, Charles (10 April 2012), England, earls created 1067-1122: Humphrey [VI] de Bohun, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
Cawley, Charles (23 September 2012a), Untitled English Nobility A - C: William de Briouse (-hanged 2 May 1230), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
Cokayne, George E (2000), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, I (new, 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes ed.), Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, p. 22
Cokayne, George E (2000a), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, VI (new, 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes ed.), Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, p. 462
Dugdale, William, Sir (1894), "Lanthony Abbey, Gloucestershire: Num. II: Fundatorum Progenies", Monasticon Anglicanum, 6, T.G. March, pp. 134, 135
Lundy, Darryl (20 February 2010), Eleanor de Briouze, The Peerage, p. 19081 § 190805, retrieved November 2012 Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
Lundy, Darryl (10 Apr 2012), Eve Marshal, The Peerage, p. 63 § 623, retrieved November 2012 Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
Richardson, Douglas (2004), Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.: Genealogical Publishing Company, p. 734
- 100. Humphrey de Bohun, V, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1249; died 31 Dec 1298, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England; was buried Walden Priory, Essex, England.
- Eleanor de Bohun died 20 Feb 1314; was buried Walden Abbey, Essex, England.
- Margaret de Bohun was born ~ 1252, Bisley, Stroud, Gloucestershire, England.
|202. ||Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes was born 0___ 1192, Tolleshunt, Essex, England (son of Guillaume de Fiennes, Seigneur de Tingry and Agnes Dammartin); died 0___ 1265, Wendover Manor, Buckinghamshire, England. |
- Also Known As: Enguerrand Ingelram II de Fiennes, Baron de Tingry
- Also Known As: Lord of Wendover
Enguerrand Ingelram de Fiennes, Seigneur de Fiennes
Also Known As: "Ingelram /De Fiennes/"
Birthplace: Tolleshunt, Essex, England
Death: Died 1265 in Wendover Manor, Buckinghamshire, England
Place of Burial: Was Civil War in time of Henry III
Son of Guillaume, seigneur de Fiennes et de Tingry and Agnes Dammartin
Husband of Agnáes de Condâe and Isabelle Fiennes (de Condâe)
Father of Elisabeth de Fiennes; Robert I de Fiennes, seigneur de Heuchin; Enguerrand de Fiennes; Guillaume II de Fiennes, baron de Tingry, Lord of Wendover; Maude de Fiennes and 2 others
Brother of Michel de Fiennes; Baudouin de Fiennes; William de la Plaunche Bastard Fiennes and Mahaut de Fiennes
Half brother of William de Fiennes
Occupation: Baron de Tingry & de Ruminghen, Seigneur de Fiennes, Lord of Wendover; Seigneur de Fiennes; Baron de Tingry
Managed by: James Fred Patin, Jr.
Last Updated: June 29, 2016
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About Enguerrand Ingelram II de Fiennes, baron de Tingry
The line goes further back. When I get time, I'll continue to check it out & add what I can confirm. It is listed at http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=chan83&id=I003489
ID: P26622 Birth: 1192 in Conde, France _APID: 1,7249::109510975 1 Death: Age: 75 1267 _APID: 1,7249::109510975 1 Name: *INGELRAM ENGUERRAND II DE FIENNES _APID: 1,7249::109510975 1 Sex: M 2
HintsAncestry Hints for *INGELRAM ENGUERRAND II DE FIENNES
1 possible matches found on Ancestry.com Ancestry.com
Father: *GUILLAUME WILLIAM DE FIENNES SHERIFF OF WENDOVER SIR LORD BARON b: 1160 in Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England Mother: *AGNES DE MELLO DEDAMMARTIN b: 1185 in Dampmartin, I-de-F, France
Marriage 1 *ISABEL DE CONDE b: 1210 in of Bucks, England
Has Children *WILLIAM II DE FIENNES BARON TINGRY b: 1245 in Wendover, Bucks, England Has No Children Maud De Fiennes b: 1246 Has No Children Giles De Fiennes Sir b: 1250 in Wendover Manor, Bucks, England
Repository: Name: Ancestry.co.uk Note:
Title: Millennium File Author: Heritage Consulting Publication: Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Note: Repository: Name: Ancestry.com Note:
Title: Ancestry Family Trees Publication: Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. Note: This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. Page: Ancestry Family Tree Text: http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=11811357&pid=26622
Enguerrand — Isabelle de Conde. [Group Sheet]
|203. ||Isabelle de Conde|
- Residence: Buckinghamshire, England
- Also Known As: Agnes de Conde
- William de Fiennes, II, Knight, Baron Tingy was born 0___ 1245, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England.
- 101. Maud de Fiennes was born ~ 1251, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England; died 6 Nov 1298; was buried Saffron Walden, Essex, England.
|204. ||Henry III, King of England was born 1 Oct 1207, Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom; was christened 0___ 1207, Bermondsey, London, Middlesex, England (son of John I, King of England and Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England); died 16 Nov 1272, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was buried 20 Nov 1272, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. |
- Also Known As: Duke of Aquitaine
- Also Known As: Henry III, King of England
- Also Known As: Henry of Winchester
- Also Known As: Lord of Ireland
King Henry III biography... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III_of_England
Henry married Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile 14 Jan 1236, Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England. Eleanor was born 0___ 1222, Aix-En-Provence, Bouches-Du-Rhone, France; died 24 Jun 1291, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England; was buried 11 Sep 1291, Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. [Group Sheet]
|205. ||Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile was born 0___ 1222, Aix-En-Provence, Bouches-Du-Rhone, France; died 24 Jun 1291, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England; was buried 11 Sep 1291, Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. |
- Also Known As: Eleonore Berenger
Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223 - 24/25 June 1291) was Queen consort of England, as the spouse of King Henry III of England, from 1236 until his death in 1272.
Although she was completely devoted to her husband, and staunchly defended him against the rebel Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, she was very much hated by the Londoners. This was because she had brought a large number of relatives with her to England in her retinue; these were known as "the Savoyards", and they were given influential positions in the government and realm. On one occasion, Eleanor's barge was attacked by angry citizens who pelted her with stones, mud, pieces of paving, rotten eggs and vegetables.
Eleanor was the mother of five children including the future King Edward I of England. She also was renowned for her cleverness, skill at writing poetry, and as a leader of fashion.
Born in Aix-en-Provence, she was the second daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (1198–1245) and Beatrice of Savoy (1205–1267), the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and his second wife Margaret of Geneva. She was well educated as a child, and developed a strong love of reading. Her three sisters also married kings. After her elder sister Margaret married Louis IX of France, their uncle William corresponded with Henry III of England to persuade him to marry Eleanor. Henry sought a dowry of up to twenty thousand silver marks to help offset the dowry he had just paid for his sister Isabella, but Eleanor's father was able to negotiate this down to no dowry, just a promise to leave her ten thousand when he died.
Like her mother, grandmother, and sisters, Eleanor was renowned for her beauty. She was a dark-haired brunette with fine eyes. Piers Langtoft speaks of her as "The erle's daughter, the fairest may of life". On 22 June 1235, Eleanor was betrothed to King Henry III (1207–1272). Eleanor was probably born in 1223; Matthew Paris describes her as being "jamque duodennem" (already twelve) when she arrived in the Kingdom of England for her marriage.
Marriage and issue
13th century costume depicting Eleanor of Provence, Queen of Henry III of England - illustration by Percy Anderson for Costume Fanciful, Historical and Theatrical, 1906
Eleanor was married to King Henry III of England on 14 January 1236. She had never seen him prior to the wedding at Canterbury Cathedral and had never set foot in his kingdom. Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury, officiated. She was dressed in a shimmering golden gown which was tightly-fitted to the waist, and then flared out in wide pleats to her feet. The sleeves were long and lined with ermine. After riding to London the same day where a procession of citizens greeted the bridal pair, Eleanor was crowned queen consort of England in a ceremony at Westminster Abbey which was followed by a magnificent banquet with the entire nobility in full attendance.
Eleanor and Henry together had five children:
Edward I (1239–1307), married Eleanor of Castile (1241–1290) in 1254, by whom he had issue, including his heir Edward II. His second wife was Margaret of France, by whom he had issue.
Margaret (1240–1275), married King Alexander III of Scotland, by whom she had issue.
Beatrice (1242–1275), married John II, Duke of Brittany, by whom she had issue.
Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245–1296), married Aveline de Forz in 1269, who died four years later without issue; married Blanche of Artois in 1276, by whom he had issue.
Katherine (25 November 1253 – 3 May 1257)
Four others are listed, but their existence is in doubt as there is no contemporary record of them. These are:
Eleanor seems to have been especially devoted to her eldest son, Edward; when he was deathly ill in 1246, she stayed with him at the abbey at Beaulieu in Hampshire for three weeks, long past the time allowed by monastic rules. It was because of her influence that King Henry granted the duchy of Gascony to Edward in 1249. Her youngest child, Katherine, seems to have had a degenerative disease that rendered her deaf. When the little girl died at the age of three, both her royal parents suffered overwhelming grief.
Eleanor was a loyal and faithful consort to Henry, but she brought in her retinue a large number of uncles and cousins, "the Savoyards," and her influence with the King and her unpopularity with the English barons created friction during Henry's reign. Her uncle William of Savoy became a close advisor of her husband, displacing and displeasing English barons. Though Eleanor and Henry supported different factions at times, she was made regent of England when her husband left for Normandy in 1253. Eleanor was devoted to her husband's cause, stoutly contested Simon de Montfort, raising troops in France for Henry's cause. On 13 July 1263, she was sailing down the Thames when her barge was attacked by citizens of London. Eleanor stoutly hated the Londoners who returned her hatred; in revenge for their dislike Eleanor had demanded from the city all the back payments due on the monetary tribute known as queen-gold, by which she received a tenth of all fines which came to the Crown. In addition to the queen-gold other such fines were levied on the citizens by the Queen on the thinnest of pretexts. In fear for her life as she was pelted with stones, loose pieces of paving, dried mud, rotten eggs and vegetables, Eleanor was rescued by Thomas Fitzthomas, the Mayor of London, and took refuge at the bishop of London's home.
In 1272 Henry died, and her son Edward, who was 33 years old, became Edward I, King of England. She remained in England as queen dowager, and raised several of her grandchildren—Edward's son Henry and daughter Eleanor, and Beatrice's son John. When her grandson Henry died in her care in 1274, Eleanor went into mourning and gave orders for his heart to be buried at the priory at Guildford which she founded in his memory. In 1275 Eleanor's two remaining daughters died Margaret 26 February and Beatrice 24 March.
She retired to a convent; however, she remained in contact with her son, King Edward, and her sister, Queen Margaret of France.
Eleanor died on 24/25 June 1291 in Amesbury, eight miles north of Salisbury, England. She was buried on 11 September 1291 in the Abbey of St Mary and St Melor, Amesbury on 9 December. The exact site of her grave at the abbey is unknown making her the only English queen without a marked grave. Her heart was taken to London where it was buried at the Franciscan priory.
Eleanor was renowned for her learning, cleverness, and skill at writing poetry, as well as her beauty; she was also known as a leader of fashion, continually importing clothes from France. She often wore parti-coloured cottes (a type of tunic), gold or silver girdles into which a dagger was casually thrust, she favoured red silk damask, and decorations of gilt quatrefoil, and to cover her dark hair she wore jaunty pillbox caps. Eleanor introduced a new type of wimple to England, which was high, "into which the head receded until the face seemed like a flower in an enveloping spathe".
She had developed a love for the songs of the troubadors as a child, and continued this interest. She bought many romantic and historical books, covering stories from ancient times to modern romances.
Eleanor is the protagonist of The Queen From Provence, a historical romance by British novelist Jean Plaidy which was published in 1979. Eleanor is a main character in the novel Four Sisters, All Queens by author Sherry Jones, as well as in the novel The Sister Queens by Sophie Perinot. She is also the subject of Norwegian Symphonic metal band Leave's Eyes in their song "Eleonore De Provence" from their album Symphonies of the Night.
- 102. Edward I, King of England was born 17 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was christened 22 Jun 1239, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom; died 7 Jul 1307, Burgh by Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria, England; was buried 28 Oct 1307, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
- Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet, Prince of England was born 16 Jan 1245, London, Middlesex, England; died 5 Jun 1296, Bayonne, Pyrennes-Atlantiques, France; was buried 15 Jul 1296, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
- Margaret of England, Queen of Scots was born 29 Sep 1251, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; died 26 Feb 1275, Cupar Castle, Cupar, Fife, Scotland; was buried Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.
|206. ||Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon was born 5 Aug 1201, Castile, Spain (son of Alfonso IX, King of Leon and Galacia and Berengaria of Castile, Queen of Castile); died 30 May 1252, Seville, Spain; was buried Seville Cathedral, Seville, Spain. |
- Religion: Roman Catholic
- Also Known As: Ferdinand III of Castile
- Also Known As: King of Castile and Toledo
- Also Known As: King of Leon
- Also Known As: Saint Ferdinand, T.O.S.F.
- Also Known As: San Fernando
- Baptism: 19 Aug 1201
Ferdinand III, also called Saint Ferdinand, Spanish San Fernando (born 1201?- died May 30, 1252, Sevilla; canonized February 4, 1671; feast day May 30), king of Castile from 1217 to 1252 and of Leon from 1230 to 1252 and conqueror of the Muslim cities of Câordoba (1236), Jaâen (1246), and Sevilla (1248). During his campaigns, Murcia submitted to his son Alfonso (later Alfonso X), and the Muslim kingdom of Granada became his vassal.
Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of Leon and Berenguela, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile. At birth, he was the heir to Leon, but his uncle, Henry I of Castile, died young, and his mother inherited the crown of Castile, which she conferred on him. His father, like many Leonese, opposed the union, and Ferdinand found himself at war with him. By his will Alfonso IX tried to disinherit his son, but the will was set aside, and Castile and Leon were permanently united in 1230.
Ferdinand married Beatrice of Swabia, daughter of the Holy Roman emperor, a title that Ferdinand’s son Alfonso X was to claim. His conquest of Lower Andalusia was the result of the disintegration of the Almohad state. The Castilians and other conquerors occupied the cities, driving out the Muslims and taking over vast estates.
Ferdinand’s second wife was Joan of Ponthieu, whom he married in 1237; their daughter Eleanor married the future Edward I of England in 1254. Ferdinand settled in Sevilla, where he is buried.
Images & History ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seville_Cathedral
Fernando married Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu 0___ 1237. Jeanne was born 0___ 1220, Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne, France; died 16 Mar 1279, Abbeville, Somme, France. [Group Sheet]
|207. ||Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu was born 0___ 1220, Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne, France; died 16 Mar 1279, Abbeville, Somme, France. |
- Also Known As: Joan, Countess of Ponthieu
- Also Known As: Queen Consort of Castile and Leon
Joan of Dammartin (French: Jeanne de Dammartin; c. 1220 – 16 March 1279) was Queen consort of Castile and Leâon (1252), suo jure Countess of Ponthieu (1251–1279) and Aumale (1237–1279). Her daughter, the English queen Eleanor of Castile, was her successor in Ponthieu. Her son and co-ruler in Aumale, Ferdinand II, Count of Aumale, predeceased her, so she was succeeded by her grandson John I, Count of Aumale, deceased at the Battle of Courtrai, 11 July 1302.
Joan was the eldest daughter of Simon of Dammartin, Count of Ponthieu (1180- 21 September 1239) and his wife Marie of Ponthieu, Countess of Montreuil (17 April 1199- 1251). Her paternal grandparents were Alberic II, Count de Dammartin and Mahaut de Clermont, daughter of Renaud de Clermont, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, and Clâemence de Bar. Her maternal grandparents were William IV of Ponthieu and Alys, Countess of the Vexin, daughter of Louis VII of France and Constance of Castile.
Henry III of England
After secret negotiations were undertaken in 1234, it was agreed that Joan would marry King Henry III of England. This marriage would have been politically unacceptable to the French, however, since Joan stood to inherit not only her mother's county of Ponthieu but also the county of Aumale that was vested in her father's family. Ponthieu bordered on the duchy of Normandy, and Aumale lay within Normandy itself. The French king Philip Augustus had seized Normandy from King John of England as recently as 1205, and Philip's heirs could not risk the English monarchy recovering any land in that area, since it might allow the Plantagenets to re-establish control in Normandy.
As it happened, Joan's father Simon had become involved in a conspiracy of northern French noblemen against Philip Augustus and to win pardon from Philip's son Louis VIII, Simon—who had only daughters—was compelled to promise that he would marry off neither of his two eldest daughters without the permission of the king of France. In 1235, the queen-regent of France, Blanche of Castile, invoked that promise on behalf of her son, King Louis IX of France, and threatened to deprive Simon of all his lands if Joan married Henry III. Blanch also petitioned the Pope to deny the marriage based on consanguinity. He agreed, denying the dispensation which Henry had sought and paid for. Henry therefore abandoned the project for his marriage to Joan and in January 1236 married instead Eleanor of Provence, the sister of Louis IX's wife.
Queen of Castile
In November 1235, Blanche of Castile's nephew, King Ferdinand III of Castile, lost his wife, Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen, and Blanche's sister Berengaria of Castile, Ferdinand's mother, was concerned that her widowed son might involve himself in liaisons that were unsuited to his dignity as king. Berengaria determined to find Ferdinand another wife, and her sister Blanche suggested Joan of Dammartin, whose marriage to the king of Castile would keep her inheritance from falling into hostile hands. In October 1237, at the age of about seventeen, Joan and Ferdinand were married in Burgos. Since Ferdinand already had seven sons from his first marriage to Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen, there was little chance of Ponthieu being absorbed by Castile.
They had four sons and one daughter:
Ferdinand II, Count of Aumale (1239–ca 1265) m. (after 1256) Laure de Montfort, Lady of Espernon (d before 08.1270), and had issue:
Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu, who married king Edward I of England and had issue
Louis (1243–ca 1275), who married Juana de Manzanedo, Lady of Gaton, and had issue
Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo
John (1246), died young and buried at the cathedral in Câordoba
She accompanied Ferdinand to Andalucia and lived with him in the army camp as he besieged Seville in 1248.
Upon her mother's death in 1251, Joan succeeded as Countess of Ponthieu and Montreuil, which she held in her own right.
After Ferdinand III died in 1252, Joan did not enjoy a cordial relationship with his heir, her stepson Alfonso X of Castile, with whom she quarreled over the lands and income she should have received as dowager queen of Castile. Sometime in 1253, she became the ally and supporter of another of her stepsons, Henry of Castile, who also felt Alfonso had not allowed him all the wealth their father had meant him to have. Joan unwisely attended secret meetings with Henry and his supporters, and it was rumored that she and Henry were lovers. This further strained her relations with Alfonso and in 1254, shortly before her daughter Eleanor was to marry Edward of England, Joan and her eldest son Ferdinand left Castile and returned to her native Ponthieu.
- 103. Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain; died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.