Sir Nicholas Carew, Baron Carew

Male 1444 - 1470  (~ 26 years)


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Generation: 1

  1. 1.  Sir Nicholas Carew, Baron Carew was born ~ 1444 (son of Thomas Carew and Joan Carminow); died ~ 21 Nov 1470, Mohuns Ottery, Devonshire, England.

    Nicholas — Margaret Dinham. Margaret (daughter of John Dinham and Joan Arches) was born ~ 1441; died 13 Dec 1470, Hartland, Devon, England. [Group Sheet]

    Children:
    1. Edmund Carew was born 0___ 1464; died 24 Jun 1513, Mohuns Ottery, Devonshire, England.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  Thomas Carew was born ~ 1427 (son of Nicholas Carew and Joan Courtenay); died Bef 10 Nov 1461, Mohuns Ottery, Devonshire, England.

    Thomas — Joan Carminow. Joan was born ~ 1424; died Bef 1502, Boconnoc, Cornwall, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Joan Carminow was born ~ 1424; died Bef 1502, Boconnoc, Cornwall, England.
    Children:
    1. 1. Nicholas Carew, Baron Carew was born ~ 1444; died ~ 21 Nov 1470, Mohuns Ottery, Devonshire, England.


Generation: 3

  1. 4.  Nicholas Carew was born ~ 1409 (son of Thomas Carew and Elizabeth Bonville); died 3 May 1447, Moulsford, Berkshire, England.

    Nicholas — Joan Courtenay. Joan (daughter of Hugh Courtenay and Philippa L'Arcedekne) was born 0___ 1411, Haccombe, Devonshire, England; died Bef 3 Aug 1465; was buried St. Blaise's Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 5.  Joan Courtenay was born 0___ 1411, Haccombe, Devonshire, England (daughter of Hugh Courtenay and Philippa L'Arcedekne); died Bef 3 Aug 1465; was buried St. Blaise's Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England.

    Notes:

    Joan Courtenay (born 1411/14 – d. before 3 August 1465), who eventually became her mother's sole heiress.

    She married twice, firstly to Sir Nicholas Carew (d. before 20 April 1448), Baron Carew, of Mohuns Ottery in Devon, of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire and of Moulesford in Berkshire, by whom she had five sons and three daughters. She was the heiress of 16 manors, which she divided amongst her younger sons.[16] She gave Haccombe to her second son Nicholas Carew, founder of the Carew family of Haccombe (see Carew baronets (1661) of Haccombe).[17]

    Secondly, by royal licence dated 5 October 1450, she married Sir Robert Vere, second son of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford, by whom she had a son, John Vere,[18] father of John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford.

    Children:
    1. 2. Thomas Carew was born ~ 1427; died Bef 10 Nov 1461, Mohuns Ottery, Devonshire, England.


Generation: 4

  1. 8.  Thomas Carew was born ~ 1368 (son of Leonard Carew and Elizabeth FitzAlan); died 25 Jan 1431, Mohuns Ottery, Devonshire, England.

    Thomas — Elizabeth Bonville. Elizabeth was born ~ 1362; died 0___ 1451, Chewton, Devonshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 9.  Elizabeth Bonville was born ~ 1362; died 0___ 1451, Chewton, Devonshire, England.
    Children:
    1. 4. Nicholas Carew was born ~ 1409; died 3 May 1447, Moulsford, Berkshire, England.

  3. 10.  Hugh Courtenay was born 0___ 1358, Haccombe, Devonshire, England (son of Edward Courtenay and Emeline Dawney); died 6 Mar 1425, (England).

    Notes:

    Sir Hugh I Courtenay (after 1358 – 5 or 6 March 1425), of Boconnoc in Cornwall and of Haccombe in Devon,[1] was Sheriff of Devon for 1418/19 and was thrice elected knight of the shire for Devon in 1395, 1397 and 1421.[2] He was a grandson of Hugh de Courtenay, 2nd/10th Earl of Devon (1303–1377), was the younger brother of Edward de Courtenay, 3rd/11th Earl of Devon (1357–1419), "The Blind Earl", and was the grandfather of Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon (d.1509), KG, created Earl of Devon in 1485 by King Henry VII. He was the link between the senior line of the Courtenay Earls of Devon made extinct following the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471 (his elder brother's line) and the post-Wars of the Roses creation of a new Earldom for his grandson made in 1485 by King Henry VII.

    Origins

    Hugh Courtenay was born in 1358, the younger of two sons of Sir Edward de Courtenay (d. between 2 February 1368 –1 April 1371) of Goodrington, Devon, by his wife Emeline (or Emme) Dawney (or Dauney, Daunay, etc.) (c.1329 – 28 February 1371/2), daughter and heiress of Sir John Dawnay (d.1346/7) of Sheviock in Cornwall, Mudford Terry and Hinton in Somerset[3] by his wife Sybil Treverbyn. Emmeline Dauney was a great heiress who brought to her husband several manors and estates, including Boconnoc.[4] Hugh Courtenay was the grandson of Hugh de Courtenay, 2nd/10th Earl of Devon (1303–1377). At the 2nd/10th Earl's death on 2 May 1377, Courtenay's elder brother, Edward, became the 3rd/11th Earl of Devon.[5]

    Maternal inheritance

    His elder brother was due to inherit the earldom and the vast Courtenay estates under primogeniture or entail, and thus as the second son with no prospective patrimony, Hugh Courtenay was given the estate of Boconnoc by his mother, the heiress Emmeline Dauney, which he made his seat.[6] The practice of raising up a younger son in this way was common in the case of a wealthy heiress who married an already wealthy husband, and frequently the younger son beneficiary was required to adopt the maternal surname and armorials.[7] Furthermore, his mother requested[6] his elder brother the Earl to give him the estates of "Goderington" (Goodrington), Stancombe (alias Slancomb (sic) Dawney) and South Allington, which he duly performed by deed of indenture dated 1414.[8]

    Career

    Courtenay's elder brother, Edward Courtenay, 11th Earl of Devon (c.1357 – 5 December 1419), succeeded to the earldom of Devon in 1377, and by 1384 Hugh was serving as one of his brother's esquires. Earlier, in 1378 Courtenay had taken part with his uncles, Sir Philip Courtenay and Sir Peter Courtenay, in an unsuccessful naval expedition against Spain at which Courtenay was captured, but quickly ransomed. He had been knighted by 1387, and in March of that year served at sea in his brother's retinue under the Lord Admiral, the Earl of Arundel.

    Little else is known of his career until he went to Ireland with King Richard II's expedition in April 1399, serving under the Duke of Aumale, who had earlier been granted custody of the lands of Courtenay's stepson, Fulk FitzWarin.

    Over the years Courtenay acquired considerable property, much of it by way of his marriages. At his death he held 14 manors, principally in the West Country, but also in Essex and Herefordshire.

    Courtenay served on commissions during the reigns of both Richard II and his successor, Henry IV, including commissions concerned with inquiry into the possessions of Richard II's former supporters, suggesting that he accommodated himself to both regimes.

    He was made Commissioner of Survey to Devon and Cornwall in 1388, and again by Lords Appellant to the two counties in October 1397. In 1395 he was elected as MP for Devon and again in September 1397. At the height of the Crisis, King Richard II betrayed his uncle, Earl of Arundel, and as a consequence he lost his main supporters.[citation needed]

    After the usurpation by King Henry IV Hugh was made Commissioner of Array for Devon in December 1399 - responsible for raising troops and bringing the south-west to the Lancastrian cause. He proved a successful recruiter for the wars in France, as he was made commissioner again in July 1402 to fight the Welsh Rebellion. The commission met again in August, September, and October 1403, after King Henry had defeated Harry Hotspur and the Mortimers at Shrewsbury.[citation needed]

    In February 1400, Sir Hugh was a Commissioner of oyer and terminer dispensing the king's justice in the south-west. There was also a Commission of Inquiry into waste lands. King Henry made Hugh a Commissioner in the region and in Hampshire, a traditional land area of Courtenay holdings, to look into the concealment of possessions owned by adherents of the late king. He was also on the commission for "concealment of alnage" in Devon from July 1401.

    The south-western counties disliked the new king and interference of parliament and in 1405 the Cornish rebelled with widespread rioting. In January a commission was set up to look into "unlawful assemblies" during 1406. Sir Hugh, however was a known Lancastrian: in May 1402 he had been forced to proclaim the intention of Henry IV to govern well. Also he was a JP for Devon, appointed on 16 February 1400 for the period until 1407; instructed to enforce the law and collect the king's taxes. He was appointed Tax Collector for Devon in March 1404.

    He was made High Sheriff of Devon on 4 November 1418, holding the office for the year until 23 November 1419. When his brother the Earl of Devon died the new earl was fighting the French abroad, and so Sir Hugh was the most senior member of the family at home and probably felt compelled to represent Devon in parliament again in May 1421.

    Henry IV died in 1413, and during the new reign Sir Hugh found favour with Henry V. King Henry V had travelled triumphantly through France, securing the future accession of his son as King of both England and France. Sir Hugh was thus present as knight of the shire for the County of Devon.[citation needed]

    Hugh's brother, the 11th Earl, died in 1419, and was succeeded by his son, Hugh Courtenay, 12th Earl of Devon (1389 — 16 June 1422). The 12th Earl spent considerable time abroad in service to the crown, leaving Hugh as the senior member of the family in England. After the death of his nephew in 1422, Courtenay was again the senior member of the family during the minority of Thomas Courtenay, 13th Earl of Devon.

    Courtenay died on 5 or 6 March 1425, leaving two daughters, Joan and Eleanor, by his third wife Philippa, and two sons and a daughter by his fourth wife, Maud. The lands which had belonged to Philippa were divided between their two daughters, Joan and Eleanor. Courtenay's heir was his elder son, Edward, who was eight years of age at his father's death. Courtenay's younger son, Hugh (d.1471) of Boconnoc, was the father of Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon of the 1485 creation.

    Courtenay was buried at Haccombe beside his third wife, Philippa.[9]

    Marriages and issue

    Sir Hugh Courtenay (& David A. Hennessee) married four times:[10]

    Firstly to Elizabeth FitzPayn (d. by 1392),[11] widow of Sir Thomas de Audley (d. pre-1386), slain in France in the Hundred Years' War, and daughter of Sir Robert FitzPayn by his wife Elizabeth Bryan, daughter of Guy de Bryan, Lord Bryan. Without issue.
    Secondly, before 11 February 1393, to Elizabeth Cogan (d. 29 October 1397), widow of Sir Fulk FitzWarin (d.1391), 5th Baron FitzWarin and daughter of Sir William Cogan Feudal baron of Bampton in Devon, by his wife Isabel Loring, the daughter of Sir Nigel Loring. Without surviving issue.

    Arms of Archdekne of Haccombe, Devon: Argent, three chevronels sable[12]
    Thirdly, before 1407, to Philippa Archdekne (alias Ercedecne), daughter and co-heiress of Sir Warin Archdekne, MP,[13] of Haccombe in Devon, by his wife Elizabeth Talbot, a "co-heiress"[14] of Sir John Talbot. By Philippa he had two daughters, co-heiresses of their mother:
    Elizabeth (or Alianore[15]) Courtenay (born c.1413), who died unmarried;
    Joan Courtenay (born 1411/14 – d. before 3 August 1465), who eventually became her mother's sole heiress. She married twice, firstly to Sir Nicholas Carew (d. before 20 April 1448), Baron Carew, of Mohuns Ottery in Devon, of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire and of Moulesford in Berkshire, by whom she had five sons and three daughters. She was the heiress of 16 manors, which she divided amongst her younger sons.[16] She gave Haccombe to her second son Nicholas Carew, founder of the Carew family of Haccombe (see Carew baronets (1661) of Haccombe).[17] Secondly, by royal licence dated 5 October 1450, she married Sir Robert Vere, second son of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford, by whom she had a son, John Vere,[18] father of John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford.

    Arms of Beaumont of Youlston, Shirwell: Barry of six vair and gules[19]
    Fourthly, by royal licence dated 16 October 1417, to Maud Beaumont (d. 3 July 1467), daughter of Sir William Beaumont of Shirwell by his wife Isabel Willington, daughter of Sir Henry Willington of Umberleigh in Devon. They had two sons as follows:
    Sir Edward Courtenay (b.1417), eldest son, who died without progeny[15]
    Sir Hugh II Courtenay (c.1427 – 6 May 1471) of Boconnoc, twice MP for Cornwall in 1446 and 1449,[15] who married Margaret Carminow, widow firstly of Sir John de Saint Looe and secondly of William Bottreaux,[15] and daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Carminow by his wife Joan Hill, the daughter of Robert Hill. He was beheaded after the Battle of Tewkesbury (1471), having fought for the defeated House of Lancaster. His eldest son was Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon (d.1509), KG, created Earl of Devon in 1485 by King Henry VII, following the ending of the Wars of the Roses.

    Sources

    Cherry, Martin (1981). "'The Crown and the Political Community in Devonshire, 1377-1461'". Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Wales. Swansea.
    Cherry, Martin (1986). "The Disintegration of a Dominant Medieval Affinity: the Courtenay family". Southern History.
    Cokayne, George Edward (1916). The Complete Peerage, edited by Vicary Gibbs. IV. London: St. Catherine Press.
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. I (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966373
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. II (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966381


    *

    Hugh COURTENAY of Haccombe (Sir)

    Born: BET 1358/60, probably Haccombe, Devonshire, England

    Died: 15 Mar 1424/25

    Father: Edward COURTENAY of Godlington

    Mother: Emeline DAUNEY

    Married 1: Elizabeth COGAN

    Married 2: Phillipa ARCHDEKNE (dau. of Sir Warren Archdekne of Haccombe)

    Children:

    1. Joan COURTENAY

    Married 3: Matilda BEAUMONT (d. 3 Jul 1467) (dau. of Sir John Beaumont of Sherwell) ABT 1372

    Children:

    2. Margaret COURTENAY

    3. Edward COURTENAY (Sir)

    4. Hugh COURTENAY of Boconnoc (Sir)

    *

    Hugh married Philippa L'Arcedekne Bef 1407, (Haccombe, Devonshire, England). Philippa (daughter of Warin L'Archdekne and Elizabeth Talbot) was born (Haccombe, Devonshire, England); died (Devonshire, England); was buried Saint Blaise Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 11.  Philippa L'Arcedekne was born (Haccombe, Devonshire, England) (daughter of Warin L'Archdekne and Elizabeth Talbot); died (Devonshire, England); was buried Saint Blaise Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1386, Cornwall, England

    Notes:

    Birth: 1386
    Cornwall, England
    Death: unknown


    Family links:
    Parents:
    Warin L'Arcedekne (1355 - 1400)
    Elizabeth Talbot L'Arcedekne (1364 - 1407)

    Spouse:
    Hugh Courtenay (1351 - 1425)

    Siblings:
    Margery L'Arcedekne Arundell (____ - 1420)*
    Eleanor L'Arcedekne Lucy (1383 - 1447)*
    Philippa L'Arcedekne Courtenay (1386 - ____)

    *Calculated relationship

    Burial:
    Saint Blaise Church
    Haccombe
    Teignbridge District
    Devon, England

    Maintained by: Carol M.
    Originally Created by: Jerry Ferren
    Record added: Nov 14, 2010
    Find A Grave Memorial# 61595016

    end

    Children:
    1. 5. Joan Courtenay was born 0___ 1411, Haccombe, Devonshire, England; died Bef 3 Aug 1465; was buried St. Blaise's Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England.


Generation: 5

  1. 16.  Leonard Carew was born 0___ 1342 (son of John Carew and Margaret Mohun); died 4 Oct 1369, Castle Carew, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wale.

    Leonard — Elizabeth FitzAlan. Elizabeth (daughter of Edmund FitzAlan, Knight and Sybil Montacute) was born ~ 1349, (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England); died ~ 1386, Arundel, Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 17.  Elizabeth FitzAlan was born ~ 1349, (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England) (daughter of Edmund FitzAlan, Knight and Sybil Montacute); died ~ 1386, Arundel, Sussex, England.
    Children:
    1. 8. Thomas Carew was born ~ 1368; died 25 Jan 1431, Mohuns Ottery, Devonshire, England.

  3. 20.  Edward Courtenay was born 1329-1334, Godlington, Devonshire, England (son of Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon and Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon); died 1368-1372.

    Notes:

    Edward COURTENAY of Godlington

    Born: ABT 1329/34, probably Devonshire, England

    Died: 1372

    Father: Hugh COURTENAY (2° E. Devon)

    Mother: Margaret De BOHUN (C. Devon)

    Married: Emeline DAUNEY (dau. of Sir John Dauney) BET 1347-1356 /ABT 1351, England

    Children

    1. Edward COURTENAY (3° E. Devon)

    2. Hugh COURTENAY of Haccombe (Sir)

    *

    Edward married Emeline Dawney ~ 1351. Emeline (daughter of John Dawney and Sybil Treverbyn) was born ~ 1329; died 0___ 1372. [Group Sheet]


  4. 21.  Emeline Dawney was born ~ 1329 (daughter of John Dawney and Sybil Treverbyn); died 0___ 1372.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Eme
    • Also Known As: Emeline Dauney

    Children:
    1. Edward Courtenay, 3rd Earl of Devon
    2. 10. Hugh Courtenay was born 0___ 1358, Haccombe, Devonshire, England; died 6 Mar 1425, (England).

  5. 22.  Warin L'Archdekne was born 0___ 1355, Haccombe, Devonshire, England; died 0___ 1400.

    Warin — Elizabeth Talbot. Elizabeth was born 0___ 1364; died 3 Aug 1407; was buried Saint Blaise Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 23.  Elizabeth Talbot was born 0___ 1364; died 3 Aug 1407; was buried Saint Blaise Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England.
    Children:
    1. 11. Philippa L'Arcedekne was born (Haccombe, Devonshire, England); died (Devonshire, England); was buried Saint Blaise Church, Haccombe, Devonshire, England.


Generation: 6

  1. 32.  John Carew was born 0___ 1310 (son of John Carew and Joanna Talbot); died 22 May 1363, Castle Carew, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales.

    John — Margaret Mohun. Margaret was born ~ 1322; died Dunster, Somerset, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 33.  Margaret Mohun was born ~ 1322; died Dunster, Somerset, England.
    Children:
    1. 16. Leonard Carew was born 0___ 1342; died 4 Oct 1369, Castle Carew, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wale.

  3. 34.  Edmund FitzAlan, Knight was born ~ 1327, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (son of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Isabe le Despenser, Countess of Arundel); died 1376-1382, Sussex, England.

    Notes:

    Sir Edmund de Arundel, knt (b ca 1327; d 1376-1382), bastardized by the annulment. Edmund was nevertheless knighted, married at the age of twenty, in the summer of 1347 [2] Sybil de Montacute, a younger daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, whose elder sister Elizabeth was married to his maternal uncle (the uncle may have arranged this marriage).

    Edmund protested his bastardization bitterly in 1347, but was apparently ignored. After his father's death in 1376, Edmund disputed his half-brother Richard's inheritance of the earldom and associated lands and titles in 1376 and apparently tried to claim the six manors allotted to his deceased mother. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1377, and finally freed through the intervention of two of his brothers-in-law (his wife's brother John de Montacute and the second husband of Elizabeth de Montacute, Lady Le Despencer).[2] They had three daughters who were his co-heiresses and who brought a failed suit in 1382 against their half-uncle the Earl:

    Elizabeth de Arundel, who married Sir Leonard Carew and has descendants

    Philippa de Arundel (died 18 May 1452), married (as his 2nd wife) Sir Richard Sergeaux, Knt, of Colquite, Cornwall.[3] A Victorian historical novel[citation needed] ascribes the following five children to her: a) Richard, born 21 December 1376, and died childless, 24 June 1396; b) Elizabeth, born 1379, wife of Sir William Marny; c) Philippa, born 1381, wife of Robert Passele; d) Alice, born at Kilquyt, 1 September 1384, wife of Guy de Saint Albino; e) Joan, born 1393, died 21 February 1400. "Philippa became a widow, 30 September 1393, and died 13 September 1399." (I.P.M., 17 Ric. II., 53; 21 Ric. II., 50; 1 H. IV., 14, 23, 24.)[citation needed]*** Alice Sergeaux later Countess of Oxford (c. 1386-18 May 1452), married 1stly Guy de St Aubyn of St. Erme, Cornwall, and 2ndly about 1406-7 as his 2nd wife, the 11th Earl of Oxford and widower of Alice de Holand (dsp. 1406, niece of Henry IV, and mother of two sons by him

    John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
    Robert de Vere, whose grandson, John, became the 15th Earl of Oxford.

    Edmund married Sybil Montacute ~ 1356. Sybil (daughter of William Montagu, Knight, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury) was born (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England). [Group Sheet]


  4. 35.  Sybil Montacute was born (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England) (daughter of William Montagu, Knight, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury).
    Children:
    1. Philippa Arundel was born ~ 1351, (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England); died 18 May 1452.
    2. 17. Elizabeth FitzAlan was born ~ 1349, (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England); died ~ 1386, Arundel, Sussex, England.

  5. 40.  Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon was born 12 Jul 1303, Okehampton, Devon, England (son of Hugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon and Agnes St. John); died 3 May 1377, Exeter, Devonshire, England; was buried Exter Cathedral, Devonshire, England.

    Notes:

    Hugh COURTENAY (2° E. Devon)

    Born: 12 Jul 1303, Okehampton, Devon, England

    Died: 2 May 1377, Exeter, Devon, England

    Buried: Exeter Cathedral, Devonshire, England

    Father: Hugh COURTENAY (1° E. Devon)

    Mother: Agnes St. JOHN

    Married: Margaret De BOHUN (C. Devon) 11 Aug 1325

    Children:

    1. Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)

    2. Edward COURTENAY of Godlington

    3. Margaret COURTENAY

    4. Thomas COURTENAY (Sir Knight)

    5. Phillip COURTENAY of Powderham (Sir)

    6. Elizabeth COURTENAY

    7. Catherine COURTENAY

    8. Joan COURTENAY

    10. Matilda COURTENAY

    11. Eleanor COURTENAY

    12. Guinora COURTENAY (b. ABT 1348)

    13. Isabel COURTENAY

    14. Phillipa COURTENAY

    15. William COURTENAY (Archbishop of Canterbury)

    16. John COURTENAY

    17. Peter COURTENAY (Sir)

    18. Humphrey COURTENAY (Sir) (b. ABT 1355)

    19. Anne COURTENAY

    *

    Hugh married Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon 11 Aug 1325. Margaret (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England) was born 3 Apr 1311; died 16 Dec 1391. [Group Sheet]


  6. 41.  Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon was born 3 Apr 1311 (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England); died 16 Dec 1391.
    Children:
    1. 20. Edward Courtenay was born 1329-1334, Godlington, Devonshire, England; died 1368-1372.

  7. 42.  John Dawney was born Shevlock, Cornwall, England; died 1346-1347.

    John — Sybil Treverbyn. [Group Sheet]


  8. 43.  Sybil Treverbyn
    Children:
    1. 21. Emeline Dawney was born ~ 1329; died 0___ 1372.


Generation: 7

  1. 64.  John Carew was born ~ 1277, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales (son of Nicholas Carew and Amicia Peverell); died 26 Jun 1324, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: John de Carew

    Notes:

    Sir John de CAREW formerly Carew
    Born about 1277 in Carew, Pembrokeshire, Walesmap
    Son of [father unknown] and [mother unknown]
    [sibling(s) unknown]
    Husband of Eleanor (Mohun) de Mohun — married about 1300 in Carew, Pembrokeshire, Walesmap
    Husband of Joanna Talbot — married 1309 in Carew, Pembrokeshire, Walesmap
    Father of Nicholas Carew and John Carew
    Died 26 Jun 1324 in Carew, Pembrokeshire, Walesmap

    Biography

    Sir John de Carew was the son of Sir Nicholas Carew and Amicia Peverell.[1]He married, firstly, Eleanor Mohun daughter of Sir William de Mohun in 1300 at Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales. He married, secondly, Joan Talbot, daughter of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot in 1309 at Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales. He died on the 26th of Jun 1324 in Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales.

    Sources

    ? Mosley, Charles, editor. Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes. Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003. volume 1, page 682.
    Maxwell-Lyte, Henry Churchill, A History of Dunster and of the Families of Mohun & Luttrell (London: St. Catherine Press, 1909.), p. 33
    Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant (London: St. Catherine Press, 1910.), 4:199, 5:463
    Nicolas, Nicholas Harris, The Controversy between Sir Richard Scrope and Sir Robert Grosvenor in the Court of Chivalry (London: Bentley, 1832.), p. 245
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_Carew_(died_1311). see Marriage & progeny for son John

    end

    John married Joanna Talbot 0___ 1309, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales. [Group Sheet]


  2. 65.  Joanna Talbot (daughter of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot and Anne le Boteler).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Joan Talbot

    Children:
    1. 32. John Carew was born 0___ 1310; died 22 May 1363, Castle Carew, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales.

  3. 68.  Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of ArundelRichard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel was born 1306-1313, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (son of Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel); died 24 Jan 1376, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Governor of Caernarfon Castle
    • Occupation: High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire
    • Occupation: Justiciar of North Wales
    • Also Known As: 8th Earl of Surrey
    • Military: Commander of the English Army in the North
    • Will: 5 Dec 1375

    Notes:

    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and 8th Earl of Surrey (c. 1306/1313 – 24 January 1376) was an English nobleman and medieval military leader.

    Family and early life

    Richard's birth date was uncertain perhaps 1313 or maybe 1306 in Sussex, England. FitzAlan was the eldest son of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel (8th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots), and his wife Alice de Warenne.[1] His maternal grandparents were William de Warenne and Joan de Vere. William was the only son of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (himself son of Maud Marshal by her second marriage), and his wife Alice de Lusignan (d. 1356), half-sister of Henry III of England.

    Alliance with the Despensers

    Around 1321, FitzAlan's father allied with King Edward II's favorites, Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester and his namesake son, and Richard was married to Isabel le Despenser, daughter of Hugh the Younger. Fortune turned against the Despenser party, and on 17 November 1326, FitzAlan's father was executed, and he did not succeed to his father's estates or titles.

    Gradual restoration

    However, political conditions had changed by 1330, and over the next few years Richard was gradually able to reacquire the Earldom of Arundel as well as the great estates his father had held in Sussex and in the Welsh Marches.

    Beyond this, in 1334 he was made Justiciar of North Wales (later his term in this office was made for life), High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire for life and Governor of Caernarfon Castle. He was one of the most trusted supporters of Edward the Black Prince in Wales.

    Military service in Scotland

    Despite his high offices in Wales, in the following decades Arundel spent much of his time fighting in Scotland (during the Second Wars of Scottish Independence) and France (during the Hundred Years' War). In 1337, Arundel was made Joint Commander of the English army in the north, and the next year he was made the sole Commander.

    Notable victories

    In 1340 he fought at the Battle of Sluys, and then at the siege of Tournai. After a short term as Warden of the Scottish Marches, he returned to the continent, where he fought in a number of campaigns, and was appointed Joint Lieutenant of Aquitaine in 1340.

    Arundel was one of the three principal English commanders at the Battle of Crβecy. He spent much of the following years on various military campaigns and diplomatic missions.

    In a campaign of 1375, at the end of his life, he destroyed the harbour of Roscoff.

    Great wealth

    In 1347, he succeeded to the Earldom of Surrey (or Warenne), which even further increased his great wealth. (He did not however use the additional title until after the death of the Dowager Countess of Surrey in 1361.) He made very large loans to King Edward III but even so on his death left behind a great sum in hard cash.

    Marriages and children

    This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2012)
    He married firstly February 9, 1321 at Havering-atte-Bower, Isabel le Despenser (born 1312). At that time, the future earl was eight (or fifteen) and his bride nine. He later repudiated this bride, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI in December 1344 on the grounds that he had been underaged and unwilling. He had a son Edmund (b. 1327) when he was fourteen (or twenty-one) and his wife fifteen; this son was bastardized by the annulment.

    His second wife, whom he married on 5 April 1345, was a young widow Eleanor of Lancaster, the second youngest daughter and sixth child of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth; by Papal dispensation he was allowed to marry his first wife's first cousin by their common grandmother Isabella de Beauchamp. Eleanor was the widow of John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont. The king, Edward III, himself a kinsman of both wives, attended this second marriage. By now, the Earl of Arundel had rebuilt the family wealth and was apparently a major financier of the Crown, and financial sweeteners may have been used to reconcile both the Church and the Crown.[2] By his first marriage to Isabel le Despenser (living 1356, and may have died circa 1376-7), which marriage he had annulled December 1344 [1], he had one son:

    Sir Edmund de Arundel, knt (b ca 1327; d 1376-1382), bastardized by the annulment. Edmund was nevertheless knighted, married at the age of twenty, in the summer of 1347 [2] Sybil de Montacute, a younger daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, whose elder sister Elizabeth was married to his maternal uncle (the uncle may have arranged this marriage). Edmund protested his bastardization bitterly in 1347, but was apparently ignored. After his father's death in 1376, Edmund disputed his half-brother Richard's inheritance of the earldom and associated lands and titles in 1376 and apparently tried to claim the six manors allotted to his deceased mother. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1377, and finally freed through the intervention of two of his brothers-in-law (his wife's brother John de Montacute and the second husband of Elizabeth de Montacute, Lady Le Despencer).[3] They had three daughters who were his co-heiresses and who brought a failed suit in 1382 against their half-uncle the Earl:

    Elizabeth de Arundel, who married Sir Leonard Carew and has descendants

    Philippa de Arundel (died 18 May 1452), married (as his 2nd wife) Sir Richard Sergeaux, Knt, of Colquite, Cornwall.[4] A Victorian historical novel ascribes the following five children to her: a) Richard, born December 21, 1376, and died issueless, June 24, 1396; b) Elizabeth, born 1379, wife of Sir William Marny; c) Philippa, born 1381, wife of Robert Passele; d) Alice, born at Kilquyt, September 1, 1384, wife of Guy de Saint Albino [this ; e) Joan, born 1393, died February 21, 1400. "Philippa became a widow, September 30, 1393, and died September 13, 1399." (I.P.M., 17 Ric. II., 53; 21 Ric. II., 50; 1 H. IV., 14, 23, 24.)[5]

    Alice Sergeaux later Countess of Oxford (c. 1386 - 18 May 1452), married 1stly Guy de St Aubyn of St. Erme, Cornwall, and 2ndly about 1406-7 as his 2nd wife, the 11th Earl of Oxford and widower of Alice de Holand (dsp. 1406, niece of Henry IV, and mother of two sons by him
    John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
    Robert de Vere, whose grandson, John, became the 15th Earl of Oxford.[7]

    Mary (died 29 Aug 1396), married John le Strange, 4th Lord Blackmere (from Genealogy of Fitzalans).
    By the second marriage 5 February 1345, by Papal dispensation,[6] to Eleanor of Lancaster, he had 3 sons and 3 surviving daughters:

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who succeeded him as 11th Earl of Arundel as his "eldest legitimate" son.
    John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel, 1st Baron Maltravers, who was a Marshall of England, and drowned in 1379.
    Thomas Arundel, who became Archbishop of Canterbury
    Lady Joan FitzAlan (1348 - 7 April 1419) who married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. They were the maternal grandparents of Henry V of England through their daughter Mary de Bohun.
    Lady Alice FitzAlan (1350 - 17 March 1416), who married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, uterine brother of King Richard II. They were ancestors to Queen consorts Anne Neville (wife of King Richard III), Elizabeth of York (wife of King Henry VII), and Catherine Parr (wife of King Henry VIII).
    Lady Eleanor Fitzalan (1356 - before 1366).

    The current Dukes of Norfolk descend from Lady Mary, Duchess of Norfolk, a daughter and co-heiress of Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel; the 19th Earl descended from John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel.

    Death and legacy

    Richard died on 24 January 1376 in Sussex, England. (Another source says he wrote his will on 5 December 1375, and died on 14 January 1376 at Arundel Castle).[3]. In his will, he mentioned his three surviving sons by his second wife, his two surviving daughters Joan, Dowager Countess of Hereford and Alice, Countess of Kent, his grandchildren by his second son John, etc., but left out his bastardized eldest son Edmund.

    The memorial effigies attributed to Richard FitzAlan and his second wife Eleanor of Lancaster in Chichester Cathedral are the subject of the poem "An Arundel Tomb" by Philip Larkin.

    FitzAlan died an incredibly wealthy man, despite his various loans to Edward III

    Birth:
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery on Christmas Day 1067. Roger became the first to hold the earldom of Arundel by the graces of William the Conqueror. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War and then restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    From the 11th century, the castle has served as a home and has been in the ownership of the family of the Duke of Norfolk for over 400 years. It is the principal seat of the Norfolk family. It is a Grade I listed building.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Occupation:
    The Justiciar of North Wales was responsible for the royal administration in these counties as well as the administration of justice. English law was applied to criminal law, but in other matters Welsh law was allowed to continue.

    List of Justiciars

    Otton de Grandson, 1284–1294
    Robert Tibetot, 1295–1301
    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, 1334–1352
    Arundel sold the office to Edward the Black Prince in 1352
    John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp 1385–1388
    Henry Percy (Hotspur) 1399?–1403?

    Occupation:
    Caernarfon Castle (Welsh: Castell Caernarfon) is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, north-west Wales. Click here to view its history, map & picture ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caernarfon_Castle

    Buried:
    Lewes Priory is a ruined medieval Cluniac priory in Southover, East Sussex in the United Kingdom. The ruins have been designated a Grade I listed building.

    The Priory of St Pancras was the first Cluniac house in England and had one of the largest monastic churches in the country. It was set within an extensive walled and gated precinct laid out in a commanding location fronting the tidal shore-line at the head of the Ouse valley to the south of Lewes in the County of Sussex. The Priory had daughter houses, including Castle Acre Priory in Norfolk, and was endowed with churches and extensive holdings throughout England. In Lewes it had hospitiums dedicated to St James and to St Nicholas.

    In 1264, during the Battle of Lewes, King Henry III installed his forces in the Priory precinct which came under attack from those of Simon de Montfort after his victory over Henry in battle. Henry was forced, in the Mise of Lewes, to accept the Council that was the start of Parliamentary government in England.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewes_Priory

    Richard married Isabe le Despenser, Countess of Arundel 9 Feb 1321, Havering-atte-Bower, Essex, England. Isabe (daughter of Hugh le Despencer, IV, Knight, Baron Despenser and Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer) was born 0___ 1312; died ~ 1376. [Group Sheet]


  4. 69.  Isabe le Despenser, Countess of Arundel was born 0___ 1312 (daughter of Hugh le Despencer, IV, Knight, Baron Despenser and Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer); died ~ 1376.

    Notes:

    Married:
    At that time, the future earl was either eight or fifteen, and his bride nine. He later repudiated this bride, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI in December 1344 on the grounds that he had been underage and unwilling.

    By this marriage, Richard and Isabel had one son (when Richard was either fourteen or twenty-one, and Isabel fifteen). This son was bastardized by the annulment.

    Children:
    1. 34. Edmund FitzAlan, Knight was born ~ 1327, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 1376-1382, Sussex, England.

  5. 70.  William Montagu, Knight, 1st Earl of SalisburyWilliam Montagu, Knight, 1st Earl of Salisbury was born 0___ 1301, Cassington, Oxfordshire, England; died 30 Jan 1344, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was buried Bisham Abbey, Berkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Baron Montacute
    • Also Known As: King of Mann
    • Also Known As: Salisbury
    • Also Known As: William Montacute

    Notes:

    William Montagu, alias de Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury, 3rd Baron Montagu, King of Mann (1301 – 30 January 1344) was an English nobleman and loyal servant of King Edward III.

    The son of William Montagu, 2nd Baron Montagu, he entered the royal household at an early age and became a close companion of the young Prince Edward. The relationship continued after Edward was crowned king following the deposition of Edward II in 1327. In 1330, Montagu was one of Edward's main accomplices in the coup against Roger Mortimer, who up until then had been acting as the king's protector.

    In the following years Montagu served the king in various capacities, primarily in the Scottish Wars. He was richly rewarded, and among other things received the lordship of the Isle of Man. In 1337, he was created Earl of Salisbury, and given an annual income of 1000 marks to go with the title. He served on the Continent in the early years of the Hundred Years' War, but in 1340 he was captured by the French, and in return for his freedom had to promise never to fight in France again. Salisbury died of wounds suffered at a tournament early in 1344.

    Legend has it that Montagu's wife Catherine was raped by Edward III, but this story is almost certainly French propaganda. William and Catherine had six children, most of whom married into the nobility. Modern historians have called William Montague Edward's "most intimate personal friend"[3] and "the chief influence behind the throne from Mortimer's downfall in 1330 until his own death in 1344."[4]

    Family background

    William Montagu, born at Cassington, Oxfordshire in 1301, was the second but eldest surviving son of William Montagu, 2nd Baron Montagu, and Elizabeth de Montfort, daughter of Sir Peter Montfort of Beaudesert, Warwickshire.[5] by Matilda/Maud de la Mare daughter and heiress of Henry de la Mare of Ashtead, Surrey, Royal Justice, Seneschal of William Longspree II Earl of Salisbury.[6] The Montagu family, a West Country family with roots going back to the Conquest, held extensive lands in Somerset, Dorset and Devon.[7] The father, William Montagu, distinguished himself in the Scottish Wars during the reign of Edward I, and served as steward of Edward II's household. Some members of the nobility, including Thomas of Lancaster, viewed Montagu with suspicion, as a member of a court party with undue influence on the king.[8] For this reason he was sent to Aquitaine, to serve as seneschal. Here he died on 18 October 1319.[8] Even though he sat in parliament as a baron, the second lord Montagu never rose above a level of purely regional importance.[9]

    Early service

    The younger William was still a minor at the time of his father's death, and entered the royal household as a ward of the king in 1320.[10] On 21 February 1323 he was granted his father's lands and title.[5] His service to Edward II took him abroad to the Continent in both 1320 and 1325.[5] In 1326 he was knighted.[9] After the deposition of Edward II in 1327, Montagu continued in the service of Edward's son Edward III. He helped the new king in repelling the Scottish invasion of 1327, and was created knight banneret in 1328.[5]

    Montagu enjoyed a close relationship with Edward III, and accompanied him abroad on a diplomatic mission in 1329. That same year he was sent on an embassy to negotiate a marriage alliance with King Philip VI of France.[5] His most important task, however, came in connection with a mission to the Papacy in Avignon. The young king—along with his government—was under the dominance of his mother Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer, who had been responsible for the deposition of the king's father.[11] Montagu explained the king's situation, and Pope John XXII asked for a special signal that assure him that he was dealing with the king in person. After Montagu's return, Richard Bury, Keeper of the Privy Seal, wrote to inform the pope that only letters containing the words pater sancte (holy father), in Edward's own handwriting, were indeed from the king. Only Edward, Bury and Montagu were party to the scheme.[12]

    Coup against Mortimer

    When Mortimer discovered the conspiracy against him, Montagu was brought in for interrogation – along with the king – but gave nothing away.[10] Afterward he supposedly advised Edward to move against his protector, because "It was better that they should eat the dog than that the dog should eat them".[5] On 19 October 1330, while Mortimer and Isabella were entrenched in Nottingham Castle, the constable of the castle showed Montagu a secret entrance through an underground tunnel.[13] Along with Edward de Bohun, Robert Ufford, and John Neville and others, he entered the castle, where he met up with the king.[5] A short brawl followed before Mortimer was captured. The queen stormed into the chamber shouting "Good son, have pity on noble Mortimer".[14] Edward did not obey his mother's wishes, and a few weeks later Mortimer was executed for treason in London.[15] As a reward for his part in the coup, Montagu was given lands worth Ή1000, including the Welsh lordship of Denbigh that had belonged to Mortimer.[16] His family also benefited; his brother Simon Montacute became Bishop of Worcester and later of Ely.[17] Another brother, Edward Montagu, 1st Baron Montagu, married Alice of Norfolk, a co-heir of Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk.[18]

    Service under Edward III

    Edward III founded the Order of the Garter in 1348, and included Salisbury's son among the founding members.
    In the years to come, Montagu acted as Edward's closest companion.[3] In April 1331, the two went on a secret expedition to France, disguised as merchants so they would not be recognised. In September of the same year, Montagu held a tournament at Cheapside, where he and the king were costumed as Tartars.[5] From 1333 onwards, Montagu was deeply engaged in the Scottish Wars, and distinguished himself at the Siege of Berwick and the Battle of Halidon Hill. It was after this event that his lordship over the Isle of Man was recognised, a right he held from his grandfather.[5] The lordship was at the moment of a purely theoretical nature, however, since the island was still under Scottish control.

    In February 1334 Montagu was sent on a commission to Edinburgh, to demand Edward Balliol's homage to Edward. In the great summer campaign of 1335, it was Montagu who provided the largest English contingent, with 180 men-at-arms and 136 archers.[5] He was well rewarded for his contributions: after the Scots had been forced to cede the Lowlands, Montagu was granted the county of Peeblesshire. He was also allowed to buy the wardship of Roger Mortimer's son Roger for 1000 marks, a deal that turned out to be very lucrative for Montagu.[19] At this point, however, the fortunes were turning for the English in Scotland. Montagu campaigned in the north again in 1337, but the siege of Dunbar met with failure.[20] Following the abortive attempt in Scotland, Edward III turned his attention to the continent.

    The Hundred Years' War

    Montagu was created Earl of Salisbury on 16 March 1337. This was one of six comital promotions Edward III made that day, in preparation for what was to become the Hundred Years' War.[21] To allow Montagu to support his new status, the king granted him land and rent of a value of 1000 marks a year. The money was provided from the royal stannaries of Cornwall.[22] A contemporary poem tells of a vow made by the earl on the eve of the wars – he would not open one of his eyes while fighting in France. The story is probably a satire; the truth was that Montagu had already lost the use of one of his eyes in a tournament.[23]

    In April 1337, Montagu was appointed to a diplomatic commission to Valenciennes, to establish alliances with Flanders and the German princes.[24] In July 1338, he accompanied the king on another mission to the continent, again providing the greatest number of soldiers, with 123 men-at-arms and 50 archers.[5] In September of that year he was made Marshal of England. After the death of Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, this office had come into the hands of Norfolk's daughter Margaret. The king did not trust the office with her husband, so he decided instead to bestow it on his trusted companion, Montagu.[25] Edward's policy of building alliances put him in great debt, and when he left the Low Countries to return to England late in 1338, Salisbury had to stay behind as surety to the king's debtors, along with the king's family and the Earl of Derby.[26] The earl had earlier voiced concerns about the costly alliances, but he nevertheless remained loyal to the king's strategy.[27]

    While Edward was away, Salisbury was captured by the French at Lille in April 1340, and imprisoned in Paris.[5] Reportedly, King Philip VI of France wanted to execute Salisbury and Robert Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, who was captured with him. Philip was, however, dissuaded by John of Bohemia, who argued that the earls could come in handy in an exchange, should any French noblemen be captured.[28] Though released on parole in September, it was not until May 1342 that he reached a final settlement with the French. Salisbury was freed in a prisoner exchange, but only on the condition that he never fight in France again.[5]

    Final years

    Salisbury's residence of Bisham Manor in Berkshire.
    Salisbury had long been frustrated by the failure of the government in England to provide sufficient funds for the war effort.[29] On his return, however, he played little part in the conflict of 1341 between King Edward and Chancellor John Stratford. In May that year he was appointed to a committee to hear the king's charges against Stratford, but little came from this.[30] In 1342–43 he fought with Robert of Artois in the Breton War of Succession, and in 1343 helped negotiate the Truce of Malestroit.[5] It was probably sometime after this he made good his claim on the Isle of Man, by conquering the island which was until then held by the Scots.[5]

    His final international commission took place late in 1343, when he accompanied Henry of Grosmont, Earl of Derby, on a diplomatic mission to Castile.[5] Early in 1344 he was back in England, where he took part in a great tournament at Windsor. It was during this tournament, according to the chronicler Adam Murimuth, that he received wounds that would prove fatal.[5] Salisbury died on 30 January 1344. He was buried at Bisham Priory in Berkshire, adjoining his home, Bisham Manor. He had founded the priory himself in 1337, on his elevation to the earldom.[31] King Edward's financial obligations were never paid in full during the earl's lifetime, and at Salisbury' death the king owed him Ή11,720. Of this, some Ή6374 were written off by his executors in 1346.

    Family

    In or before 1327 Salisbury married Catherine, daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison. Two anecdotal stories revolve around Catherine Montagu; in one she is identified as the "Countess of Salisbury" from whose dropped garter Edward III named the Order of the Garter.[5] In the other, Edward III falls in love with the countess, and arranges to be alone with her so he can rape her. Neither story is supported by contemporary evidence, and the latter almost certainly is a product of French propaganda.[32]

    William and Catherine had six children, most of whom made highly fortunate matches with other members of the nobility.[18] The first Earl of Salisbury made enormous additions to the family fortune; at the time of his father's death, the lands had been valued at just over Ή300. In 1344, only the annual income of the lands has been estimated to more than Ή2,300,[18] equivalent to about Ή1.82 million in present day terms.[33] Edward was also free with granting franchises to Salisbury, including the return of writs, which gave the earl authority in his lands normally held by the royally appointed sheriff.[34] Salisbury's oldest son William succeeded his father in July 1349, while still a minor, as William Montagu, 2nd Earl of Salisbury.[35] The younger William was one of the founding members of the Order of the Garter, but he never enjoyed the same favour with the king as his father had.[9]

    The children of William and Catherine were as follows:[36]

    Name Birth Death Notes
    Elizabeth Montagu — 1359 Married Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer before 27 April 1341
    Married Guy de Brian, 4th Baron Brian, after 1349

    William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury 1328 1397 Succeeded his father 11 June 1349[37]
    John de Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute 1330 1390 Father of John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury
    Philippa Montagu 1332 1381 Married Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March
    Sibyl Montagu — — Married Edmund FitzAlan, the disinherited son of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel
    Agnes Montagu — — Was contracted to marry John, eldest son of Roger Grey, 1st Baron Grey de Ruthyn
    Alice Montagu — — Married Ralph Daubeney, son of Helias Daubeney, 1st Baron Daubeney

    *

    more...

    William Montacute
    Born: 1301 at Cassington, Oxfordshire
    Baron Montacute
    Earl of Salisbury
    Died: 30th January 1344 at Windsor, Berkshire

    William was born in 1301, the eldest son of William Montacute, 2nd Baron Montacute (d. 1319) and his wife, Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir Piers de Montfort of Beaudesert in Warwickshire. William Junior succeeded his father as 3rd Baron on 6th November 1319, being granted wardship of his own lands, though yet a minor. In 1322, he came of age and received livery of his lands, together with a grant of Lundy Isle off the Devon coast. In 1325, he was knighted and received letters of protection on his departure for France. In 1327, he went with Edward III to repel the Scottish invasion, when the latter nearly missed capture. In 1329, he accompanied the King abroad and was sent, in June, to treat for a marriage between the eldest son of the King of France and Edward's sister, Eleanor. In September, he was despatched, with Bartholomew de Burghersh (d. 1355), on an embassy to the Pope at Avignon, returning before the end of the year, when, in his capacity as executor of Blanche, Queen of Navarre, he lent the King two thousand marks that had belonged to her, and were deposited at Whitefriars.

    Next year, the young king took him into his confidence about his plans for the arrest of Mortimer. During the parliament held at Nottingham in October 1330, Montacute, with a band of retainers, including Sir John de Molines, penetrated by a secret passage into the castle, where they found Mortimer in the Queen-Mother's apartments. After a struggle, in which two of Mortimer's attendants were killed, his arrest was effected and he was sent to London for trial. Edward obtained, from Parliament, indemnity on Montacute's behalf for all consequences of the death of Mortimer's attendants, and rewarded him with various grants of land forfeited by Mortimer in Hampshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Kent and Wales, including Sherborne, Corfe Castle and Purbeck Chase in Dorset, and the lordship of Denbigh in North Wales. On 4th April 1331, Montacute accompanied Edward III when, disguised as a merchant and attended by only a handful of men-at-arms, the King paid a secret visit to France. He was also present when Edward repeated his homage to the French King at Amiens on 13th April, and returned with him to Dover on 20th April. In September, Montacute held a great tournament in Cheapside, entertaining his guests in the Bishop of London's palace.

    Next year, he attended the King in Scotland and, in 1333, was present at the Siege of Berwick and the Battle of Halidon Hill. In the same year, Edward made over to him all his rights to the Isle of Man. He appears to have accompanied Balliol to Scotland and, in February 1334, was deputed by him to excuse his absence from the parliament held at York. On 30th March, Montacute was appointed envoy to France, with the Archbishop of Canterbury and two others; but, in June, was again in Scotland, where, in 1335, he was left in command of the army, with Arundel. In the same year, he was granted the forests of Selkirk and Ettrick and the town of Peebles, made Governor of the Channel Islands and Constable of the Tower of London, as well as acquiring Bisham Manor which, being so close to the King at Windsor, he made his principal family seat. In November, he was given power to treat with Andrew Murray, Constable of Scotland. On 27th January 1336, he commenced the Siege of Dunbar Castle, but, after nineteen weeks, the blockade was raised by Alexander Ramsay and Montacute gave it up in despair, making a truce that was strongly disapproved of in England. In the same year, he was appointed Admiral of the Fleet from the mouth of the Thames westward.

    On 16 March 1337, at the parliament held in London, Montacute was created Earl of Salisbury. In the following April, he was sent to King Philip VI to declare Edward's claim to the French Crown, and thence on an embassy to the Emperor Louis, Rupert, Count Palatine, the Duke of Bavaria and other princes of Germany and the Netherlands, to organise a league against France. In October, he was commissioned to treat with Scotland, but, in July 1338, commanded a successful raid into Scotland from Carlisle. Later on in the year, he sailed, with Edward, from the Orwell to Flanders, and by a patent, dated Antwerp 20th September 1338, was appointed Marshal of England, an office then vacant by the death of Thomas, Earl of Norfolk. He remained in Flanders, where he was one of the captains of the English forces, for the next two years, during part of which he was in garrison at Ypres. In November 1338, he was one of those appointed to treat with Philip of Valois at the desire of the Pope. Shortly after, he made an inroad into the territories of the Bishop of Liege and, in February 1339, negotiated an agreement with the Archbishop of Treves and the Duke of Brabant, and was subsequently employed in various other negotiations. In 1340, induced, perhaps, by treachery within the walls, Salisbury and Suffolk, with a small force, made an attempt on Lille. The attack failed and both were taken prisoners and conveyed to Paris, when Salisbury, it is said, owed his life to the intervention of the King of Bohemia. On 18th October, Edward demanded a levy of wools to secure his liberation. He was set free - on condition of never serving against King Philip in France - at the peace negotiated after the Siege of Tournay, in exchange for the Earl of Moray, who had been captured in the Scottish Wars.

    Salisbury returned to England in November and took part in Edward's arrest of the treasury officials and others. In May 1341, he was commissioned to investigate the charges against Stratford. Perhaps it was at this time that he conquered the Isle of Man from the Scots and was crowned King there; but the event has also been assigned to 1340 and 1342. In May 1343, Salisbury embarked, with Robert d'Artois, for Brittany, captured Vannes and proceeded to besiege Rennes. After the death of Artois and some months of ineffectual fighting, a truce was signed and, in August, Salisbury was sent on an embassy to the court of Castile. There, he took part in the Siege of Algeciras, which King Alfonso XI was then prosecuting against the Moors. He was soon recalled to England, however, and sent north against the Scots. He died on 30th January 1344 from bruises, it is said, received during a tournament held at Windsor, and was buried at Bisham Priory which he had founded in 1337. He married Katharine, daughter of Sir William Grandisson, by whom he had two sons, William, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, and John, and four daughters, one of whom, Philippa, married Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March

    Died:
    Injuries from a tournament...

    William married Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury ~ 1320. Catherine (daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison and Sibylla de Tregoz) was born ~ 1304; died 23 Nov 1349. [Group Sheet]


  6. 71.  Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury was born ~ 1304 (daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison and Sibylla de Tregoz); died 23 Nov 1349.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Catherine Montacute

    Notes:

    Catherine Montacute (or Montagu), Countess of Salisbury (c. 1304 - 23 November 1349) was an English noblewoman, remembered for her relationship with King Edward III of England and possibly the woman in whose honour the Order of the Garter was originated.[1] She was born Catherine Grandison, daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison, and Sibylla de Tregoz. Her mother was one of two daughters of John de Tregoz, Baron Tregoz (whose arms were blazoned Gules two bars gemels in chief a lion passant guardant or),[2] maternal granddaughter of Fulk IV, Baron FitzWarin).[3] Catherine married William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury in about 1320.

    Their children were:

    Elizabeth Montacute (b. before 1325); married Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer before 27 April 1341.
    William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury (1329–1397)
    John de Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute, (1330–1390); father of John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury.
    Anne Montacute, (b. 1331); married John De Grey on 12 June 1335.
    Philippa Montacute (1332–1381); married Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March.
    Sibyl Montacute (b. before 1339); married Edmund FitzAlan about 1356.

    According to rumour, King Edward III was so enamoured of the countess that he forced his attentions on her in around 1341, after having relieved a Scottish siege on Wark Castle[disambiguation needed], where she lived, while her husband was out of the country. An Elizabethan play, Edward III, deals with this incident. In the play, the Earl of Warwick is the unnamed Countess's father, though he was not her father in real life.

    In around 1348, the Order of the Garter was founded by Edward III and it is recorded [4] that he did so after an incident at a ball when the "Countess of Salisbury" dropped a garter and the king picked it up. It is assumed that Froissart is referring either to Catherine or to her daughter-in-law, Joan of Kent.

    end

    Children:
    1. John Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute was born ~ 1330, (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England); died ~ 1390.
    2. 35. Sybil Montacute was born (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England).
    3. Philippa Montagu was born 0___ 1332, (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England); died 0___ 1381, (England).

  7. 80.  Hugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of DevonHugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon was born 14 Sep 1276, (Okehampton, Devon, England) (son of Hugh Courtenay and Eleanor Despencer); died 23 Dec 1340, Tiverton, Devon, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 9th Earl of Devon

    Notes:

    Hugh de Courtenay, 1st/9th Earl of Devon (14 September 1276 – 23 December 1340)[1] was the son of Sir Hugh de Courtenay (died 1292), feudal baron of Okehampton in Devon, by his wife Eleanor le Despenser (died 1328), sister of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester. Forty-one years after the death of his cousin, Isabel de Forz, suo jure 8th Countess of Devon (1237–1293) (nβee de Redvers, eldest daughter of Baldwin de Redvers, 6th Earl of Devon (1217-1245)), letters patent were granted by King Edward III, dated 22 February 1335, declaring him Earl of Devon, and stating that he 'should assume such title and style as his ancestors, Earls of Devon, had wont to do'.[2] This thus made him 1st Earl of Devon, if the letters patent are deemed to have created a new peerage, otherwise 9th Earl of Devon if it is deemed a restitution of the old dignity of the de Redvers family and he is deemed to have succeeded the suo jure 8th Countess. Authorities differ in their opinions[3] and thus alternative ordinal numbers exist for this Courtenay earldom.

    Early life

    Hugh de Courtenay was born 14 September 1276, the son of Sir Hugh de Courtenay (died 28 February 1292) feudal baron of Okehampton in Devon, by his wife Eleanor le Despenser (died 30 September 1328), sister of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester, an important adviser to King Edward II. He was the grandson of John de Courtenay (died c. 3 May 1274)[4] of Okehampton by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford. John's father, Robert de Courtenay (died 1242), the son of Reginald de Courtenay (died 1190) by Hawise de Curci (died 1219), the heiress of the feudal barony of Okehampton),[5] had married Mary de Redvers (sometimes called "de Vernon"), the daughter of William de Redvers, 5th Earl of Devon (died 1217).

    On 28 February 1292, about the time of his marriage, Hugh succeeded to the Okehampton estate and to those de Redvers estates that had not yet been alienated to the Crown. He may then have been styled Earl of Devon, the first of the Courtenay family, although was not recognised in the de facto Earldom until 1333.

    Campaign against Scotland, 1297–1300

    He did homage to Edward I on 20 June 1297 and was granted his own livery. At the time the King was with his army crossing the Tweed into Scotland. It is probable that the honour was in acknowledgement of Hugh's military achievements. That July the English defeated and humiliated the Scots at Irvine. However the following year the tables were turned on the advent of the remarkable campaign of William Wallace.

    The following February 6, 1298 he was summoned as a Lord in Parliament, and sat throughout the reign of Edward II and into the Mortimer Regency for Edward's son. He remained an important noble at Parliaments into the reign of Edward III. He was summoned as Hugoni de Curtenay with the confusing suffix of senior being known as Lord Courtenay.

    Courtenay joined King Edward at the long siege of Caerlaverock Castle, just over the Solway Firth for a fortnight in July 1300. He proved himself a fine soldier and loyal adherent to the English crown. He had not been present at the disastrous encounter outside Stirling Castle in 1298, during which half the English contingent were killed, including commander Hugh Cressingham. But Edward was determined to march into Ayrshire to devastate Robert Bruce's estates. Unfortunately the English army melted away into the forests as the army moved further northwards. Courtenay may have been with the English King when he sat down in Sweetheart Abbey to receive Robert Winchelsey, Archbishop of Canterbury who had travelled north with a demanding missive from Pope Boniface to cease hostilities. The King could not ignore this order. In September he disbanded troops and withdrew over the Solway Firth to Carlisle. The campaign had failed due to a shortage of money, so Parliament was recalled for January 1301. Before returning to London the English drew up a six months truce.

    Parliament of 1301

    Parliament met at Lincoln. The agenda included redrafting the Royal Forest Charter, which had no precedent since it was first introduced in the reign of Henry II, 150 years earlier. Local juries were expected to "perambulate the forests" to gather evidence. But the King needed money and was required by Parliament to surrender his absolute authority and ownership of what became community forests.

    Campaigns against Scotland, 1301–1308

    In 1306 the Prince of Wales was despatched into Scotland; the vanguard led by Aymer de Valence, the King's half uncle. On 22 May, Courtenay was knighted by the Prince, presumably for his efforts against the Scots. In June the English occupied Perth. On 19 June, Valence, who had cut a swathe through the Lowlands fell on the Scots army at Methven in the early dawn. The Bruce fled into the hills. Edward I was merciless as many prisoners were punished. That autumn the army returned to Hexham. The war was all but over: there were however sieges at Mull of Kintyre and Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire. Edward I committed many atrocities rounding up the Scots aristocracy and their women.

    Then as Robert Bruce returned from exile in Ireland the English army started losing battles. The ailing King had one last campaign in which Courtenay played a major part. Struggling into the saddle to the Solway Firth, Edward I died at Burgh-on-Sands awaiting a crossing. In 1308 a new campaign was sent to quell Robert Bruce, and Courtenay was made a knight banneret, one of the King's elite household.[6]

    During the reign of Edward II he was made a Lord Ordainer, one of the ruling council in the Lords. He was appointed to the King's Council on 9 Augustus 1318. He was appointed the Warden of the coast of Devon and Cornwall in 1324 and then again in 1336, because his estates stretched across what is now Exmoor and Dartmoor. But he took the honours reluctantly and played a guarded game with King and Parliament. A veteran campaigner he aimed to ingratiate himself with the young Edward III, and so refused the Third Penny from the Exchequer. He was investigated; and on 22 February 1335 elevated to the Earldom of Devon, restored to his ancestral line.

    Forty-one years after the death of his cousin, Isabel de Fortibus, Countess of Devon, letters patent were issued dated 22 February 1335 declaring him Earl of Devon, and stating that he 'should assume such title and style as his ancestors, Earls of Devon, had wont to do'.[7] He was the 9th Earl of Devon, but the first in the Courtenay line.

    Family

    He married Agnes de Saint John, daughter of John de Saint John, Baron St John, of Basing, Hampshire, by Alice, daughter of Sir Reynold Fitz Peter.[8] They had four sons and two daughters:

    John Courtenay (1300–1349), Prior of Lewes and Abbot of Tavistock.
    Hugh de Courtenay, 2nd/10th Earl of Devon (1303-1377), second son, who married Margaret de Bohun, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford by Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King Edward I and Eleanor of Castile.
    Robert Courtenay (1309–1334), 3rd son, of Moreton Hampstead in Devon.
    Sir Thomas Courtenay (1315-1356), 4th son, of Wootton Courtenay in Somerset, and of Woodhuish, Brixham[9] in Devon, a military commander against the French, who died in 1356,[10] the date of the Battle of Poitiers. He married a great Somerset heiress, Muriel de Moels, the eldest of the two daughters and co-heiresses of John Moels, 4th Baron Moels, feudal baron of North Cadbury in Somerset. His wife's share of her paternal inheritance included the manors of Kings Carswell and Dunterton[11] in Devon, and Blackford, Holton and Lattiford in Somerset.[12]
    Eleanor Courtenay (c.1309 – c.1330), who married John de Grey, 3rd Baron Grey of Codnor.
    Elizabeth Courtenay (born c.1313), who married Bartholomew de Lisle.
    Courtenay died at Tiverton, Devon, 23 December 1340, and was buried at Cowick Priory near Exeter on 5 Feb 1341.[8]

    *

    Hugh COURTENAY (1° E. Devon)

    Born: 14 Sep 1273

    Died: 23 Dec 1340

    Father: Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)

    Mother: Eleanor DESPENCER

    Married 1: Elizabeth PLANTAGENET

    Married 2: Agnes St. JOHN 1292

    Children:

    1. Hugh COURTENAY (2° E. Devon)

    2. John COURTENAY

    3. Eleanor COURTENAY

    4. Robert COURTENAY

    5. Thomas COURTENAY

    6. Elizabeth COURTENAY (b. ABT 1313)

    *

    Hugh married Agnes St. John 0___ 1292. [Group Sheet]


  8. 81.  Agnes St. John
    Children:
    1. 40. Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon was born 12 Jul 1303, Okehampton, Devon, England; died 3 May 1377, Exeter, Devonshire, England; was buried Exter Cathedral, Devonshire, England.
    2. John Courtenay was born (Okehampton, Devon, England).
    3. Eleanor Courtenay was born (Okehampton, Devon, England).
    4. Robert Courtenay was born (Okehampton, Devon, England).
    5. Thomas Courtenay was born 0___ 1312, (Okehampton, Devon, England); died 0___ 1362.
    6. Elizabeth Courtenay was born ~ 1313, (Okehampton, Devon, England).

  9. 82.  Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of HerefordHumphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1276, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England (son of Humphrey de Bohun, V, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Fiennes); died 16 Mar 1322, Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, England; was buried Friars Minor, York, Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Lord High Constable of England
    • Also Known As: Count of Holland
    • Also Known As: Earl of Essex
    • Military: Battle of Bannockburn, June 1314
    • Military: Battle of Boroughbridge

    Notes:

    Sir Humphrey (VII) de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford (1276 - 16 March 1322) was a member of a powerful Anglo-Norman family of the Welsh Marches and was one of the Ordainers who opposed Edward II's excesses.

    Family background

    Arms of Bohun: Azure, a bend argent cotised or between six lions rampant or

    Counter seal of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, showing the so-called "Bohun swan" above the escutcheon
    Humphrey de Bohun's birth year is uncertain although several contemporary sources indicate that it was 1276. His father was Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and his mother was Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand II de Fiennes, chevalier, seigneur of Fiennes. He was born at Pleshey Castle, Essex.

    Humphrey (VII) de Bohun succeeded his father as Earl of Hereford and Earl of Essex, and Constable of England (later called Lord High Constable). Humphrey held the title of Bearer of the Swan Badge, a heraldic device passed down in the Bohun family. This device did not appear on their coat of arms, (az, a bend ar cotised or, between 6 lioncels or) nor their crest (gu, doubled erm, a lion gardant crowned), but it does appear on Humphrey's personal seal (illustration).

    Scotland

    Humphrey was one of several earls and barons under Edward I who laid siege to Caerlaverock Castle in Scotland in 1300 and later took part in many campaigns in Scotland. He also loved tourneying and gained a reputation as an "elegant" fop. In one of the campaigns in Scotland Humphrey evidently grew bored and departed for England to take part in a tournament along with Piers Gaveston and other young barons and knights. On return all of them fell under Edward I's wrath for desertion, but were forgiven. It is probable that Gaveston's friend, Edward (the future Edward II) had given them permission to depart. Later Humphrey became one of Gaveston's and Edward II's bitterest opponents.

    He would also have been associating with young Robert Bruce during the early campaigns in Scotland, since Bruce, like many other Scots and Border men, moved back and forth from English allegiance to Scottish. Robert Bruce, King Robert I of Scotland, is closely connected to the Bohuns. Between the time that he swore his last fealty to Edward I in 1302 and his defection four years later, Bruce stayed for the most part in Annandale, rebuilding his castle of Lochmaben in stone, making use of its natural moat. Rebelling and taking the crown of Scotland in February 1306, Bruce was forced to fight a war against England which went poorly for him at first, while Edward I still lived. After nearly all his family were killed or captured he had to flee to the isle of Rathlin, Ireland. His properties in England and Scotland were confiscated.

    Humphrey de Bohun received many of Robert Bruce's forfeited properties. It is unknown whether Humphrey was a long-time friend or enemy of Robert Bruce, but they were nearly the same age and the lands of the two families in Essex and Middlesex lay very close to each other. After Bruce's self-exile, Humphrey took Lochmaben, and Edward I awarded him Annandale and the castle. During this period of chaos, when Bruce's queen, Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter of the Earl of Ulster, was captured by Edward I and taken prisoner, Hereford and his wife Elizabeth became her custodians. She was exchanged for Humphrey after Bannockburn in 1314. Lochmaben was from time to time retaken by the Scots but remained in the Bohun family for many years, in the hands of Humphrey's son William, Earl of Northampton, who held and defended it until his death in 1360.

    Battle of Bannockburn

    At the Battle of Bannockburn (23-24 June 1314), Humphrey de Bohun should have been given command of the army because that was his responsibility as Constable of England. However, since the execution of Piers Gaveston in 1312 Humphrey had been out of favour with Edward II, who gave the Constableship for the 1314 campaign to the youthful and inexperienced Earl of Gloucester, Gilbert de Clare. Nevertheless, on the first day, de Bohun insisted on being one of the first to lead the cavalry charge. In the melee and cavalry rout between the Bannock Burn and the Scots' camp he was not injured although his rash young cousin Henry de Bohun, who could have been no older than about 22, charged alone at Robert Bruce and was killed by Bruce's axe.

    On the second day Gloucester was killed at the start of battle. Hereford fought throughout the day, leading a large company of Welsh and English knights and archers. The archers might have had success at breaking up the Scots schiltrons until they were overrun by the Scots cavalry. When the battle was lost Bohun retreated with the Earl of Angus and several other barons, knights and men to Bothwell Castle, seeking a safe haven. However, all the refugees who entered the castle were taken prisoner by its formerly pro-English governor Walter fitz Gilbert who, like many Lowland knights, declared for Bruce as soon as word came of the Scottish King's victory. Humphrey de Bohun was ransomed by Edward II, his brother-in-law, on the pleading of his wife Isabella. This was one of the most interesting ransoms in English history. The Earl was traded for Bruce's queen, Elizabeth de Burgh and daughter, Marjorie Bruce, two bishops amongst other important Scots captives in England. Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan, who had crowned Robert Bruce in 1306 and for years had been locked in a cage outside Berwick, was not included; presumably she had died in captivity.[1]

    Ordainer

    Like his father, grandfather, and great-great-grandfather, this Humphrey de Bohun was careful to insist that the king obey Magna Carta and other baronially-established safeguards against monarchic tyranny. He was a leader of the reform movements that promulgated the Ordinances of 1311 and fought to insure their execution.

    The subsequent revival of royal authority and the growing ascendancy of the Despensers (Hugh the elder and younger) led de Bohun and other barons to rebel against the king again in 1322. De Bohun had special reason for opposing the Despensers, for he had lost some of his estates in the Welsh Marches to their rapacity and he felt they had besmirched his honour. In 1316 De Bohun had been ordered to lead the suppression of the revolt of Llywelyn Bren in Glamorgan which he did successfully. When Llewelyn surrendered to him the Earl promised to intercede for him and fought to have him pardoned. Instead Hugh the younger Despenser had Llewelyn executed without a proper trial. Hereford and the other marcher lords used Llywelyn Bren's death as a symbol of Despenser tyranny.

    Death at Boroughbridge

    Main article: Battle of Boroughbridge
    The rebel forces were halted by loyalist troops at the wooden bridge at Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, where Humphrey de Bohun, leading an attempt to storm the bridge, met his death on 16 March 1322.

    Although the details have been called into question by a few historians, his death may have been particularly gory. As recounted by Ian Mortimer:[2]

    "[The 4th Earl of] Hereford led the fight on the bridge, but he and his men were caught in the arrow fire. Then one of de Harclay's pikemen, concealed beneath the bridge, thrust upwards between the planks and skewered the Earl of Hereford through the anus, twisting the head of the iron pike into his intestines. His dying screams turned the advance into a panic."'
    Humphrey de Bohun may have contributed to the failure of the reformers' aims. There is evidence that he suffered for some years, especially after his countess's death in 1316, from clinical depression.[3]

    Marriage and children

    His marriage to Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (Elizabeth Plantagenet), daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, on 14 November 1302, at Westminster gained him the lands of Berkshire.

    Elizabeth had an unknown number of children, probably ten, by Humphrey de Bohun.

    Until the earl's death the boys of the family, and possibly the girls, were given a classical education under the tutelage of a Sicilian Greek, Master "Digines" (Diogenes), who may have been Humphrey de Bohun's boyhood tutor.[citation needed] He was evidently well-educated, a book collector and scholar, interests his son Humphrey and daughter Margaret (Courtenay) inherited.

    Mary or Margaret (the first-born Margaret) and the first-born Humphrey were lost in infancy and are buried in the same sarcophagus in Westminster Abbey. Since fraternal twins were known in the Castilian royal family of Elizabeth Bohun, who gave birth to a pair who lived to manhood, Mary (Margaret?) and Humphrey, see next names, may have been twins, but that is uncertain. The name of a possible lost third child, if any, is unknown—and unlikely.

    Hugh de Bohun? This name appears only in one medieval source, which gives Bohun names (see Flores Historiarum) and was a probably a copyist's error for "Humphrey". Hugh was never used by the main branch of the Bohuns in England.[4] Date unknown, but after 1302, since she and Humphrey did not marry until late in 1302.

    Eleanor de Bohun (17 October 1304 – 1363),[5] married James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde and Thomas Dagworth, 1st Baron Dagworth.

    Humphrey de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Mary or Margaret) Infant.

    Mary or Margaret de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Humphrey) Infant.

    John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (About 1307 – 1336)

    Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (About 1309 to 1311 – 1361).

    Margaret de Bohun (3 April 1311 – 16 December 1391), married Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon. Gave birth to about 16 to 18 children (including an Archbishop, a sea commander and pirate, and more than one Knight of the Garter) and died at the age of eighty.

    William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (About 1310-1312 –1360). Twin of Edward. Married Elizabeth de Badlesmere, daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare, by whom he had issue.

    Edward de Bohun (About 1310-1312 –1334). Twin of William. Married Margaret, daughter of William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros, but they had no children. He served in his ailing elder brother's stead as Constable of England. He was a close friend of young Edward III, and died a heroic death attempting to rescue a drowning man-at-arms from a Scottish river while on campaign.

    Eneas de Bohun, (Birth date unknown, died after 1322, when he's mentioned in his father's will). Nothing known of him.

    Isabel de Bohun (b. ? May 1316). Elizabeth died in childbirth, and this child died on that day or very soon after. Buried with her mother in Waltham Abbey, Essex.

    Notes

    This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2012)
    Jump up ^ Ronald McNair Scott, Robert the Bruce - King of Scots, Canongate, 1988; pp. 75-76 and 164.
    Jump up ^ Mortimer, The Greatest Traitor, page 124.
    Jump up ^ See Conway-Davies, 115, footnote 2, from a contemporary chronicler's account of Humphrey de Bohun, Cotton MS. Nero C. iii, f. 181, "De ce qe vous auez entendu qe le counte de Hereford est moreis pensifs qil ne soleit." "There were some. . . [fine] qualities about the earl of Hereford, and he was certainly a bold and able warrior, though gloomy and thoughtful."
    Jump up ^ Le Melletier, 16-17, 38-45, 138, in his comprehensive research into this family, cites no one named Hugh Bohun.
    Jump up ^ See Cokayne, Complete Peerage, s.v. "Dagworth" p. 28, footnote j.: "She was younger than her sister, Margaret, Countess of Devon (Parl. Rolls. vol. iv., p. 268), not older, as stated by genealogists."
    References[edit]
    Cokayne, G. (ed. by V. Gibbs). Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom (Vols II, IV, V, VI, IX: Bohun, Dagworth, Essex, Hereford, Earls of, Montague), London: 1887–1896.
    Conway-Davies, J. C. The Baronial Opposition to Edward II: Its Character and Policy. (Many references, esp. 42 footnote 1, 114, 115 & footnote 2, 355-367, 426–9, 435–9, 473–525) Cambridge(UK): 1918.
    Le Melletier, Jean, Les Seigneurs de Bohun, 1978, p. 16, 39–40.
    Mortimer, Ian. The Greatest Traitor: The Life of Sir Roger Mortimer, Ruler of England 1327–1330 (100–9, 114, 122–6), London: 2003
    Scott, Ronald McNair. Robert the Bruce: King of Scots (144–164) NY: 1989
    Further reading[edit]
    Wikisource has the text of the 1885–1900 Dictionary of National Biography's article about Bohun, Humphrey VIII de.

    Secondary sources

    Altschul, Michael. A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares 1217–1314. (132–3, ) Baltimore:1965.
    Barron, Evan MacLeod. The Scottish War of Independence. (443, 455) Edinburgh, London:1914, NY:1997 (reprint).
    Barrow, G. W. S. Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland. (222, 290, 295–6, 343–4) Berkeley, Los Angeles:1965.
    Beltz, George Frederick. Memorials of the Order of the Garter. (148–150) London:1841.
    Bigelow, M[elville] M. "The Bohun Wills" I. American Historical Review (v.I, 1896). 415–41.
    Dictionary of National Biography. [Vol II: Bohun; Vol. VI: Edward I, Edward II; Vol. XI: Lancaster]. London and Westminster. Various dates.
    Eales, Richard and Shaun Tyas, eds., Family and Dynasty in Late Medieval England, Shaun Tyas, Donington:2003, p. 152.
    Fryde, E. B. and Edward Miller. Historical Studies of the English Parliament vol. 1, Origins to 1399, (10–13, 186, 285–90, 296) Cambridge (Eng.): 1970.
    Hamilton, J. S. Piers Gaveston Earl of Cornwall 1307-1312: Politics and Patronage in the Reign of Edward II (69, 72, 95–98, 104–5) Detroit: 1988
    Hutchison, Harold F. Edward II. (64–86, 104–5, 112–3) London: 1971.
    Jenkins, Dafydd. "Law and Government in Wales Before the Act of Union". Celtic Law Papers (37–38) Aberystwyth:1971.
    McNamee, Colin. The Wars of the Bruces. (51, 62–66) East Linton (Scotland):1997.
    Tout, T. F. and Hilda Johnstone. The Place of the Reign of Edward II in English History. (86, 105–6, 125 & footnote 3, 128–34) Manchester: 1936.
    Primary sources[edit]
    Flores historiarum. H. R. Luard, ed. (vol. iii, 121) London: 1890.
    Vita Edwardi Secundi. (117–119) N. Denholm-Young, Ed. and Tr.
    External links[edit]

    Birth:
    Pleshey Castle was originally a motte and bailey castle, which consisted of a wooden palisade and tower on a high man-made hill (motte) surrounded by two baileys (castle yard or ward), which at some time in the castle's early history was surrounded by a moat. Later, probably in the 12th century, the motte was fortified with a stone castle. The motte at Pleshey is now about 15 metres high, and is one of the largest mottes in England.[citation needed] The castle was dismantled in 1158 but was subsequently rebuilt at the end of the 12th century.[citation needed] The castle was passed to the Dukes of Gloucester through marriage and after Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester had been executed by Richard II in 1397, it decayed and became ruined. Most of the masonry was dismantled for building material in 1629, leaving just the motte and other earthworks.[citation needed]

    Map and more history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleshey

    Occupation:
    The Lord High Constable of England is the seventh of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Great Chamberlain and above the Earl Marshal. His office is now called out of abeyance only for coronations. The Lord High Constable was originally the commander of the royal armies and the Master of the Horse. He was also, in conjunction with the Earl Marshal, president of the Court of Chivalry or Court of Honour. In feudal times, martial law was administered in the court of the Lord High Constable.

    The constableship was granted as a grand serjeanty with the Earldom of Hereford by the Empress Matilda to Miles of Gloucester, and was carried by his heiress to the Bohuns, Earls of Hereford and Essex. They had a surviving male heir, and still have heirs male, but due to the power of the monarchy the constableship was irregularly given to the Staffords, Dukes of Buckingham; and on the attainder of Edward Stafford, the third Duke, in the reign of King Henry VIII, it became merged into the Crown. Since that point it has not existed as a separate office, except as a temporary appointment for the Coronation of a monarch; in other circumstances the Earl Marshal exercises the traditional duties of the office.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_High_Constable_of_England

    Military:
    The Battle of Bannockburn (Blαar Allt nam Bαanag, often mistakenly called Blαar Allt a' Bhonnaich in Scottish Gaelic) (24 June 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the First War of Scottish Independence, and a landmark in Scottish history.

    Stirling Castle, a Scots royal fortress, occupied by the English, was under siege by the Scottish army. The English king, Edward II, assembled a formidable force to relieve it. This attempt failed, and his army was defeated in a pitched battle by a smaller army commanded by the King of Scots, Robert the Bruce.

    More ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn

    Military:
    The Battle of Boroughbridge was a battle fought on 16 March 1322 between a group of rebellious barons and King Edward II of England, near Boroughbridge, north-west of York. The culmination of a long period of antagonism between the King and Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, his most powerful subject, it resulted in Lancaster's defeat and execution. This allowed Edward to re-establish royal authority, and hold on to power for another five years.

    Not in itself a part of the Wars of Scottish Independence, the battle is significant for its employment of tactics learned in the Scottish wars in a domestic, English conflict. Both the extensive use of foot soldiers rather than cavalry, and the heavy impact caused by the longbow, represented significant steps in military developments.

    More ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Boroughbridge

    Humphrey married Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England 14 Nov 1302, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. Elizabeth (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England) was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales; died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]


  10. 83.  Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England); died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Elizabeth of Rhuddlan

    Notes:

    Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (7 August 1282 - 5 May 1316) was the eighth and youngest daughter of King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castile. Of all of her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother King Edward II, as they were only two years apart in age.

    First marriage

    In April 1285 there were negotiations with Floris V for Elizabeth's betrothal to his son John I, Count of Holland. The offer was accepted and John was sent to England to be educated. On 8 January 1297 Elizabeth was married to John at Ipswich. In attendance at the marriage were Elizabeth's sister Margaret, her father, Edward I of England, her brother Edward, and Humphrey de Bohun. After the wedding Elizabeth was expected to go to Holland with her husband, but did not wish to go, leaving her husband to go alone.

    After some time travelling England, it was decided Elizabeth should follow her husband. Her father accompanied her, travelling through the Southern Netherlands between Antwerp, Mechelen, Leuven and Brussels, before ending up in Ghent. There they remained for a few months, spending Christmas with her two sisters Eleanor and Margaret. On 10 November 1299, John died of dysentery, though there were rumours of his murder. No children had been born from the marriage.

    Second marriage

    On her return trip to England, Elizabeth went through Brabant to see her sister Margaret. When she arrived in England, she met her stepmother Margaret, whom Edward had married while she was in Holland. On 14 November 1302 Elizabeth was married to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, 3rd of Essex, also Constable of England, at Westminster Abbey.[citation needed]

    Offspring

    The children of Elizabeth and Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford were:

    Hugh de Bohun (September 1303 – 1305)
    Lady Eleanor de Bohun (17 October 1304 – 1363)
    Humphrey de Bohun (b&d 1305) (buried with Mary or Margaret)
    Mary or Margaret de Bohun (b&d 1305) (buried with Humphrey)
    John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (23 November 1306 – 1335)
    Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (6 December c. 1309 – 1361)
    Margaret de Bohun, 2nd Countess of Devon (3 April 1311 – 1391)
    William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (1312–1360).
    Edward de Bohun (1312–1334), twin of William
    Eneas de Bohun, (1314 - after 1322); he is mentioned in his father's will
    Isabel de Bohun (b&d 5 May 1316)

    Later life

    During Christmas 1315, Elizabeth, who was pregnant with her eleventh child, was visited by her sister-in-law, Queen Isabella of France. This was a great honour, but the stress of it may have caused unknown health problems that later contributed to Elizabeth's death in childbirth.[citation needed] On 5 May 1316 she went into labour, giving birth to her daughter Isabella. Both Elizabeth and her daughter Isabella died shortly after the birth, and were buried together in Waltham Abbey.

    Birth:
    Rhuddlan Castle (Welsh: Castell Rhuddlan) is a castle located in Rhuddlan, Denbighshire, Wales. It was erected by Edward I in 1277 following the First Welsh War.

    View images, map & history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhuddlan_Castle

    Buried:
    Waltham Abbey is a market town of about 20,400 people in Epping Forest District in the southwest of the county of Essex, 24 km (15 mi) NNE of central London on the Greenwich Meridian, between the River Lea in the west and Epping Forest in the east.

    Waltham Abbey takes its name from the Abbey Church of Waltham Holy Cross, a scheduled ancient monument that was prominent in the town's early history.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waltham_Abbey_(town)

    Died:
    shortly after childbirth...

    Notes:

    Married:
    Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the most notable religious buildings in the United Kingdom and has been the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556 the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, however, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the original abbey church.

    According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site (then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island)) in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III.

    Since 1066, when Harold Godwinson and William the Conqueror were crowned, the coronations of English and British monarchs have been held there. There have been at least 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100. Two were of reigning monarchs (Henry I and Richard II), although, before 1919, there had been none for some 500 years.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Abbey

    Children:
    1. Eleanor de Bohun, Countess of Ormonde was born 17 Oct 1304, Knaresborough Castle, North Yorkshire, England; died 7 Oct 1363.
    2. 41. Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon was born 3 Apr 1311; died 16 Dec 1391.
    3. William de Bohun, Knight, 1st Earl of Northampton was born 0___ 1312, Caldecot, Rutland, Northampton, England; died 16 Sep 1360, (England).
    4. Agnes (Margaret) de Bohun, Baroness Ferrers of Chartley was born 0___ 1313, Caldecot, Rutland, Northampton, England.


Generation: 8

  1. 128.  Nicholas CarewNicholas Carew was born (Carew Castle, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales) (son of Nicholas de Carew and Avice Tuitt); died 0___ 1311.

    Notes:

    Nicholas Carew (died 1311), feudal lord of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire, feudal lord of Odrone[2] (mod. Idrone, County Carlow)[3] in Ireland and lord of the manor of Moulsford in Berkshire (since 1974 in Oxfordshire), was a soldier. He was the first of the Carew family to form a connection with the English county of Devon,[4] where his descendants became very prominent until modern times. His descendants obtained three Carew baronetcies and four peerage titles, namely Baron Carew (1605) in the Peerage of England (for Sir Sir George Carew (1555–1629), created in 1626 Earl of Totnes) and Baron Carew (1834) in the Peerage of Ireland and Baron Carew (1838) of Castle Boro in the County of Wexford, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom (both for Robert Shapland Carew (1787–1856)).

    Origins

    He was the eldest son and heir of Nicholas de Carew (died 1297), feudal lord of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire, lord of the manor of Molesford in Berkshire and jure uxoris feudal lord of Odrone, by his wife Avice Tuitt, daughter and heiress of Richard Tuitt of Marston in County Westmeath, Ireland, whose family had acquired the Barony of Odrone by an earlier marriage to the heiress of Odrone.[5]

    Career

    As Nic(olae)us de Carru, D(omi)n(u)s de Mulesford ("Nicholas de Carew, lord of the manor of Moulsford") he was one of 103 signatories of the Barons' Letter of 1301 addressed to Pope Boniface VIII as a repudiation of his claim of feudal overlordship of Scotland and as a defence of the rights of King King Edward I of England as overlord of that kingdom.

    "Baron Carew"
    In 1300–1 he was summoned to Parliament by writ of King Edward I (1272–1307) as Dominus de Moulsford ("lord of the manor of Moulsford") by which he is deemed to have become Baron Carew.[6] He is called "Baron Carew" in various sources,[7] but a peerage title Baron Carew at this early date is not mentioned in the authoritative Complete Peerage (1887–98) by George Edward Cokayne. Pole however states that he was summoned to Parliament by writ of King Edward I (1272–1307), which would have made him a baron.[8] If so, there is no clear descent of such barony, and no explanation of why it had no clear ending.[9] According to Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage, 1968: "For several generations the heads of the family are described as Barons of Carew and Hidron, but none of them sat in Parliament with the exception of Nicholas de Carew who subscribed to the celebrated Barons' letter to the Pope in 1300".[10]

    Caerlaverock Roll

    He was present at the Siege of Caerlaverock Castle in Scotland in 1301, during which his armorials were amongst those blazoned in French verse by English heralds in the Caerlaverock Roll of Arms, as follows:[11]

    An vaillant home e de grant los
    O lui, Nichole de Karru,
    Dont meinte foiz orent paru
    Li fait en couvert e en lande
    Sur la felloune gent d'Irlande;
    Baniere ot jaune bien passable,
    O treis lyouns passans de sable.
    ("A valliant man ... Nicholas de Carew, who many times appeared ... a banner of gold ... three lions passant of sable")

    Marriage and children

    Arms of Peverell of Ermington: Or, an eagle displayed azure[12]
    He married Amicia (or Amy) Peverell,[13] daughter of Hugh Peverell lord of the manor of Ermington in Devon, and heiress of her brother Sir John Peverell of Ermington,[14] the last in the male line. By Amicia he had children including:

    John Carew (died 1324), eldest son and heir, who married twice:
    Firstly to Elinor de Mohun, daughter and heiress of Sir William de Mohun of Mohuns Ottery[15] in the parish of Luppit, Devon, by whom he had a son Nicholas Carew (died 1323) who married Elinor Talbot, daughter of Richard Lord Talbot,(sic, Vivian, 1895) (should be Sir Richard Talbot, who signed and sealed the Barons' Letter, 1301 and held the manor of Eccleswall in Herefordshire in right of his wife Sarah, sister of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick) but died childless.[16] Sir William de Mohun of Mohuns Ottery was a younger son of Reginald de Mohun (1206–1258), feudal baron of Dunster (son), by his second wife Isabel de Ferrers, widow of Gilbert Basset (died 1241)[17] and daughter of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby (1193–1254) by his wife Sibyl Marshal, a daughter and co-heiress of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1146/7-1219).[18] Reginald de Mohun gave the manor of Ottery to his younger son Sir William Mohun.[19]
    Secondly John Carew married Joan Talbot, daughter of Sir Gilbert Talbot, by whom he had a son John Carew (died 1363), the heir of his half-brother Nicholas Carew (died 1323),[20] from whom he inherited Mohuns Ottery, an important future seat of the Carew family. Joan Talbot survived him and remarried to John Dartmouth (alias Tuckett).[21]

    Thomas de Carew (died 1331).[22]

    William de Carew (died 1359), died childless.[23]

    David de Carew[24]

    Nicholas Carew (died 1390) of Beddington in Surrey, Keeper of the Privy Seal during the reign of King Edward III. He married Lucy de Willoughby, daughter and heiress of Sir Richard de Willoughby (c. 1290 – 1362), Chief Justice of the King's Bench, of Beddington, and widow of Sir Thomas

    Huscarle[25][26] (d. by 1352), MP, of Purley Magna, Berkshire and established a prominent and long-lived branch of the Carew family at Beddington.

    Landholdings

    Through his wife he inherited several manors including:

    Weston Peverell, near Plymouth;[27]
    Mamhead[28]
    Ashford[29]
    Galmeton[30]
    Further reading[edit]

    The Life of Sir Peter Carew, of Mohun Ottery, co. Devon., edited by Sir Thomas Phillipps, 1st Baronet (1792–1872), published 1840 in Archaeologia, the journal of the Society of Antiquaries of London. Concerning early history of the Carew family, source quoted by Vivian, 1895.
    Hamilton-Rogers, William Henry, Memorials of the West, Historical and Descriptive, Collected on the Borderland of Somerset, Dorset and Devon, Exeter, 1888, chapter The Nest of Carew (Ottery-Mohun), pp. 269–330, esp. pp. 286 et seq. [6]

    end

    Birth:
    Hey Cousiin Christine:

    Click on the following link and see images and read history about the old Carew Castle in Wales ... http://www.pembrokeshirecoast.org.uk/default.asp?PID=262

    Nicholas — Amicia Peverell. [Group Sheet]


  2. 129.  Amicia PeverellAmicia Peverell
    Children:
    1. 64. John Carew was born ~ 1277, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 26 Jun 1324, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales.
    2. Thomas Carew was born Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 0___ 1331.
    3. William de Carew was born Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 0___ 1359.
    4. David de Carew was born Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales.
    5. Nicholas Carew was born 0___ 1322, Sandford, Devon, England; died 17 Aug 1390, Mallerforde, Buckinghamshire, England.

  3. 130.  Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot was born 18 Oct 1276, Wyke, Cornwall, England (son of Richard Talbot, Lord of Eccleswall and Sarah de Beauchamp); died 13 Feb 1346, Herefordshire, England.

    Notes:

    Gilbert Talbot
    Birthdate: October 18, 1276 (69)
    Birthplace: Wyke, Cornwall, England
    Death: Died February 13, 1346 in Eccleswall, Herefordshire, England
    Immediate Family:
    Son of Richard Talbot, 4th Lord and Sarah Talbot
    Husband of Anne le Boteler
    Father of Joan Talbot; Philippa de Talbot and Sir Richard Talbot, 2nd Lord Talbot, of Goodrich
    Brother of Gwenllian Talbot; Joan Talbot; Sir Richard Talbot, of Richard's Castle; Catherine Talbot and Thomas Talbot, priest
    Occupation: Justice of South Wales
    Managed by: Private User
    Last Updated: October 31, 2014

    About Sir Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot
    Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot1

    M, #203466, b. 18 October 1276, d. 13 February 1346

    Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot was born on 18 October 1276.
    1 He was the son of Sir Richard Talbot and Sarah de Beauchamp.

    3 He died on 13 February 1346 at age 69.

    Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot was created 1st Lord Talbot [England by writ] on 27 January 1331/32.4
    Child of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot

    1.Joan Talbot+1

    Child of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot and Ann le Botiler

    1.Richard Talbot, 2nd Lord Talbot+3 b. 1305, d. 23 Oct 1356

    http://thepeerage.com/p20347.htm#i203466

    Sir Gilbert Talbot1

    M, b. 18 October 1276, d. 24 February 1346, #10943

    Father Richard Talbot2,3 b. circa 1250, d. before 3 September 1306

    Mother Sarah de Beauchamp2 d. after July 1317

    Arms His arms were de goules a un lion rampand de or od la bordur' endente de or (Parl.).3

    Name Variation Sir Gilbert Talbot was also styled Talebot.3

    Birth* He was born on 18 October 1276.1,4,3

    Marriage* He married Anne le Boteler, daughter of Sir William le Boteler of Wem and Ankaret verch Griffith.1,4

    Event-Misc He had livery of his father's lands on 21 October 1306.3

    Event-Misc* He was a commissioner to view St. Briavel's Castle and the vert and venison of Dene Forest on 22 March 1311.5,3

    Note* He was given a pardon for his part in the death of Piers de Gavaston on 16 October 1313.5,3

    Event-Misc He was called to serve against the Scots between 1314 and 1315.5

    Summoned* He was summoned to serve against the Scots on 30 June 1314.3

    Feudal* He held Longhope and Blechesdon, Glou., Credenhill and Linton, Hereford on 5 March 1316.3

    Criminal* He was An order for his arrest was dated. The charges included attacking the King's subjects in Warwicckshire and attacking and burning Bridgnorth. His lands were taken into the King's (Edward II) hands. On 15 January 1321/22.6,3

    (Rebel) Battle-Boroughbridge On 16 Mar 1322, Sir John Gifford, Sir Hugh de Audley, Sir Gilbert Talbot, Sir Bartholomew de Burghersh, Sir Bartholomew de Badlesmere and Sir Humphrey VIII de Bohun fought on the side of the Earl of Lancaster at the Battle of Boroughbridge in Yorkshire He was captured, but allowed to ransom his life and lands for Ή2000.7,3,8

    Event-Misc He was released from prison on 11 July 1322.6

    Event-Misc He was empowered to arrest malefactors in Gloucestershire. On 28 October 1322 at Gloucestershire, England.6

    Event-Misc He was pardoned. On 1 November 1322.6

    Event-Misc He is to arrest disturbers of peace in Glou., Worc., and Here. He is made Custos of Gloucester Caslte, town, and barton under Hugh le Despenser, jun. On 1 November 1322.3

    Event-Misc* He is not to aggrieve Aymer, Earl of Pembroke for fishing in his ponds and taking his goods. On 27 December 1322.3

    Event-Misc He was among the knights to attend the Great Council on 9 May 1324 at Westminster.6,3

    Summoned He was summoned to serve in Guienne on 7 January 1325.3

    Event-Misc* His fines were cancelled by King Edward III on 13 February 1326/27.6,3

    Event-Misc He was styled Banneret on 24 November 1327.6

    Event-Misc He was the king's chamberlain in March 1327/28.6

    Event-Misc He obtained grants for Eccleswall and Credenhill, Hereford, and Longhope in Gloucstershire. In April 1328.6

    Event-Misc He was Justice of South Wales on 23 October 1330.6

    Event-Misc Summoned to Parliament between 27 January 1332 and 20 April 1343.6

    Event-Misc He and Hugh le Despenser were appointed to be captains against the King's enemies. On 13 July 1337.6

    Death* He died on 24 February 1346 at Eccleswall, Herefordshire, England, at age 69.1,5

    Title* He held the title of 1st Lord Talbot.6

    Inquisition Post Mor* At the inquisition post mortem of Sir Gilbert Talbot, on 1 March 1346, leaving s. h. Richard.3

    Family Anne le Boteler

    Marriage* He married Anne le Boteler, daughter of Sir William le Boteler of Wem and Ankaret verch Griffith.1,4

    Children

    Philippa Talbot

    Sir Richard Talbot M.P. b. c 1305, d. 23 Oct 1356

    Last Edited 5 Feb 2005

    Citations

    [S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 84A-30.

    [S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 84A-29.

    [S325] Rev. C. Moor, Knights of Edward I, v. 5, p. 3.

    [S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 242.

    [S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 246.

    [S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 243.

    [S325] Rev. C. Moor, Knights of Edward I, v. 2, p. 114.

    [S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 31.

    Chamberlain to Edward III. Summoned to parliament by writ directed 'Gilberto Talbot' whereby he is held to have become Baron Talbot 27 Jan 1331/2

    end

    Gilbert [Talbot], 1st Baron Talbot
    son and heir of Richard Talbot, feudal Lord of Eccleswall, co. Hereford, by his wife Sarah de Beauchamp, sister of William [de Beauchamp], 9th Earl of Warwick, and dau. of William de Beauchamp, of Elmley, co. Worcester, by his wife Isabel Mauduit, sister and hrss. of William [Mauduit], 8th Earl of Warwick, and dau. of William Mauduit, of Hanslope, co. Buckingham, by his wife Lady Alice de Beaumont, only dau. by his second wife of Waleran [de Beaumont], 4th Earl of Warwick
    born
    18 Oct 1276
    mar.
    Anne le Botiler, dau. of William le Botiler, of Wem, co. Shrewsbury
    children
    1. Sir Richard Talbot, later 2nd Baron Talbot
    died
    24 Feb 1345/6
    created
    by writ 27 Jan 1331/2 Baron Talbot
    suc. by
    son

    end

    Died:
    in Eccleswall Manor...

    Gilbert — Anne le Boteler. Anne (daughter of William le Boteler and Ankaret verch Griffith) was born ~ 1278, (Wemme) Shropshire, England; died 0___ 1340, Linton, Herefordshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 131.  Anne le Boteler was born ~ 1278, (Wemme) Shropshire, England (daughter of William le Boteler and Ankaret verch Griffith); died 0___ 1340, Linton, Herefordshire, England.

    Notes:

    Anne le Boteler
    Also Known As: "Anne le Botiler"
    Birthdate: circa 1278 (62)
    Birthplace: Probably Wemme, Shropshire, England
    Death: Died 1340 in Linton, Herefordshire, England
    Immediate Family:
    Daughter of Sir William le Boteler of Wem and Angharad verch Griffith
    Wife of Sir Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot
    Mother of Joan Talbot; Philippa de Talbot and Sir Richard Talbot, 2nd Lord Talbot, of Goodrich
    Sister of John le Boteler; Sir Nigel le Boteler; Gawine Le Boteler; William le Boteler, 1st Baron Boteler and Denise de Cokesey
    Managed by: Noah Tutak
    Last Updated: September 23, 2016

    About Anne le Boteler
    Ann le Botiler1

    F, #213398 Last Edited=4 Dec 2006

    Ann le Botiler is the daughter of William le Botiler.1

    Child of Ann le Botiler and Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot

    1.Richard Talbot, 2nd Lord Talbot+1 b. 1305, d. 23 Oct 1356

    notes

    He [Gilbert Talbot] is said to have married Anne, daughter of William LE BOTILER, of Wem. He died 24 February 1345/6 at Eccleswall. [Complete Peerage XII/1:610-12, (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)]

    Links

    http://www.celtic-casimir.com/webtree/14/24795.htm
    http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jweber&id=I08897
    http://thepeerage.com/p21340.htm#i213398

    Anne le Boteler1

    F, #10944

    Father Sir William le Boteler of Wem2 d. before 11 December 1283

    Mother Ankaret verch Griffith1 b. circa 1248, d. after 22 June 1308

    Name Variation Anne le Boteler was also styled Anne le Botiler.2

    Marriage* She married Sir Gilbert Talbot, son of Richard Talbot and Sarah de Beauchamp.2,3

    Family Sir Gilbert Talbot b. 18 October 1276, d. 24 February 1346

    Children

    Philippa Talbot

    Sir Richard Talbot M.P. b. c 1305, d. 23 Oct 1356

    Last Edited 5 Feb 2005

    Citations

    [S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 33.

    [S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 84A-30.

    [S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 242.

    Anne le Boteler1

    F, #10944

    Father Sir William le Boteler of Wem2 d. before 11 December 1283

    Mother Ankaret verch Griffith1 b. circa 1248, d. after 22 June 1308

    Name Variation Anne le Boteler was also styled Anne le Botiler.2

    Marriage* She married Sir Gilbert Talbot, son of Richard Talbot and Sarah de Beauchamp.2,3

    Family Sir Gilbert Talbot b. 18 October 1276, d. 24 February 1346

    Children

    Philippa Talbot

    Sir Richard Talbot M.P. b. c 1305, d. 23 Oct 1356

    Last Edited 5 Feb 2005

    Citations

    [S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 33.

    [S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 84A-30.

    [S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 242.

    end

    Children:
    1. 65. Joanna Talbot
    2. Richard Talbot, 2nd Baron Talbot was born 1302-1305, Wyke, Axminster, Devon, England; died 23 Oct 1356.

  5. 136.  Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel was born 1 May 1285, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England (son of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel); died 17 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Paris, France
    • Also Known As: 3rd Earl of Arundel

    Notes:

    Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel[a] (1 May 1285 – 17 November 1326) was an English nobleman prominent in the conflict between Edward II and his barons. His father, Richard FitzAlan, 2nd Earl of Arundel, died on 9 March 1301, while Edmund was still a minor. He therefore became a ward of John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, and married Warenne's granddaughter Alice. In 1306 he was styled Earl of Arundel, and served under Edward I in the Scottish Wars, for which he was richly rewarded.

    After Edward I's death, Arundel became part of the opposition to the new king Edward II, and his favourite Piers Gaveston. In 1311 he was one of the so-called Lords Ordainers who assumed control of government from the king. Together with Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, he was responsible for the death of Gaveston in 1312. From this point on, however, his relationship to the king became more friendly. This was to a large extent due to his association with the king's new favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger, whose daughter was married to Arundel's son. Arundel supported the king in suppressing rebellions by Roger Mortimer and other Marcher Lords, and eventually also Thomas of Lancaster. For this he was awarded with land and offices.

    His fortune changed, however, when the country was invaded in 1326 by Mortimer, who had made common cause with the king's wife, Queen Isabella. Immediately after the capture of Edward II, the queen, Edward III's regent, ordered Arundel executed, his title forfeit and his property confiscated. Arundel's son and heir Richard only recovered the title and lands in 1331, after Edward III had taken power from the regency of Isabella and Mortimer. In the 1390s, a cult emerged around the late earl. He was venerated as a martyr, though he was never canonised.

    Family and early life

    Edmund FitzAlan was born in the Castle of Marlborough, in Wiltshire, on 1 May 1285.[1] He was the son of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel, and his wife, Alice of Saluzzo, daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo in Italy. Richard had been in opposition to the king during the political crisis of 1295, and as a result he had incurred great debts and had parts of his land confiscated.[2] When Richard died in 09/03/1301, Edmund's wardship was given to John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. Warenne's only son, William, had died in 1286, so his daughter Alice was now heir apparent to the Warenne earldom. Alice was offered in marriage to Edmund, who for unknown reasons initially refused her. By 1305 he had changed his mind, however, and the two were married.[3]

    In April 1306, shortly before turning twenty-one, Edmund was granted possession of his father's title and land. On 22 May 1306, he was knighted by Edward I, along with the young Prince Edward – the future Edward II.[1] The knighting was done in expectation of military service the Scottish Wars, and after the campaign was over, Arundel was richly rewarded. Edward I pardoned the young earl a debt of Ή4,234. This flow of patronage continued after the death of Edward I in 1307; in 1308 Edward II returned the hundred of Purslow to Arundel, an honour that Edward I had confiscated from Edmund's father.[4] There were also official honours in the early years of Edward II's reign. At the new king's coronation on 25 February 1308, Arundel officiated as chief butler (or pincerna), a hereditary office of the earls of Arundel.[3]

    Opposition to Edward II

    Though the reign of Edward II was initially harmonious, he soon met with opposition from several of his earls and prelates.[5] At the source of the discontent was the king's relationship with the young Gascon knight Piers Gaveston, who had been exiled by Edward I, but was recalled immediately upon Edward II's accession.[6] Edward's favouritism towards the upstart Gaveston was an offence to the established nobility, and his elevation to the earldom of Cornwall was particularly offensive to the established nobility.[7] A group of magnates led by Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, forced Gaveston into exile in 1308.[8] By 1309, however, Edward had reconciled himself with the opposition, and Gaveston was allowed to return.[9]

    Arundel joined the opposition at an early point, and did not attend the Stamford parliament in July 1309, where Gaveston's return was negotiated.[10] After Gaveston returned, his behaviour became even more offensive, and opposition towards him grew.[11] In addition to this, there was great discontent with Edward II's failure to follow up his father's Scottish campaigns.[12] On 16 March 1310, the king had to agree to the appointment of a committee known as the Lords Ordainers, who were to be in charge of the reform of the royal government. Arundel was one of eight earls among the twenty-one Ordainers.[13]

    The Ordainers once more sent Gaveston into exile in 1311, but by 1312 he was back.[14] Now the king's favourite was officially an outlaw, and Arundel was among the earls who swore to hunt him down. The leader of the opposition – after Lincoln's death the year before – was now Thomas, Earl of Lancaster.[15] In June 1312 Gaveston was captured, tried before Lancaster, Arundel and the earls of Warwick and Hereford, and executed.[16] A reconciliation was achieved between the king and the offending magnates, and Arundel and the others received pardons, but animosity prevailed. In 1314 Arundel was among the magnates who refused to assist Edward in a campaign against the Scottish, resulting in the disastrous English defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn.[10]

    Return to loyalty

    Around the time of Bannockburn, however, Arundel's loyalty began to shift back towards the king. Edward's rapprochement towards the earl had in fact started earlier, when on 2 November 1313, the king pardoned Arundel's royal debts.[17] The most significant factor in this process though, was the marriage alliance between Arundel and the king's new favourites, the Despensers. Hugh Despenser the Younger and his father Hugh Despenser the elder were gradually taking over control of the government, and using their power to enrich themselves.[18] While this alienated most of the nobility, Arundel's situation was different. At some point in 1314–1315, his son Richard was betrothed to Isabel, daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger.[17] Now that he found himself back in royal favour, Arundel started receiving rewards in the form of official appointments. In 1317 he was appointed Warden of the Marches of Scotland, and in August 1318, he helped negotiate the Treaty of Leake, which temporarily reconciled the king with Thomas of Lancaster.[10]


    Clun Castle was the source of the personal animosity between Arundel and Roger Mortimer.
    With Arundel's change of allegiance came a conflict of interest. In August 1321, a demand was made to the king that Hugh Despenser and his father, Hugh Despenser the elder, be sent into exile.[19] The king, facing a rebellion in the Welsh Marches, had no choice but to assent.[20] Arundel voted for the expulsion, but later he claimed that he did so under compulsion, and also supported their recall in December.[10] Arundel had suffered personally from the rebellion, when Roger Mortimer seized his castle of Clun.[21][22] Early in 1322, Arundel joined King Edward in a campaign against the Mortimer family.[20] The opposition soon crumbled, and the king decided to move against Thomas of Lancaster, who had been supporting the marcher rebellion all along. Lancaster was defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge in March, and executed.[23]

    In the aftermath of the rebellion, the Despensers enriched themselves on the forfeited estates of the rebels, and Hugh Despenser the elder was created Earl of Winchester in May 1322.[24] Also Arundel, who was now one of the king's principal supporters, was richly rewarded. After the capture of Roger Mortimer in 1322, he received the forfeited Mortimer lordship of Chirk in Wales.[10] He was also trusted with important offices: he became Chief Justiciar of North and South Wales in 1323, and in 1325 he was made Warden of the Welsh Marches, responsible for the array in Wales.[1] He also extended his influence through marriage alliances; in 1325 he secured marriages between two of his daughters and the sons and heirs of two of Lancaster's main allies: the deceased earls of Hereford and Warwick.[b]

    Final years and death

    In 1323, Roger Mortimer, who had been held in captivity in the Tower of London, escaped and fled to France.[22] Two years later, Queen Isabella travelled to Paris on an embassy to the French king. Here, Isabella and Mortimer developed a plan to invade England and replace Edward II on the throne with his son, the young Prince Edward, who was in the company of Isabella.[25] Isabella and Mortimer landed in England on 24 September 1326, and due to the virulent resentment against the Despenser regime, few came to the king's aid.[26] Arundel initially escaped the invading force in the company of the king, but was later dispatched to his estates in Shropshire to gather troops.[27] At Shrewsbury he was captured by his old enemy John Charlton of Powys, and brought to Queen Isabella at Hereford. On 17 November – the day after Edward II had been taken captive – Arundel was executed, allegedly on the instigation of Mortimer.[10] According to a chronicle account, the use of a blunt sword was ordered, and the executioner needed 22 strokes to sever the earl's head from his body.[28]


    The ruins of Haughmond Abbey, Arundel's final resting place.
    Arundel's body was initially interred at the Franciscan church in Hereford. It had been his wish, however, to be buried at the family's traditional resting place of Haughmond Abbey in Shropshire, and this is where he was finally buried.[29] Though he was never canonised, a cult emerged around the late earl in the 1390s, associating him with the 9th-century martyr king St Edmund. This veneration may have been inspired by a similar cult around his grandson, Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who was executed by Richard II in 1397.[30]

    Arundel was attainted at his execution; his estates were forfeited to the crown, and large parts of these were appropriated by Isabella and Mortimer.[31] The castle and honour of Arundel was briefly held by Edward II's half-brother Edmund, Earl of Kent, who was executed on 3 September 1330.[1] Edmund FitzAlan's son, Richard, failed in an attempted rebellion against the crown in June 1330, and had to flee to France. In October the same year, the guardianship of Isabella and Mortimer was supplanted by the personal rule of King Edward III. This allowed Richard to return and reclaim his inheritance, and on 8 February 1331, he was fully restored to his father's lands, and created Earl of Arundel.[32]

    Issue

    Edmund and Alice had at least seven children:[33]

    Name Birth date Death date Notes
    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel c. 1313 24 January 1376 Married (1) Isabel le Despenser, (2) Eleanor of Lancaster
    Edmund — c. 1349
    Michael — —
    Mary — 29 August 1396 Married John le Strange, 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere[34]
    Aline — 20 January 1386 Married Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Knockin[35]
    Alice — 1326 Married John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford
    Katherine — d. 1375/76 Married (1) Henry Hussey, 2nd Baron Hussey, (2) Andrew Peverell
    Eleanor — — Married Gerard de Lisle, 1st Baron Lisle
    Elizabeth - - Married William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer
    Ancestry[edit]

    Residence:
    in exile...

    Died:
    executed...

    Edmund married Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel 0___ 1305. Alice (daughter of William de Warenne and Joan de Vere) was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England; died 23 May 1338. [Group Sheet]


  6. 137.  Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England (daughter of William de Warenne and Joan de Vere); died 23 May 1338.

    Notes:

    Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel (15 June 1287 -23 May 1338) was an English noblewoman and heir apparent to the Earldom of Surrey. In 1305, she married Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel.

    Family

    Alice, the only daughter of William de Warenne (1256-1286) and Joan de Vere, was born on 15 June 1287 in Warren, Sussex, six months after her father was accidentally killed in a tournament on 15 December 1286. On the death of her paternal grandfather, John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey in 1304, her only sibling John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey succeeded to the earldom. He became estranged from his childless wife and they never reconciled, leaving Alice as the heir presumptive to the Surrey estates and title.

    Marriage to the Earl of Arundel

    In 1305, Alice married Edmund Fitzalan, 9th Earl of Arundel,[1] the son of Richard Fitzalan, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo.[2] He had initially refused her, for reasons which were not recorded;[citation needed] however, by 1305, he had changed his mind and they were wed.[1] They had nine recorded children,[citation needed] and their chief residence was Arundel Castle in Sussex. Arundel inherited his title on 9 March 1302 upon his father's death.[2] He was summoned to Parliament as Lord Arundel in 1306, and was later one of the Lords Ordainers. He also took part in the Scottish wars.

    The Earl of Arundel and his brother-in-law John de Warenne were the only nobles who remained loyal to King Edward II, after Queen Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March returned to England in 1326. He had allied himself to the King's favourite Hugh le Despenser, and agreed to the marriage of his son to Despenser's granddaughter. Arundel had previously been granted many of the traitor Mortimer's forfeited estates, and was appointed Justice of Wales in 1322 and Warden of the Welsh Marches in 1325. He was also made Constable of Montgomery Castle which became his principal base.

    The Earl of Arundel was captured in Shropshire by the Queen's party.[3] On 17 November 1326 in Hereford, Arundel was beheaded by order of the Queen, leaving Alice de Warenne a widow. Her husband's estates and titles were forfeited to the Crown following Arundel's execution, but later restored to her eldest son, Richard.[citation needed]

    Alice died before 23 May 1338,[1] aged 50. Her brother died in 1347 without legitimate issue, thus the title of Surrey eventually passed to Alice's son, Richard.

    Issue

    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, known as Copped Hat, (1306 Arundel Castle, Sussex – 24 January 1376), also succeeded to the title of Earl of Surrey on 12 April 1361. He married firstly Isabel le Despenser, whom he later repudiated, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI. He had a son Edmund who was bastardised by the annulment. His second wife, whom he married on 5 February 1345, by Papal dispensation, was Eleanor of Lancaster, the daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth. She was the widow of John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont. Richard and Eleanor had three sons and four daughters, including Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel and Joan de Bohun, Countess of Hereford.
    Edward FitzAlan (1308–1398)
    Alice FitzAlan (born 1310), married John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford.
    Joan FitzAlan (born 1312), married Warin Gerard, Baron L'Isle.
    Aline FitzAlan (1314–1386), married Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Knockyn, by whom she had issue.
    John FitzAlan (born 1315)
    Catherine FitzAlan (died 1376), married firstly Andrew Peverell, and secondly Henry Hussey of Cockfield. Had issue by her second husband.
    Elizabeth FitzAlan (1320–1389), married William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, by whom she had one daughter, Elizabeth.
    Eleanor FitzAlan

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery on Christmas Day 1067. Roger became the first to hold the earldom of Arundel by the graces of William the Conqueror. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War and then restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    View image, history & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Children:
    1. 68. Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel was born 1306-1313, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 24 Jan 1376, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.
    2. Mary de Arundel was born Corfham Castle, Diddlebury, Shropshire, England; died 29 Aug 1396, Corfham, Shropshire, England.
    3. Aline FitzAlan was born 0___ 1314, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 20 Jan 1386.
    4. Elizabeth FitzAlan was born 0___ 1320, (England); died 0___ 1389.

  7. 138.  Hugh le Despencer, IV, Knight, Baron Despenser was born ~ 1286, England (son of Hugh le Despenser, Knight, 1st Earl of Winchester and Isabella Beauchamp); died 24 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried (Hulton Abbey, Staffordshire, England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 1st Lord Despenser

    Notes:

    Hugh le Despenser, 1st Lord Despenser (c. 1286[1] – 24 November 1326), also referred to as "the younger Despenser",[2] was the son and heir of Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester (the elder Despenser) by his wife Isabella de Beauchamp daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick.[3] He rose to national prominence as royal chamberlain and a favourite of Edward II of England. A series of subsequent controversies eventually led to him being hanged, drawn and quartered.

    Titles and possessions

    Hugh le Despenser the younger was knight of Hanley Castle, Worcestershire, King's Chamberlain, Constable of Odiham Castle, Keeper of Porchester Castle and town, Keeper of the royal Bristol Castle, the town and barton of Bristol and, in Wales, Keeper of Dryslwyn Castle and town and of Dryslwyn, and the region of Cantref Mawr, Carmarthenshire.

    Also in Wales, by marriage he became Lord of Glamorgan, seated at Cardiff Castle.

    He was also Keeper of the castles, manor, and lands of Brecknock, Hay, Cantref Selyf, etc., in County Brecon, and, in England of Huntington, Herefordshire.

    He was given Wallingford Castle although this had previously been given to Queen Isabella for life.

    Marriage

    In May 1306 Hugh le Despenser the younger was knighted, and that summer he married Eleanor de Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 9th Lord of Clare and 7th Earl of Hertford and Joan of Acre.

    Eleanor's grandfather, Edward I, owed the elder Despenser 2,000 marks (Ή1,000,000 at today's prices) and the marriage settled this debt, and was a reward for the elder Hugh's loyal service.

    When Eleanor's brother, Gilbert, was killed in 1314 at the Battle of Bannockburn, she unexpectedly became one of the three co-heiresses to the rich Gloucester earldom, and in her right, Hugh inherited Glamorgan and other properties.[4] In just a few years Hugh went from a landless knight to one of the wealthiest magnates in the kingdom.

    Eleanor was also the niece of the new king, Edward II of England, and this connection brought Despenser closer to the English royal court. He joined the baronial opposition to Piers Gaveston, the king's favourite (and Hugh's brother-in-law, as Gaveston was married to Eleanor's sister Margaret).

    Eager for power and wealth, Despenser seized Tonbridge Castle in 1315, after his brother-in-law's death under the misapprehension that it belonged to his mother-in-law (he relinquished it on discovering that the rightful owner was the Archbishop of Canterbury).[5] In 1318 he murdered Llywelyn Bren, a Welsh hostage in his custody.

    Eleanor and Hugh had nine children to survive infancy:

    Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer (1308–1349), 2nd Baron Le Despencer, who was restored to his grandfather's title of Baron le Despencer in 1338. At his death without issue, his nephew Edward, son of Edward (below), was created Baron Le Despencer in a new creation of 1357.
    Gilbert le Despenser, (1309–1381).

    Edward le Despenser, (1310–1342), soldier, killed at the siege of Vannes;[6] father of Edward II le Despenser, Knight of the Garter, who became Baron Le Despencer in a new creation of 1357. His son was Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester and 2nd Baron Le Despencer of the 1357 creation, who was married to a daughter of Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, youngest son of Edward III, and was attainted and beheaded in 1400 for his attempts to restore Richard II, his wife's cousin, to the throne. His attainder was reversed in 1461, with the victory of Edward IV, and the barony of the first creation (1264/1295) was eventually awarded in 1604 to Dame Mary Fane, heiress of Thomas's daughter Isabel Le Despencer, who married two cousins. The barony is now held by the Viscounts Falmouth.

    Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Arundel (1312–1356), married, as his 1st wife, Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel. The marriage was annulled and their child, Edmund, was disinherited.
    John le Despenser, (1311 – June 1366).
    Eleanor le Despenser, (c. 1315–1351), nun at Sempringham Priory
    Joan le Despenser, (c. 1317–1384), nun at Shaftesbury Abbey
    Margaret le Despenser, (c. 1319–1337), nun at Whatton Priory
    Elizabeth le Despenser, Baroness Berkeley|Elizabeth le Despenser]], born 1325, died 13 July 1389, married Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley.

    Political manoeuverings

    Hugh le Despenser the younger became royal chamberlain in 1318. As a royal courtier, Despenser manoeuvred into the affections of King Edward, displacing the previous favourite, Roger d'Amory. This was much to the dismay of the baronage as they saw him both taking their rightful places at court and being a worse version of Gaveston. By 1320 his greed was running free. He also supposedly vowed to be revenged on Roger Mortimer because Mortimer's grandfather had killed Hugh's grandfather, and once stated (though probably in jest) that he regretted he could not control the wind. By 1321 he had earned many enemies in every stratum of society, from Queen Isabella to the barons to the common people. There was even a plot to kill Despenser by sticking his wax likeness with pins.

    Finally the barons prevailed upon King Edward and forced Despenser and his father into exile in August 1321. Following the exile of the Despensers, the barons who opposed them fell out among themselves, and the King summoned the two men back to England. Early in the following year, King Edward took advantage of these divisions to secure the surrender of Marcher Lord Roger Mortimer, and the defeat and execution of the Earl of Lancaster, the Despensers' chief opponents. The pair returned and King Edward quickly reinstated Despenser as royal favourite. The time from the Despensers' return from exile until the end of Edward II's reign was a time of uncertainty in England. With the main baronial opposition leaderless and weak, having been defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and Edward willing to let them do as they pleased, the Despensers were left unchecked. This maladministration caused hostile feeling for them and, by proxy, Edward II. Despenser repeatedly pressed King Edward to execute Mortimer,[citation needed] who had been held prisoner in the Tower of London, following his surrender. However, Mortimer escaped from the Tower and fled to France.

    Criminality

    Like his father, Hugh Despenser the Elder, the younger Despenser was accused by a significant number of people of widespread criminality. Examples include;

    Theft from Relatives - Despenser seized the Welsh lands of his wife's inheritance, ignoring the claims of his two brothers-in-law and cheated his sister-in-law Elizabeth de Clare out of Gower and Usk.
    Theft - forced Alice de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, to give up her lands,
    Torture - he had Lady Baret's arms and legs broken until she went insane.
    Murder - unlawfully killing a prisoner (Llweyn Bren) who was awaiting trial[7]
    Piracy - during his exile he became a pirate in the English Channel, "a sea monster, lying in wait for merchants as they crossed the sea".[8]
    False Imprisonment & Death Threats - he imprisoned Sir William Cokerell in the Tower of London, where Cokerell was forced to pay to save his life[9]
    Accusations of sodomy[edit]
    14th century court historian Froissart wrote that "he was a sodomite." According to Froissart, Despenser's penis was severed and burned in his execution as a punishment for his sodomy and heresy.[10]

    Relationship with Isabella and downfall

    Queen Isabella had a special dislike for Hugh le Despenser the younger. Alison Weir, in her 2005 book Queen Isabella: Treachery, Adultery, and Murder in Medieval England, speculates that he had raped Isabella and that was the source of her hatred. While Isabella was in France to negotiate between her husband and the French king, she formed a liaison with Roger Mortimer and began planning an invasion. Despenser supposedly tried to bribe French courtiers to assassinate Isabella, sending barrels of silver as payment.[citation needed] Roger Mortimer and the Queen invaded England in October 1326. Their forces numbered only about 1,500 mercenaries to begin with, but the majority of the nobility rallied to them throughout October and November. By contrast, very few people were prepared to fight for Edward II, mainly because of the hatred that the Despensers had aroused.

    The Despensers fled West with the King, with a sizeable sum from the treasury. The escape was unsuccessful. Separated from the elder Despenser, the King and the younger Despenser were deserted by most of their followers, and were captured near Neath in mid-November. King Edward was placed in captivity and later forced to abdicate in favour of his son. The elder Despenser (the father) was hanged at Bristol on 27 October 1326, and younger Despenser (the son) was brought to trial.

    Trial and execution

    The execution of Hugh le Despenser the younger, from a manuscript of Jean Froissart.
    Hugh le Despenser the Younger tried to starve himself before his trial,[11] but he did face trial on 24 November 1326, in Hereford, before Mortimer and the Queen. In Froissart's account of the execution, Despenser was then tied firmly to a ladder, and—in full view of the crowd—had his genitals sliced off and burned in his still-conscious sight, then his entrails slowly pulled out, and, finally, his heart cut out and thrown into the fire. Froissart (or rather Jean le Bel's chronicle, on which he relied) is the only source to describe castration, where all other contemporary accounts have Despenser hanged, drawn and quartered (which usually involved castration).[12]

    Finally, his corpse was beheaded, his body cut into four pieces, and his head mounted on the gates of London.[2]

    Remains

    Four years later, in December 1330, his widow was given permission to gather and bury his remains at the family's Gloucestershire estate,[2] but only the head, a thigh bone and a few vertebrae were returned to her.[13]

    What may be the body of Despenser was identified in February 2008 in the village of Abbey Hulton in Staffordshire, the former site of Hulton Abbey. The skeleton, which was first uncovered during archaeological work in the 1970s, appeared to be that of a victim of a drawing and quartering as it had been beheaded and chopped into several pieces with a sharp blade, suggesting a ritual killing. Furthermore, it lacked several body parts, including the ones given to Despenser's wife. Radiocarbon analysis dated the body to between 1050 and 1385, and later tests suggested it to be that of a man over 34 years old. Despenser was 40 at the time of his death. In addition, the Abbey is located on lands that belonged to Hugh Audley, Despenser's brother-in-law, at the time.[13]

    Legacy

    No book-length biographical study of Hugh le Despenser exists, although The Tyranny and Fall of Edward II: 1321–1326 by historian Natalie Fryde is a study of Edward's reign during the years that the Despensers' power was at its peak. Fryde pays particular attention to the subject of the Despensers' ill-gotten landholdings.[14] The numerous accusations against the younger Despenser at the time of his execution have never been the subject of close critical scrutiny, although Roy Martin Haines called them "ingenuous" and noted their propagandistic nature.[15]

    Despite the crucial and disastrous role he played in the reign of Edward II, Despenser is almost a minor character in Christopher Marlowe's play Edward II (1592), where, as "Spencer", he is little more than a substitute for the dead Gaveston. In 2006, he was selected by BBC History Magazine as the 14th century's worst Briton.[16]

    His image on the stained glass window of the Banqueting Hall of Cardiff Castle, shows his coat of arms inverted—a symbol of disgrace.

    Ancestry

    Edward II of England and Hugh Despenser the elder extorted the lands of Alice de Lacy, 4th Countess of Lincoln, and to make the transfers of title appear legitimate, declared Hugh the younger her "kinsman".

    [show]Ancestors of Hugh Despenser the Younger

    Notable descendants

    Anne Neville, the queen consort of King Richard III of England, is a direct descendant of Hugh le Despenser the younger. Anne's grandmother, Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Worcester and Warwick, was the granddaughter of Edward le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer, who in turn was the grandson of the younger Despenser.

    The sixth and last queen consort to Henry VIII, Catherine Parr, also descended from the 1st Baron le Despencer, through his daughter Margaret, who married Robert de Ferrers, 4th Baron Ferrers of Chartley.[17]

    The New England Protestant reformer Anne (Marbury) Hutchinson was a descendant of Hugh through his grandson Edward.[18] Through her, many Americans including Franklin D. Roosevelt and George W. Bush, can claim Hugh the younger as an ancestor.[19]

    *

    Died:
    Hanged, drawn and quartered for High treason...

    Hugh married Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer 1 May 1306, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. Eleanor (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre) was born 0Oct 1292, Caerphilly Castle, Caerphilly, Urban, Glamorgan, Wales; died 30 Jun 1337, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England; was buried (Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ). [Group Sheet]


  8. 139.  Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer was born 0Oct 1292, Caerphilly Castle, Caerphilly, Urban, Glamorgan, Wales (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre); died 30 Jun 1337, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England; was buried (Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ).
    Children:
    1. 69. Isabe le Despenser, Countess of Arundel was born 0___ 1312; died ~ 1376.
    2. Elizabeth Despencer was born 0___ 1322, Bishop's Stoke, Westbury Upon Trym, Gloucester, England; died 13 Jul 1389; was buried St. Botolph Aldersgate, London, Middlesex, England.
    3. Edward le Despencer

  9. 142.  William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison

    William — Sibylla de Tregoz. [Group Sheet]


  10. 143.  Sibylla de Tregoz
    Children:
    1. 71. Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury was born ~ 1304; died 23 Nov 1349.

  11. 160.  Hugh Courtenay was born 25 Mar 1249, Oakhampton, Devonshire, England (son of John Courtenay, 2nd Baron Okehampton and Isabel de Vere); died 28 Feb 1292, Colcombe, Devonshire, England; was buried Cowick Priory, Exeter, Devonshire, England.

    Notes:

    Hugh COURTENAY (Sir)

    Born: 25 Mar 1249, Oakhampton, Devon, England

    Died: 28 Feb 1290/91, Cullicomb, Devon, England

    Buried: Cowick, Devonshire, England

    Father: John COURTENAY (2° B. Okehampton)

    Mother: Isabel De VERE

    Married: Eleanor DESPENCER (BET 1245/1260-30 Sep 1328) BEF 1273

    Children:

    1. Eleanor COURTENAY

    2. Phillip COURTENAY

    3. Thomas COURTENAY

    4. Avelina (Ada)COURTENAY

    5. John COURTENAY

    6. Robert COURTENAY

    7. Alice COURTENAY

    8. Hugh COURTENAY (1° E. Devon)

    9. Margaret COURTENAY

    10. Isabel COURTENAY

    11. Egeline COURTENAY

    *

    Sir Hugh de Courtenay (1251–1292) was the son and heir of John de Courtenay, feudal baron of Okehampton, Devon, by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford. His son inherited the earldom of Devon.

    Early years

    Sir Hugh de Courtenay, born 25 March 1251,[1] was the son and heir of John de Courtenay of Okehampton, Devon, by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford, and Hawise de Quincy.[2] John's father, Robert de Courtenay (d. 26 July 1242),[3] son of Reginald de Courtenay (d.1190) by Hawise de Curci (d.1219), heiress of the feudal barony of Okehampton,[4] married Mary de Redvers (sometimes called 'de Vernon'), daughter of William de Redvers, 5th Earl of Devon (d.1217).

    In order to avoid military service Courtenay paid a fine on 12 December 1276. He was called to arms on the emergency against the Welsh princes, fighting in the 1282 campaign. He attended upon the King at Shrewsbury on 28 June 1283. He again absented himself from the wars on 14 June 1287 by paying the King's justice a fine.[5]

    Marriage and issue

    Courtenay married Eleanor le Despenser (d.1328),[6] daughter of Hugh le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer, Justiciar of England, of Loughborough, Leicestershire and Ryhall, Rutland by his wife Aline Basset, daughter of Sir Philip Basset, Justiciar of England, of Wycombe, Buckinghamshire and Compton Bassett and Wootton Bassett, Wiltshire. By his wife he had four[6] sons and five[6] daughters:[7]

    Hugh de Courtenay, 1st/9th Earl of Devon (1276–1340) of Tiverton Castle, eldest son and heir.
    Sir Philip Courtenay (d.1314) of Moreton Hampstead in Devon, slain at Stirling on 24 June 1314, according to Vivian.[6] Died childless, when Moreton Hampstead was inherited by his elder brother the Earl of Devon.[8]
    John Courtenay, died young.[6]
    Robert Courtenay, died young.[6]
    Isabel de Courtenay, wife of John de Saint John, 1st Baron St John (died 1329) of Basing.[6]
    Aveline de Courtenay, wife of Sir John Giffard[6]
    Egeline (or Eleanor) de Courtenay, wife of John le Scales[6]
    Margaret (or Margery) de Courtenay, wife of John de Moels.[9] Other sources give her husband as Nicholas de Moels, 2nd Baron Moels (d.1316), feudal baron of North Cadbury, Somerset. Without progeny.
    Alice Courtenay, died young[6]

    Death

    Courtenay died at Colcombe, Devon, on 28 February 1292.[10] He was buried at Cowick Priory, near Exeter.

    *

    Hugh married Eleanor Despencer Bef 1273. Eleanor died 30 Sep 1328. [Group Sheet]


  12. 161.  Eleanor Despencer died 30 Sep 1328.
    Children:
    1. 80. Hugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon was born 14 Sep 1276, (Okehampton, Devon, England); died 23 Dec 1340, Tiverton, Devon, England.
    2. Isabel Courtenay was born ~ 1283.

  13. 164.  Humphrey de Bohun, V, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1249 (son of Humphrey de Bohun, VI, 2nd Earl of Hereford and Eleanor de Braose); died 31 Dec 1298, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England; was buried Walden Priory, Essex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Birth: ~ 1256, Herefordshire, England

    Notes:

    Humphrey (V) de Bohun (c. 1249[nb 1] – 31 December 1298), 3rd Earl of Hereford and 2nd Earl of Essex, was an English nobleman known primarily for his opposition to King Edward I over the Confirmatio Cartarum.[1] He was also an active participant in the Welsh Wars and maintained for several years a private feud with the earl of Gloucester.[2] His father, Humphrey (V) de Bohun, fought on the side of the rebellious barons in the Barons' War. When Humphrey (V) predeceased his father, Humphrey (VI) became heir to his grandfather, Humphrey (IV). At Humphrey (IV)'s death in 1275, Humphrey (VI) inherited the earldoms of Hereford and Essex. He also inherited major possessions in the Welsh Marches from his mother, Eleanor de Braose.

    Bohun's spent most of his early career reconquering Marcher lands captured by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd during the Welsh war in England. This was finally accomplished through Edward I's war in Wales in 1277. Hereford also fought in Wales in 1282–83 and 1294–95. At the same time he also had private feuds with other Marcher lords, and his conflict with Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, eventually ended with the personal intervention of King Edward himself. Hereford's final years were marked by the opposition he and Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, mounted against the military and fiscal policy of Edward I. The conflict escalated to a point where civil war threatened, but was resolved when the war effort turned towards Scotland. The king signed the Confirmatio Cartarum – a confirmation of Magna Carta – and Bohun and Bigod agreed to serve on the Falkirk Campaign. Bohun died in 1298, and was succeeded by his son, Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.

    Family background and inheritance

    Humphrey (VI) de Bohun was part of a line of Anglo-Norman aristocrats going back to the Norman Conquest, most of whom carried the same name.[3] His grandfather was Humphrey (IV) de Bohun, who had been part of the baronial opposition of Simon de Montfort, but later gone over to the royal side. He was taken prisoner at the Battle of Lewes in May 1264, but was restored to favour after the royalist victory at the Battle of Evesham the next year.[4] Humphrey (IV)'s son, Humphrey (V) de Bohun, remained loyal to the baronial side throughout the Barons' War, and was captured at Evesham on 4 August 1265. In October that year Humphrey (V) died in captivity at Beeston Castle in Cheshire from injuries he had sustained in the battle.[5]

    Humphrey (V) had been excluded from succession as a result of his rebellion, but when Humphrey (IV) died in 1275, Humphrey (VI) inherited the earldoms of Hereford and Essex.[6] Humphrey (VI) had already served as deputy Constable of England under Humphrey (IV).[7] Humphrey (IV) had reserved the honour of Pleshey for his younger son Henry, but the remainder of his lands went to Humphrey (VI).[4] The inheritance Humphrey (VI) received – in addition to land in Essex and Wiltshire from Humphrey (IV) – also consisted of significant holdings in the Welsh Marches from his mother.[8] His mother Eleanor was a daughter and coheir of William de Braose and his wife Eva Marshal, who in turn was the daughter and coheir of William Marshal, regent to Henry III.[6]

    Since Humphrey (VI) was only sixteen years old at the time of his father's death, the Braose lands were taken into the king's custody until 1270.[1] Part of this inheritance, the Marcher lordship of Brecon, was in the meanwhile given to the custody of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Hertford. Humphrey technically regained his lordship from Clare in 1270, but by this time these lands had effectively been taken over by the Welsh prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, who had taken advantage of the previous decade's political chaos in England to extend his territory into the Marches.[9]

    He granted his brother Gilbert de Bohun all of their mother's lands in Ireland and some land in England and Wales.

    Welsh Wars

    See also: Conquest of Wales by Edward I
    Over the next years, much of Hereford's focus was on reconquering his lost lands in the Marches, primarily through private warfare against Llywelyn.[10] Henry III died in 1272, while his son – now Edward I – was crusading; Edward did not return until 1274.[11] Llywelyn refused to pay homage to the new king, partly because of the military actions of Bohun and other Marcher lords, which Llywelyn saw as violations of the Treaty of Montgomery.[12] On 12 November 1276, Hereford was present at a royal assembly where judgment was passed on Llewelyn,[7] and in 1277, Edward I declared war on the Welsh prince.[13] Rebellion in his own Brecon lands delayed Hereford's participation in the early days of the Welsh war. He managed, however, to both suppress the rebellion, and conquer lands further west.[14] He then joined up with the royal army and served for a while in Anglesey, before returning to Brecon, where he received the surrender of certain Welsh lords.[15] After the campaign was over, on 2 January 1278, he received protection from King Edward to go on pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.[7]

    In 1282, war with Wales broke out again; this time it would not be simply a punitive campaign, but a full-scale war of conquest.[16] Initially, the king wanted to fight the war with paid forces, but the nobility insisted on the use of the feudal summons. To men like Hereford, this was preferable, because as part of a feudal army the participants would have both a stake in the war and a justifiable claim on conquered land. In the end, although the earls won, none of them were paid for the war effort.[17] Hereford jealously guarded his authority as hereditary Constable of England, and protested vigorously when the Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester was appointed commander of the forces in South Wales.[18] In the post war settlement, however, neither Hereford nor Gloucester received any significant rewards of land, the way several other magnates did.[19] Hereford fought again in Wales, in the suppression of the rebellion of 1294–95, when he again had to pacify the territory of Brecon before joining the king in the north.[20]

    Private war in the Marches

    The historic county of Brecknockshire, which corresponds roughly to Hereford's lordship of Brecon.
    Parallel with the Welsh Wars, Hereford was also struggling to assert his claims to lands in the Marches against other Marcher lords. In 1284 Edward I granted the hundred of Iscennen in Carmarthenshire to John Giffard. Hereford believed the land belonged to him by right of conquest, and started a campaign to win the lands back, but the king took Giffard's side.[21] Problems also arose with the earl of Gloucester. As Gloucester's former ward, Hereford had to buy back his own right of marriage, but Gloucester claimed he had not received the full sum.[6] There was also remaining resentment on Hereford's part for his subordination to Gloucester in the 1282–83 campaign. The conflict came to a head when Gloucester's started construction of a castle at Morlais, which Hereford claimed was his land.[22] In 1286, the Crown ordered Gloucester to cease, but to no avail.[23]

    It had long been established Marcher custom to solve conflicts through private warfare.[1] Hereford's problem, however, was his relative weakness in the Marches, and now he was facing open conflict with two different enemies. He therefore decided to take the issue to the king instead, in a break with tradition.[6] King Edward again ordered Gloucester to stop, but the earl ignored the order and initiated raids on Hereford's lands.[24] Hostilities continued and Hereford responded, until both earls were arrested and brought before the king.[25] The real offense was not the private warfare in itself, but the fact that the earls had not respected the king's injunction to cease.[2] In the parliament of January 1292, Gloucester was fined 10,000 marks and Hereford 1,000. Gloucester's liberty of Glamorgan was declared forfeit, and confiscated by the crown, as was Hereford's of Brecon.[26]

    In the end the fines were never paid, and the lands were soon restored.[22] Edward had nevertheless demonstrated an important point. After the conquest of Wales, the strategic position of the Marcher lordships was less vital to the English crown, and the liberty awarded to the Marcher lords could be curtailed.[2] For Edward this was therefore a good opportunity to assert the royal prerogative, and to demonstrate that it extended also into the Marches of Wales.[27]

    Opposition to Edward I

    In 1294 the French king declared the English duchy of Aquitaine forfeit, and war broke out between the two countries.[28] Edward I embarked on a wide-scale and costly project of building alliances with other princes on the Continent, and preparing an invasion.[29] When the king, at the parliament of March 1297 in Salisbury, demanded military service from his earls, Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, refused in his capacity of marshal of England. The argument was that the king's subjects were not obliged to serve abroad if not in the company of the king, but Edward insisted on taking his army to Flanders while sending his earls to Gascony.[30]


    Bohun and Bigod confront King Edward. Early 20th-century imaginary illustration
    At the time of the Salisbury parliament, Hereford was accompanying two of the king's daughters to Brabant, and could not be present.[31] On his return, however, as Constable of England, he joined Bigod in July in refusing to perform feudal service.[6] The two earls were joined in their opposition by the earls of Arundel and Warwick.[32] The main reasons for the magnates' defiance was the heavy burden of taxation caused by Edward's continuous warfare in Wales, France and Scotland. In this they were also joined by Robert Winchelsey, the Archbishop of Canterbury, who was in the midst of an ongoing dispute with the king over clerical taxation.[33] At one point Bohun and Bigod turned up in person at the Exchequer to protest a tax they claimed did not have the consent of the community of the realm.[34] For Hereford there was also a personal element in the opposition to the king, after the humiliation and the affront to his liberties he had suffered over the dispute in the Marches.[35][36] At a meeting just outside London, Bohun gave an impassioned speech objecting to the king's abuse of power and demanding the restoration of ancient liberties. The grievances were summarised in a document known as the Remonstrances.[37]

    Neither party showed any inclination to back down, and the nation seemed on the brink of another civil war.[38] Just as the conflict was coming to a head, however, external events intervened to settle it. In September 1297, the English suffered a heavy defeat to the Scots at the Battle of Stirling Bridge.[39] The Scottish victory exposed the north of England to Scottish raids led by William Wallace. The war with Scotland received wider support from the English magnates, now that their own homeland was threatened, than did the war in France to protect the king's continental possessions.[40] Edward abandoned his campaign in France and negotiated a truce with the French king. He agreed to confirm Magna Carta in the so-called Confirmatio Cartarum (Confirmation of the Charters).[41] The earls consequently consented to serve with the king in Scotland, and Hereford was in the army that won a decisive victory over the Scots in the Battle of Falkirk in 1298.[7] Hereford, not satisfied that the king had upheld the charter, withdrew after the battle, forcing Edward to abandon the campaign.[2]

    Death and family

    The earthwork remains of Pleshey Castle where Humphrey de Bohun died.
    In 1275 Bohun married Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand de Fiennes, chevalier, seigneur of Fiennes, by his 2nd wife, Isabel (kinswoman of Queen Eleanor of Provence). She predeceased him, and was buried at Walden Priory in Essex. Hereford himself died at Pleshey Castle on 31 December 1298, and was buried at Walden alongside his wife.[6] They had one son Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, born around 1276.[42] The son was given possession of his father's lands and titles on 16 February 1299.[43] The young Humphrey also inherited his father's title of Constable of England.[44]

    A common theme in Humphrey de Bohun's actions was his fierce protection of what he regarded as his feudal privileges.[1] His career was marked by turbulence and political strife, particularly in the Marches of Wales, but eventually he left a legacy of consolidated possessions there. In 1297, at the height of the conflict between Edward I and rebellious barons, the king had actively tried to undermine Hereford's authority in the Marches, but failed due to the good relations the earl enjoyed with the local men.[45]

    Notes

    Jump up ^ He was reported to be 18 ½ years old in the 51st year of the reign of Henry III, and 24 or 26 after the death of his grandfather in 1275. Cokayne (1910–59), pp. 463–6.

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Fritze and Robison, (2002).
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Hicks (1991).
    Jump up ^ White, Graeme (2004). "Bohun, Humphrey (III) de (b. before 1144, d. 1181)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2774.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Vincent (2004).
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1953), p. 202.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Waugh (2004).
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Cokayne (1910–59), pp. 463–6.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 21.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 112.
    Jump up ^ Davies (2000), pp. 322–3.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), pp. 225–6.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 174–5.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), p. 408.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 171.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), pp. 178–9, 194.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 188.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1972), pp. 71–3.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1972), p. 72.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 204.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 256.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), pp. 201–2.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Prestwich (2007), p. 136.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 348.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 226.
    Jump up ^ Carpenter (2003), p. 478.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), p. 350
    Jump up ^ Davies (1978), pp. 259–60, 255–7.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 378–9.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 387–8.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), pp. 666, 678.
    Jump up ^ Powicke (1952), p. 680 n.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 419.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), p. 420.
    Jump up ^ Carpenter (2003), p. 485.
    Jump up ^ Morris (2008), p. 297.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), pp. 274–5.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 420–1.
    Jump up ^ Davies (1978), p. 269.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 283.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (2007), p. 170.
    Jump up ^ Prestwich (1997), pp. 427–8.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne (1910–59), p. 467.
    Jump up ^ Fryde, E. B. (1961). Handbook of British Chronology (Second ed.). London: Royal Historical Society. p. 431.
    Jump up ^ Morris (1901), p. 300.
    Jump up ^ Davies (1978), p. 290.

    Sources

    Carpenter, David (2003). The Struggle for Mastery: Britain, 1066-1284. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-522000-5.
    Cokayne, George (1910–59). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. VI (New ed.). London: The St. Catherine Press.
    Davies, R. R. (1978). Lordship and Society in the March of Wales, 1282-1400. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822454-0.
    Davies, R. R. (2000). The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063-1415. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820878-2.
    Fritze, Ronald H.; William Baxter Robison (2002). "Bohoun, Humphrey de, 3rd Earl of Hereford and 2nd Earl of Essex (c. 1249-98)". Historical dictionary of late medieval England, 1272-1485. Westport, London: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 61–3. ISBN 0-313-29124-1. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
    Hicks, Michael (1991). Who's Who in Late Medieval England (1272-1485). Who's Who in British History Series. 3. London: Shepheard-Walwyn. pp. 29–30. ISBN 0-85683-092-5.
    Morris, J. E. (1901). The Welsh Wars of Edward I. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Morris, Marc (2008). A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and the Forging of Britain (updated ed.). London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-179684-6.
    Prestwich, Michael (1972). War, Politics and Finance under Edward I. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-09042-7.
    Prestwich, Michael (1997). Edward I (updated ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07209-0.
    Prestwich, Michael (2007). Plantagenet England: 1225-1360 (new ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822844-9.
    Powicke, F. M. (1953). The Thirteenth Century: 1216-1307. Oxford: Clarendon. ISBN 0-19-285249-3.
    Vincent, Nicholas (2004). "Bohun, Humphrey (IV) de, second earl of Hereford and seventh earl of Essex (d. 1275)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2775.
    Waugh, Scott L. (2004). "Bohun, Humphrey (VI) de, third earl of Hereford and eighth earl of Essex (c.1249–1298)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2776.

    Humphrey married Maud de Fiennes 20 Jul 1275. Maud (daughter of Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde) was born ~ 1251, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England; died 6 Nov 1298; was buried Saffron Walden, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]


  14. 165.  Maud de Fiennes was born ~ 1251, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England (daughter of Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde); died 6 Nov 1298; was buried Saffron Walden, Essex, England.
    Children:
    1. 82. Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1276, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England; died 16 Mar 1322, Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, England; was buried Friars Minor, York, Yorkshire, England.

  15. 166.  Edward I, King of EnglandEdward I, King of England was born 17 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was christened 22 Jun 1239, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom (son of Henry III, King of England and Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile); died 7 Jul 1307, Burgh by Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria, England; was buried 28 Oct 1307, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward Longshanks

    Notes:

    More on King Edward I ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England

    Remember Mel Gibson's role as William Wallace in his 1995 movie, "Braveheart", about the 13th c. Scottish Rebellion? Here is the fellow he battled, brilliantly portrayed by Patrick McGoohan... Here's a clip of that movie... http://www.cinemagia.ro/trailer/braveheart-braveheart-inima-neinfricata-1054/

    Edward I, called Longshanks (1239-1307), king of England (1272-1307), Lord of Gascony, of the house of Plantagenet. He was born in Westminster on June 17, 1239, the eldest son of King Henry III, and at 15 married Eleanor of Castile. In the struggles of the barons against the crown for constitutional and ecclesiastical reforms, Edward took a vacillating course. When warfare broke out between the crown and the nobility, Edward fought on the side of the king, winning the decisive battle of Evesham in 1265. Five years later he left England to join the Seventh Crusade.

    Following his father's death in 1272, and while he was still abroad, Edward was recognized as king by the English barons; in 1273, on his return to England, he was crowned.

    The first years of Edward's reign were a period of the consolidation of his power. He suppressed corruption in the administration of justice, restricted the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to church affairs, and eliminated the papacy's overlordship over England. On the refusal of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd (died 1282), ruler of Wales, to submit to the English crown, Edward began the military conflict that resulted, in 1284, in the annexation of Llewelyn's principality to the English crown. In 1290 Edward expelled all Jews from England. War between England and France broke out in 1293 as a result of the efforts of France to curb Edward's power in Gascony. Edward lost Gascony in 1293 and did not again come into possession of the duchy until 1303. About the same year in which he lost Gascony, the Welsh rose in rebellion.
    Greater than either of these problems was the disaffection of the people of Scotland. In agreeing to arbitrate among the claimants to the Scottish throne, Edward, in 1291, had exacted as a prior condition the recognition by all concerned of his overlordship of Scotland. The Scots later repudiated him and made an alliance with France against England. To meet the critical situations in Wales and Scotland, Edward summoned a parliament, called the Model Parliament by historians because it was a representative body and in that respect was the forerunner of all future parliaments. Assured by Parliament of support at home, Edward took the field and suppressed the Welsh insurrection. In 1296, after invading and conquering Scotland, he declared himself king of that realm. In 1298 he again invaded Scotland to suppress the revolt led by Sir William Wallace. In winning the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, Edward achieved the greatest military triumph of his career, but he failed to crush Scottish opposition.

    The conquest of Scotland became the ruling passion of his life. He was, however, compelled by the nobles, clergy, and commons to desist in his attempts to raise by arbitrary taxes the funds he needed for campaigns. In 1299 Edward made peace with France and married Margaret, sister of King Philip III of France. Thus freed of war, he again undertook the conquest of Scotland in 1303. Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. No sooner had Edward established his government in Scotland, however, than a new revolt broke out and culminated in the coronation of Robert Bruce as king of Scotland. In 1307 Edward set out for the third time to subdue the Scots, but he died en route near Carlisle on July 7, 1307. He also had a daughter with Eleanor of Castile that died young.

    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Edward I [37370] Burgh by Sands, Cumbria, England

    is the 22nd great-grandfather of David Hennessee:

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    and also of Sheila Ann Mynatt Hennessee (1945-2016):

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=I27517&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    Died:
    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church, St. Michael's, until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Photos, maps & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgh_by_Sands

    Edward married Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England 18 Oct 1254, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain. Eleanor (daughter of Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu) was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain; died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. [Group Sheet]


  16. 167.  Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain (daughter of Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu); died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Ponthieu

    Notes:

    Eleanor of Castile (1241 - 28 November 1290) was the first queen consort of Edward I of England. She was also Countess of Ponthieu in her own right from 1279 until her death in 1290, succeeding her mother and ruling together with her husband.

    Eleanor was better-educated than most medieval queens, and exerted a strong cultural influence on the nation. She was a keen patron of literature, and encouraged the use of tapestries, carpets and tableware in the Spanish style, as well as innovative garden designs. She was also a successful businesswoman, endowed with her own fortune as Countess of Ponthieu.

    Issue

    Daughter, stillborn in May 1255 in Bordeaux, France. Buried in Dominican Priory Church, Bordeaux, France.
    Katherine (c 1261 – 5 September 1264) and buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Joanna (January 1265 - before 7 September 1265), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    John (13 July 1266 – 3 August 1271), died at Wallingford, in the custody of his granduncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall. Buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Henry (before 6 May 1268 – 16 October 1274), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Eleanor (18 June 1269 – 29 August 1298). She was long betrothed to Alfonso III of Aragon, who died in 1291 before the marriage could take place, and in 1293 she married Count Henry III of Bar, by whom she had one son and one daughter.
    Daughter (1271 Palestine ). Some sources call her Juliana, but there is no contemporary evidence for her name.
    Joan (April 1272 – 7 April 1307). She married (1) in 1290 Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, who died in 1295, and (2) in 1297 Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer. She had four children by each marriage.
    Alphonso (24 November 1273 - 19 August 1284), Earl of Chester.
    Margaret (15 March 1275 – after 1333). In 1290 she married John II of Brabant, who died in 1318. They had one son.
    Berengaria (1 May 1276 – before 27 June 1278), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Daughter (December 1277/January 1278 - January 1278), buried in Westminster Abbey. There is no contemporary evidence for her name.
    Mary (11 March 1279 – 29 May 1332), a Benedictine nun in Amesbury.
    Son, born in 1280 or 1281 who died very shortly after birth. There is no contemporary evidence for his name.
    Elizabeth (7 August 1282 – 5 May 1316). She married (1) in 1297 John I, Count of Holland, (2) in 1302 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex. The first marriage was childless; by Bohun, Elizabeth had ten children.
    Edward II of England, also known as Edward of Caernarvon (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327). In 1308 he married Isabella of France. They had two sons and two daughters.
    It is often said, on the basis of antiquarian genealogies from the 15th-17th centuries, that Eleanor delivered 2 daughters in the years after Edward II's birth. The names most often associated with these ephemeral daughters are "Beatrice" and "Blanche"; later writers also mention "Juliana" and "Euphemia," and even a "Berenice," probably by confusion with the historical daughter Berengaria. At least one eighteenth-century writer made "Beatrice" and Berengaria into twins, presumably because of the alliteration of names; but Berengaria's birth in 1276 (not the 1280s) was noted by more than one chronicler of the day, and none of them reports that Berengaria had a twin sister. Queen Eleanor's wardrobe and treasury accounts survive almost intact for the years 1288-1290 and record no births in those years, nor do they ever refer to daughters with any of those names. Even more records survive from King Edward's wardrobe between 1286 and 1290 than for his wife's, and they too are silent on any such daughters. It is most unlikely that they ever existed in historical fact. It is more likely that there were other pregnancies and short-lived children in the years prior to 1266, when records for Eleanor's movements are very slight.

    Eleanor as a mother

    It has been suggested that Eleanor and Edward were more devoted to each other than to their children. As king and queen, however, it was impossible for them to spend much time in one place, and when they were very young, the children could not travel constantly with their parents. The children had a household staffed with attendants carefully chosen for competence and loyalty, with whom the parents corresponded regularly. The children lived in this comfortable establishment until they were about seven years old; then they began to accompany their parents, if at first only on important occasions. By their teens they were with the king and queen much of the time. In 1290, Eleanor sent one of her scribes to join her children's household, presumably to help with their education. She also sent gifts to the children regularly, and arranged for the entire establishment to be moved near to her when she was in Wales. In 1306 Edward sharply scolded Margerie de Haustede, Eleanor's former lady in waiting who was then in charge of his children by his second wife, because Margerie had not kept him well informed of their health. Edward also issued regular instructions for the care and guidance of these children.

    Two incidents cited to imply Eleanor's lack of interest in her children are easily explained in the contexts of royal childrearing in general, and of particular events surrounding Edward and Eleanor's family. When their six-year-old son Henry lay dying at Guildford in 1274, neither parent made the short journey from London to see him; but Henry was tended by Edward's mother Eleanor of Provence. The boy had lived with his grandmother while his parents were absent on crusade, and since he was barely two years old when they left England in 1270, he could not have had many worthwhile memories of them at the time they returned to England in August 1274, only weeks before his last illness and death. In other words, the dowager queen was a more familiar and comforting presence to her grandson than his parents would have been at that time, and it was in all respects better that she tended him then. Furthermore, Eleanor was pregnant at the time of his final illness and death; exposure to a sickroom would probably have been discouraged. Similarly, Edward and Eleanor allowed her mother, Joan of Dammartin, to raise their daughter Joan in Ponthieu (1274–78). This implies no parental lack of interest in the girl; the practice of fostering noble children in other households of sufficient dignity was not unknown and Eleanor's mother was, of course, dowager queen of Castile. Her household was thus safe and dignified, but it does appear that Edward and Eleanor had cause to regret their generosity in letting Joan of Dammartin foster young Joan. When the girl reached England in 1278, aged six, it turned out that she was badly spoiled. She was spirited and at times defiant in childhood, and in adulthood remained a handful for Edward, defying his plans for a prestigious second marriage for her by secretly marrying one of her late first husband's squires. When the marriage was revealed in 1297 because Joan was pregnant, Edward was enraged that his dignity had been insulted by her marriage to a commoner of no importance. Joan, at twenty-five, reportedly defended her conduct to her father by saying that nobody saw anything wrong if a great earl married a poor woman, so there could be nothing wrong with a countess marrying a promising young man. Whether or not her retort ultimately changed his mind, Edward restored to Joan all the lands he had confiscated when he learned of her marriage, and accepted her new husband as a son-in-law in good standing. Joan marked her restoration to favour by having masses celebrated for the soul of her mother Eleanor.

    Birth:
    Maps & History of Burgos ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Burgos

    Children:
    1. Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre was born 0Apr 1272, Acre, Israel; died 23 Apr 1307, Clare Castle, Clare, Suffolk, England; was buried Clare Priory, Clare, Suffolk, England.
    2. 83. Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales; died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.
    3. Edward II, King of England was born 25 Apr 1284, Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales; died 21 Sep 1327, Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England.