Sir Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham

Male 1455 - 1483  (28 years)


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Generation: 1

  1. 1.  Sir Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham was born 4 Sep 1455 (son of Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Stafford and Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Stafford); died 2 Nov 1483.

    Notes:

    Died:
    ...was executed for treason...

    Henry — Katherine Woodville, Duchess of Buckingham. Katherine (daughter of Richard Woodville, Knight, 1st Earl Rivers and Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Countess Rivers) was born ~ 1458, (Maidstone, Kent, England); died 18 May 1497. [Group Sheet]

    Children:
    1. Anne Stafford, Countess of Huntingdon was born ~ 1483; died 0___ 1544; was buried Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, England.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Stafford (son of Humphrey Stafford, Knight, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Anne Neville).

    Humphrey — Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Stafford. Margaret (daughter of Edmund Beaufort, Knight, 2nd Duke of Somerset and Eleanor Beauchamp, Duchess of Somerset) was born ~ 1437; died 0___ 1474. [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Stafford was born ~ 1437 (daughter of Edmund Beaufort, Knight, 2nd Duke of Somerset and Eleanor Beauchamp, Duchess of Somerset); died 0___ 1474.

    Notes:

    Margaret Beaufort (c. 1437 – 1474) was a daughter of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset and Lady Eleanor Beauchamp.

    Her maternal grandparents were Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and his first wife Elizabeth Beauchamp, 4th Baroness Lisle. Elizabeth was daughter of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley and Margaret de Berkeley, 3rd Baroness Lisle, becoming the main heiress of her mother.

    Marriages

    Margaret was first married to Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Stafford. He was the eldest son and prospective heir of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham by his wife Anne Neville. Anne was daughter of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland and his 2nd wife, Joan Beaufort, youngest daughter of John of Gaunt and his mistress / third wife Katherine Swynford. They had only one known child:

    Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham (4 September 1454 – 2 November 1483).
    Her father led forces loyal to the House of Lancaster in the First Battle of St Albans (22 May 1455) against his main rival Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York. The Earl of Stafford followed his father-in-law into battle. Margaret's father was killed; her husband, Stafford, was wounded. Margaret could no longer count on the support of her father; and she became a widow when her husband died of plague three years later.

    She had a second marriage to Sir Richard Dayrell. They were parents to at least one child:

    Margaret Dayrell. She married James Tuchet, 7th Baron Audley and was mother of John Tuchet, 8th Baron Audley.

    *

    Children:
    1. 1. Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham was born 4 Sep 1455; died 2 Nov 1483.


Generation: 3

  1. 4.  Humphrey Stafford, Knight, 1st Duke of Buckingham was born 15 Aug 1402, Stafford, Staffordshire, England (son of Edmund Stafford, Knight, 5th Earl of Stafford and Anne of Gloucester); died 10 Jul 1460.

    Humphrey — Anne Neville. Anne (daughter of Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland and Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland) died 0___ 1480. [Group Sheet]


  2. 5.  Anne Neville (daughter of Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland and Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland); died 0___ 1480.
    Children:
    1. 2. Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Stafford

  3. 6.  Edmund Beaufort, Knight, 2nd Duke of Somerset was born 0___ 1406, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England (son of John Beaufort, III, Knight, 1st Earl of Somerset and Margaret Holland, Duchess of Clarence); died 22 May 1455, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England.

    Notes:

    Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, KG (1406 – 22 May 1455), sometimes styled 1st Duke of Somerset, was an English nobleman and an important figure in the Wars of the Roses and in the Hundred Years' War. He also succeeded in the title of 4th Earl of Somerset and was created 1st Earl of Dorset and 1st Marquess of Dorset (previously held by his father and later forfeited), and Count of Mortain. He was known for his deadly rivalry with Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.

    Early Life

    Edmund Beaufort was the third surviving son of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and Margaret Holland. His paternal grandparents were John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and Katherine Swynford. His maternal grandparents were Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent and Alice FitzAlan. Alice was a daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor of Lancaster.

    Although he was the head of one of the greatest families in England, his inheritance was worth only 300 pounds. By contrast his rival, Richard, Duke of York, had a net worth of 5,800 pounds. His cousin King Henry VI's efforts to compensate Somerset with offices worth 3,000 pounds only served to offend many of the nobles and as his quarrel with York grew more personal, the dynastic situation got worse. Another quarrel with the Earl of Warwick over the lordships of Glamorgan and Morgannwg may have forced the leader of the younger Nevilles into York's camp.

    His brothers were taken captive at the Battle of Baugâe in 1421, but Edmund was too young at the time to fight. He acquired much military experience while his brothers were prisoners.

    Affair with Catherine of Valois[edit]
    In 1427 it is believed that Edmund embarked on an affair with Catherine of Valois—the widow of Henry V. Evidence is sketchy, however the liaison prompted a parliamentary statute regulating the remarriage of queens of England. The historian G. L. Harriss surmised that it was possible that another of its consequences was Catherine's son Edmund Tudor and that Catherine, to avoid the penalties of breaking the statute of 1427–8, secretly married Owen Tudor. He wrote By its very nature the evidence for Edmund ‘Tudor's’ parentage is less than conclusive, but such facts as can be assembled permit the agreeable possibility that Edmund ‘Tudor’ and Margaret Beaufort were first cousins and that the royal house of ‘Tudor’ sprang in fact from Beauforts on both sides.[1]

    Later Life

    He became a commander in the English army in 1431. After his re-capture of Harfleur, and lifting the Burgundian Siege of Calais (1436), he was named a Knight of the Garter in 1436. After subsequent successes he was created Earl of Dorset (1442) and the next year Marquess of Dorset. During the five-year truce from 1444 to 1449 he served as Lieutenant of France. In March 1448 he was created Duke of Somerset. As the title had previously been held by his brother, he is usually called the second duke.

    Somerset was appointed to replace York as commander in France in 1448. Fighting began in Normandy in August 1449. Somerset's subsequent military failures left him vulnerable to criticism from York's allies. Somerset was supposed to be paid ¹20,000; but little evidence exists that he was. He failed to repulse French attacks, and by the summer of 1450 nearly all the English possessions in northern France were lost. By 1453, all the English possessions in the south of France were lost as well, and the Battle of Castillon ended the Hundred Years War.

    Power had rested with Somerset from 1451 and was virtually monopolized by him until the King went insane and York was named Lord Protector. York imprisoned Somerset in the Tower of London, and his life was probably saved only by the King's seeming recovery late in 1454, which forced York to surrender his office.

    By now York was determined to depose Somerset by one means or another, and in May 1455 he raised an army. He confronted Somerset and the King in an engagement known as the First Battle of St Albans which marked the beginning of the Wars of the Roses. Somerset was killed in a last wild charge from the house where he had been sheltering. His son, Henry, never forgave Warwick and York for his father's death, and he spent the next nine years attempting to restore his family's honour.

    Family

    Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset married before 1436 [probably, abt 1435], Eleanor, daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and his first wife, Elizabeth, (daughter and heiress of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley), and the widow of Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros. Eleanor was an older half-sister of Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick and Anne Neville, 16th Countess of Warwick.

    Their unlicensed marriage was later pardoned on 7 March 1438, and they had the following children:

    Eleanor Beaufort, Countess of Ormonde, married first James Butler, 5th Earl of Ormonde and second Sir Robert Spencer.[2]
    Elizabeth Beaufort (d. before 1472), married Sir Henry FitzLewis.[2]
    Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset (1436–1464)[3]
    Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Stafford (bef. 1439–1474), married first Humphrey, Earl of Stafford and second Sir Richard Darell.[3]
    Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset (c. 1439– 4 May 1471)[3]
    Anne Beaufort (c. 1453 – c. 1496),[2] who married, before 1470, Sir William Paston (1436 – September 1496), a younger son of William Paston (1378-1444), Justice of the Common Pleas.[4]
    John Beaufort, Earl of Dorset (c. 1455– 4 May 1471)[3]
    Lady Joan Beaufort (d. 11 August 1518), married first Robert St Lawrence, 3rd Baron Howth and second Sir Richard Fry, and had issue by her first marriage.[2][5]
    Thomas Beaufort (c. 1455–c. 1463)[2]
    Mary Beaufort (b. between 1431 and 1455)[2]

    Died:
    on the battlefield...

    Edmund married Eleanor Beauchamp, Duchess of Somerset 1431-1435, (England). Eleanor (daughter of Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick) was born 0Sep 1407, Wedgenock, Warwickshire, England; died 1466-1467, Baynard's Castle, London, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 7.  Eleanor Beauchamp, Duchess of Somerset was born 0Sep 1407, Wedgenock, Warwickshire, England (daughter of Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick); died 1466-1467, Baynard's Castle, London, England.

    Notes:

    Lady Eleanor Beauchamp1
    F, #102723, b. between 1407 and 1408, d. between 4 March 1466 and 8 March 1468
    Last Edited=18 May 2005
    Consanguinity Index=0.96%

    Lady Eleanor Beauchamp was born between 1407 and 1408 at Wedgenock, Warwickshire, England.2 She was the daughter of Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth de Berkeley.1,3 She married, firstly, Thomas de Ros, 8th Lord de Ros of Helmsley, son of William de Ros, 6th Lord de Ros of Helmsley and Margaret d'Arundel, before 1430.2 She married, secondly, Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, son of John de Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset and Lady Margaret de Holand, between 1431 and 1435 in a unlicensed marriage, although this was pardoned on 7 March 1438.2 She married, thirdly, Walter Rokesley.2 She died between 4 March 1466 and 8 March 1468 at Baynard's Castle, London, England.2

    From before 1430, her married name became de Ros.2 From between 1431 and 1435, her married name became Beaufort.2 Her married name became Rokesley.

    Children of Lady Eleanor Beauchamp and Thomas de Ros, 8th Lord de Ros of Helmsley
    Margaret de Ros+4 d. 10 Dec 1488
    Thomas de Ros, 9th Lord de Ros of Helmsley+2 b. 9 Sep 1427, d. 14 May 1464

    Children of Lady Eleanor Beauchamp and Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset
    Lady Eleanor Beaufort+5 d. 16 Aug 1501
    John Beaufort, Earl of Dorset d. 4 May 1471
    Lady Joan Beaufort d. 11 Aug 1518
    Margaret Beaufort+ d. 1474
    Elizabeth Beaufort d. b 1492
    Thomas Beaufort6 d. b 1463
    Mary Beaufort+7 b. bt 1431 - 1455
    Anne Beaufort+ b. 1435, d. b 28 Nov 1496
    Henry Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset+1 b. 26 Jan 1436, d. 15 May 1464
    Edmund Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset b. c 1439, d. 6 May 1471

    Citations

    [S8] BP1999 volume 1, page 220. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S8]
    [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 104. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
    [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 131. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
    [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 242.
    [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume X, page 128.
    [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 105.
    [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 106.
    Elizabeth Bea

    Children:
    1. Eleanor Beaufort, Countess of Ormonde was born 0___ 1431, London, Middlesex, England; died 16 Aug 1501.
    2. 3. Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Stafford was born ~ 1437; died 0___ 1474.
    3. Anne Beaufort was born ~ 1453; died ~ 1496.


Generation: 4

  1. 8.  Edmund Stafford, Knight, 5th Earl of Stafford was born 3 Feb 1377, Stafford Castle, Stafford, Staffordshire, England (son of Hugh Stafford, Knight, 2nd Earl of Stafford and Philippa Beauchamp); died 22 Jul 1403; was buried Austin Friars, Stafford, Staffordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 6th Baron Audley
    • Alt Birth: 2 Mar 1378

    Notes:

    Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford and 6th Baron Audley, KB, KG (2 March 1378 – 21 July 1403) was the son of Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford and Philippa de Beauchamp.

    He inherited the Earldom at the age of 17, the third of three out of four brothers to inherit the title. His eldest brother, Sir Ralph, died before inheriting the title and his two elder brothers died without issue.

    Marriage and children

    He married Anne of Gloucester as her second husband under special license,[1] as she was the widow of his brother Thomas Stafford, 3rd Earl of Stafford who had died prior to the consummation of his marriage at the age of 18. Edmund and his brothers were ward of the Gloucester family.[2] Anne was the granddaughter of King Edward III by his son Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester and Eleanor de Bohun.

    With Anne he had three children:

    Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham who married Anne Neville, daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland and Lady Joan Beaufort. Joan was a daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and his mistress, later wife, Katherine Roet. Had issue.
    Anne Stafford, Countess of March, (d. 20 September 1432), who married firstly Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March. Edmund and Anne had no children. She married, secondly, John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter (d.1447) and had one son and a daughter: Henry, Duke of Exeter (1430 – 1475) and Lady Anne Holland (d. 26 December 1486).
    Philippa Stafford, died young.

    Later life and death

    He was made a Knight of the Bath, along with his younger brother Hugh, at the coronation of Henry IV and a Knight of the Garter in 1403.[1]

    He was killed by the Scotsman, Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas while fighting with the royalist forces of King Henry IV at the Battle of Shrewsbury on 22 July 1403. He was buried at the Church of the Austin Friars in Stafford.

    Shakespeare

    The Death of the Earl at the battle of Shrewsbury is mentioned in Henry IV Part 1 but otherwise he is not in the play. "And thou shalt find a king that will revenge Lord Stafford’s death". Henry IV Part 1 Act 5 Scene 3 by William Shakespeare.

    Edmund married Anne of Gloucester 28 Jun 1398. Anne (daughter of Thomas of Woodstock and Eleanor de Bohun) was born 30 Apr 1383; died 16 Oct 1438, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire, Wales. [Group Sheet]


  2. 9.  Anne of Gloucester was born 30 Apr 1383 (daughter of Thomas of Woodstock and Eleanor de Bohun); died 16 Oct 1438, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire, Wales.

    Other Events:

    • Baptism: Pleshey Castle, Essex, England

    Notes:

    Anne of Gloucester, Countess of Stafford (30 April 1383 – 16 October 1438) was the eldest daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, and Eleanor de Bohun.

    Family

    Anne was born on 30 April 1383 and was baptised at Pleshey, Essex, sometime before 6 May. Her uncle, John of Gaunt, ordered several payments to be made in regards to the event.[1]

    Her father was the youngest son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Her mother was Eleanor de Bohun, the daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford, and Joan Fitzalan. Her mother was also a great-great-granddaughter of Edward I.

    Marriage with Thomas Stafford, 3rd Earl of Stafford

    Anne married three times. Her first marriage was to Thomas Stafford, 3rd Earl of Stafford (1368 - 4 July 1392), and took place around 1390. The couple had no children. After her husband's death, Anne married his younger brother Edmund.

    Issue of Anne and Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford

    On 28 June 1398, Anne married Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford (2 March 1378 – 21 July 1403). They had three children together:

    Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, who married Anne, daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, and Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland. Joan was a daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his third wife Katherine Swynford.
    Anne Stafford, Countess of March, who married Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March. Edmund was a great-grandson of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence. Edmund and Anne had no children. She married secondly John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter (d. 1447), and had one son, Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter (d. 1475), and a daughter Anne, who married John Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby.
    Philippa Stafford, died young

    Issue of Anne and William Bourchier, Count of Eu

    In about 1405, Anne married William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu (d. 1420), son of Sir William Bourchier and Eleanor of Louvain, by whom she had the following children:

    Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex. He married Isabel of Cambridge, daughter of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, and Anne de Mortimer. Isabel was also an older sister of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.
    Eleanor Bourchier, Duchess of Norfolk, married John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
    William Bourchier, 9th Baron FitzWarin
    Cardinal Thomas Bourchier
    John Bourchier, Baron Berners. John was the grandfather of John, Lord Berners, the translator of Froissart

    Anne died on 16 Oct 1438 and was buried at Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire.

    Children:
    1. 4. Humphrey Stafford, Knight, 1st Duke of Buckingham was born 15 Aug 1402, Stafford, Staffordshire, England; died 10 Jul 1460.
    2. Anne Stafford was born England; died 20 Sep 1432, England.

  3. 10.  Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of WestmorlandRalph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland was born 0___ 1364, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England (son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby and Maud Percy); died 21 Oct 1425, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; was buried 0Oct 1425, St. Mary's Church, Staindrop, Durham, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 4th Lord Neville of Raby
    • Also Known As: Earl of Westmorland
    • Also Known As: Lord of Richmond

    Notes:

    Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, 4th Baron Neville de Raby,[a] Earl Marshal, KG, PC (c. 1364 – 21 October 1425), was an English nobleman of the House of Neville.

    Family

    Ralph Neville was born about 1364, the son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, and The Hon Maud Percy (d. before 18 February 1379), daughter of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick, Northumberland, by Idoine de Clifford, daughter of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford.[1] Neville had a younger brother, and five sisters:[2]

    Thomas Neville, 5th Baron Furnivall, who married Joan Furnival.
    Lady Alice Neville, who married Sir Thomas Gray.
    Lady Maud Neville
    Lady Idoine Neville
    Lady Eleanor Neville, who married Ralph de Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley.
    Lady Elizabeth Neville, who became a nun.
    Neville's father married secondly, before 9 October 1381, Elizabeth Latimer (d. 5 November 1395), daughter of William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer. By his father's second marriage Neville had a brother and sister of the half blood:[3]

    John Neville, 6th Baron Latimer (c.1382 – 10 December 1430), who married firstly, Maud Clifford (c. 26 August 1446), daughter of Thomas Clifford, 6th Baron Clifford, whom he divorced before 1413-17, and by whom he had no issue. She married secondly, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, beheaded 5 August 1415 for his part in the Southampton Plot.[4]
    Lady Elizabeth Neville, who married Sir Thomas Willoughby.
    Career[edit]
    Neville's first military service was in Brittany under King Richard II's uncle, Thomas of Woodstock, who knighted him at Saint-Omer in July 1380. On 14 November 1381 he and his cousin, Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, were commissioned to preside over a duel between an Englishman and a Scot, and on 1 December 1383 he and his father were commissioned to receive from the Scots 24,000 marks for the ransom of King David. On 26 October 1385 he was appointed joint governor of Carlisle with Sir Thomas Clifford, and on 27 March 1386 was appointed, together with Clifford, joint Warden of the West March.[5]

    Neville inherited the title at the age of 24 after his father's death on 17 October 1388, and was summoned to Parliament from 6 December 1389 to 30 November 1396 by writs directed to Radulpho de Nevyll de Raby. On 25 October 1388 he was appointed, with others, to survey the fortifications on the Scottish border, and on 24 May 1389 was made keeper for life of the royal forests north of the Trent. In 1393 and 1394 he was employed in peace negotiations with Scotland.[6]

    In 1397 Neville supported King Richard's proceedings against Thomas of Woodstock and the Lords Appellant, and by way of reward was created Earl of Westmorland on 29 September of that year. However his loyalty to the King was tested shortly thereafter. His first wife, Margaret Stafford, had died on 9 June 1396, and Neville's second marriage to Joan Beaufort before 29 November 1396 made him the son-in-law of King Richard's uncle, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster. Thus, when King Richard banished John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, on 16 September 1398, and confiscated Bolingbroke's estates after John of Gaunt's death on 3 February 1399, Westmorland was moved to support his brother-in-law. Bolingbroke landed with a small force at Ravenspur in July 1399. Westmorland and the Earl of Northumberland were in the deputation at the Tower which received King Richard's abdication, and Westmorland bore the small sceptre called the 'virge' at Bolingbroke's coronation as King Henry IV on 13 October 1399.[7]

    For his support of the new King, Westmorland was rewarded with a lifetime appointment as Earl Marshal on 30 September 1399 (although he resigned the office in 1412), a lifetime grant of the honour of Richmond on 20 October (although the grant was not accompanied by a grant of the title Earl of Richmond), and several wardships.[8] Before 4 December he was appointed to the King's council. In March 1401, Westmorland was one of the commissioners who conducted negotiations for a marriage between the King's eldest daughter, Blanche of England, and Louis, son of Rupert, King of the Romans, and in 1403 was made a Knight of the Garter, taking the place left vacant by the death of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York.[8]

    According to Tuck, Westmorland had little influence on the Scottish borders in the first years of Henry IV's reign, where the wardenships of the marches were monopolised by the Percys, leading to a growing rivalry between the two families. However in 1403 the Percys, spurred on by various grievances, took up arms against the King, and suffered defeat at the Battle of Shrewsbury on 21 July 1403. Northumberland's son, Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, was slain at Shrewsbury, and Northumberland's brother, the Earl of Worcester, was beheaded two days later. After Shrewsbury, King Henry ordered Westmorland to raise troops and prevent Northumberland's army, which was still in the north, from advancing south. On 6 August 1403,as a reward for his service in driving Northumberland back to Warkworth Castle, Westmorland was granted the wardenship of the West March which Northumberland had held since 1399, the wardenship of the East March, formerly held by Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, being granted to the King's 14-year-old son, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford.[8]

    Two years later Northumberland, joined by Lord Bardolf, again took up arms against the King. It had been Northumberland's plan to capture the earl by surprise at the outset, and in early May 1405, with 400 men, Northumberland made a surprise attack at the castle of Witton-le-Wear, where he had been staying. The attempt failed, as Westmorland had already fled. The earl speedily gathered an army, defeated a force of Percy allies at Topcliffe, and then marched towards York with Henry IV's son, John of Lancaster, to confront a force of some 8000 men gathered on Shipton Moor under the leadership of Archbishop Richard Scrope, Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk, and Scrope's nephew, Sir William Plumpton. Outnumbered by Scrope's forces, Westmorland resorted to trickery,[9] and led Scrope and his allies to believe that their demands would be accepted and their personal safety guaranteed. Once Scrope's army had been disbanded on 29 May, Scrope, Mowbray and Plumpton were arrested, summarily condemned to death for treason, and beheaded outside the walls of York on 8 June 1405. Although Westmorland handed Scrope and his allies over to the King at Pontefract, he played no role in their hasty and irregular trial and execution, having been sent north by the King on 4 June to seize Northumberland's castles. It is unclear whether Northumberland had initially planned to rebel openly in concert with Scrope, but in the event he gave Scrope no support, and fled to Scotland after his failed attempt to capture Westmorland. His estates were subsequently forfeited to the crown, and Ralph, earl of Westmorland, as a reward for his quelling of the 1405 rebellion without significant bloodshed, received a large grant of former Percy lands in Cumberland and Northumberland in June 1405.[10]

    After the death of Henry IV Westmorland was mainly engaged in the defence of the northern border in his capacity as Warden of the West March (1403–1414). In 1415 he decisively defeated an invading Scottish army at the Battle of Yeavering.[1] Westmorland played no part in King Henry V's French campaigns, and Tuck notes that his relationship with Henry V was not close, perhaps partly because of the involvement of Westmorland's son-in-law, Sir Thomas Grey of Heaton, in the Southampton Plot.[11] After Henry V's death, Westmorland was a member of the Council of Regency during the minority of King Henry VI.[12]

    According to Tait, Westmorland was 'no inconsiderable builder', citing his rebuilding of Sheriff Hutton Castle on a scale so magnificent that Leland saw 'no house in the north so like a princely lodging', his doubling of the entrance gateway of Raby Castle and the corresponding tower, and possibly his responsibility for the 'tall and striking tower' of Richmond parish church. On 1 November 1410 Westmorland was granted licence to found a college for a master, six clerks, six 'decayed gentlemen' and others at Staindrop, towards the completion of which he left a bequest in his will.[12] He was probably responsible for the building of Penrith castle in Cumberland c. 1412-13.[13]

    Marriages and issue

    Miniature of the Earl of Westmorland with twelve of his children by Pol de Limbourg. A second miniature (not pictured) features his second wife, Lady Joan, with the rest of his children.

    Effigy of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland and his two wives, Staindrop Church

    Neville married firstly, Margaret Stafford (d. 9 June 1396), the eldest daughter of Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, and Philippa Beauchamp, the daughter of Thomas Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, by Katherine Mortimer, the daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March.[14] They had two sons and six daughters:

    Sir John Neville (c.1387 – before 20 May 1420), who married Elizabeth Holland, fifth daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, and Alice FitzAlan, and by her had three sons, Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland, John Neville, Baron Neville, and Sir Thomas Neville, and a daughter, Margaret Neville.[15]
    Sir Ralph Neville (d. 25 Feb 1458), who married, before 1411, his stepsister, Mary Ferrers, daughter of Robert Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers, and Joan Beaufort.[16]
    Maud Neville (d. October 1438), who married Peter de Mauley, 5th Baron Mauley.[15]
    Alice Neville, who married firstly Sir Thomas Grey, beheaded 2 August 1415 for his part in the Southampton Plot, and secondly Sir Gilbert Lancaster.[17]
    Philippa Neville, who married, before 20 July 1399, Thomas Dacre, 6th Baron Dacre of Gilsland (d. 5 January 1458).[18]
    Elizabeth Neville, who became a nun.
    Anne Neville (b. circa 1384), who married, before 3 February 1413, Sir Gilbert Umfraville, son of Sir Thomas Umfreville (d. 12 February 1391) and Agnes Grey (d. 25 October 1420), daughter of Sir Thomas Grey of Heaton (d. before 22 October 1369). He was slain at the Battle of Baugâe in Anjou on 22 March 1421.[19]
    Margaret Neville (d. 1463/4), who married firstly, before 31 December 1413, Richard Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Bolton, and secondly, William Cressener, esquire.[20]
    Neville married secondly, before 29 November 1396, at Chãateau de Beaufort, Maine-et-Loire, Anjou, Joan Beaufort, the widow of Robert Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers.[21] Joan was the legitimated daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, by his mistress and later third wife, Katherine Swynford.

    They had nine sons and five daughters:[22]

    Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460), married Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury. Their son was Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (1428–1471), 'The Kingmaker'.
    Henry Neville.
    Thomas Neville.
    Cuthbert Neville.
    Robert Neville, Bishop of Salisbury and Durham.
    William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent.
    John Neville.
    George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer.
    Edward Neville, 3rd Baron Bergavenny.
    Joan Neville, who became a nun.
    Katherine Neville, married firstly, on 12 January 1411 to John Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, secondly to Sir Thomas Strangways, thirdly to John Beaumont, 1st Viscount Beaumont, fourthly to Sir John Woodville (d. 12 August 1469).
    Eleanor Neville (1398–1472), married firstly to Richard le Despencer, 4th Baron Burghersh, secondly to Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland.
    Anne Neville (1414–1480), married firstly to Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, secondly to Walter Blount, 1st Baron Mountjoy.
    Cecily Neville (1415–1495), married to Richard, 3rd Duke of York. She was the mother of King Edward IV and King Richard III.
    Death[edit]


    The two wives of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, from his monumental effigy, Staindrop Church. His first wife, left, on his right-hand side
    Westmorland died on 21 October 1425. He was buried in the choir of his collegiate church of St. Mary at Staindrop. The magnificent alabaster tomb with effigies of himself and his two wives there has been termed the finest sepulchral monument in the north of England.[1] Neither of his wives is buried with him. His first wife, Margaret Stafford, was buried at Brancepeth, Durham, while his second wife, Joan Beaufort, was buried with her mother under a carved stone canopy in the sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral.[23]

    Westmorland was predeceased by his eldest son, Sir John Neville, and was succeeded in the title by his grandson, Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland.[24]

    Westmorland is portrayed in Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1, Henry IV, Part 2, and Henry V.

    In the opening scene of Henry IV, Part 1, Westmorland is presented historically as an ally of King Henry IV against the Percys, and in the final scenes of the play as being dispatched to the north of England by the King after the Battle of Shrewsbury to intercept the Earl of Northumberland.[25]

    In Act IV of Henry IV, Part 2, Westmorland is portrayed historically as having been principally responsible for quelling the Percy rebellion in 1405 by Archbishop Scrope almost without bloodshed by successfully parleying with the rebels on 29 May 1405 at Shipton Moor.[25]

    However in Henry V Westmorland is unhistorically alleged to have resisted the arguments made in favour of war with France by Archbishop Chichele in the Parliament which began at Leicester on 30 April 1414. Following Hall and Holinshed, Shakespeare attributes these arguments to Chichele[26] at a time when Chichele was not yet formally Archbishop, although he had been appointed by the King immediately following the death of Archbishop Arundel on 14 February 1414. Moreover, it is said that the Parliamentary rolls do not record Chichele's presence, and according to Tait the question of war with France was not discussed. In addition, Westmorland's speech urging the advantages of war against Scotland rather than France is said to be adapted from a work by the Scottish historian, John Major, who was not born until half a century after the 1414 Parliament.[12]

    The First Folio text of Henry V also unhistorically gives these lines to Westmorland on the eve of Agincourt:

    O that we now had here
    But one ten thousand of those men in England
    That do no work today. (Henry V, IV.iii)

    Westmorland was not with King Henry V on the 1415 campaign in France. On 17 April 1415 he was appointed to the Council of Regency which was to govern England under the King's brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, during the King's absence in France, with special responsibility for the Scottish Marches.[27] In the first quarto text of the play, the foregoing lines are assigned to the Earl of Warwick.[25]

    It has been claimed by Brenda James and Professor William Rubinstein that Neville's great-great-grandson Sir Henry Neville wrote the works of William Shakespeare.

    *

    NEVILLE, RALPH, sixth Baron Neville of Raby and first Earl of Westmorland (1364-1425), was the eldest son of John de Neville, fifth baron Neville of Raby [q. v.], by his first wife, Maud, daughter of Henry, lord Percy (d. 1352) [q. v.], and aunt of the first earl of Northumberland (Swallow, De Nova Villa, p. 34; Dugdale, Baronage, i. 297).

    He first saw service in the French expedition of July 1380 under the king's uncle Thomas of Woodstock, earl of Buckingham, afterwards duke of Gloucester, who knighted him (Froissart, vii. 321, ed. Lettenhove). Doubtless spending the winter with the earl in Brittany, and returning with him in the spring of 1381, Ralph Neville, towards the close of the year, presided with his cousin Henry Percy, the famous Hotspur (whose mother was a Neville), over a duel between a Scot and an Englishman (Fœdera, xi. 334–5). In 1383 or 1384 he was associated with his father in receiving payment of the final instalments of David Bruce's ransom (Dugdale, i. 297). In the autumn of 1385 (26 Oct.), after the king's invasion of Scotland, he was appointed joint governor of Carlisle with the eldest son of his relative, Lord Clifford of Skipton in Craven, and on 27 March 1386 warden of the west march with the same colleague (Doyle, Official Baronage; Fœdera, vii. 538). On the death of his father (who made him one of his executors) at Newcastle, on 17 Oct. 1388, Ralph Neville at the age of twenty-four became Baron Neville of Raby, and was summoned to parliament under that title from 6 Dec. 1389 (Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc. i. 42; Nicolas, Historic Peerage).

    A few days afterwards the new baron was appointed, with others, to survey the border fortifications, and in the spring of the next year his command in the west march was renewed for a further term (Doyle). He was made warden for life of the royal forests north of Trent (24 May 1389), and got leave to empark his woods at Raskelf, close to York and his castle of Sheriff-Hutton. The king also gave him a charter for a weekly market at Middleham, and a yearly fair on the day of St. Alkelda, the patron saint of the church (Dugdale). In July 1389, and again in June 1390, he was employed in negotiations with Scotland (Doyle); Fœdera, vii. 672). In June 1391 he obtained a license, along with Sir Thomas Colville of the Dale and other northern gentlemen, to perform feats of arms with certain Scots (Fœdera, vii. 703). The Duke of Gloucester taking the cross in this year, commissioners, headed by Lord Neville, were appointed (4 Dec.) to perform the duties of constable of England (Doyle)). In the summers of 1393 and 1394 he was once more engaged in negotiations for peace with Scotland, and rather later (20 Richard II, 1396–1397) he got possession of the strong castle of Wark on Tweed by exchange with Sir John de Montacute [q. v.], afterwards third earl of Salisbury.

    Neville's power was great in the North country, where he, as lord of Raby and Brancepeth in the bishopric of Durham, and Middleham and Sheriff-Hutton in Yorkshire, was fully the equal, simple baron though he was, of his cousin the head of the Percies. His support was therefore worth securing by King Richard when, in 1397, he took his revenge upon the Duke of Gloucester and other lords appellant of nine years before. The lord of Raby was already closely connected with the crown and the court party by marriage alliances. He had secured for his eldest son, John, the hand of Elizabeth, daughter of the king's stepbrother, Thomas Holland, earl of Kent, who was deep in Richard's counsels, and he himself had taken for his second wife Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, the king's uncle (Dugdale, i. 297; Doyle). When the Earl of Arundel, one of the leading lords appellant, was put on his trial before parliament on Friday, 21 Sept. 1397, Neville, at the command of his father-in-law Lancaster, who presided as seneschal of England, removed the accused's belt and scarlet hood (Adam of Usk, p. 13; Ann. Ricardi II, p. 214). He was no doubt acting as constable, an office of Gloucester's. The Earl of Warwick was also in his custody (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 307). In the distribution of rewards among the king's supporters on 29 Sept., Neville was made Earl of Westmorland (Rot. Parl. iii. 355). He held no land in that county, but it was the nearest county to his estates not yet titularly appropriated, and the grant of the royal honour of Penrith gave him a footing on its borders (Dugdale). He took an oath before the shrine of Edward the Confessor in Westminster Abbey on Sunday, 30 Sept., to maintain what had been done in this ‘parliamentum ferale’ (Rot. Parl. iii. 355).

    But when Richard drove his brother-in-law Henry, earl of Derby, out of the realm, and refused him possession of the Lancaster estates on John of Gaunt's death, Westmorland took sides against the king, and was one of the first to join Henry when he landed in Yorkshire in July 1399 (Adam of Usk, p. 24). He and his relative Northumberland, who had joined Henry at the same time, represented the superior lords temporal in the parliamentary deputation which on 29 Sept. received in the Tower the unfortunate Richard's renunciation of the crown, and next day he was granted for life the office of marshal of England, which had been held by the banished Duke of Norfolk (Rot. Parl. iii. 416; Fœdera, viii. 89, 115). With Northumberland he conveyed Richard's message to convocation on 7 Oct. (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 289). At Henry IV's coronation (13 Oct.) Westmorland bore the small sceptre called the virge, or rod with the dove, his younger half-brother, John Neville, lord Latimer, who was still a minor, carrying the great sceptre royal (Adam of Usk, p. 33; Taylor, Glory of Regality, p. 66) [see under Neville, John, fifth Baron of Raby]. The grant a week later (20 Oct.) of the great honour and lordship of Richmond, forfeited in the late reign by John, duke of Brittany, united his Teesdale and his Wensleydale lands into a solid block of territory, and gave him besides a vast number of manors and fees scattered over great part of England (Doyle; Rot. Parl. iii. 427). The grant, however, was only made for his life, and clearly did not carry with it the title of Earl of Richmond, which was never borne by him, and was granted during his lifetime (1414) to John, duke of Bedford, with the reversion of the castle and lands on Westmorland's death (Third Report of the Lords on the Dignity of a Peer, pp. 96 et seq.). When the earl was in London he sat in the privy council, but as a great northern magnate he was chiefly employed upon the Scottish border (Ord. Privy Council, i. 100 et seq.; Fœdera, viii. 133). In March 1401, however, he was one of the royal commissioners who concluded with the ambassadors of Rupert, king of the Romans, a marriage between Henry's eldest daughter and Rupert's son Louis (ib. pp. 176, 178), and spent the summer in London (Ord. Privy Council, i. 144, 157). But in September he was employed on another Scottish mission, and in the March following was appointed captain of Roxburgh Castle (ib. p. 168; Fœdera, viii. 251; Doyle).

    The garter vacated by the death of Edmund, duke of York, in August 1402 was bestowed upon him. In July 1403 his relatives, the Percies, revolted, and Westmorland found an opportunity of weakening the great rival house in the north. One of Hotspur's grievances was the transference of his captaincy of Roxburgh Castle to Westmorland in the previous March (Rot. Scot. ii. 161). The day after the battle of Shrewsbury, in which Hotspur was slain, Henry wrote to Westmorland and other Yorkshire magnates charging them to levy troops and intercept the Earl of Northumberland, who was marching southward (Fœdera, viii. 319). Westmorland drove the old earl back to Warkworth, and sent an urgent message to Henry, advising him to come into the north, where reports of his death were being circulated by the Percies (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 371). The king arrived at Pontefract on 3 Aug., and three days later transferred the wardenship of the west marches, which Northumberland had held since 1399, to Westmorland (Doyle). Hotspur was replaced as warden of the east march by the king's second son, John, a lad of fourteen, who must necessarily have been much under the influence of the experienced earl. On his return south, Henry directed Westmorland and his brother Lord Furnival to secure the surrender of the Percy castles (Ord. Privy Council, i. 213). But the order was more easily given than executed, and in the parliament of the following February Northumberland was pardoned by the king and publicly reconciled to Westmorland (Rot. Parl. iii. 525). Westmorland and Somerset were the only earls in the council of twenty-two whom the king was induced by the urgency of the commons to designate in parliament (1 March 1404) as his regular advisers (ib. p. 530).

    Northumberland's reconciliation was a hollow one, and in the spring of 1405 he was again in revolt. Remembering how his plans had been foiled by Westmorland two years before, he began with an attempt to get his redoubtable cousin into his power by surprise. In April or May Westmorland happened to be staying in a castle which Mr. Wylie identifies with that of Witton-le-Wear, belonging to Sir Ralph Eure. It was suddenly beset one night by Northumberland at the head of four hundred men. But Westmorland had received timely warning, and was already flown (Ann. Hen. IV p. 400). Towards the close of May the flame of rebellion had broken out at three distinct points. Northumberland was moving southwards to effect a junction with Sir John Fauconberg, Sir John Colville of the Dale, and other Cleveland connections of the Percies and Mowbrays who were in arms near Thirsk, and with the youthful Thomas Mowbray, earl marshal [q. v.], and Archbishop Scrope, who raised a large force in York and advanced northwards. One of Mowbray's grievances was that the office of marshal of England had been given to Westmorland, leaving him only the barren title. Westmorland therefore had an additional spur to prompt action against this threatening combination. Taking with him the young prince John and the forces of the marches, he threw himself by a rapid march between the two main bodies of rebels, routed the Cleveland force at Topcliffe by Thirsk, capturing their leaders, and intercepted the archbishop and Mowbray at Shipton Moor, little more than five miles north of York (Rot. Parl. iii. 604; Eulogium, iii. 405; Ann. Hen. IV, p. 405). Westmorland, finding himself the weaker in numbers, had recourse to guile. Explanations were exchanged between the two camps, and Westmorland, professing approval of the articles of grievance submitted to him by Scrope, invited the archbishop and the earl marshal to a personal conference (ib. p. 406). They met, with equal retinues, between the two camps. Westmorland again declared their demands most reasonable, and promised to use his influence with the king. They then joyfully shook hands over the understanding, and, at Westmorland's suggestion, ratified it with a friendly cup of wine. The unsuspecting archbishop was now easily induced to send and dismiss his followers with the cheerful news. As soon as they had dispersed Westmorland laid hands upon Scrope and Mowbray, and carried them off to Pontefract Castle, where he handed them over to the king a few days later. Unless the consensus of contemporary writers does injustice to Westmorland, he was guilty of a very ugly piece of treachery (ib. p. 407; Chron. ed. Giles, p. 45; Eulogium, iii. 406). Their account is not indeed free from improbabilities, and Otterbourne (i. 256) maintained that Scrope and Mowbray voluntarily surrendered. Their forces were perhaps not wholly trustworthy, and they might have been discouraged by the fate of the Cleveland knights; but the authority of Otterbourne, who wrote under Henry V, can hardly be allowed to outweigh the agreement of more strictly contemporary writers. Westmorland, at all events, had no hand in the hasty and irregular execution of the two unhappy men, for he was despatched northwards from Pontefract on 4 June to seize Northumberland's castles and lands, and his brother-in-law, Thomas Beaufort, was appointed his deputy as marshal for the trial (Fœdera, viii. 399).

    This crisis over, Westmorland returned to his usual employments as warden of the march (in which his eldest son, John, was presently associated with him), and during the rest of the reign was pretty constantly occupied in negotiations with Scotland, whose sympathy with France and reception of Northumberland were counterbalanced by the capture of the heir to the throne (Fœdera, viii. 418, 514, 520, 678, 686, 737). He had made himself one of the great props of his brother-in-law's throne. Two of his brothers—Lord Furnival, who for a time was war treasurer, and Lord Latimer—were peers, and towards the close of the reign he began to make those fortunate marriages for his numerous family by his second wife which enabled the younger branch of Neville to play so decisive a part in after years. One of the earliest of these marriages was that of his daughter Catherine in 1412 to the young John Mowbray, brother and heir of the unfortunate earl marshal who had been entrusted to his guardianship by the king (Testamenta Eboracensia, iii. 321). Shortly after Henry V's accession Westmorland must have resigned the office of marshal of England into the hands of his son-in-law, in whose family it was hereditary (Fœdera, ix. 300).

    Thanks to Shakespeare, Westmorland is best known as the cautious old statesman who is alleged to have resisted the interested incitements of Archbishop Chichele and the clergy to war with France in the parliament at Leicester in April 1414, and was chidden by Henry for expressing a de- spondent wish the night before Agincourt that they had there

    But one ten thousand of those men in England

    That do no work to-day.

    But neither episode has any good historical warrant. They are first met with in Hall (d. 1547), from whom Shakespeare got them through Holinshed (Hall, Chronicle, p. 50). Chichele was not yet archbishop at the time of the Leicester parliament; the question of war was certainly not discussed there, and the speeches ascribed to Chichele and Westmorland are obviously of later composition. Westmorland, in urging the superior advantages of war upon Scotland, if war there must be, is made to quote from the Scottish historian John Major [q. v.], who was not born until 1469. The famous ejaculation before Agincourt was not made by Westmorland, for he did not go to France with the king. He was left behind to guard the Scottish marches and assist the regent Bedford as a member of his council (Ord. Privy Council, ii. 157). Henry had also appointed him one of the executors of the will which he made (24 July) before leaving England (Fœdera, ix. 289). The author of the ‘Gesta Henrici’ (p. 47), who was with the army in France, tells us that it was Sir Walter Hungerford [q. v.] who was moved by the smallness of their numbers to long openly for ten thousand English archers. The attitude imputed to Westmorland in these anecdotes is, however, sufficiently in keeping with his advancing age and absorption in the relations of England to Scotland, and may just possibly preserve a genuine tradition of opposition on his part to the French war. In any case, he never went to France, devoting himself to his duties on the borders, and leaving the hardships and the glory of foreign service to his sons. He was one of the executors of Henry's last will, and a member of the council of regency appointed to rule in the name of his infant son (Rot. Parl. iv. 175, 399). As late as February 1424 he was engaged in his unending task of negotiating with Scotland (Ord. Privy Council, iii. 139). On 21 Oct. in the following year he died, at what, in those days, was the advanced age of sixty-two, and was buried in the choir of the Church of Staindrop, at the gates of Raby, in which he had founded three chantries in 1343 (Swallow, p. 314). His stately and finely sculptured tomb of alabaster, in spite of the injuries it has received since its removal to the west end to make way for the tombs of the Vanes, remains the finest sepulchral monument in the north of England. It has been figured by Gough in his ‘Sepulchral Monuments’ (1786), by Stothard in his ‘Monumental Effigies’ (1817), and by Surtees in his ‘History of Durham.’ It bears recumbent effigies of Westmorland and his two wives. His features, so far as they are revealed by the full armour in which he is represented, are too youthful and too regular to allow us to regard it as a portrait (Swallow, De Nova Villa, p. 311; Oman, Warwick the Kingmaker, p. 17). The skeleton of the earl, which was discovered during some excavations in the chancel, is said to have been that of a very tall man with a diseased leg ({{sc|Swallow}, p. 315).

    In his will, made at Raby, 18 Oct. 1424, besides bequests to his children and the friars, nuns, and anchorites of the dioceses of York and Durham, he left three hundred marks to complete the college of Staindrop, and a smaller sum towards the erection of bridges over the Ure, near Middleham, and the Tees at Winston, near Raby (Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc., i. 68–74). Westmorland was, in fact, no inconsiderable builder. He rebuilt the castle of Sheriff-Hutton, twelve miles north-east of York, on the ridge between Ouse and Derwent, on a scale so magnificent that Leland saw ‘no house in the north so like a princely lodging,’ and the Neville saltire impaling the arms of England and France for his second wife may still be seen on its crumbling and neglected ruins. The church of Sheriff-Hutton has had inserted some of those curious flat-headed windows which are peculiar to the churches on the Neville manors, and they may very well be Westmorland's additions (Murray, Yorkshire, under Staindrop, Well, and Sheriff-Hutton). At Staindrop he added the chamber for the members of his new college on the north side of the choir, and the last bay of the nave in which his tomb now lies. The license to establish a college for a master or warden, six clerks, six decayed gentlemen, six poor officers, and other poor men, for whose support the advowson of the church was set aside with two messuages and twelve acres of land for their residence, was granted on 1 Nov. 1410 (Monasticon Anglicanum, vi. 1401; cf. {{sc|Swallow}, p. 314). Westmorland doubled the entrance gateway of Raby Castle, and threw forward the south-western tower, now called Joan's tower, to correspond (see Pritchett in the Reports and Journal of the British Archµological Association, 1886, 1887, 1889). He is also said to have been the builder of the tall and striking tower of Richmond parish church.

    Westmorland was twice married: first (before 1370) to Margaret, daughter of Hugh, second earl of Stafford (d. 1386); and, secondly (before 20 Feb. 1397), to Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by Catherine Swynford, and widow of Sir Robert Ferrers. She survived him, dying on 13 Nov. 1440 and being buried in Lincoln Cathedral, though her effigy is also on her husband's tomb at Staindrop. The inscription on her monument is quoted by Swallow (p. 137). Joan had some taste for literature. Thomas Hoccleve [q. v.] dedicated a volume of his works to her, and we hear of her lending the ‘Chronicles of Jerusalem’ and the ‘Voyage of Godfrey Bouillon’ to her nephew, Henry V (Fœdera, x. 317).

    The Nevilles were a prolific race, but Westmorland surpassed them all. He had no less than twenty-three children by his two wives—nine by the first, and fourteen by the second. The children of the first marriage, seven of whom were females, were thrown into the shade by the offspring of his more splendid second alliance which brought royal blood into the family. Westmorland devoted himself indefatigably to found the fortunes of his second family by a series of great matches, and a good half of the old Neville patrimony, the Yorkshire estates, was ultimately diverted to the younger branch.

    Thus the later earls of Westmorland had a landed position inferior to that of their ancestors, who were simple barons, and the real headship of the Neville house passed to the eldest son of the second family. Westmorland's children by his first wife were: (1) John, who fought in France and on the Scottish borders, and died before his father (1423); he married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Holland, earl of Kent, and their son Ralph succeeded his grandfather as second Earl of Westmorland in 1425 (see below). (2) Ralph of Oversley, near Alcester, in Warwickshire, in right of his wife Mary (b. 1393), daughter and coheiress of Robert, baron Ferrers of Wem in Shropshire. (3) Mathilda married Peter, lord Mauley (d. 1414). (4) Philippa married Thomas, lord Dacre of Gillsland (d. 1457). (5) Alice married, first, Sir Thomas Grey of Heton; and, secondly, Sir Gilbert Lancaster. (6) Elizabeth, who became a nun in the Minories. (7) Anne, who married Sir Gilbert Umfreville of Kyme. (8) Margaret, who married, first, Richard, lord le Scrope of Bolton in Wensleydale (d. 1420), and, secondly, William Cressener, dying in 1463; and (9) Anastasia.

    By his second wife Neville had nine sons and five daughters: (1) Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury [q. v.] (2) William, baron Fauconberg [q. v.] (3) George, summoned to parliament as Baron Latimer, 1432-69, his father having transferred to him that barony which he had bought from his childless half-brother John, who inherited it from his mother [see under Neville, John, d. 1388)]. George Neville's male descendants held the barony of Latimer till 1577, when it fell into abeyance [see Neville, John, third Baron Latimer]. (5) Robert [q. v.], bishop successively of Salisbury and Durham. (6) Edward, baron of Bergavenny [q. v.] (7–9) Three sons who died young. (10) Joan, a nun. (11) Catherine, married, first, John Mowbray, second duke of Norfolk [q. v.]; secondly, Thomas Strangways; thirdly, Viscount Beaumont (d. 1460); and, fourthly, John Wydeville, brother-in-law of Edward IV. (12) Anne, married, first, Humphrey, first duke of Buckingham (d. 1460) [q. v.]; and, secondly, Walter Blount, first baron Mountjoy (d. 1474). (13) Eleanor, married, first, Richard, lord le Despenser (d. 1414); and, secondly, Henry Percy, second earl of Northumberland (d. 1455). (14) Cicely, who married Richard Plantagenet, duke of York, and was mother of Edward IV.

    Ralph Neville, second Earl of Westmorland (d. 1484), son of John, the eldest son of the first earl by his first wife, married a daughter of Hotspur, and left active Lancastrian partisanship to his younger brothers. He died in 1484. His only son having perished at the battle of St. Albans in 1455, he was succeeded as third Earl of Westmorland by his nephew, Ralph (1456–1523), son of his brother John. This John Neville was a zealous Lancastrian. He took a prominent part in the struggle with the younger branch of the Nevilles for the Yorkshire lands of the first Earl of Westmorland, was summoned to parliament as Lord Neville after the Yorkist collapse in 1459, and was rewarded for his services at Wakefield in December 1460 with the custody of the Yorkshire castles of his uncle and enemy, Salisbury, who was slain there (see under Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury;Nicolas, Historic Peerage, p. 345; Chron. ed. Davies, p. 106). A Yorkist chronicler accuses him of treacherously getting York's permission to raise troops, which he then used against him (ib.) A few months later he was slain at Towton (30 March 1461). When his son Ralph became third Earl of Westmorland, the barony of Neville merged in the earldom of Westmorland, which came to an end with the attainder of Charles Neville, sixth earl [q. v.], in 1571.

    [Rotuli Parliamentorum; Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas; Rymer's Fœdera, original edition; Lords' Report on the Dignity of a Peer; Adam of Usk. ed. Maunde Thompson; Annales Ricardi II et Hen- rici IV with Trokelowe in Rolls Ser.; Gesta Henrici V, ed. Williams for English Historical Society; Otterbourne's Chronicle, ed. Hearne; Testamenta Eboracensia and Wills and Inventories, published by the Surtees Soc.; Hall's Chronicle, ed. Ellis; Dugdale's Baronage and Monasticon Anglicanum, ed. Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel; Rowland's Account of the Noble Family of Nevill, 1830; Swallow, De Nova Villa, 1885; Nicolas's Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope; Wylie's Hist. of Henry IV; Ramsay's Lancaster and York; other authorities in the text.]

    *

    Westmorland was twice married: first (before 1370) to Margaret, daughter of Hugh, second earl of Stafford (d. 1386); and, secondly (before 20 Feb. 1397), to Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by Catherine Swynford, and widow of Sir Robert Ferrers. She survived him, dying on 13 Nov. 1440 and being buried in Lincoln Cathedral, though her effigy is also on her husband's tomb at Staindrop.

    The inscription on her monument is quoted by Swallow (p. 137). Joan had some taste for literature. Thomas Hoccleve [q. v.] dedicated a volume of his works to her, and we hear of her lending the 'Chronicles of Jerusalem' and the 'Voyage of Godfrey Bouillon' to her nephew, Henry V (Fœdera, x. 317).

    *

    Buried:
    Images of St. Mary's ... https://www.google.com/search?q=staindrop+church&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=815&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjzxuiz6Z_LAhUKPCYKHQf1AA4QsAQIOA

    Died:
    Images and history of Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raby_Castle

    Ralph married Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland Bef 29 Nov 1396, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France. Joan (daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster) was born ~ 1379, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France; died 13 Nov 1440, Howden, Yorkshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 11.  Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland was born ~ 1379, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France (daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster); died 13 Nov 1440, Howden, Yorkshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

    Notes:

    Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland (c. 1379 - 13 November 1440), was the fourth of the four children (and only daughter) of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his mistress, later wife, Katherine Swynford. In her widowhood, she was a powerful landowner in the North of England.

    Early life and marriages

    She was probably born at the Swynford manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire. Her surname probably reflects her father's lordship of Beaufort in Champagne, France, where she might also have been born.[2] In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married at Beaufort-en-Vallâee, Anjou, Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, and they had two daughters before he died in about 1395.

    Legitimation

    Along with her three brothers, Joan had been privately declared legitimate by their cousin Richard II of England in 1390. Her parents were married in Lincoln Cathedral in February 1396.[3] Joan was already an adult when she was legitimized by the marriage of her mother and father with papal approval. The Beauforts were later barred from inheriting the throne by a clause inserted into the legitimation act by their half-brother, Henry IV of England, although it is not clear that Henry IV possessed sufficient authority to alter an existing parliamentary statute by himself, without the further approval of Parliament. Soon after the legitimation, on 3 February 1397, when she was eighteen, Joan married Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, who had also been married once before.

    Inheritance

    When Ralph de Neville died in 1425, his lands and titles should, by law of rights, have passed on to his grandson through his first marriage, another Ralph Neville. Instead, while the title of Earl of Westmorland and several manors were passed to Ralph, the bulk of his rich estate went to his wife, Joan Beaufort. Although this may have been done to ensure that his widow was well provided for, by doing this Ralph essentially split his family into two and the result was years of bitter conflict between Joan and her stepchildren who fiercely contested her acquisition of their father's lands. Joan however, with her royal blood and connections, was far too powerful to be called to account, and the senior branch of the Nevilles received little redress for their grievances. Inevitably, when Joan died, the lands would be inherited by her own children.

    Death

    Joan died on 13 November 1440 at Howden in Yorkshire.[3] Rather than be buried with her husband Ralph (who was not buried with his first wife, though his monument has effigies of himself and his two wives) she was entombed next to her mother in the magnificent sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral. Joan's is the smaller of the two tombs; both were decorated with brass plates – full-length representations of them on the tops, and small shields bearing coats of arms around the sides — but those were damaged or destroyed in 1644 by Roundheads during the English Civil War. A 1640 drawing of them survives, showing what the tombs looked like when they were intact, and side-by-side instead of end-to-end, as they are now.

    Descendants

    Joan Beaufort was mother to Cecily, Duchess of York and thus grandmother of Edward IV of England, and of Richard III of England, whom Henry VII defeated to take the throne. Henry then married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, and their son became Henry VIII of England. Henry VIII's sixth wife, Catherine Parr, was also a descendant through Joan and Ralph's eldest son, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and thus Henry's third cousin. The Earl of Salisbury was father to Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, "the Kingmaker" (father of Queen consort Anne Neville).

    Children of Joan Beaufort and Robert Ferrers

    In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, at Beaufort-en-Vallâee, Anjou. They had 2 children:

    Elizabeth Ferrers, 6th Baroness Boteler of Wem (1393–1474). She is buried at Black Friars Church, York. She married John de Greystoke, 4th Baron Greystoke (1389–1436), on 28 October 1407 in Greystoke Castle, Greystoke, Cumberland, and had issue.
    Margaret (or Mary) Ferrers (1394 – 25 January 1457/1458). She married her stepbrother, Sir Ralph Neville, son of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland, c. 1413 in Oversley, Warwickshire, and had issue

    Children of Joan Beaufort and Ralph Neville

    They had 14 children:

    Lady Katherine Neville, married first on 12 January 1411 John Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk; married second Sir Thomas Strangways; married third John Beaumont, 1st Viscount Beaumont; married fourth Sir John Woodville (d. 12 August 1469).
    Lady Eleanor Neville (d. 1472), married first Richard le Despenser, 4th Baron Burghersh, married second Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland
    Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460), married Alice Montacute, suo jure 5th Countess of Salisbury. Had issue. Their descendants include Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick; queen consort Anne Neville, wife of Richard III; and queen consort Catherine Parr, sixth wife of King Henry VIII (great-grandson of Richard's sister, Cecily).
    Robert Neville (d. 1457), Bishop of Durham
    William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent (c.1410–1463)
    Lady Anne Neville (?1411–20 September 1480), married Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham
    Edward Neville, 3rd Baron Bergavenny (d. 1476)
    Lady Cecily Neville (1415–1495) ("Proud Cis"), married Richard, 3rd Duke of York, and mothered Kings Edward IV of England and Richard III of England
    George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer (d. 1469)
    Joan Neville, became a nun
    John Neville, died young
    Cuthbert Neville, died young
    Thomas Neville, died young
    Henry Neville, died young

    Birth:
    She was probably born at the Swynford manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire. Her surname probably reflects her father's lordship of Beaufort in Champagne, France, where she might also have been born.[2] In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, at Beaufort-en-Vallâee, Anjou. They had two daughters before he died in about 1395.

    Buried:
    St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London. Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604.[1] The present church, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren. Its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London.[2]

    The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, dominated the skyline for 300 years.[3] At 365 feet (111 m) high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1962. The dome is among the highest in the world. St Paul's is the second largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral.

    St Paul's Cathedral occupies a significant place in the national identity.[4] It is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz.[4] Services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Winston Churchill; Jubilee celebrations for Queen Victoria; peace services marking the end of the First and Second World Wars; the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer, the launch of the Festival of Britain and the thanksgiving services for the Golden Jubilee, the 80th Birthday and the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.

    St Paul's Cathedral is a working church with hourly prayer and daily services.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral

    Notes:

    Married:
    by Papal Dispensation...

    Children:
    1. Eleanor Neville, Countess of Northumberland was born 1397-1399, Raby, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 0___ 1472.
    2. Richard Neville, I, Knight, 5th Earl of Salisbury was born Abt 1400, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 30 Dec 1460, Wakefield, St. John, West Riding, Yorkshire, England; was buried 15 Jan 1461.
    3. Katherine Neville was born ~ 1400; died Aft 1483.
    4. Robert Neville was born 0___ 1404, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 8 Jul 1457.
    5. George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer was born 1407-1414, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 30 Dec 1469; was buried 31 Dec 1469.
    6. Edward Neville, 3rd Baron of Abergavenny was born 0___ 1414, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 18 Oct 1476, (Raby-Keverstone Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).
    7. Cecily Neville, Duchess of York was born 3 May 1415, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 31 May 1495, Berkhamsted Castle, Berkhamsted, England; was buried Church of St Mary and All Saints, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire, England.
    8. Ralph Neville
    9. 5. Anne Neville died 0___ 1480.
    10. William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent was born ~1405; died 9 Jan 1463.

  5. 12.  John Beaufort, III, Knight, 1st Earl of Somerset was born 1371-1373, Chateau de Beaufrot, Anjou, France (son of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster); died 14 Mar 1410, Hospital of St. Katherine's by the Tower, London, England; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Marquess of Somerset

    Notes:

    Early life

    Early arms of John Beaufort with a bend dexter
    Between May and September 1390, Beaufort saw military service in North Africa in the Barbary crusade led by Louis II, Duke of Bourbon.[6] In 1394, he was in Lithuania serving with the Teutonic Knights.[8]

    John was created Earl of Somerset on 10 February 1397,[6][9] just a few days after the legitimation of the Beaufort children was recognized by Parliament. The same month, he also appointed Admiral of the Irish fleet, as well as Constable of Dover Castle and Warden of the Cinque Ports.[10] In May, his admiralty was extended to include the northern fleet. That summer, the new earl became one of the noblemen who helped Richard II free himself from the power of the Lords Appellant. As a reward, he was created Marquess of Somerset and Marquess of Dorset on 29 September, and sometime later that year he was made a Knight of the Garter and appointed Lieutenant of Aquitaine.[6] In addition, two days before his elevation as a Marquess he married the king's niece, Margaret Holland, sister of Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey, another of the counter-appellants.[6]John remained in the king's favour even after his older half-brother Henry Bolingbroke (later Henry IV) was banished from England in 1398.

    Later career

    After Richard II was deposed by Henry Bolingbroke in 1399, the new king rescinded the titles that had been given to the counter-appellants, and thus John Beaufort became merely Earl of Somerset again. Nevertheless, he proved loyal to his half-brother's reign, serving in various military commands and on some important diplomatic missions. It was Beaufort who was given the confiscated estates of the Welsh rebel leader Owain Glyndwr in 1400, although he would not have been able to take possession of these estates unless he had lived until after 1415. In 1404, he was named Constable of England.

    Family

    John Beaufort and his wife Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Somerset (nâee Holland), the daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, and Alice FitzAlan, had six children. His granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort married Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, the son of Dowager Queen Catherine of Valois by Owen Tudor. This union created a branch of the Lancastrian family that enabled the issue of Margaret Beaufort's marriage, Henry Tudor, to claim the throne of England in 1485 as Henry VII, in spite of an agreement barring the descendants of the Beaufort siblings from the succession.

    Somerset died in the Hospital of St Katharine's by the Tower. He was buried in St Michael's Chapel in Canterbury Cathedral.

    His children included the following:

    Henry Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Somerset (1401 – 25 November 1418)
    John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset (baptized 25 March 1404 – 27 May 1444), father of Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, grandfather of King Henry VII of England
    Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland (1404 – 15 July 1445) married James I, King of Scots.
    Thomas Beaufort, Count of Perche (1405 – 3 October 1431)
    Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset (1406 – 22 May 1455)
    Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Devon (1409 – 1449) married Thomas de Courtenay, 13th Earl of Devon.

    References

    Armitage-Smith, Sydney. John of Gaunt, King of Castile and Leon, Duke of Lancaster, &c.. Constable, 1904.
    Brown, M.H. (2004). "Joan [Joan Beaufort] (d. 1445)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14646. Retrieved 21 November 2013. (subscription required)
    Jones, Michael K, and Malcolm G. Underwood, The King's Mother: Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby. Cambridge University Press, 1992. see especially pp. 17–22
    Marshall, Rosalind (2003). Scottish Queens, 1034-1714. Tuckwell Press.
    Weir, Alison (2008). Britain's Royal Families, The Complete Genealogy. London: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-09-953973-5.

    External links

    The Beaufort Family
    The Courtenay Family
    Lundy, Darryl. "John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset at thePeerage.com". The Peerage

    Buried:
    St. Michael's Chapel ...

    images, map & commentaries ... https://www.flickr.com/photos/amthomson/20717793364/in/photostream/

    John married Margaret Holland, Duchess of Clarence (England). Margaret (daughter of Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent and Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent) was born 0___ 1385, (England); died 31 Dec 1439; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 13.  Margaret Holland, Duchess of Clarence was born 0___ 1385, (England) (daughter of Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent and Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent); died 31 Dec 1439; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Margaret de Holand

    Children:
    1. John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset was born 0___ 1403; died 27 May 1444; was buried Wimborne Minster, Dorsetshire, England.
    2. Joan Beaufort was born ~ 1404, (England); died 15 Jul 1445, Dunbar Castle, East Lothian, Scotland; was buried Perth Charterhouse, Scotland.
    3. 6. Edmund Beaufort, Knight, 2nd Duke of Somerset was born 0___ 1406, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; died 22 May 1455, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England.

  7. 14.  Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick was born 28 Jan 1381, Salwarpe, Worcestershire, England (son of Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 12th Earl of Warwick and Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick); died 30 Apr 1439, Rouen, Normandy, France; was buried 4 Oct 1439, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Count of Aumale
    • Also Known As: Earl of Albemarle & Worcester
    • Also Known As: Lord Abergavenny
    • Also Known As: Sheriff of Worcestershire
    • Also Known As: Warwick

    Notes:

    Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, Count of Aumale, KG (25 or 28 January 1382[1] – 30 April 1439) was an English medieval nobleman and military commander.

    Early life

    Beauchamp was born at Salwarpe in Worcestershire,[2] the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, and Margaret, a daughter of William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby.[1] His godfather was King Richard II.[2]

    He was knighted at the coronation of King Henry IV and succeeded to the Earldom of Warwick in 1401.[3]

    Welsh Rebellion

    Soon after reaching his majority and taking responsibility for the Earldom, he saw military action in Wales, defending against a Welsh rebellion led by Owain Glyndwr. On 22 July 1403, the day after the Battle of Shrewsbury, he was made a Knight of the Garter.

    In the summer of 1404, he rode into what is today Monmouthshire at the head of a force. Warwick engaged Welsh forces at the Battle of Mynydd Cwmdu, near Tretower Castle a few miles northwest of Crickhowell – nearly capturing Owain Glyndwr himself, taking Owain's banner, forcing the Welsh to flee. They were chased down the valley of the River Usk where they regrouped and turned the tables on the pursuing English force, attempting an ambush. They chased the English in turn to the town walls of Monmouth after a skirmish at Craig-y-Dorth, a conical hill near Mitchel Troy.[4]

    Chivalry and Pilgrimage

    Seal of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick
    Warwick acquired quite a reputation for chivalry, and when in 1408 he went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, he was challenged many times to fight in the sporting combat which was then popular. On the return trip he went through Russia and Eastern Europe, not returning to England until 1410.

    Soldier of the King

    In 1410, he was appointed a member of the royal council and in 1413 was Lord High Steward at the Prince's coronation as Henry V of England. The next year he helped put down the Lollard uprising, and then went to Normandy as Captain of Calais and represented England at the Council of Constance.[5] He spent much of the next decade fighting the French in the Hundred Years' War. In 1419, he was created Count of Aumale, part of the King's policy of giving out Norman titles to his nobles. He was appointed Master of the Horse.

    Responsibilities

    Henry V's will gave Warwick the responsibility for the education of the infant Henry VI of England. This duty required him to travel back and forth between England and Normandy many times. In 1437, the Royal Council deemed his duty complete, and he was appointed lieutenant of France and Normandy. He remained in France for the remaining two years of his life.

    Marriages and children

    Warwick first married Elizabeth de Berkeley (born ca.1386 – 28 December 1422) before 5 October 1397,[6] the daughter of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Lord Berkeley and the Baroness Margaret de Lisle. Together they had 3 daughters:

    Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury (1404–1468), who married John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, and whose great-great-grandson John Dudley was created Earl of Warwick and subsequently Duke of Northumberland;
    Eleanor, Duchess of Somerset, (b 1407) who married Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros and then married Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset;
    Elizabeth, Baroness Latimer of Snape, (b 1417) who married George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer.
    Warwick then married Isabel le Despenser (26 July 1400–1439), the daughter of Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Constance of York. With Isabel, who was also the widow of his cousin Richard Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, his children were:

    Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, (born March 1425) who succeeded his father as Earl of Warwick, and later became Duke of Warwick;
    Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick, (b September 1426) who was theoretically Countess of Warwick in her own right (after the death of her infant niece and namesake), and who married Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.

    Death and Burial

    Effigy of Richard de Beauchamp in the Beauchamp Chapel of St Mary's Church, Warwick. The finest piece of English 15th-century bronze sculpture, modelled and cast by William Austen of London, gilded and engraved by Bartholomew Lambespring, a Dutch goldsmith.[7]

    Richard de Beauchamp's will was made at Caversham Castle in Oxfordshire (now Berkshire), one of his favoured residences, in 1437. Most of his property was entailed, but with a portion of the rest the will established a substantial trust. After his debts were paid the trust endowed the Collegiate Church of St Mary in Warwick, and called for the construction of a new chapel there. It also enlarged the endowment of the chantries at Elmley Castle and Guy's Cliffe, and gave a gift to Tewkesbury Abbey.[8] Beauchamp died in Rouen, Normandy, two years later, on 30 April 1439.[9] After the completion of the chapel, his body was transferred there (in 1475),[8] where his magnificent gilt-bronze monumental effigy may still be seen.

    Buried:
    at St. Mary's...

    Richard married Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick 0Oct 1397. Elizabeth (daughter of Thomas de Berkeley and Margaret Lisle) was born 0___ 1386, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England; died 28 Dec 1422; was buried Kingswood Abbey, Kingswood, Gloucestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 15.  Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick was born 0___ 1386, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England (daughter of Thomas de Berkeley and Margaret Lisle); died 28 Dec 1422; was buried Kingswood Abbey, Kingswood, Gloucestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Elizabeth Beauchamp (nâee de Berkeley), Countess of Warwick, Baroness de Lisle, and Baroness de Teyes (1386 - 28 December 1422) was an English noblewoman and heiress. She was the only child of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley and Margaret de Lisle, 3rd Baroness Lisle.

    With her father's death in 1417, Elizabeth and her husband Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick became involved in an inheritance dispute with her cousin James Berkeley, initiating one of the longest lawsuits in English history.

    Life and inheritance

    Elizabeth de Berkeley was the only child born to Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley by his wife Margaret de Lisle, Baroness Lisle.[1][2] As such, Elizabeth was their sole heir, and was to inherit the baronies of Lisle and Tyes from her mother. Margaret died near 1392, but Elizabeth did not succeed to them until the death of Thomas in 1417, as he held the lands by tenure of courtesy.[1] In September 1392, the Baron Berkeley negotiated Elizabeth's marriage to Richard de Beauchamp, eldest son and heir to Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick. Elizabeth married him sometime before 5 October 1397, and became the Countess of Warwick in 1403.[1] The marriage remained unconsummated for at least six years. Elizabeth gave birth to three girls:[1]

    Lady Margaret Beauchamp (1404 – 1467/1468); married John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury[1][3]
    Lady Eleanor Beauchamp (c. 1408); married (1) Thomas de Ros, 8th Baron de Ros (2) Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset[1] (3) Walter Rokesley
    Lady Elizabeth Beauchamp (c. 1417[1] – died before 2 October 1480); married (1) George Nevill, 1st Baron Latymer[1] (2) Thomas Wake

    Berkeley Castle (as seen in present day), part of the dispute between the Countess and her cousin
    Elizabeth's level of education and literacy is evident from a 1410 commission asking John Walton to translate Boethius' De consolatione philosophiae; he dedicated it in her name.[2]

    An inheritance dispute erupted with her father's death in 1417. Thomas had named her his heir, but many of his lands and estates, including Berkeley Castle, were entailed through the male line to Elizabeth's cousin James Berkeley.[1][3] Elizabeth and her husband refused to accept the entail, thus "initiat[ing] one of the longest lawsuits in England," which lasted until 1609.[1] After Lord Thomas' death, the Earl and Countess of Warwick quickly took control of the castle and gained the temporary permission of King Henry V to maintain it. James was unable to seize control of the castle, as Warwick and the king were then fighting in France.[4] To gain support in the dispute, Elizabeth sought the help of John, Duke of Bedford while James successfully bribed Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, each one of the king's brothers. By 1425, Elizabeth was dead and James had been given Berkeley Castle along with most of the entailed lands.[1][4]

    Elizabeth died on 28 December 1422. She was buried at Kingswood Abbey, and a marble tomb was later placed over her grave through a provision in her husband's will.[1] The following year, the Earl of Warwick remarried to Lady Isabel le Despenser, the widow of his cousin Richard de Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester.[5]

    Buried:
    Kingswood Abbey was a Cistercian abbey, located in the village of Kingswood near Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, England.

    Through the abbey's gatehouse arch are a few houses and the small village primary school of Kingswood.

    Photo, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingswood_Abbey

    Children:
    1. 7. Eleanor Beauchamp, Duchess of Somerset was born 0Sep 1407, Wedgenock, Warwickshire, England; died 1466-1467, Baynard's Castle, London, England.
    2. Elizabeth Beauchamp, Baroness Latimer of Snape was born 16 Sep 1417, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died Bef 2 Oct 1480, Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England; was buried Beauchamp Chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick, England.


Generation: 5

  1. 16.  Hugh Stafford, Knight, 2nd Earl of Stafford was born ~ 1344, Stafford Castle, Stafford, Staffordshire, England (son of Ralph Stafford, Knight, 1st Earl of Stafford and Margaret de Audley, 2nd Baroness Audley); died 16 Oct 1386, Rhodes, Greece; was buried Stone Priory, Staffordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Military: Knight of the Garter

    Notes:

    Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, KG (c. 1344 - 16 October 1386) was an English nobleman.

    Early life

    Hugh de Stafford was born around 1344, the second and youngest son of Ralph Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford and Margaret de Audley. His elder brother, Ralph, was intended to inherit the title and had been married to Maud Grosmont, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Isabel de Beaumont in 1344, with the expectation that he would expand the Stafford estates by inheriting the Lancastrian duchy. However, Ralph died early in 1347 and Hugh became heir.[1] Around 1358, Hugh became the 3rd Lord Audley. Hugh joined his father in the French campaigns in 1359, being part of the retinue of Edward, Prince of Wales, spending time in Gascony and northern Spain.

    Political career

    He spent many years in military service, before returning to England and being summoned to Parliament in 1371 as Lord Stafford and later as Earl Stafford. On 31 August 1372, he inherited the title of 2nd Earl of Stafford. He was a member of a number of royal commissions, such as ones on Scottish affairs and on coastal defence. He was on the committee of nobles who conferred regularly with the Commons, being deemed suitable by that House to be part of the new 'continual council' of state. He did not always make the best decisions though and was admonished by his peers for censuring John Philipot, the London MP and merchant who had mobilised a fleet to defend merchant shipping.[1]

    Marriage and children

    On or before 1 March 1350, Hugh de Stafford married Philippa de Beauchamp daughter of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine Mortimer. They had seven children.[2]

    Sir Ralph de Stafford (c. 1354 – 1385). Ralph was killed by King Richard II's half-brother, John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter in a feud during an expedition against the Scots in May 1385, over a retainer's death by one of Ralph's archers.[1]
    Margaret de Stafford, (c. 1364 – 9 June 1396), married Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland as his first wife.
    Thomas de Stafford, 3rd Earl of Stafford (c. 1368 – 4 July 1392). Inherited at age of 18. Married Anne of Gloucester, daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester and Eleanor de Bohun. No issue, the marriage was reportedly never consummated.
    William Stafford, 4th Earl of Stafford (21 September 1375 – 6 April 1395). Inherited from his brother at the age of 14. He was a ward of the Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester. He died at 19, no issue.
    Katherine de Stafford (c. 1376 – 8 April 1419), married Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk.
    Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford (2 March 1377 – 22 July 1403), inherited title from his brother at the age of 17. He married Anne of Gloucester, the widow of his elder brother Thomas. Edmund and Anne were the parents of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham.
    Joan de Stafford (1378 – 1 October 1442), married Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey. No issue.

    Later life and death

    Hugh's wife Phillippa died on 6 April 1386, and it was probably this combined with the death of his son that pushed him to undertake a series of pilgrimages. He went first to Walsingham and then sailed for Jerusalem. He only got to Rhodes, where he died in the hospital the knights of St John in October of that year. His bones were returned to Stone Priory, Staffs, for burial next to his wife.

    Hugh married Philippa Beauchamp Bef 1368, Stone, Kent, England. Philippa (daughter of Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick) was born 1334-1344, Elmley, Gloucestershire, England; died 6 Apr 1386. [Group Sheet]


  2. 17.  Philippa Beauchamp was born 1334-1344, Elmley, Gloucestershire, England (daughter of Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick); died 6 Apr 1386.

    Notes:

    Philippa de Beauchamp (before 1344-6 April 1386) was the daughter of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine Mortimer.

    On or before 1 March 1350 she married Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, son of Ralph de Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford and Margaret Audley, Baroness Audley.

    Philippa and Hugh had seven children.[1]

    Sir Ralph de Stafford (born about 1354–1385). Ralph was killed by King Richard II's half-brother, Sir John Holland in a feud during an expedition against the Scots in May 1385, over a retainer's death by one of Ralph's archers.
    Margaret de Stafford, (b. abt. 1364–9 June 1396), married Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland.
    Thomas de Stafford, 3rd Earl of Stafford (b. abt. 1368–4 July 1392). Inherited at age of 18. Married Anne Plantagenet, daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester and Eleanor de Bohun. No issue.(marriage was reportedly never consummated)
    William Stafford, 4th Earl of Stafford (21 September 1375–6 April 1395). Inherited from his brother at the age of 14. He was a ward of the Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester. He died at 19, no issue.
    Katherine de Stafford (b. abt. 1376–8 April 1419), married Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk
    Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford (2 March 1377–22 July 1403), inherited title from his brother at the age of 17. He married Anne of Gloucester, the widow of his elder brother Thomas.
    Joan de Stafford (1378–1 October 1442), married Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey. No issue.

    Children:
    1. Margaret Stafford, Countess of Westmorland was born Abt 1364, Stafford Castle, Stafford, Staffordshire, England; died 9 Jun 1396, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England.
    2. Thomas Stafford, 3rd Earl of Stafford was born 0___ 1368, Stafford Castle, Stafford, Staffordshire, England; died 4 Jul 1392.
    3. Katherine de Stafford, Countess of Suffolk was born ~ 1376, Stafford Castle, Stafford, Staffordshire, England; died 8 Apr 1419.
    4. 8. Edmund Stafford, Knight, 5th Earl of Stafford was born 3 Feb 1377, Stafford Castle, Stafford, Staffordshire, England; died 22 Jul 1403; was buried Austin Friars, Stafford, Staffordshire, England.

  3. 18.  Thomas of Woodstock was born 7 Jan 1355, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England (son of Edward III, King of England and Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England); died 8 Sep 1397, Calais, France.

    Notes:

    Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Buckingham, 1st Earl of Essex, KG (7 January 1355 – 8 or 9 September 1397) was the fourteenth and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was the fifth of the five sons of Edward III who survived to adulthood.

    Early life

    Thomas was born 7 January 1355 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire after two short-lived brothers, one of whom had also been baptised Thomas.[2] He married Eleanor de Bohun by 1376,[3] was given Pleshey castle in Essex, and was appointed Constable of the Realm.[2] The younger sister of Woodstock's wife, Mary de Bohun, was subsequently married to Henry of Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby, who later became King Henry IV of England.

    In 1377, at the age of 22, Woodstock was knighted[2] and created Earl of Buckingham.[4] In 1385 he received the title Duke of Aumale and at about the same time was created Duke of Gloucester.[5]

    Campaign in Brittany[edit]

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel; Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester; Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham; Henry, Earl of Derby (later Henry IV); and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, demand Richard II to let them prove by arms the justice for their rebellion

    Murder of Thomas of Woodstock.

    Arms of Thomas of Woodstock quartering arms of his father-in-law Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford (1341-1373), father of his wife Eleanor de Bohun (c.1366-1399). Royal Arms of England with in the 4th quarter the arms of Bohun (Azure, a bend argent cotised or between six lions rampant or). 15th century stained glass, west window, St Peter's Church, Tawstock, Devon. Tawstock was a seat of William Bourchier, jure uxoris Baron FitzWarin (1407-1470) (a descendant of Thomas of Woodstock's daughter Anne of Gloucester), who had married the heiress of Tawstock
    Thomas of Woodstock was in command of a large campaign in northern France that followed the Breton War of Succession of 1343–64. The earlier conflict was marked by the efforts of John IV, Duke of Brittany to secure control of the Duchy of Brittany against his rival Charles of Blois. John was supported in this struggle by the armies of the kingdom of England, whereas Charles was supported by the kingdom of France. At the head of an English army, John prevailed after Charles was killed in battle in 1364, but the French continued to undermine his position, and he was later forced into exile in England. He returned to Brittany in 1379, supported by Breton barons who feared the annexation of Brittany by France. An English army was sent under Woodstock to support his position. Due to concerns about the safety of a longer shipping route to Brittany itself, the army was ferried instead to the English continental stronghold of Calais in July 1380.[6] As Woodstock marched his 5,200 men east of Paris, they were confronted by the army of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, at Troyes, but the French had learned from the Battle of Crâecy in 1346 and the Battle of Poitiers in 1356 not to offer a pitched battle to the English. Eventually, the two armies simply marched away. French defensive operations were then thrown into disarray by the death of King Charles V of France on 16 September 1380. Woodstock's chevauchâee continued westwards largely unopposed, and in November 1380 he laid siege to Nantes and its vital bridge over the Loire towards Aquitaine.[6] However, he found himself unable to form an effective stranglehold, and urgent plans were put in place for Sir Thomas Felton to bring 2,000 reinforcements from England. By January, though, it had become apparent that the duke of Brittany was reconciled to the new French king Charles VI and, with the alliance collapsing and dysentery ravaging his men, Woodstock abandoned the siege.[6]

    Dispute with King Richard II

    Thomas of Woodstock was the leader of the Lords Appellant, a group of powerful nobles whose ambition to wrest power from Thomas's nephew, King Richard II of England, culminated in a successful rebellion in 1388 that significantly weakened the king's power. Richard II managed to dispose of the Lords Appellant in 1397, and Thomas was imprisoned in Calais to await trial for treason.

    During that time he was murdered, probably by a group of men led by Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, and the knight Sir Nicholas Colfox, presumably on behalf of Richard II. This caused an outcry among the nobility of England that is considered by many to have added to Richard's unpopularity.

    Marriage & progeny

    Thomas married Eleanor de Bohun (c.1366-1399), the elder daughter and co-heiress with her sister, Mary de Bohun, of their father Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford (1341-1373). Thomas of Woodstock had by his wife Eleanor the following five children:

    Humphrey, 2nd Earl of Buckingham (c. 1381 - 2 September 1399)
    Anne of Gloucester (c. 1383 - 1438) who married thrice: Firstly to Thomas Stafford, 3rd Earl of Stafford;[7] Secondly to Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford; Thirdly to William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu (1374-1420)
    Joan (1384 - 16 August 1400) married Gilbert Talbot, 5th Lord Talbot (1383–1419). She died in childbirth.
    Isabel (12 March 1385/1386 - April 1402)
    Philippa (c. 1388), died young

    As he was attainted as a traitor, his dukedom of Gloucester was forfeit. The title Earl of Buckingham was inherited by his son, who died in 1399 only two years after his own death. Thomas of Woodstock's eldest daughter, Anne, married into the powerful Stafford family, who were Earls of Stafford. Her son, Humphrey Stafford was created Duke of Buckingham in 1444 and also inherited part of the de Bohun estates.

    The other part of these estates — including the Earldom of Hereford, which had belonged to Mary de Bohun and had then become incorporated into the holdings of the House of Lancaster — became a matter of contention in the latter 15th century.

    In literature

    Thomas of Woodstock's murder plays a prominent part in William Shakespeare's play Richard II, though he is dead at the time of the play's beginning.
    He also is the subject of Thomas of Woodstock, another Elizabethan drama by an anonymous playwright. Because of its stylistic affinities to Shakespeare's play, it is also called Richard the Second Part One.

    Died:
    Thomas of Woodstock was the leader of the Lords Appellant, a group of powerful nobles whose ambition to wrest power from Thomas's nephew, King Richard II of England, culminated in a successful rebellion in 1388 that significantly weakened the king's power. Richard II managed to dispose of the Lords Appellant in 1397, and Thomas was imprisoned in Calais to await trial for treason.

    During that time he was murdered, probably by a group of men led by Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, and the knight Sir Nicholas Colfox, presumably on behalf of Richard II. This caused an outcry among the nobility of England that is considered by many to have added to Richard's unpopularity.

    Thomas — Eleanor de Bohun. Eleanor (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Knight and Joan FitzAlan) was born ~ 1366, (Hereford, Herefordshire, England); died 0___ 1399. [Group Sheet]


  4. 19.  Eleanor de Bohun was born ~ 1366, (Hereford, Herefordshire, England) (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Knight and Joan FitzAlan); died 0___ 1399.
    Children:
    1. 9. Anne of Gloucester was born 30 Apr 1383; died 16 Oct 1438, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire, Wales.

  5. 20.  John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de RabyJohn Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby was born 1337-1340, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England (son of Ralph Neville, 4th Baron Neville de Raby and Alice de Audley); died 17 Oct 1388, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: John de Neville

    Notes:

    John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, KG c.1337 - 17 October 1388) was an English peer and soldier.[a]

    John Neville, born at Raby Castle, Durham, between 1337 and 1340, was the eldest son of Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby, and Alice Audley. He had five brothers, including Alexander Neville, Archbishop of York, and four sisters.[1]

    Cokayne notes that Neville's public career was as active as his father's had been. He fought against the Scots at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 as a captain under his father, was knighted about 1360 after a skirmish near Paris while serving under Sir Walter Manny , and fought in Aquitaine in 1366, and again in 1373-4.

    At his father's death on 5 August 1367 he succeeded to the title, and had livery of his lands in England and Scotland in October of that year.

    From 1367 on he had numerous commissions issued to him, and in 1368 served as joint ambassador to France.[2] He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1369.[3]

    In July 1370 he was Admiral of the North, and in November of that year a joint commissioner to treat with Genoa . He was Steward of the King's Household in 1372, and in July of that year was part of an expedition to Brittany . For the next several years he served in Scotland and the Scottish Marches . In 1378 he had licence to fortify Raby Castle, and in June of the same year was in Gascony, where he was appointed Keeper of Fronsac Castle and Seneschal of Gascony .

    He spent several years in Gascony, and was among the forces which raised the siege of Mortaigne in 1381. On his return to England he was again appointed Warden of the Marches. In May 1383 and March 1387 he was a joint commissioner to treat of peace with Scotland, and in July 1385 was to accompany the King to Scotland.[4]

    Neville died at Newcastle upon Tyne on 17 October 1388. In his will he requested burial in Durham Cathedral by his first wife, Maud. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland .[5]

    Marriages and issue

    Neville married, before 1362, firstly, Maud Percy (d. before 18 February 1379), daughter of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick, Northumberland, and Idoine de Clifford, daughter of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford, by whom he had two sons and five daughters:[6]

    Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland.
    Sir Thomas Neville of Brancepeth, who married Maud Stanhope.
    Alice Neville, who married William Deincourt, 3rd Baron Deincourt.
    Maud Nevile.
    Idoine Neville.
    Eleanor Neville, who married Ralph de Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley.
    Elizabeth Neville, who became a nun.
    After his first wife Maud's death in 1379 Neville married secondly, before 9 October 1381, Elizabeth Latimer (d. 5 November 1395), daughter of William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, by whom he had a son and a daughter:[7]

    John Neville, 6th Baron Latimer (c.1382 – 10 December 1430), who married firstly, Maud Clifford (c.26 August 1446), daughter of Thomas de Clifford, 6th Baron de Clifford, whom he divorced before 1413x17, and by whom he had no issue. She married secondly, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge.[8]
    Elizabeth Neville, who married, before 27 May 1396, Sir Thomas Willoughby (died shortly before 20 August 1417) son of Robert Willoughby, 4th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (c.1348-50 – 9 August 1396), by whom she had one child, Sir John Willoughby (c.1400 – 24 February 1437).[9]
    After Neville's death, his widow, Elizabeth, married, as his second wife, Robert Willoughby, 4th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (c.1348-50 – 9 August 1396), by whom she had a daughter, Margaret Willoughby.[10]

    Birth:
    Raby Castle - history & images of this Neville Family Home ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raby_Castle

    John married Maud Percy 0Jul 1357, Alnwick, Northumberland, England. Maud (daughter of Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick and Idonia Clifford) was born Abt 1335, Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; died 18 Feb 1378; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 21.  Maud Percy was born Abt 1335, Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England (daughter of Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick and Idonia Clifford); died 18 Feb 1378; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Maud de Percy

    Notes:

    Maud's ahnentafel: https://histfam.familysearch.org//ahnentafel.php?personID=I1058&tree=EuropeRoyalNobleHous&parentset=0&generations=4

    Children:
    1. 10. Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland was born 0___ 1364, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; died 21 Oct 1425, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; was buried 0Oct 1425, St. Mary's Church, Staindrop, Durham, England.
    2. Eleanor de Neville, Baroness of Lumley was born ~ 1379, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died ~ 1441, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.

  7. 22.  John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of LancasterJohn of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster was born 6 Mar 1340, St. Bavo's Abbey, Ghent, Belgium (son of Edward III, King of England and Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England); died 3 Feb 1399, Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire, England; was buried 15 Mar 1399, St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Middlesex, England..

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Duke of Aquitaine
    • Also Known As: King of Castile

    Notes:

    John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then rendered in English as Gaunt. When he became unpopular later in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury.[2]

    As a younger brother of Edward, Prince of Wales (Edward, the Black Prince), John exercised great influence over the English throne during the minority of Edward's son, who became King Richard II, and the ensuing periods of political strife. Due to some generous land grants, John was one of the richest men in his era. He made an abortive attempt to enforce a claim to the Crown of Castile that came courtesy of his second wife Constance, who was an heir to the Castillian Kingdom, and for a time styled himself as such.

    John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, include Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. His other legitimate descendants include his daughters Queen Philippa of Portugal and Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter (by his first wife Blanche of Lancaster), and Queen Catherine of Castile (by his second wife Constance of Castile). John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The children of Katherine Swynford, surnamed "Beaufort," were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396. Descendants of this marriage include Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, a grandmother of Kings Edward IV and Richard III; John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, a great-grandfather of King Henry VII; and Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots, from whom are descended all subsequent sovereigns of Scotland beginning in 1437 and all sovereigns of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom from 1603 to the present day. The three houses of English sovereigns that succeeded the rule of Richard II in 1399 — the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor — were all descended from John's children Henry IV, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively. In addition, John's daughter Catherine of Lancaster was married to King Henry III of Castile, which made him the grandfather of King John II of Castile and the ancestor of all subsequent monarchs of the Crown of Castile and united Spain. Through John II of Castile's great-granddaughter Joanna the Mad, John of Gaunt is also an ancestor of the Habsburg rulers who would reign in Spain and much of central Europe.

    John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, the son of his first wife Blanche of Lancaster, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398 as resolution to a dispute between Henry and Thomas de Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk.[3] When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown, since King Richard II had named Henry a traitor and changed his sentence to exile for life.[3] Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England (1399–1413), the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England.

    Duke of Lancaster

    Kenilworth Castle, a massive fortress extensively modernised and given a new Great Hall by John of Gaunt after 1350
    John was the fourth son of King Edward III of England. His first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was also his third cousin, both as great-great-grandchildren of King Henry III. They married in 1359 at Reading Abbey as a part of the efforts of Edward III to arrange matches for his sons with wealthy heiresses. Upon the death of his father-in-law, the 1st Duke of Lancaster, in 1361, John received half his lands, the title "Earl of Lancaster", and distinction as the greatest landowner in the north of England as heir of the Palatinate of Lancaster. He also became the 14th Baron of Halton and 11th Lord of Bowland. John inherited the rest of the Lancaster property when Blanche's sister Maud, Countess of Leicester (married to William V, Count of Hainaut), died without issue on 10 April 1362.

    John received the title "Duke of Lancaster" from his father on 13 November 1362. By then well established, he owned at least thirty castles and estates across England and France and maintained a household comparable in scale and organisation to that of a monarch. He owned land in almost every county in England, a patrimony that produced a net income of between ¹8,000 and ¹10,000 a year.[4]

    After the death in 1376 of his older brother Edward of Woodstock (also known as the "Black Prince"), John of Gaunt contrived to protect the religious reformer John Wycliffe, possibly to counteract the growing secular power of the church.[5] However, John's ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. At a time when English forces encountered setbacks in the Hundred Years' War against France, and Edward III's rule was becoming unpopular due to high taxation and his affair with Alice Perrers, political opinion closely associated the Duke of Lancaster with the failing government of the 1370s. Furthermore, while King Edward and the Prince of Wales were popular heroes due to their successes on the battlefield, John of Gaunt had not won equivalent military renown that could have bolstered his reputation. Although he fought in the Battle of Nâajera (1367), for example, his later military projects proved unsuccessful.

    When Edward III died in 1377 and John's ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, John's influence strengthened. However, mistrust remained, and some[who?] suspected him of wanting to seize the throne himself. John took pains to ensure that he never became associated with the opposition to Richard's kingship. As de facto ruler during Richard's minority, he made unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, when the rebels destroyed his home in London, the Savoy Palace. Unlike some of Richard's unpopular advisors, John was away from London at the time of the uprising and thus avoided the direct wrath of the rebels.

    In 1386 John left England to seek the throne of Castile, claimed in Jure uxoris by right of his second wife, Constance of Castile, whom he had married in 1371. However, crisis ensued almost immediately in his absence, and in 1387 King Richard's misrule brought England to the brink of civil war. Only John, on his return to England in 1389, succeeded in persuading the Lords Appellant and King Richard to compromise to usher in a period of relative stability. During the 1390s, John's reputation of devotion to the well-being of the kingdom was largely restored.

    Sometime after the death of Blanche of Lancaster in 1368 and the birth of their first son, John Beaufort, in 1373, John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford, the daughter of an ordinary knight, entered into an extra-marital love affair that would produce four children for the couple. All of them were born out of wedlock, but legitimized upon their parents' eventual marriage. The adulterous relationship endured until 1381, when it was broken out of political necessity.[6] On 13 January 1396, two years after the death of Constance of Castile, Katherine and John of Gaunt married in Lincoln Cathedral. The children bore the surname "Beaufort" after a former French possession of the duke. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married. A later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne, the phrase excepta regali dignitate ("except royal status"), was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV.

    John died of natural causes on 3 February 1399 at Leicester Castle, with his third wife Katherine by his side.

    Military commander in France

    Because of his rank, John of Gaunt was one of England's principal military commanders in the 1370s and 1380s, though his enterprises were never rewarded with the kind of dazzling success that had made his elder brother Edward the Black Prince such a charismatic war leader.

    On the resumption of war with France in 1369, John was sent to Calais with the Earl of Hereford and a small English army with which he raided into northern France. On 23 August, he was confronted by a much larger French army under Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Exercising his first command, John dared not attack such a superior force and the two armies faced each other across a marsh for several weeks until the English were reinforced by the Earl of Warwick, at which the French withdrew without offering battle. John and Warwick then decided to strike Harfleur, the base of the French fleet on the Seine. Further reinforced by German mercenaries, they marched on Harfleur, but were delayed by French guerilla operations while the town prepared for a siege. John invested the town for four days in October, but he was losing so many men to dysentery and bubonic plague that he decided to abandon the siege and return to Calais. During this retreat, the army had to fight its way across the Somme at the ford of Blanchetaque against a French army led by Hugh de Chãatillon, who was captured and sold to Edward III. By the middle of November, the survivors of the sickly army returned to Calais, where the Earl of Warwick died of plague. Though it seemed an inglorious conclusion to the campaign, John had forced the French king, Charles V, to abandon his plans to invade England that autumn.[7]

    In the summer of 1370, John was sent with a small army to Aquitaine to reinforce his ailing elder brother, the Black Prince, and his younger brother Edmund of Langley, Earl of Cambridge. With them, he participated in the Siege of Limoges (September 1370). He took charge of the siege operations and at one point engaging in hand-to-hand fighting in the undermining tunnels.[8] After this event, the Black Prince surrendered his lordship of Aquitaine and sailed for England, leaving John in charge. Though he attempted to defend the duchy against French encroachment for nearly a year, lack of resources and money meant he could do little but husband what small territory the English still controlled, and he resigned the command in September 1371 and returned to England.[9] Just before leaving Aquitaine, he married the Infanta Constance of Castile on September 1371 at Roquefort, near Bordeaux, Guienne. The following year he took part with his father, Edward III, in an abortive attempt to invade France with a large army, which was frustrated by three months of unfavourable winds.

    Probably John's most notable feat of arms occurred in August–December 1373, when he attempted to relieve Aquitaine by the landward route, leading an army of some 9,000 mounted men from Calais on a great chevauchâee from north-eastern to south-western France on a 900 kilometre raid. This four-month ride through enemy territory, evading French armies on the way, was a bold stroke that impressed contemporaries but achieved virtually nothing. Beset on all sides by French ambushes and plagued by disease and starvation, John of Gaunt and his raiders battled their way through Champagne, east of Paris, into Burgundy, across the Massif Central, and finally down into Dordogne. Unable to attack any strongly fortified forts and cities, the raiders plundered the countryside, which weakened the French infrastructure, but the military value of the damage was only temporary. Marching in winter across the Limousin plateau, with stragglers being picked off by the French, huge numbers of the army, and even larger numbers of horses, died of cold, disease or starvation. The army reached English-occupied Bordeaux on 24 December 1373, severely weakened in numbers with the loss of least one-third of their force in action and another third to disease. Upon arrival in Bordeaux, many more succumbed to the bubonic plague that was raging in the city. Sick, demoralised and mutinous, the army was in no shape to defend Aquitaine, and soldiers began to desert. John had no funds with which to pay them, and despite his entreaties, none were sent from England, so in April 1374, he abandoned the enterprise and sailed for home.[10]

    John's final campaign in France took place in 1378. He planned a 'great expedition' of mounted men in a large armada of ships to land at Brest and take control of Brittany. Not enough ships could be found to transport the horses, and the expedition was tasked with the more limited objective of capturing St. Malo. The English destroyed the shipping in St. Malo harbour and began to assault the town by land on 14 August, but John was soon hampered by the size of his army, which was unable to forage because French armies under Olivier de Clisson and Bertrand du Guesclin occupied the surrounding countryside, harrying the edges of his force. In September, the siege was simply abandoned and the army returned ingloriously to England. John of Gaunt received most of the blame for the debãacle.[11]

    Partly as a result of these failures, and those of other English commanders at this period, John was one of the first important figures in England to conclude that the war with France was unwinnable because of France's greater resources of wealth and manpower. He began to advocate peace negotiations; indeed, as early as 1373, during his great raid through France, he made contact with Guillaume Roger, brother and political adviser of Pope Gregory XI, to let the pope know he would be interested in a diplomatic conference under papal auspices. This approach led indirectly to the Anglo-French Congress of Bruges in 1374–77, which resulted in the short-lived Truce of Bruges between the two sides.[12] John was himself a delegate to the various conferences that eventually resulted in the Truce of Leulinghem in 1389. The fact that he became identified with the attempts to make peace added to his unpopularity at a period when the majority of Englishmen believed victory would be in their grasp if only the French could be defeated decisively as they had been in the 1350s. Another motive was John's conviction that it was only by making peace with France would it be possible to release sufficient manpower to enforce his claim to the throne of Castile.

    Head of government

    On his return from France in 1374, John took a more decisive and persistent role in the direction of English foreign policy. From then until 1377, he was effectively the head of the English government due to the illness of his father and elder brother, who were unable to exercise authority. His vast estates made him the richest man in England, and his great wealth, ostentatious display of it, autocratic manner and attitudes, enormous London mansion (the Savoy Palace on the Strand) and association with the failed peace process at Bruges combined to make him the most visible target of social resentments. His time at the head of government was marked by the so-called Good Parliament of 1376 and the Bad Parliament of 1377. The first, called to grant massive war taxation to the Crown, turned into a parliamentary revolution, with the Commons (supported to some extent by the Lords) venting their grievances at decades of crippling taxation, misgovernment, and suspected endemic corruption among the ruling classes. John was left isolated (even the Black Prince supported the need for reform) and the Commons refused to grant money for the war unless most of the great officers of state were dismissed and the king's mistress Alice Perrers, another focus of popular resentment, was barred from any further association with him. But even after the government acceded to virtually all their demands, the Commons then refused to authorise any funds for the war, losing the sympathy of the Lords as a result.

    The death of the Black Prince on 8 June 1376 and the onset of Edward III's last illness at the closing of Parliament on 10 July left John with all the reins of power. He immediately had the ailing king grant pardons to all the officials impeached by the Parliament; Alice Perrers too was reinstated at the heart of the king's household. John impeached William of Wykeham and other leaders of the reform movement, and secured their conviction on old or trumped-up charges. The parliament of 1377 was John's counter-coup: crucially, the Lords no longer supported the Commons and John was able to have most of the acts of 1376 annulled. He also succeeded in forcing the Commons to agree to the imposition of the first Poll Tax in English history — a viciously regressive measure that bore hardest on the poorest members of society.[13] There was organised opposition to his measures and rioting in London; John of Gaunt's arms were reversed or defaced wherever they were displayed, and protestors pasted up lampoons on his supposedly dubious birth. At one point he was forced to take refuge across the Thames, while his Savoy Palace only just escaped looting.[14] It was rumoured (and believed by many people in England and France) that he intended to seize the throne for himself and supplant the rightful heir, his nephew Richard, the son of the Black Prince, but there seems to have been no truth in this and on the death of Edward III and the accession of the child Richard II, John sought no position of regency for himself and withdrew to his estates.[15]

    John's personal unpopularity persisted, however, and the failure of his expedition to Saint-Malo in 1378 did nothing for his reputation. By this time, too, some of his possessions were taken from him by the Crown. For example, his ship, the Dieulagarde, was seized and bundled with other royal ships to be sold (to pay off the debts of Sir Robert de Crull, who during the latter part of King Edward III's reign had been the Clerk of the King's Ships, and had advanced monies to pay for the king's ships .[16] During the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, John of Gaunt was far from the centre of events, on the March of Scotland, but he was among those named by the rebels as a traitor to be beheaded as soon as he could be found. The Savoy Palace was systematically destroyed by the mob and burned to the ground. Nominally friendly lords and even his own fortresses closed their gates to him, and John was forced to flee into Scotland with a handful of retainers and throw himself on the charity of King Robert II of Scotland until the crisis was over.[17]

    King of Castile

    Upon his marriage to the Infanta Constance of Castile in 1371, John assumed (officially from 29 January 1372) the title of King of Castile and Leâon in right of his wife, and insisted his fellow English nobles henceforth address him as 'my lord of Spain'.[18] He impaled his arms with those of the Spanish kingdom. From 1372, John gathered around himself a small court of refugee Castilian knights and ladies and set up a Castilian chancery that prepared documents in his name according to the style of Peter of Castile, dated by the Castilian era and signed by himself with the Spanish formula 'Yo El Rey' ("I, the King").[19] He hatched several schemes to make good his claim with an army, but for many years these were still-born due to lack of finance or the conflicting claims of war in France or with Scotland. It was only in 1386, after Portugal under its new King John I had entered into full alliance with England, that he was actually able to land with an army in Spain and mount a campaign for the throne of Castile (that ultimately failed). John sailed from England on 9 July 1386 with a huge Anglo-Portuguese fleet carrying an army of about 5,000 men plus an extensive 'royal' household and his wife and daughters. Pausing on the journey to use his army to drive off the French forces who were then besieging Brest, he landed at Corunna in northern Spain on 29 July.


    John of Gaunt dines with John I of Portugal, to discuss a joint Anglo-Portuguese invasion of Castile (from Jean de Wavrin's Chronique d'Angleterre).
    The Castilian king, John of Trastâamara, had expected John would land in Portugal and had concentrated his forces on the Portuguese border. He was wrong-footed by John's decision to invade Galicia, the most distant and disaffected of Castile's kingdoms. From August to October, John of Gaunt set up a rudimentary court and chancery at Ourense and received the submission of the Galician nobility and most of the towns of Galicia, though they made their homage to him conditional on his being recognised as king by the rest of Castile. While John of Gaunt had gambled on an early decisive battle, the Castilians were in no hurry to join battle, and he began to experience difficulties keeping his army together and paying it. In November, he met King John I of Portugal at Ponte do Mouro on the south side of the Minho River and concluded an agreement with him to make a joint Anglo-Portuguese invasion of central Castile early in 1387. The treaty was sealed by the marriage of John's eldest daughter Philippa to the Portuguese king. A large part of John's army had succumbed to sickness, however, and when the invasion was mounted, they were far outnumbered by their Portuguese allies. The campaign of April–June 1387 was an ignominious failure. The Castilians refused to offer battle and the Galician-Anglo-Portuguese troops, apart from time-wasting sieges of fortified towns, were reduced to foraging for food in the arid Spanish landscape. They were harried mainly by French mercenaries of the Castilian king. Many hundreds of English, including close friends and retainers of John of Gaunt, died of disease or exhaustion. Many deserted or abandoned the army to ride north under French safe-conducts. Shortly after the army returned to Portugal, John of Gaunt concluded a secret treaty with John of Trastâamara under which he and his wife renounced all claim to the Castilian throne in return for a large annual payment and the marriage of their daughter Catherine to John of Trastâamara's son Henry.

    Duke of Aquitaine

    John left Portugal for Aquitaine, and he remained in that province until he returned to England in November 1389. This effectively kept him off the scene while England endured the major political crisis of the conflict between Richard II and the Lords Appellant, who were led by John of Gaunt's younger brother Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester. Only four months after his return to England, in March 1390, Richard II formally invested Gaunt with the Duchy of Aquitaine, thus providing him with the overseas territory he had long desired. However he did not immediately return to the province, but remained in England and mainly ruled through seneschals as an absentee duke. His administration of the province was a disappointment, and his appointment as duke was much resented by the Gascons, since Aquitaine had previously always been held directly by the king of England or his heir; it was not felt to be a fief that a king could bestow on a subordinate. In 1394–95, he was forced to spend nearly a year in Gascony to shore up his position in the face of threats of secession by the Gascon nobles. He was one of England's principal negotiators in the diplomatic exchanges with France that led to the Truce of Leulingham in 1396, and he initially agreed to join the French-led Crusade that ended in the disastrous Battle of Nicopolis, but withdrew due to ill-health and the political problems in Gascony and England.[20] For the remainder of his life, John of Gaunt occupied the role of valued counsellor of the king and loyal supporter of the Crown. He did not even protest, it seems, when his younger brother Thomas was murdered at Richard's behest. It may be that he felt he had to maintain this posture of loyalty to protect his son Henry Bolingbroke (the future Henry IV), who had also been one of the Lords Appellant, from Richard's wrath; but in 1398 Richard had Bolingbroke exiled, and on John of Gaunt's death the next year he disinherited Bolingbroke completely, seizing John's vast estates for the Crown.

    Relationship to Chaucer

    John of Gaunt was a patron and close friend of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer, most famously known for his work The Canterbury Tales. Near the end of their lives, Lancaster and Chaucer became brothers-in-law. Chaucer married Philippa (Pan) de Roet in 1366, and Lancaster took his mistress of nearly 30 years, Katherine Swynford (de Roet), who was Philippa Chaucer's sister, as his third wife in 1396. Although Philippa died c. 1387, the men were bound as brothers and Lancaster's children by Katherine – John, Henry, Thomas and Joan Beaufort – were Chaucer's nephews and niece.

    Chaucer's Book of the Duchess, also known as the Deeth of Blaunche the Duchesse,[21] was written in commemoration of Blanche of Lancaster, John of Gaunt's first wife. The poem refers to John and Blanche in allegory as the narrator relates the tale of "A long castel with walles white/Be Seynt Johan, on a ryche hil" (1318–1319) who is mourning grievously after the death of his love, "And goode faire White she het/That was my lady name ryght" (948–949). The phrase "long castel" is a reference to Lancaster (also called "Loncastel" and "Longcastell"), "walles white" is thought to likely be an oblique reference to Blanche, "Seynt Johan" was John of Gaunt's name-saint, and "ryche hil" is a reference to Richmond; these thinly veiled references reveal the identity of the grieving black knight of the poem as John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Earl of Richmond. "White" is the English translation of the French word "blanche", implying that the white lady was Blanche of Lancaster.[22]

    Believed to have been written in the 1390s, Chaucer's short poem Fortune, is also inferred to directly reference Lancaster.[23][24] "Chaucer as narrator" openly defies Fortune, proclaiming he has learned who his enemies are through her tyranny and deceit, and declares "my suffisaunce" (15) and that "over himself hath the maystrye" (14). Fortune, in turn, does not understand Chaucer's harsh words to her for she believes she has been kind to him, claims that he does not know what she has in store for him in the future, but most importantly, "And eek thou hast thy beste frend alyve" (32, 40, 48). Chaucer retorts that "My frend maystow nat reven, blind goddesse" (50) and orders her to take away those who merely pretend to be his friends. Fortune turns her attention to three princes whom she implores to relieve Chaucer of his pain and "Preyeth his beste frend of his noblesse/That to som beter estat he may atteyne" (78–79). The three princes are believed to represent the dukes of Lancaster, York, and Gloucester, and a portion of line 76, "as three of you or tweyne," to refer to the ordinance of 1390 which specified that no royal gift could be authorised without the consent of at least two of the three dukes.[23] Most conspicuous in this short poem is the number of references to Chaucer's "beste frend". Fortune states three times in her response to the plaintiff, "And also, you still have your best friend alive" (32, 40, 48); she also references his "beste frend" in the envoy when appealing to his "noblesse" to help Chaucer to a higher estate. A fifth reference is made by "Chaucer as narrator" who rails at Fortune that she shall not take his friend from him. While the envoy playfully hints to Lancaster that Chaucer would certainly appreciate a boost to his status or income, the poem Fortune distinctively shows his deep appreciation and affection for John of Gaunt.

    Marriages

    Coat of arms of John of Gaunt asserting his kingship over Castile and Leâon, combining the Castilian castle and lion with lilies of France, the lions of England and his heraldic difference

    On 19 May 1359 at Reading Abbey, John married his third cousin, Blanche of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. The wealth she brought to the marriage was the foundation of John's fortune. Blanche died on 12 September 1368 at Tutbury Castle, while her husband was overseas. Their son Henry Bolingbroke became Henry IV of England, after the duchy of Lancaster was taken by Richard II upon John's death while Henry was in exile. Their daughter Philippa became Queen of Portugal by marrying King John I of Portugal in 1387. All subsequent kings of Portugal were thus descended from John of Gaunt.

    In 1371, John married Infanta Constance of Castile, daughter of King Peter of Castile, thus giving him a claim to the Crown of Castile, which he would pursue. Though John was never able to make good his claim, his daughter by Constance, Catherine of Lancaster, became Queen of Castile by marrying Henry III of Castile. Catherine of Aragon is descended from this line.

    During his marriage to Constance, John of Gaunt had fathered four children by a mistress, the widow Katherine Swynford (whose sister Philippa de Roet was married to Chaucer). Prior to her widowhood, Katherine had borne at least two, possibly three, children to Lancastrian knight Sir Hugh Swynford. The known names of these children are Blanche and Thomas. (There may have been a second Swynford daughter.) John of Gaunt was Blanche Swynford's godfather.[25]
    Constance died in 1394.

    John married Katherine in 1396, and their children, the Beauforts, were legitimised by King Richard II and the Church, but barred from inheriting the throne. From the eldest son, John, descended a granddaughter, Margaret Beaufort, whose son, later King Henry VII of England, would nevertheless claim the throne.

    Queen Elizabeth II and her predecessors since Henry IV are descended from John of Gaunt.

    Children

    1640 drawing of tombs of Katherine Swynford and daughter Joan Beaufort

    By Blanche of Lancaster:

    Philippa (1360–1415) married King John I of Portugal (1357–1433).
    John (1362–1365) was the first-born son of John and Blanche of Lancaster and lived possibly at least until after the birth of his brother Edward of Lancaster in 1365 and died before his second brother another short lived boy called John in 1366.[26] He was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester.
    Elizabeth (1364–1426), married (1) in 1380 John Hastings, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1372–1389), annulled 1383; married (2) in 1386 John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter (1350–1400); (3) Sir John Cornwall, 1st Baron Fanhope and Milbroke (d. 1443)
    Edward (1365) died within a year of his birth and was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester.
    John (1366–1367) most likely died after the birth of his younger brother Henry, the future Henry IV of England; he was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester
    Henry IV of England (1367–1413) married (1) Mary de Bohun (1369–1394); (2) Joanna of Navarre (1368–1437)
    Isabel (1368–1368)[27][28]

    By Constance of Castile:

    Catherine (1372–1418), married King Henry III of Castile (1379–1406)
    John (1374–1375)[28][29]

    By Katherine Swynford (nâee de Roet/Roelt), mistress and later wife (children legitimised 1397):

    John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373–1410)—married Margaret Holland.
    Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester and Cardinal (1375–1447)
    Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter (1377–1427), married Margaret Neville, daughter of Sir Thomas de Neville and Joan Furnivall.
    Joan Beaufort (1379–1440)—married first Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem and second Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland.

    By Marie de St. Hilaire of Hainaut, mistress:

    Blanche (1359–1388/89), illegitimate, married Sir Thomas Morieux (1355–1387) in 1381, without issue. Blanche was the daughter of John's mistress, Marie de St. Hilaire of Hainaut (1340-after 1399), who was a lady-in-waiting to his mother, Queen Philippa. The affair apparently took place before John's first marriage to Blanche of Lancaster. John's daughter, Blanche, married Sir Thomas Morieux in 1381. Morieux held several important posts, including Constable of the Tower the year he was married, and Master of Horse to King Richard II two years later. He died in 1387 after six years of marriage.

    Buried:
    St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London. Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604.[1] The present church, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren. Its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London.[2]

    The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, dominated the skyline for 300 years.[3] At 365 feet (111 m) high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1962. The dome is among the highest in the world. St Paul's is the second largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral.

    St Paul's Cathedral occupies a significant place in the national identity.[4] It is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz.[4] Services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Winston Churchill; Jubilee celebrations for Queen Victoria; peace services marking the end of the First and Second World Wars; the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer, the launch of the Festival of Britain and the thanksgiving services for the Golden Jubilee, the 80th Birthday and the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.

    St Paul's Cathedral is a working church with hourly prayer and daily services.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral

    Died:
    Leicester Castle was built over the Roman town walls.

    According to Leicester Museums, the castle was probably built around 1070 (soon after the Norman Conquest in 1066)[2] under the governorship of Hugh de Grantmesnil. The remains now consist of a mound, along with ruins. Originally the mound was 40 ft (12.2 m) high. Kings sometimes stayed at the castle (Edward I in 1300, and Edward II in 1310 and 1311), and John of Gaunt and his second wife Constance of Castile both died here in 1399 and 1394 respectively.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leicester_Castle

    John married Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster 0___ 1396, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. Katherine (daughter of Paon de Roet, Knight and unnamed spouse) was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France; died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 23.  Katherine de Roet, Duchess of LancasterKatherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France (daughter of Paon de Roet, Knight and unnamed spouse); died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Katherine Swynford

    Notes:

    Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster (also spelled Katharine or Catherine[2]), was the third wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, a son of King Edward III. She had been the Duke's lover for many years before their marriage. The couple's children, born before the marriage, were later legitimated during the reign of the Duke's nephew, Richard II, although with the provision that neither they nor their descendants could ever claim the throne of England.

    Their descendants were members of the Beaufort family, which played a major role in the Wars of the Roses. Henry VII, who became King of England in 1485, derived his claim to the throne from his mother Margaret Beaufort, who was a great-granddaughter of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford. His legal claim to the throne, however, was through a matrilineal and previously illegitimate line and Henry's first action was to declare himself king "by right of conquest" retroactively from 21 August 1485, the day before his army defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth.[3]

    Family

    Katherine was the daughter of Paon de Roet, a herald, and later knight, who was "probably christened as Gilles".[4] She had two sisters, Philippa and Isabel (also called Elizabeth) de Roet, and a brother, Walter. Isabel later became Canoness of the convent of St. Waudru's, Mons, c. 1366. Katherine is generally held to have been his youngest child. However, Alison Weir argues that Philippa was the junior and that both were children of a second marriage.[4] Katherine's sister Philippa, a lady of Queen Philippa's household, married the poet Geoffrey Chaucer.

    Life

    She was probably born in Hainaut in 1349 or 1350. Katherine's birth date may have been 25 November, as that is the feast day of her patron, St. Catherine of Alexandria.[citation needed] The family returned to England in 1351, and it is likely that Katherine stayed there during her father's continued travels.

    In about 1366, at St Clement Danes Church, Westminster, Katherine, aged sixteen or seventeen, contracted an advantageous marriage with "Hugh" Ottes Swynford, a Knight from the manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire, the son of Thomas Swynford by his marriage to Nicole Druel. She had the following children by him: Blanche (born 1 May 1367), Thomas (21 September 1368 – 1432), and possibly Margaret Swynford (born about 1369), later recorded as a nun of the prestigious Barking Abbey nominated by command of King Richard II.

    Katherine became attached to the household of John of Gaunt as governess to his daughters Philippa of Lancaster and Elizabeth of Lancaster. The ailing duchess Blanche had Katherine's daughter Blanche (her namesake) placed within her own daughters' chambers and afforded the same luxuries as her daughters; additionally, John of Gaunt stood as godfather to the child.

    Some time after Blanche's death in 1368 and the birth of their first son in 1373, Katherine and John of Gaunt entered into a love affair that would produce four children for the couple, born out of wedlock but legitimized upon their parents' eventual marriage; the adulterous relationship endured until 1381 when it was truncated out of political necessity[5] and ruined Katherine's reputation. On 13 January 1396, two years after the death of the Duke's second wife, Infanta Constance of Castile, Katherine and John of Gaunt married in Lincoln Cathedral. Records of their marriage kept in the Tower and elsewhere list: 'John of Ghaunt, Duke of Lancaster, married Katharine daughter of Guyon King of Armes in the time of K. Edward the 3, and Geffrey Chaucer her sister'.

    On John of Gaunt's death, Katherine became known as dowager Duchess of Lancaster. She outlived him by four years, dying on 10 May 1403, in her early fifties, an age that most of the women in the 15th century did not reach.

    Tomb

    Katherine Swynford's tomb in 1809
    Katherine's tomb and that of her daughter, Joan Beaufort, are under a carved-stone canopy in the sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral. Joan's is the smaller of the two tombs; both were decorated with brass plates — full-length representations of them on the tops, and small shields bearing coats of arms around the sides and on the top — but those were damaged or destroyed in 1644 during the English Civil War. A hurried drawing by William Dugdale records their appearance.

    Children and descendants

    Katherine's children by Hugh Swynford were:

    Margaret Swynford (born c. 1369), became a nun at the prestigious Barking Abbey in 1377 with help from her future stepfather John of Gaunt, where she lived the religious life with her cousin Elizabeth Chaucer, daughter of the famous Geoffrey Chaucer and Katherine's sister Philippa de Roet.[4]
    Sir Thomas Swynford (1367–1432), born in Lincoln while his father Sir Hugh Swynford was away on a campaign with the Duke of Lancaster in Castile fighting for Peter of Castile.[4][6]
    Blanche Swynford, named after the Duchess of Lancaster and a godchild of John of Gaunt. (If, as suggested, she was born after 1375, this date is too late for her to have been fathered by Hugh Swynford, who died in 1371/2. However, since John of Gaunt obtained a dispensation for his marriage to Katherine for being Blanche Swynford's godchild, this theory can be discarded).[4]
    In 1846 Thomas Stapleton suggested that there was a further daughter named Dorothy Swynford, born c. 1366, who married Thomas Thimelby of Poolham near Horncastle, Lincolnshire, Sheriff of Lincolnshire in 1380, but there is no current evidence to support this claim.[4]

    Katherine's children by John of Gaunt were:

    John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373–1410)
    Henry, Cardinal Beaufort (1375–1447)
    Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter (1377–1426)
    Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland (1379–1440)
    The descendants of Katherine Swynford and John of Gaunt are significant in English and Scottish history. Their four children had been given the surname "Beaufort" and with the approval of King Richard II and the Pope were legitimated as adults by their parents' marriage in 1396. Despite this, the Beauforts were barred from inheriting the throne of England by a clause in the legitimation act inserted by their half-brother, Henry IV, although modern scholarship disputes the authority of a monarch to alter an existing parliamentary statute on his own authority, without the further approval of Parliament. This provision was later revoked by Edward IV, placing Katherine's descendants (including himself) back within the legitimate line of inheritance; the Tudor dynasty was directly descended from John and Katherine's eldest child, John Beaufort, great-grandfather of Henry VII, who based his claim to the throne on his mother's descent from John of Gaunt, a son of Edward III. John Beaufort also had a daughter named Joan Beaufort, who married James I of Scotland and thus was an ancestress of the House of Stuart.[7] John and Katherine's daughter, Joan Beaufort, was grandmother of the English kings Edward IV and Richard III, the latter of whom Henry Tudor (thus becoming by conquest Henry VII) defeated at the Battle of Bosworth Field; Henry's claim was strengthened by marrying Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV. It was also through Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland that the sixth queen of Henry VIII, Catherine Parr, descended.[8] John of Gaunt's son — Katherine's stepson Henry of Bolingbroke — became Henry IV after deposing Richard II (who was imprisoned and died in Pontefract Castle, where Katherine's son, Thomas Swynford, was constable and is said to have starved Richard to death for his step-brother). John of Gaunt's daughter by his first marriage to Blanche of Lancaster, Philippa of Lancaster, was great-great-grandmother to Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII and mother of Mary I of England. John of Gaunt's child by his second wife Constance, Catherine (or Catalina), was great-grandmother of Catherine of Aragon as well.

    In literature

    Katherine Swynford is the subject of Anya Seton's novel Katherine (published in 1954) and of Alison Weir's 2008 biography Katherine Swynford: The Story of John of Gaunt and his Scandalous Duchess (ISBN 0-224-06321-9). Swynford is also the subject of Jeannette Lucraft's historical biography Katherine Swynford: The History of a Medieval Mistress. This book seeks to establish Swynford as a powerful figure in the politics of 14th-century England and an example of a woman's ability to manipulate contemporary social mores for her own interests.

    Coat of arms of Katherine Swynford as Duchess of Lancaster, after her marriage to John of Gaunt : three gold Catherine wheels ("roet" means "little wheel" in Old French) on a red field. The wheel emblem shows Katherine's devotion to her patron saint, Catherine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel.,[4] although there was once extant a copy of her seal's impression, ca. 1377, showing her arms of three Catherine wheels of gold on a field Gules, a molet in fess point empaling the arms of Swynford (Birch's Catalogue of Seals

    Buried:
    Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. Mary's Cathedral) is a cathedral located in Lincoln in England and seat of the Bishop of Lincoln in the Church of England. Building commenced in 1088 and continued in several phases throughout the medieval period. It was reputedly the tallest building in the world for 238 years (1311–1549).[1][2][3] The central spire collapsed in 1549 and was not rebuilt. The cathedral is the third largest in Britain (in floor space) after St Paul's and York Minster, being 484 by 271 feet (148 by 83 m). It is highly regarded by architectural scholars; the eminent Victorian writer John Ruskin declared: "I have always held... that the cathedral of Lincoln is out and out the most precious piece of architecture in the British Isles and roughly speaking worth any two other cathedrals we have."

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln_Cathedral

    Notes:

    Married:
    formerly his mistress...

    Children:
    1. 12. John Beaufort, III, Knight, 1st Earl of Somerset was born 1371-1373, Chateau de Beaufrot, Anjou, France; died 14 Mar 1410, Hospital of St. Katherine's by the Tower, London, England; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    2. Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter was born 0___ 1377; died 0___ 1427.
    3. 11. Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland was born ~ 1379, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France; died 13 Nov 1440, Howden, Yorkshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

  9. 26.  Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of KentThomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent was born 1350-1354, Upholland, Lancashire, England (son of Thomas Holland, Knight, 1st Earl of Kent and Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent); died 25 Apr 1397, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: La Rioja, Spain
    • Also Known As: Baron Holand
    • Also Known As: Thomas de Holand
    • Military:
    • Military: 3 Apr 1367; Battle of Nâajera

    Notes:

    Thomas Holland (also known as de Holland),[1] 2nd Earl of Kent, 3rd Baron Holand KG (1350/1354 - 25 April 1397) was an English nobleman and a councillor of his half-brother, King Richard II of England.

    Family and early Life

    Thomas Holland (or de Holand)[1] was born in Upholand, Lancashire, in 1350[1][3] or 1354[2][4] (sources differ on his birth year). He was the eldest surviving son of Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent".[5] His mother was a daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, and Margaret Wake. Edmund was in turn a son of Edward I of England and his second Queen consort Marguerite of France, and thus a younger half-brother of Edward II of England.
    His father died in 1360, and later that year, on 28 December, Thomas became Baron Holand.[3] His mother was still Countess of Kent in her own right, and in 1361 she married Edward, the Black Prince, the son of King Edward III.

    Military career

    At sixteen, in 1366, Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine.[6] Over the next decade he fought in various campaigns, including the Battle of Nâajera, under the command of his stepfather Edward, the Black Prince. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1375.[6]

    Richard II became king in 1377, and soon Holland acquired great influence over his younger half-brother, which he used for his own enrichment. In 1381, he succeeded as Earl of Kent.[6]

    Later years and death

    Prior to his death, Holland was appointed Governor of Carisbrooke Castle.[6] Holland died at Arundel Castle, Sussex, England on 25 April 1397.[1]

    Marriage and progeny

    On 10 April 1364 Holland married Lady Alice FitzAlan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel by his wife Eleanor of Lancaster .[1][2] By his wife he had progeny three sons and six daughters. All the sons died without legitimate progeny, whereupon the daughters and their issue became co-heiresses to the House of Holland. The progeny were as follows:

    Sons

    Thomas Holland, 3rd Earl of Kent, 1st Duke of Surrey (1374 – 7 January 1400), eldest son and heir, created Duke of Surrey. Died without progeny.

    Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent (6 January 1384 – 15 September 1408), heir to his elder brother. Died without legitimate progeny, but had an illegitimate child by his mistress Constance of York.

    John Holland, died without progeny

    Daughters

    Through the marriages of his daughters, he became the ancestor of many of the prominent figures in the Wars of the Roses, including Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (father of Kings Edward IV and Richard III), Henry Tudor (later King Henry VII), and Warwick the Kingmaker, father of queen consort Anne Neville. He was also an ancestor of queen consort Catherine Parr, the sixth wife of King Henry VIII. His daughters were as follows:

    Eleanor I Holland (1373 - October 1405), (who bore the same first name as her younger sister, alias Alianore) married twice: Firstly to Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March (1374-1398), heir presumptive to his mother's first cousin King Richard II (1377-1399). Her only child and sole heiress to the Mortimer claim was Anne Mortimer. Following the deposition of Richard II in 1399 by his own first-cousin the Lancastrian Henry Bolingbroke (who ruled as King Henry IV (1399-1413)), Anne Mortimer's claim to the throne of England was pursued by her son Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (1411-1460) which drawn-out struggle formed the basis of the Wars of the Roses. Secondly she married Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton

    Joan Holland (ca. 1380-12 April 1434), married Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York

    Margaret Holland (1385 - 31 December 1439), married first John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and second Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence

    Elizabeth Holland, who married Sir John Neville (c.1387 – before 20 May 1420), eldest son and heir of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, and by him had three sons, Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland, John Neville, Baron Neville, and Sir Thomas Neville, and a daughter, Margaret Neville.[7]

    Eleanor II Holland (1386- after 1413), (who bore the same first name as her eldest sister, alias Alianore) married Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury

    Bridget Holland, who became a nun[1]

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Tompsett, Brian. "de Holland, Thomas, Earl of Kent 2nd". Royal Genealogical Data. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c Lundy, Darryl. "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10292". thePeerage.com. Retrieved 30 October 2011.[unreliable source?]
    ^ Jump up to: a b Rayment, Leigh. "Peers - H - page 4". Leigh Rayment's Peerage Page. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
    Jump up ^ Western, Peter. "Page - pafg22". Maximilian Genealogy Master Database 2000. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
    Jump up ^ Western, Peter. "Page - pafg51". Maximilian Genealogy Master Database 2000. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Lee, Sidney, ed. (1891). "Holland, Thomas (1350-1397)". Dictionary of National Biography 27. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
    Jump up ^ Richardson III 2011, p. 249.
    Dictionary of National Biography, Vol.27, Ed. Sidney Lee, Smith, Elder & Co., 1851.

    Military:
    At sixteen, in 1366, Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine .[6] Over the next decade he fought in various campaigns, including the Battle of Nâajera , under the command of his stepfather Edward, the Black Prince . He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1375.[

    Thomas married Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent 10 Apr 1364, Arundel, West Sussex, England. Alice (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel) was born 1350-1352, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 17 Mar 1415, (Arundel, West Sussex, England). [Group Sheet]


  10. 27.  Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent was born 1350-1352, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel); died 17 Mar 1415, (Arundel, West Sussex, England).

    Notes:

    Alice Holland, Countess of Kent (c. 1350 - 17 March 1416), LG, formerly Lady Alice FitzAlan, was an English noblewoman, a daughter of the 10th Earl of Arundel, and the wife of the 2nd Earl of Kent, the half-brother of King Richard II. As the maternal grandmother of Anne Mortimer, she was an ancestor of King Edward IV and King Richard III, as well as King Henry VII and the Tudor dynasty through her daughter Margaret Holland. She was also the maternal grandmother of Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland.

    She was appointed a Lady of the Garter in 1388.

    Family

    Lady Alice FitzAlan was born circa 1350 at Arundel Castle in Sussex, England,[2] the second daughter of the 10th Earl of Arundel, and Lady Eleanor of Lancaster. She had six siblings who included Richard FitzAlan, later 11th Earl of Arundel, and Lady Joan FitzAlan, later Countess of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton. She also had three half-siblings from her parents' previous marriages.

    Her paternal grandparents were the 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, and her maternal grandparents were the 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth.

    Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland was a granddaughter of Lady Alice FitzAlan

    Marriage and issue

    In 1354, at the age of four, Lady Alice was betrothed to her father's ward Edmund Mortimer who would in 1360 become the 3rd Earl of March. The marriage however did not take place. Alice married instead on 10 April 1364, 2nd Earl of Kent, one of the half-brothers of the future King Richard II by his mother Joan of Kent's first marriage to Thomas Lord Holland. She received from her father a marriage portion of 4000 marks.[3] Upon her marriage, she was styled Lady Holland. She did not, however, become Countess of Kent until 1381, when her husband succeeded his father as Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent.

    Lord Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine in 1366, and in 1375, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Two years later in 1377, his half-brother Richard succeeded to the throne of England, as King Richard II. Alice's husband would become one of the young King's chief counsellors and exert a strong influence over his brother which led to the enrichment of Thomas and Alice. Alice was appointed a Lady of the Garter, an order of chivalry, in 1388.

    Together Thomas and Alice had ten children:[4]

    Alianore Holland (1373- October 1405), married firstly Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, by whom she had issue, including Anne Mortimer and Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March; she married secondly, Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton, by whom she had two daughters.
    Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey (1374- 7 January 1400), married Joan Stafford, but the marriage was childless.
    John Holland (died young)
    Richard Holland (died young)
    Elizabeth Holland (died 4 January 1423), married Sir John Neville, Lord Neville by whom she had issue.
    Joan Holland (1380- 12 April 1434), married firstly as his second wife, Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York; married secondly William de Willoughby, 5th Lord Willoughby de Eresby; married thirdly Henry le Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham, her fourth husband was Henry Bromflete, 1st Lord Vessy. All her marriages were childless.
    Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent (6 January 1384 – 15 September 1408), married Lucia Visconti[5] (1372-14 April 1424), but the marriage was childless. He fathered an illegitimate daughter Eleanor de Holland (born 1406), by his mistress Constance of York.
    Margaret Holland (1385- 30 December 1439), married firstly John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, by whom she had issue including John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset and Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland; she married secondly Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence.
    Eleanor Holland (1386- after 1413), married Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury, by whom she had one daughter, Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury.
    Bridget Holland (died before 1416), a nun at Barking Abbey.
    Later years[edit]
    Alice's husband died on 25 April 1397. In 1399, King Richard was deposed, and the throne was usurped by Henry IV, the son-in-law of her elder sister, Joan. In January 1400, Alice's eldest son Thomas, who had succeeded his father as the 3rd Earl of Kent, was captured at Cirencester and beheaded without a trial by a mob of angry citizens[6] as a consequence of having been one of the chief conspirators in the Epiphany Rising. The rebels had hoped to seize and murder King Henry, and immediately restore King Richard to the throne. Less than three years earlier, her brother Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel and a Lord Appellant had been executed for his opposition to King Richard.

    Alice herself died on 17 March 1416 at the age of sixty-six years.

    Descendants

    Alice had many illustrious descendants which included English kings Edward IV, Richard III (and his consort Queen Anne), Henry VII; from the latter of whom descended the Tudor monarchs. Alice was also an ancestress of Scottish king James II of Scotland and his successors which included Mary, Queen of Scots and James I of England. Her other notable descendants include the last queen consort of Henry VIII, Catherine Parr; Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick known in history as Warwick the Kingmaker; Cecily Bonville; Isabel Ingoldisthorpe, wife of John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu; John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester, and Anne Bourchier, 7th Baroness Bourchier. Living descendants of Alice Fitzalan include the current British Royal Family.

    Birth:
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Children:
    1. Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury was born 13 Oct 1370, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 18 Oct 1405, Bisham, Berkshire, England.
    2. Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent, 5th Baron Holand was born 6 Jan 1384; died 15 Sep 1408.
    3. 13. Margaret Holland, Duchess of Clarence was born 0___ 1385, (England); died 31 Dec 1439; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    4. Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury was born 0___ 1386, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died Aft 1413, Bisham Manor, Bisham, Berkshire, England.
    5. Elizabeth Holland was born 0___ 1388, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 4 Jan 1424.

  11. 28.  Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 12th Earl of Warwick was born 16 Mar 1338, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England (son of Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick); died 10 Apr 1401, (Warwickshire) England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Sheriff of Worcestershire
    • Military: Admiral of the North Fleet

    Notes:

    Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, KG (16 March 1338 - 8 April 1401[1]) was an English medieval nobleman, and one of the primary opponents of Richard II.

    Birth and Marriage

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel; Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester; Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham; Henry, Earl of Derby (later Henry IV); and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, throw down their gauntlets and demand Richard II to let them prove by arms the justice for their rebellion

    He was the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine Mortimer,[2] a daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, and succeeded his father in 1369. He married Margaret Ferrers, daughter of Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Margaret d'Ufford, daughter of Robert d'Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk.

    Royal Service

    Seal of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick
    Knighted around 1355,[2] Beauchamp accompanied John of Gaunt in campaigns in France in 1373, and around that time was made a Knight of the Garter. In the parliaments of 1376 and 1377 he was one of those appointed to supervise reform of King Richard II's government. When these were not as effective as hoped, Beauchamp was made Governor over the King. He brought a large contingent of soldiers and archers to King Richard's Scottish campaign of 1385.

    Conflict with King Richard II

    In 1387 he was one of the Lords Appellant, who endeavored to separate Richard from his favorites. After Richard regained power, Beauchamp retired to his estates, but was charged with high treason in 1397, supposedly as a part of the Earl of Arundel's alleged conspiracy. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London (in what is now known as the "Beauchamp Tower"), pleaded guilty and threw himself on the mercy of the king. He forfeited his estates and titles, and was sentenced to life imprisonment on the Isle of Man. The next year, however, he was moved back to the Tower, until he was released in August 1399 after Henry Bolingbroke's initial victories over King Richard II.

    Restored by Bolingbroke

    After Bolingbroke deposed Richard and became king as Henry IV, Beauchamp was restored to his titles and estates. He was one of those who urged the new King to execute Richard, and accompanied King Henry against the rebellion of 1400.

    Death

    Monumental effigies of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick and his wife
    Beauchamp died in 1401 (sources differ as to whether on 8 April or 8 August).[3]

    Succession

    He was succeeded by his son Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick.

    Died:
    (sources differ as to whether on 8 April or 8 August)

    Thomas — Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick. Margaret (daughter of William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Margaret de Ufford) was born ~ 1347, Groby, Leicestershire, England; died 22 Jan 1407, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried St. Mary's, Warwick, Warwickshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 29.  Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick was born ~ 1347, Groby, Leicestershire, England (daughter of William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Margaret de Ufford); died 22 Jan 1407, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried St. Mary's, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Will: 28 Nov 1406

    Notes:

    About

    history

    Margaret Ferrers1,2,3,4,5,6,7

    F, #15405, b. circa 1361, d. 22 January 1407
    Father Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby2,3,4,8,6,9 b. 28 Feb 1333, d. 8 Jan 1371
    Mother Margaret de Ufford2,3,4,8,6,9 d. b 25 May 1368
    Margaret Ferrers was born circa 1361. She married Sir Thomas Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, Admiral of the North Fleet, Sheriff of Worcestershire, son of Sir Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, Sheriff of Worcestershire, Warwickshire, & Leicestershire, Marshal of England and Katherine de Mortimer, before April 1381; They had 1 son (Richard, Earl of Warwick) and 2 daughters (Katherine; & Margaret).2,4,5,6,7 Margaret Ferrers left a will on 28 November 1406.4,6 She died on 22 January 1407; Buried at south part of the collegiate church at St. Mary's, Warwick.2,4,6

    Family Sir Thomas Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, Admiral of the North Fleet, Sheriff of Worcestershire b. b 16 Mar 1339, d. 8 Apr 1401

    Child

    Sir Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl Warwick, Earl of Albemarle & Worcester, Lord Abergavenny, Sheriff of Worcestershire+2,4,6 b. 25 Jan 1382 or 28 Jan 1382, d. 30 Apr 1439

    Citations

    [S4153] Unknown author, Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles by Gerald Paget, Vol. I, p. 87; Plantagenet Ancestry of 17th Century Colonists, by David Faris, p. 13.
    [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 72.
    [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 208.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 145-146.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 298.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 296-297.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 155.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 297-298.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 154.
    From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p513.htm#i15405
    ___________________

    Margaret Ferrers
    F, #3485, d. 27 January 1407
    Last Edited=21 Aug 2005
    Margaret Ferrers was the daughter of Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Lord Ferrers (of Groby) and Margaret d'Ufford. She married Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine Mortimer.1 She died on 27 January 1407. She was also reported to have died on 22 January 1407.1
    She lived at Groby, Leicestershire, England.
    Child of Margaret Ferrers and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick
    Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick+ b. 25 Jan 1381/82, d. 30 Apr 1439
    Citations
    [S125] Richard Glanville-Brown, online , Richard Glanville-Brown (RR 2, Milton, Ontario, Canada), downloaded 17 August 2005.
    From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p349.htm#i3485
    _______________________

    Margaret FERRERS
    Died: 22 Jan 1406
    Buried: St Mary's, Warwick
    Father: William FERRERS (3º B. Ferrers of Groby)
    Mother: Margaret De UFFORD
    Married: John De BEAUCHAMP / Thomas De BEAUCHAMP (12° E. Warwick) Apr 1434
    Children:
    1. Richard BEAUCHAMP (2º B. Powis) (b. 1436 - d. ABT 19 Apr 1475 / Jan 1503) (m. Elizabeth Stafford)
    From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/FERRERS.htm#Margaret FERRERS1
    _____________________

    Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, Count of Aumale, KG (25 or 28 January 1382[1] – 30 April 1439) was an English medieval nobleman and military commander.
    Beauchamp was born at Salwarpe in Worcestershire,[2] the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, and Margaret, a daughter of William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby.[1] His godfather was King Richard II.[2]
    He was knighted at the coronation of King Henry IV and succeeded to the Earldom of Warwick in 1401.[3]
    .... etc.
    Warwick first married Elizabeth de Berkeley (born ca.1386 – 28 December 1422) before 5 October 1397,[6] the daughter of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Lord Berkeley and the Baroness Margaret de Lisle. Together they had 3 daughters:
    Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury (1404–1468), who married John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, and whose great-great-grandson John Dudley was created Earl of Warwick and subsequently Duke of Northumberland;
    Eleanor, Duchess of Somerset, (b 1407) who married Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros and then married Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset;
    Elizabeth, Baroness Latimer of Snape, (b 1417) who married George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer.
    Warwick then married Isabel le Despenser (26 July 1400–1439), the daughter of Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Constance of York. With Isabel, who was also the widow of his cousin Richard Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, his children were:
    Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, (born March 1425) who succeeded his father as Earl of Warwick, and later became Duke of Warwick;
    Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick, (b September 1426) who was theoretically Countess of Warwick in her own right (after the death of her infant niece and namesake), and who married Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.
    Richard de Beauchamp's will was made at Caversham Castle in Oxfordshire (now Berkshire), one of his favoured residences, in 1437. Most of his property was entailed, but with a portion of the rest the will established a substantial trust. After his debts were paid the trust endowed the Collegiate Church of St Mary in Warwick, and called for the construction of a new chapel there. It also enlarged the endowment of the chantries at Elmley Castle and Guy's Cliffe, and gave a gift to Tewkesbury Abbey.[8] Beauchamp died in Rouen, Normandy, two years later, on 30 April 1439.[9] After the completion of the chapel, his body was transferred there (in 1475),[8] where his magnificent gilt-bronze monumental effigy may still be seen.
    From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_de_Beauchamp,_13th_Earl_of_Warwick
    __________________

    Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 04
    Beauchamp, Richard de (1382-1439) by James Gairdner
    BEAUCHAMP, RICHARD de, Earl of Warwick (1382–1439), a brave and chivalrous warrior in an age of chivalry, of an ancient family, whose ancestry was traced to the legendary Guy of Warwick, was the son of Thomas, earl of Warwick [see Beauchamp, Thomas de], by Margaret his wife, daughter of William, Lord Ferrers of Groby. He was born at Salwarp, in Worcestershire, on 28 Jan. 1382. His godfathers at baptism were King Richard II and Richard Scrope, afterwards archbishop of York, .... etc.
    The earl was twice married. His first wife was Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Thomas, Lord Berkley, by whom he had three daughters. His second, whom he married by papal dispensation, was Isabella, widow of his cousin, Richard Beauchamp, earl of Worcester, who was slain at Meaux in 1422. It was by this second marriage that he had his son and heir, Henry [see Beauchamp, Henry de].
    [Dugdale's Baronage; Dugdale's Warwickshire, i. 408-11; Cotton MS. Julius, E iv.; Walsingham's Historia Anglicana and Ypodigma Neustriµ; Fabyan; Hall; Gregory, in Gairdner's Historical Collections of a London Citizen; Leland's Itinerary, vi. 89; Paston Letters, No. 18; Rymer, ix.-x.]
    From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Beauchamp,_Richard_de_(1382-1439)_(DNB00)
    https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati04stepuoft#page/29/mode/1up to https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati04stepuoft#page/31/mode/1up
    ___________________

    Margaret Ferrers[1,2]

    - 22 Jan 1406/1407
    Sex Female

    Lived In England

    Complete *

    Died 22 Jan 1406/1407

    Buried St.Mary's, Warwick

    Person ID I00101306 Leo

    Last Modified 15 Jun 2009

    Father William de Ferrers, 3rd Lord Ferrers of Groby, b. est 1333

    Mother Margaret de Ufford

    Family ID F00044073 Group Sheet

    Family Thomas de Beauchamp, 4th Earl of Warwick, b. Bef 16 Mar 1339

    Married Bef Apr 1381

    Children

    1. Richard de Beauchamp, 5th Earl of Warwick, b. Jan 1381, Salwarpe, co Worcester

    2. Katherine de Beauchamp
    3. Margaret de Beauchamp
    4. Katherine de Beauchamp
    5. Elizabeth de Beauchamp
    Last Modified 15 Jun 2009

    Family ID F00044072 Group Sheet

    Sources

    1. [S00010] A Genealogical History of the dormant, abeyant, forfeited and extinct peerages of the British Empire, London, 1866, Burke, Sir Bernard, Reference: 31

    2. [S00058] The Complete Peerage, 1936 , Doubleday, H.A. & Lord Howard de Walden, Reference:

    Children:
    1. 14. Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick was born 28 Jan 1381, Salwarpe, Worcestershire, England; died 30 Apr 1439, Rouen, Normandy, France; was buried 4 Oct 1439, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

  13. 30.  Thomas de Berkeley was born 5 Jan 1352, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England (son of Maurice Berkeley, Knight, 4th Baron Berkeley and Elizabeth Despencer); died 13 Jul 1417, Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England; was buried Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England.

    Thomas married Margaret Lisle 0Nov 1367, Wingrave, Buckingham, England. Margaret (daughter of Warin de Lisle, Knight, Baron de Lisle and Margaret Pipard) was born ~ 1359, Kingston Lisle, Sparsholt, Berkshire, England; died 20 Mar 1392; was buried Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England. [Group Sheet]


  14. 31.  Margaret Lisle was born ~ 1359, Kingston Lisle, Sparsholt, Berkshire, England (daughter of Warin de Lisle, Knight, Baron de Lisle and Margaret Pipard); died 20 Mar 1392; was buried Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England.
    Children:
    1. 15. Elizabeth Berkeley, Countess of Warwick was born 0___ 1386, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England; died 28 Dec 1422; was buried Kingswood Abbey, Kingswood, Gloucestershire, England.


Generation: 6

  1. 32.  Ralph Stafford, Knight, 1st Earl of StaffordRalph Stafford, Knight, 1st Earl of Stafford was born 24 Sep 1301, Staffordshire, England; died 31 Aug 1372; was buried Tonbridge Priory, Kent, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 2nd Baron Stafford
    • Military: Knight of the Garter

    Notes:

    Ralph de Stafford, 2nd Baron Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford, KG (24 September 1301 - 31 August 1372) was an English nobleman and notable soldier during the Hundred Years War against France.

    Early life and family

    Ralph was born on 24 September 1301, the son of Edmund de Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford and Margaret Bassett.[1] Having lost his father at the age of seven, Ralph grew up in the midlands with his mother's relatives, including her second husband Thomas Pipe. He had his first experience of royal service, along with his brothers and stepfather, when he joined the retinue of Ralph, 2nd Lord Bassett.[2]

    Career

    Stafford was made a Knight banneret in 1327 and was fighting the Scots shortly afterwards. He supported the plot to free Edward III of England from the control of Roger Mortimer, which earned the king's gratitude. By the summer of 1332, he was a commissioner of the peace in Staffordshire and had served abroad on royal business, accompanying Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester. He was also still fighting the Scots, commanding archers at the Battle of Dupplin Moor on 11 Aug 1332 and on three further Scottish campaigns.[2]

    He was first summoned to Parliament by writ as Lord Stafford on 29 November 1336 and continued to attend until 1350.

    His military career continued, accompanying King Edward to France in 1338 as an advisor and being present at the naval battle of Sluys on 24 June 1340. He also fought at the relief of Brest and the siege of Morlaix. He was captured at Vannes but was exchanged in time to negotiate a truce at Malestroit.

    On 6 January 1341, he was made Steward of the Royal Household but resigned that post on 29 March 1345 having assumed the office of Seneschal of Aquitaine, an English possession in France, where he stayed for about a year. Further battles included the battle of Auberoche, the siege of Aiguillon, from where he escaped prior to its lifting, a raid on Barfleur and the English victory at the Battle of Crecy, on 26 August 1346. He became one of the twenty-six founding members and the fifth Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.[2]

    In November 1347, his wife's father died; they were able to take possession of his estates without paying the king's homage, an indication of the relationship between them. Ralph was now a very wealthy man, from his estates and from the many prizes from the French war.[2]

    Edward III created a number of new peerage titles to honour his war captains and to mark his jubilee year. Ralph was created the 1st Earl of Stafford on 5 March 1350, with an annuity of 1000 marks. He now replaced Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster as the king's lieutenant in Gascony, he committed to serve with 200 men at his expense with the expectation of this being doubled in March 1353 at the king's expense. The campaigns provided several captives that were ransomed, but were ultimately unsuccessful, leading to the appointment of Edward, Prince of Wales to command.[2]

    Even at the age of sixty, Stafford continued to command troops and act as a royal envoy, both in France and in Ireland in 1361, accompanying Lionel of Antwerp to try and restore English control.

    Marriages and children

    Around 1326, Stafford married his first wife, Katherine Hastang (also known as Katherine Hastings).[1][3] Katherine was the daughter of Sir John de Hastang, Knight, of Chebsey, Staffordshire.[4] Ralph and Katherine had two daughters:

    Margaret, married Sir John of Bramshall (or Wickham) de Stafford, Knight.
    Joan, married Sir Nicholas de Beke, Knight.
    He later sensationally abducted Margaret de Audley, 2nd Baroness Audley, daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Margaret de Clare, who was worth at least ¹2314 a year, more than ten times his own estates. Her parents filed a complaint with King Edward III of England, but the King supported Stafford's actions. In compensation, the King appeased Hugh and Margaret by creating Hugh the 1st Earl of Gloucester. Margaret de Audley and Stafford married before 6 July 1336 and they subsequently had two sons and four daughters:

    Ralph de Stafford (d. 1347), married Maud of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Isabel de Beaumont in 1344.[2][5]
    Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, born circa 1336 in Staffordshire, England, married Philippa de Beauchamp; they were the ancestors of the Dukes of Buckingham (1444 creation).[5]
    Elizabeth de Stafford, born circa 1340 in Staffordshire, England, died 7 August 1376, married firstly Fulk le Strange;[5] married secondly, John de Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Chartley; married thirdly Reginald de Cobham, 2nd Baron Cobham.[6]
    Beatrice de Stafford, born circa 1341 in Staffordshire, England, died 1415, married firstly, in 1350, Maurice FitzGerald, 2nd Earl of Desmond (d. June 1358); married secondly, Thomas de Ros, 4th Baron de Ros, of Helmsley; married thirdly Sir Richard Burley, Knt.[5]
    Joan de Stafford, born in 1344 in Staffordshire, England, died 1397, married firstly, John Charleton, 3rd Baron Cherleton;[5] married secondly Gilbert Talbot, 3rd Baron Talbot.[7]
    Katherine de Stafford, born circa 1348 in Staffordshire, England and died in December 1361. On 25 December 1357, she married Sir John de Sutton III (1339 – c. 1370 or 1376), Knight, Master of Dudley Castle, Staffordshire.[8] They were parents of Sir John de Sutton IV, hence grandparents of Sir John de Sutton V.[9]
    Death[edit]
    He died on 31 August 1372 at Tonbridge Castle, Kent, England.[2] He was buried at Tonbridge Priory,[10] next to his second wife and her parents.[2]

    Buried:
    Tonbridge Priory was a priory in Tonbridge , Kent , England that was established in 1124. It was destroyed by fire in 1337 and then rebuilt. The priory was disestablished in 1523.

    The building stood in 1735, but was a ruin by 1780. The remains of the priory were demolished in 1842 when the South Eastern Railway built the railway through Tonbridge, the original Tonbridge station standing on its site.

    Ralph married Margaret de Audley, 2nd Baroness Audley Bef 6 July 1336. Margaret (daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley and Margaret de Clare) was born 1318-1322, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; died 7 Sep 1349, Tunbridge Castle, Tunbridge, Kent, England; was buried Tunbridge Priory, Kent, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 33.  Margaret de Audley, 2nd Baroness Audley was born 1318-1322, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England (daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley and Margaret de Clare); died 7 Sep 1349, Tunbridge Castle, Tunbridge, Kent, England; was buried Tunbridge Priory, Kent, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Stafford

    Notes:

    Margaret de Audley, suo jure 2nd Baroness Audley and Countess of Stafford (1318 - between 1347 and 1351[1]) was an English noblewoman. She was the only daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester by his wife Lady Margaret de Clare.[2] Her mother was the daughter of Joan of Acre, Princess of England; thus making Margaret a great-granddaughter of King Edward I by his first consort, Eleanor of Castile. As the only daughter and heiress of her father, she succeeded to the title of 2nd Baroness Audley [E., 1317] on 10 November 1347.[1]

    Marriage and issue

    Margaret was abducted by Ralph, Lord Stafford, who had helped Edward III take the throne. At the time, her worth was at least ¹2314 a year, which was more than ten times Stafford's own estates. (However, he eventually rose to Earl of Stafford in 1350.) After the abduction, her parents filed a complaint with the king, but Edward supported Stafford. In compensation, the king appeased Hugh and Margaret by creating Hugh the 1st Earl of Gloucester.

    Margaret de Audley and Stafford married before 6 July 1336. They subsequently had two sons and four daughters:

    Sir Ralph de Stafford (d. 1347), married Maud of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Isabel of Beaumont in 1344.[3]
    Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, born circa 1336 in Staffordshire, England, married Philippa de Beauchamp; they were the ancestors of the Dukes of Buckingham (1444 creation).[3]
    Elizabeth de Stafford, born circa 1340 in Staffordshire, England, died 7 August 1376, married firstly Fulk le Strange;[3] married secondly, John de Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Chartley; married thirdly Reginald de Cobham, 2nd Baron Cobham.[4]
    Beatrice de Stafford, born circa 1341 in Staffordshire, England, died 1415, married firstly, in 1350, Maurice FitzGerald, 2nd Earl of Desmond (d. June 1358); married secondly, Thomas de Ros, 4th Baron de Ros, of Helmsley; married thirdly Sir Richard Burley, Knt.[3]
    Joan de Stafford, born in 1344 in Staffordshire, England, died 1397, married firstly, John Charleton, 3rd Baron Cherleton;[3] married secondly Gilbert Talbot, 3rd Baron Talbot.[5]
    Katherine de Stafford, born circa 1348 in Staffordshire, England and died in December 1361. Married on 25 December 1357 Sir John de Sutton III (1339 – c. 1370 or 1376), Knight, Master of Dudley Castle, Staffordshire. They were parents of Sir John de Sutton IV, hence grandparents of Sir John de Sutton V.[6]

    Children:
    1. Beatrice Stafford was born ~ 1341, Staffordshire, England; died 13 Apr 1415.
    2. Elizabeth de Stafford was born 0___ 1342, Staffordshire, England; died 7 Aug 1375.
    3. 16. Hugh Stafford, Knight, 2nd Earl of Stafford was born ~ 1344, Stafford Castle, Stafford, Staffordshire, England; died 16 Oct 1386, Rhodes, Greece; was buried Stone Priory, Staffordshire, England.

  3. 34.  Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of WarwickThomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of Warwick was born 14 Feb 1313, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England (son of Guy de Beauchamp, Knight, 10th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Toeni, Countess of Warwick); died 13 Nov 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Thomas de Beauchamp

    Notes:

    Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, KG (c. 14 February 1313 – 13 November 1369) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War. In 1348 he became one of the founders and the third Knight of the Order of the Garter.

    Early life

    Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick depicted in 1347 as one of the 8 mourners attached to the monumental brass of Sir Hugh Hastings (d. 1347) at St Mary's Church, Elsing, Norfolk. He displays the arms of Beauchamp on his tunic
    Thomas de Beauchamp was born at Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England to Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Toeni. He served in Scotland frequently during the 1330s, being captain of the army against the Scots in 1337. He was hereditary High Sheriff of Worcestershire from 1333 until his death (in 1369). In 1344 he was also made High Sheriff of Warwickshire and Leicestershire for life.[citation needed]

    Victor at Crâecy and Poitiers


    Left:Seal (obverse) of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, dated 1344: S(IGILLUM) THO(M)E COMITIS WARRWYCHIE ANNO REGNI REGIS E(DWARDII) TE(RT)II...(continued on counter-seal) ("Seal of Thomas, Count (Earl) of Warwick in the year of the reign of King Edward the Third..."). He displays on his surcoat, shield and horse's caparison the arms of Beauchamp, and carries on his helm as crest a swan's head and neck; right: Counter-seal/reverse: (legend continued from face of seal) ...POST CO(N)QUESTU(M) ANGLIE SEPTI(M)O DECIM(0) ET REGNI SUI FRANCIE QUARTO ("...after the Conquest of England the seventeenth and of his reign of the Kingdom of France the fourth"). This dates the seal to 1344. The arms are those of de Newburgh, the family of the Beaumont Earls of Warwick: Checky azure and or, a chevron ermine. This same display of double arms was used on the seal of his father Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick on his seal affixed to the Barons' Letter, 1301
    Warwick was Marshall of England from 1343/4 until 1369, and was one of the commanders at the great English victories at Crâecy and Poitiers.

    Thomas de Beauchamp fought in all the French wars of King Edward III; he commanded the center at the Battle of Crecy (where many of his relatives were killed including his younger half-brother Alan la Zouche de Mortimer). He was trusted to be guardian of the sixteen-year-old Black Prince. Beauchamp fought at Poitiers in 1356 and at the Siege of Calais (1346).

    He began the rebuilding of the Collegiate Church of Saint Mary in Warwick using money received from the ransom of a French Archbishop. He died of plague in Calais on 13 November 1369 and was entombed in the Beauchamp Chapel. The chapel contains the finest example of the use of brisures for cadency in medieval heraldry -- seven different Beauchamp coats of arms.

    Marriage and children

    He married Katherine Mortimer, daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. They had five sons and ten daughters:[1]

    Thomas b. 16 Mar 1338 d. 8 Aug 1401, who married Margaret Ferrers and had descendants. His son Richard succeeded him as Earl and inherited most of his property.
    Guy (d. 28 April 1360). He had two daughters who by entail were excluded from their grandfather's inheritance: Elizabeth (d. c.1369), and Katherine, who became a nun.
    Reinbrun, (d. 1361); he was named for a character in Guy of Warwick.
    William (c. 1343–1411), who inherited the honour of Abergavenny. Married Joan FitzAlan.
    Roger (d. 1361)
    Maud (d. 1403), who married Roger de Clifford, 5th Baron de Clifford.
    Philippa de Beauchamp who married Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford.
    Alice (d. 1383), who married first John Beauchamp, 3rd Baron Beauchamp and then Sir Matthew Gournay.
    Joan, who married Ralph Basset, 4th Baron Basset de Drayton.
    Isabell (d. 1416) who married first John le Strange, 5th Baron Strange, and then to William de Ufford, 2nd Earl of Suffolk. After the latter's death she became a nun.
    Margaret, who married Guy de Montfort and after his death became a nun.
    Elizabeth, married Thomas de Ufford, KG
    Anne, married Walter de Cokesey
    Juliana
    Katherine, became a nun at Shouldham

    Catherine Montacute, Countess of Salisbury was not his daughter, although she is presented as such in William Painter's Palace of Pleasure and in the Elizabethan play, Edward III that may be by William Shakespeare.

    Thomas married Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick 19 Apr 1319, (Warwickshire) England. Katherine (daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville) was born 0___ 1314, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 4 Aug 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 35.  Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick was born 0___ 1314, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England (daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville); died 4 Aug 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Notes:

    Katherine Mortimer, Countess of Warwick (1314 - 4 August 1369) was the wife of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick KG, an English peer, and military commander during the Hundred Years War. She was a daughter and co-heiress of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, Baroness Geneville.

    Sometime before 1355, she became an important figure at the royal court of King Edward III.

    Family and lineage

    Katherine Mortimer was born at Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England, in 1314, one of the twelve children and a co-heiress of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, Baroness Geneville. Her paternal grandparents were Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer and Margaret de Fiennes, and her maternal grandparents were Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim Castle and Ludlow, and Jeanne of Lusignan.

    Her father was de facto ruler of England together with his mistress Isabella of France, Queen consort of King Edward II, until his eventual capture and execution by the orders of King Edward III, eldest son of Isabella and King Edward II. The latter had been deposed in November 1326, and afterwards cruelly murdered by assassins acting under the orders of Mortimer and Queen Isabella. Katherine was sixteen years old when her father was hanged, Tyburn, London on 29 November 1330. Roger Mortimer was NOT Hanged drawn and quartered as stated but only hanged and his body was left until monks from Greyfriars in London took it down.

    Marriage

    On 19 April 1319, when she was about five years old, Katherine married Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, eldest son of Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Toeni.[1] Their marriage required a Papal dispensation as they were related within the prohibited third and fourth degrees. Beauchamp had succeeded to the earldom at the age of two, therefore Katherine was styled Countess of Warwick from the time of her marriage until her death. The marriage had been arranged in July 1318 in order to settle a quarrel between the two families over the lordship of Elfael, which was thus given to Katherine as her marriage portion.[2] For the term of his minority, Beauchamp's custody had been granted to Katherine's father, Roger Mortimer.[3]

    Katherine later became an important personage at the court of King Edward III. As a sign of royal favour she was chosen to stand as one of the godmothers, along with Queen Philippa of Hainault, to the latter's granddaughter, Philippa, Countess of Ulster in 1355. This honour bestowed on Katherine is described by 19th century author Agnes Strickland according to the Friar's Genealogy: "Her [Philippa, Countess of Ulster] godmother also was of Warwick Countess, a lady likewise of great worthiness".[4]

    Issue

    Katherine and Beauchamp together had fifteen children:[5]

    Guy de Beauchamp (died 28 April 1360), married Philippa de Ferrers, daughter of Henry de Ferrers, 2nd Lord Ferrers of Groby and Isabel de Verdun, by whom he had two daughters.[6]
    Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick (16 March 1339- 1401), married Margaret Ferrers, daughter of William Ferrers, 3rd Lord of Groby and Margaret de Ufford, by whom he had issue, including Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick.
    Reinbrun de Beauchamp
    William de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny (c. 1343- 8 May 1411), on 23 July 1392, married Lady Joan FitzAlan, daughter of Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel and Elizabeth de Bohun, by whom he had a son Richard de Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, and a daughter, Joan de Beauchamp, 4th Countess of Ormond. Queen consort Anne Boleyn was a notable descendant of the latter.
    Roger de Beauchamp (died 1361)
    Maud de Beauchamp (died 1403), married Roger de Clifford, 5th Baron Clifford, by whom she had issue, including Thomas de Clifford, 6th Baron Clifford.
    Philippa de Beauchamp, married Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, by whom she had nine children.
    Alice Beauchamp (died 1383), married firstly John Beauchamp, 3rd Baron Beauchamp of Somerset, and secondly Sir William Gournay.[7] She died childless.
    Joan de Beauchamp, married Ralph Basset, 3rd Baron Basset of Drayton. She died childless.
    Isabella de Beauchamp (died 29 September 1416), married firstly John le Strange, 5th Baron Strange, and secondly, William de Ufford, 2nd Earl of Suffolk. Upon the latter's death, she became a nun. She died childless.
    Margaret de Beauchamp, married Guy de Montfort, and after his death, she became a nun. She died childless.
    Elizabeth de Beauchamp, married Thomas de Ufford KG,
    Anne de Beauchamp, married Walter de Cokesey.
    Juliana de Beauchamp
    Katherine de Beauchamp, became a nun at Shouldham Priory.

    Death and effigy

    Katherine Mortimer died on 4 August 1369 at the age of about fifty-five. Two years before her death, in 1367, Katherine was a legatee in the will of her sister Agnes de Hastings, Countess of Pembroke.[8] Katherine was buried in St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire. She lies alongside her husband, who died three months after her of the Black Death. Their tomb with well-preserved, alabaster effigies can be seen in the centre of the quire. Katherine is depicted wearing a frilled veil with a honeycomb pattern and she is holding hands with Beauchamp. The sides of the tomb chest are decorated with figures of mourners, both male and female.

    Children:
    1. Maud Beauchamp was born 0___ 1335, Warwickshire, England; died 0Feb 1403, Brougham Castle, Westmorland, England.
    2. 28. Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 12th Earl of Warwick was born 16 Mar 1338, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died 10 Apr 1401, (Warwickshire) England.
    3. 17. Philippa Beauchamp was born 1334-1344, Elmley, Gloucestershire, England; died 6 Apr 1386.
    4. William de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny was born 1343-1345, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died 8 May 1411, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried Black Friars Churchyard, Hereford, Herefordshire, England.
    5. Guy de Beauchamp

  5. 36.  Edward III, King of EnglandEdward III, King of England was born 13 Nov 1312, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was christened 20 Nov 1312 (son of Edward II, King of England and Isabella of France, Queen of England); died 21 Jun 1377, Richmond Palace, London, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward of Windsor

    Notes:

    Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England from 25 January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His long reign of fifty years also saw vital developments in legislation and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death.

    Edward was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother and her lover Roger Mortimer. At age seventeen he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1337 but his claim was denied due to the Salic law. This started what would become known as the Hundred Years' War.[1] Following some initial setbacks the war went exceptionally well for England; victories at Crâecy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brâetigny. Edward's later years, however, were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.

    Edward III was a temperamental man but capable of unusual clemency. He was in many ways a conventional king whose main interest was warfare. Admired in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by later Whig historians such as William Stubbs. This view has been challenged recently and modern historians credit him with some significant achievements.[2][3]

    Early life

    Edward was born at Windsor Castle on 13 November 1312, and was often referred to as Edward of Windsor in his early years.[4] The reign of his father, Edward II, was a particularly problematic period of English history.[5] One source of contention was the king's inactivity, and repeated failure, in the ongoing war with Scotland.[6] Another controversial issue was the king's exclusive patronage of a small group of royal favourites.[7] The birth of a male heir in 1312 temporarily improved Edward II's position in relation to the baronial opposition.[8] To bolster further the independent prestige of the young prince, the king had him created Earl of Chester at only twelve days of age.[9]

    In 1325, Edward II was faced with a demand from the French king, Charles IV, to perform homage for the English Duchy of Aquitaine.[10] Edward was reluctant to leave the country, as discontent was once again brewing domestically, particularly over his relationship with the favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger.[11] Instead, he had his son Edward created Duke of Aquitaine in his place and sent him to France to perform the homage.[12] The young Edward was accompanied by his mother Isabella, who was the sister of King Charles, and was meant to negotiate a peace treaty with the French.[13] While in France, however, Isabella conspired with the exiled Roger Mortimer to have the king Edward deposed.[14] To build up diplomatic and military support for the venture, Isabella had Prince Edward engaged to the twelve-year-old Philippa of Hainault.[15] An invasion of England was launched and Edward II's forces deserted him completely. The king was forced to relinquish the throne to his son on 25 January 1327. The new king was crowned as Edward III on 1 February 1327.[16]

    It was not long before the new reign also met with other problems caused by the central position at court of Roger Mortimer, who was now the de facto ruler of England. Mortimer used his power to acquire noble estates and titles, and his unpopularity grew with the humiliating defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Stanhope Park and the ensuing Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, signed with the Scots in 1328.[17] Also the young king came into conflict with his guardian. Mortimer knew his position in relation to the king was precarious and subjected Edward to disrespect. The tension increased after Edward and Philippa, who had married on 24 January 1328, had a son on 15 June 1330.[18] Eventually, Edward decided to take direct action against Mortimer. Aided by his close companion William Montagu and a small number of other trusted men, Edward took Mortimer by surprise at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. Mortimer was executed and Edward III's personal reign began.[19]

    Early reign

    Edward III was not content with the peace agreement made in his name, but the renewal of the war with Scotland originated in private, rather than royal initiative. A group of English magnates known as The Disinherited, who had lost land in Scotland by the peace accord, staged an invasion of Scotland and won a great victory at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332.[20] They attempted to install Edward Balliol as king of Scotland in David II's place, but Balliol was soon expelled and was forced to seek the help of Edward III. The English king responded by laying siege to the important border town of Berwick and defeated a large relieving army at the Battle of Halidon Hill.[21] Edward reinstated Balliol on the throne and received a substantial amount of land in southern Scotland.[22] These victories proved hard to sustain, however, as forces loyal to David II gradually regained control of the country. In 1338, Edward was forced to agree to a truce with the Scots.[23]

    To mark his claim to the French crown, Edward's coat of arms showed the three lions of England quartered with the fleurs-de-lys of France. English stained glass, c. 1350–1377[24]
    One reason for the change of strategy towards Scotland was a growing concern for the relationship between England and France. As long as Scotland and France were in an alliance, the English were faced with the prospect of fighting a war on two fronts.[25] The French carried out raids on English coastal towns, leading to rumours in England of a full-scale French invasion.[23] In 1337, Philip VI confiscated the English king's duchy of Aquitaine and the county of Ponthieu. Instead of seeking a peaceful resolution to the conflict by paying homage to the French king, the way his father had done, Edward responded by laying claim to the French crown as the grandson of Philip IV.[26] The French, however, invoked the Salic law of succession and rejected his claim. Instead, they upheld the rights of Philip IV's nephew, King Philip VI (an agnatic descendant of the House of France), thereby setting the stage for the Hundred Years' War (see family tree below).[27] In the early stages of the war, Edward's strategy was to build alliances with other Continental princes. In 1338, Louis IV named Edward vicar-general of the Holy Roman Empire and promised his support.[28] These measures, however, produced few results; the only major military victory in this phase of the war was the English naval victory at Sluys on 24 June 1340, which secured English control of the Channel.[29]

    Meanwhile, the fiscal pressure on the kingdom caused by Edward's expensive alliances led to discontent at home. The regency council at home was frustrated by the mounting national debt, while the king and his commanders on the Continent were angered by the failure of the government in England to provide sufficient funds.[30] To deal with the situation, Edward himself returned to England, arriving in London unannounced on 30 November 1340.[31] Finding the affairs of the realm in disorder, he purged the royal administration of a great number of ministers and judges.[32] These measures did not bring domestic stability, however, and a stand-off ensued between the king and John de Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury, during which Stratford's relatives Robert Stratford Bishop of Chichester and Henry de Stratford were temporarily stripped of title and imprisoned respectively.[33] Stratford claimed that Edward had violated the laws of the land by arresting royal officers.[34] A certain level of conciliation was reached at the parliament of April 1341. Here Edward was forced to accept severe limitations to his financial and administrative freedom, in return for a grant of taxation.[35] Yet in October the same year, the king repudiated this statute and Archbishop Stratford was politically ostracised. The extraordinary circumstances of the April parliament had forced the king into submission, but under normal circumstances the powers of the king in medieval England were virtually unlimited, a fact that Edward was able to exploit.[36]


    Historian Nicholas Rodger called Edward III's claim to be the "Sovereign of the Seas" into question, arguing there was hardly any Royal Navy before the reign of Henry V (1413–22). Although Rodger may have made this claim, the reality was that King John had already developed a royal fleet of galleys and had attempted to establish an administration for these ships and ones which were arrested (privately owned ships pulled into royal/national service). Henry III, his successor, continued this work. Notwithstanding the fact that he, along with his predecessor, had hoped to develop a strong and efficient naval administration, their endeavours produced one that was informal and mostly ad hoc. A formal naval administration emerged during Edward's reign which was composed of lay administrators and headed by William de Clewre, Matthew de Torksey, and John de Haytfield successively with them being titled, Clerk of the King's Ships. Sir Robert de Crull was the last to fill this position during Edward III's reign[37] and would have the longest tenure in this position.[38] It was during his tenure that Edward's naval administration would become a base for what evolved during the reigns of successors such as Henry VIII of England's Council of Marine and Navy Board and Charles I of England's Board of Admiralty. Rodger also argues that for much of the fourteenth century, the French had the upper hand, apart from Sluys in 1340 and, perhaps, off Winchelsea in 1350.[39] Yet, the French never invaded England and France's King John II died in captivity in England. There was a need for an English navy to play a role in this and to handle other matters, such as the insurrection of the Anglo-Irish lords and acts of piracy.[40]

    Fortunes of war

    Map showing 14th-century France in green, with the southwest and parts of the north in pink.
    Map showing the area (in pink) gained by England through the Treaty of Brâetigny.
    By the early 1340s, it was clear that Edward's policy of alliances was too costly, and yielded too few results. The following years saw more direct involvement by English armies, including in the Breton War of Succession, but these interventions also proved fruitless at first.[41] A major change came in July 1346, when Edward staged a major offensive, sailing for Normandy with a force of 15,000 men.[42] His army sacked the city of Caen, and marched across northern France, to meet up with English forces in Flanders. It was not Edward's initial intention to engage the French army, but at Crâecy, just north of the Somme, he found favourable terrain and decided to fight an army led by Philip VI.[43] On 26 August, the English army defeated a far larger French army in the Battle of Crâecy.[44] Shortly after this, on 17 October, an English army defeated and captured King David II of Scotland at the Battle of Neville's Cross.[45] With his northern borders secured, Edward felt free to continue his major offensive against France, laying siege to the town of Calais. The operation was the greatest English venture of the Hundred Years' War, involving an army of 35,000 men.[46] The siege started on 4 September 1346, and lasted until the town surrendered on 3 August 1347.[47]


    Edward III counting the dead on the battlefield of Crâecy
    After the fall of Calais, factors outside of Edward's control forced him to wind down the war effort. In 1348, the Black Death struck England with full force, killing a third or more of the country's population.[48] This loss of manpower led to a shortage of farm labour, and a corresponding rise in wages. The great landowners struggled with the shortage of manpower and the resulting inflation in labour cost.[49] To curb the rise in wages, the king and parliament responded with the Ordinance of Labourers in 1349, followed by the Statute of Labourers in 1351. These attempts to regulate wages could not succeed in the long run, but in the short term they were enforced with great vigour.[50] All in all, the plague did not lead to a full-scale breakdown of government and society, and recovery was remarkably swift.[51] This was to a large extent thanks to the competent leadership of royal administrators such as Treasurer William de Shareshull and Chief Justice William Edington.[52]

    It was not until the mid-1350s that military operations on the Continent were resumed on a large scale.[53] In 1356, Edward's eldest son, Edward, the Black Prince, won an important victory in the Battle of Poitiers. The greatly outnumbered English forces not only routed the French, but captured the French king, John II and his youngest son, Philip.[54] After a succession of victories, the English held great possessions in France, the French king was in English custody, and the French central government had almost totally collapsed.[55] There has been a historical debate as to whether Edward's claim to the French crown originally was genuine, or if it was simply a political ploy meant to put pressure on the French government.[56] Regardless of the original intent, the stated claim now seemed to be within reach. Yet a campaign in 1359, meant to complete the undertaking, was inconclusive.[57] In 1360, therefore, Edward accepted the Treaty of Brâetigny, whereby he renounced his claims to the French throne, but secured his extended French possessions in full sovereignty.[58]

    Later reign

    While Edward's early reign had been energetic and successful, his later years were marked by inertia, military failure and political strife. The day-to-day affairs of the state had less appeal to Edward than military campaigning, so during the 1360s Edward increasingly relied on the help of his subordinates, in particular William Wykeham.[59] A relative upstart, Wykeham was made Keeper of the Privy Seal in 1363 and Chancellor in 1367, though due to political difficulties connected with his inexperience, the Parliament forced him to resign the chancellorship in 1371.[60] Compounding Edward's difficulties were the deaths of his most trusted men, some from the 1361–62 recurrence of the plague. William Montague, Earl of Salisbury, Edward's companion in the 1330 coup, died as early as 1344. William de Clinton, who had also been with the king at Nottingham, died in 1354. One of the earls created in 1337, William de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, died in 1360, and the next year Henry of Grosmont, perhaps the greatest of Edward's captains, succumbed to what was probably plague.[61] Their deaths left the majority of the magnates younger and more naturally aligned to the princes than to the king himself.[62]


    King Edward III grants Aquitaine to his son Edward, the Black Prince. Initial letter "E" of miniature, 1390; British Library, shelfmark: Cotton MS Nero D VI, f.31
    Increasingly, Edward began to rely on his sons for the leadership of military operations. The king's second son, Lionel of Antwerp, attempted to subdue by force the largely autonomous Anglo-Irish lords in Ireland. The venture failed, and the only lasting mark he left were the suppressive Statutes of Kilkenny in 1366.[63] In France, meanwhile, the decade following the Treaty of Brâetigny was one of relative tranquillity, but on 8 April 1364 John II died in captivity in England, after unsuccessfully trying to raise his own ransom at home.[64] He was followed by the vigorous Charles V, who enlisted the help of the capable Constable Bertrand du Guesclin.[65] In 1369, the French war started anew, and Edward's younger son John of Gaunt was given the responsibility of a military campaign. The effort failed, and with the Treaty of Bruges in 1375, the great English possessions in France were reduced to only the coastal towns of Calais, Bordeaux, and Bayonne.[66]

    Military failure abroad, and the associated fiscal pressure of constant campaigns, led to political discontent at home. The problems came to a head in the parliament of 1376, the so-called Good Parliament. The parliament was called to grant taxation, but the House of Commons took the opportunity to address specific grievances. In particular, criticism was directed at some of the king's closest advisors. Chamberlain William Latimer and Steward of the Household John Neville were dismissed from their positions.[67] Edward's mistress, Alice Perrers, who was seen to hold far too much power over the ageing king, was banished from court.[68][69] Yet the real adversary of the Commons, supported by powerful men such as Wykeham and Edmund de Mortimer, Earl of March, was John of Gaunt. Both the king and the Black Prince were by this time incapacitated by illness, leaving Gaunt in virtual control of government.[70] Gaunt was forced to give in to the demands of parliament, but at its next convocation, in 1377, most of the achievements of the Good Parliament were reversed.[71]

    Edward himself, however, did not have much to do with any of this; after around 1375 he played a limited role in the government of the realm. Around 29 September 1376 he fell ill with a large abscess. After a brief period of recovery in February 1377, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June.[72] He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, son of the Black Prince, since the Black Prince himself had died on 8 June 1376.[73]

    Achievements of the reign

    Legislation

    The middle years of Edward's reign were a period of significant legislative activity. Perhaps the best-known piece of legislation was the Statute of Labourers of 1351, which addressed the labour shortage problem caused by the Black Death. The statute fixed wages at their pre-plague level and checked peasant mobility by asserting that lords had first claim on their men's services. In spite of concerted efforts to uphold the statute, it eventually failed due to competition among landowners for labour.[74] The law has been described as an attempt "to legislate against the law of supply and demand", which made it doomed to fail.[75] Nevertheless, the labour shortage had created a community of interest between the smaller landowners of the House of Commons and the greater landowners of the House of Lords. The resulting measures angered the peasants, leading to the Peasants' Revolt of 1381.[76]

    The reign of Edward III coincided with the so-called Babylonian Captivity of the papacy at Avignon. During the wars with France, opposition emerged in England against perceived injustices by a papacy largely controlled by the French crown.[77] Papal taxation of the English Church was suspected to be financing the nation's enemies, while the practice of provisions – the Pope providing benefices for clerics – caused resentment in the English population. The statutes of Provisors and Praemunire, of 1350 and 1353 respectively, aimed to amend this by banning papal benefices, as well as limiting the power of the papal court over English subjects.[78] The statutes did not, however, sever the ties between the king and the Pope, who were equally dependent upon each other.[79]

    Other legislation of importance includes the Treason Act of 1351. It was precisely the harmony of the reign that allowed a consensus on the definition of this controversial crime.[80] Yet the most significant legal reform was probably that concerning the Justices of the Peace. This institution began before the reign of Edward III but, by 1350, the justices had been given the power not only to investigate crimes and make arrests, but also to try cases, including those of felony.[81] With this, an enduring fixture in the administration of local English justice had been created.[82]

    Parliament and taxation

    Half groat with portrait of King Edward III, York mint.
    Parliament as a representative institution was already well established by the time of Edward III, but the reign was nevertheless central to its development.[83] During this period, membership in the English baronage, formerly a somewhat indistinct group, became restricted to those who received a personal summons to parliament.[84] This happened as parliament gradually developed into a bicameral institution, composed of a House of Lords and a House of Commons.[85] Yet it was not in the upper, but in the lower house that the greatest changes took place, with the expanding political role of the Commons. Informative is the Good Parliament, where the Commons for the first time – albeit with noble support – were responsible for precipitating a political crisis.[86] In the process, both the procedure of impeachment and the office of the Speaker were created.[87] Even though the political gains were of only temporary duration, this parliament represented a watershed in English political history.

    The political influence of the Commons originally lay in their right to grant taxes.[88] The financial demands of the Hundred Years' War were enormous, and the king and his ministers tried different methods of covering the expenses. The king had a steady income from crown lands, and could also take up substantial loans from Italian and domestic financiers.[89] To finance warfare on Edward III's scale, however, the king had to resort to taxation of his subjects. Taxation took two primary forms: levy and customs. The levy was a grant of a proportion of all moveable property, normally a tenth for towns and a fifteenth for farmland. This could produce large sums of money, but each such levy had to be approved by parliament, and the king had to prove the necessity.[90] The customs therefore provided a welcome supplement, as a steady and reliable source of income. An "ancient duty" on the export of wool had existed since 1275. Edward I had tried to introduce an additional duty on wool, but this unpopular maltolt, or "unjust exaction", was soon abandoned.[91] Then, from 1336 onwards, a series of schemes aimed at increasing royal revenues from wool export were introduced. After some initial problems and discontent, it was agreed through the Ordinance of the Staple of 1353 that the new customs should be approved by parliament, though in reality they became permanent.[92]

    Through the steady taxation of Edward III's reign, parliament – and in particular the Commons – gained political influence. A consensus emerged that in order for a tax to be just, the king had to prove its necessity, it had to be granted by the community of the realm, and it had to be to the benefit of that community.[93] In addition to imposing taxes, parliament would also present petitions for redress of grievances to the king, most often concerning misgovernment by royal officials.[94] This way the system was beneficial for both parties. Through this process the commons, and the community they represented, became increasingly politically aware, and the foundation was laid for the particular English brand of constitutional monarchy.[95]

    Chivalry and national identity

    Edward III as head of the Order of the Garter, drawing c. 1430–40 in the Bruges Garter Book
    Partly ruined black seal, showing Edward III on horseback, in armour and sword raised.
    The Great Seal of Edward III.
    Central to Edward III's policy was reliance on the higher nobility for purposes of war and administration. While his father had regularly been in conflict with a great portion of his peerage, Edward III successfully created a spirit of camaraderie between himself and his greatest subjects.[96] Both Edward I and Edward II had been limited in their policy towards the nobility, allowing the creation of few new peerages during the sixty years preceding Edward III's reign.[97] The young king reversed this trend when, in 1337, as a preparation for the imminent war, he created six new earls on the same day.[98] At the same time, Edward expanded the ranks of the peerage upwards, by introducing the new title of duke for close relatives of the king.[99] Furthermore, Edward bolstered the sense of community within this group by the creation of the Order of the Garter, probably in 1348. A plan from 1344 to revive the Round Table of King Arthur never came to fruition, but the new order carried connotations from this legend by the circular shape of the garter.[100] Polydore Vergil tells of how the young Joan of Kent, Countess of Salisbury – allegedly the king's favourite at the time – accidentally dropped her garter at a ball at Calais. King Edward responded to the ensuing ridicule of the crowd by tying the garter around his own knee with the words honi soit qui mal y pense – shame on him who thinks ill of it.[101]

    This reinforcement of the aristocracy must be seen in conjunction with the war in France, as must the emerging sense of national identity.[96] Just as the war with Scotland had done, the fear of a French invasion helped strengthen a sense of national unity, and nationalise the aristocracy that had been largely Anglo-French since the Norman conquest. Since the time of Edward I, popular myth suggested that the French planned to extinguish the English language, and as his grandfather had done, Edward III made the most of this scare.[102] As a result, the English language experienced a strong revival; in 1362, a Statute of Pleading ordered the English language to be used in law courts,[103] and the year after, Parliament was for the first time opened in English.[104] At the same time, the vernacular saw a revival as a literary language, through the works of William Langland, John Gower and especially The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer.[105] Yet the extent of this Anglicisation must not be exaggerated. The statute of 1362 was in fact written in the French language and had little immediate effect, and parliament was opened in that language as late as 1377.[106] The Order of the Garter, though a distinctly English institution, included also foreign members such as John V, Duke of Brittany and Sir Robert of Namur.[107][108] Edward III – himself bilingual – viewed himself as legitimate king of both England and France, and could not show preferential treatment for one part of his domains over another.

    Assessment and character

    See also: Cultural depictions of Edward III of England
    Early modern half-figure portrait of Edward III in his royal garb.
    Edward III as he was portrayed in the late 16th century.
    Edward III enjoyed unprecedented popularity in his own lifetime, and even the troubles of his later reign were never blamed directly on the king himself.[109] Edward's contemporary Jean Froissart wrote in his Chronicles that "His like had not been seen since the days of King Arthur".[72] This view persisted for a while but, with time, the image of the king changed. The Whig historians of a later age preferred constitutional reform to foreign conquest and discredited Edward for ignoring his responsibilities to his own nation. In the words of Bishop Stubbs:

    Edward III was not a statesman, though he possessed some qualifications which might have made him a successful one. He was a warrior; ambitious, unscrupulous, selfish, extravagant and ostentatious. His obligations as a king sat very lightly on him. He felt himself bound by no special duty, either to maintain the theory of royal supremacy or to follow a policy which would benefit his people. Like Richard I, he valued England primarily as a source of supplies.
    — William Stubbs, The Constitutional History of England[110]

    Influential as Stubbs was, it was long before this view was challenged. In a 1960 article, titled "Edward III and the Historians", May McKisack pointed out the teleological nature of Stubbs' judgement. A medieval king could not be expected to work towards the future ideal of a parliamentary monarchy; rather his role was a pragmatic one—to maintain order and solve problems as they arose. At this, Edward III excelled.[111] Edward had also been accused of endowing his younger sons too liberally and thereby promoting dynastic strife culminating in the Wars of the Roses. This claim was rejected by K.B. McFarlane, who argued that this was not only the common policy of the age, but also the best.[112] Later biographers of the king such as Mark Ormrod and Ian Mortimer have followed this historiographical trend. However, the older negative view has not completely disappeared; as recently as 2001, Norman Cantor described Edward III as an "avaricious and sadistic thug" and a "destructive and merciless force."[113]

    From what is known of Edward's character, he could be impulsive and temperamental, as was seen by his actions against Stratford and the ministers in 1340/41.[114] At the same time, he was well known for his clemency; Mortimer's grandson was not only absolved, but came to play an important part in the French wars, and was eventually made a Knight of the Garter.[115] Both in his religious views and his interests, Edward was a conventional man. His favourite pursuit was the art of war and, in this, he conformed to the medieval notion of good kingship.[116][117] As a warrior he was so successful that one modern military historian has described him as the greatest general in English history.[118] He seems to have been unusually devoted to his wife, Queen Philippa. Much has been made of Edward's sexual licentiousness, but there is no evidence of any infidelity on the king's part before Alice Perrers became his lover, and by that time the queen was already terminally ill.[119][120] This devotion extended to the rest of the family as well; in contrast to so many of his predecessors, Edward never experienced opposition from any of his five adult sons.[121]

    Birth:
    Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is notable for its long association with the English and later British royal family and for its architecture. The original castle was built in the 11th century after the Norman invasion of England by William the Conqueror. Since the time of Henry I, it has been used by all monarchs, and is the longest-occupied palace in Europe. The castle's lavish early 19th-century State Apartments were described by the art historian Hugh Roberts as "a superb and unrivalled sequence of rooms widely regarded as the finest and most complete expression of later Georgian taste".[1] Inside the castle walls is the 15th-century St George's Chapel, considered by the historian John Martin Robinson to be "one of the supreme achievements of English Perpendicular Gothic" design.

    View map & image ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windsor_Castle (Sheila & I traversed "the Long Walk" by horse & carriage...DAH)

    Buried:
    Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556 the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, however, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the original abbey church.

    According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site (then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island)) in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III.

    Photo & maps ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Abbey

    Died:
    Formerly known as "Sheen Palace" until partially destroyed by fire and rebuilt and renamed by Henry VII...

    Edward married Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England 24 Jan 1327, York Minster, York, East Riding, Yorkshire, England. Phillipa was born 1312-1314, Mons, Hainaut, Belgium, Netherlands; died 15 Aug 1369, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was buried 15 Aug 1368, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. [Group Sheet]


  6. 37.  Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England was born 1312-1314, Mons, Hainaut, Belgium, Netherlands; died 15 Aug 1369, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was buried 15 Aug 1368, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Philippa of Hainault

    Children:
    1. Edward of Woodstock, The Black Prince was born 15 Jun 1330, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England; died 8 Jun 1376, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    2. Lionel of Antwerp, Knight, 1st Duke of Clarence was born 29 Nov 1338, Antwerp, Belgium; died 17 Oct 1368, Alba, Italy; was buried Clare Priory, Suffolk, England.
    3. 22. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster was born 6 Mar 1340, St. Bavo's Abbey, Ghent, Belgium; died 3 Feb 1399, Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire, England; was buried 15 Mar 1399, St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Middlesex, England..
    4. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge was born 5 Jun 1341, King's Langley, Hertford, England; was christened King's Langley, Hertford, England; died 1 Aug 1402, Abbot's Langley, Hertford, England; was buried Dominicans Church, King's Langley, Hertford, England.
    5. 18. Thomas of Woodstock was born 7 Jan 1355, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England; died 8 Sep 1397, Calais, France.

  7. 38.  Humphrey de Bohun, Knight was born 25 Mar 1341, Hereford, Herefordshire, England (son of William de Bohun, Knight, 1st Earl of Northampton and Elizabeth Badlesmere, Countess of Northampton); died 16 Jan 1373; was buried Walden Abbey, Essex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 2nd Earl of Northampton
    • Also Known As: 6th Earl of Essex
    • Also Known As: 7th Earl of Hereford

    Notes:

    Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford, 6th Earl of Essex, 2nd Earl of Northampton, KG (25 March 1341 – 16 January 1373) was the son of William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton and Elizabeth de Badlesmere, and grandson of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford by Elizabeth of Rhuddlan, daughter of King Edward I. He became heir to the Earldom of Hereford after the death of his childless uncle Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford.

    Following King Peter I's visit to England, Humphrey participated in the sack of Alexandria in 1365.[1]

    On his death, because he had no son, the estates of the Earls of Hereford should have passed to his cousin Gilbert de Bohun. Due to the power of the Crown, his great estates were divided between his two surviving daughters:

    Eleanor de Bohun, who married Thomas of Woodstock.
    Mary de Bohun, who married Henry Bolingbroke, the future King Henry IV of England .
    Elizabeth, died young.

    His wife and the mother of his daughters was Joan Fitzalan, daughter of Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor of Lancaster, whom he married after 9 September 1359.

    Humphrey married Joan FitzAlan 9 Sep 1359. Joan (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel) was born 0___ 1347, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 7 Apr 1419, Saffron Walden, Essex, England; was buried Walden Abbey, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 39.  Joan FitzAlan was born 0___ 1347, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel); died 7 Apr 1419, Saffron Walden, Essex, England; was buried Walden Abbey, Essex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Essex
    • Also Known As: Countess of Northampton

    Notes:

    Joan FitzAlan, Countess of Hereford, Countess of Essex and Countess of Northampton (1347 – 7 April 1419), was the wife of the 7th Earl of Hereford, 6th Earl of Essex and 2nd Earl of Northampton. She was the mother of Mary de Bohun, the first wife of Henry of Bolingbroke who later reigned as King Henry IV, and Eleanor de Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester. She was the maternal grandmother of King Henry V.

    In 1400, she gave the order for the beheading of the Earl of Huntingdon in revenge for the part he had played in the execution of her brother, the 11th Earl of Arundel.

    The estates which comprised Joan's large dowry made her one of the principal landowners in Essex, where she exercised lordship, acting as arbitrator and feoffee in property transactions.

    Family

    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor of Lancaster, parents of Lady Joan FitzAlan
    Lady Joan FitzAlan was born in 1347 at Arundel Castle, Sussex, one of seven children, and the eldest daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and his second wife Eleanor of Lancaster.[1] Her paternal grandparents were Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, and her maternal grandparents were Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth.

    List of siblings

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel (1346 - 21 September 1397, Tower Hill, Cheapside, London, England), married firstly Elizabeth de Bohun, sister of Humphrey de Bohun, by whom he had seven children, and secondly Philippa Mortimer. He was beheaded on charges of high treason against King Richard II of England.
    John Fitzalan 1st Baron of Arundel, 1st Baron Maltravers (1351 - 16 December 1379), married Eleanor Maltravers, by whom he had issue. He drowned in the Irish Sea, having been shipwrecked after defeating the French off the Cornish coast.
    Alice FitzAlan (1350 - 17 March 1416), married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, by whom she had issue.
    Thomas Arundel Archbishop of Canterbury (1352 - 19 February 1414)
    Mary FitzAlan (died 29 August 1396), married John Le Strange, 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere, by whom she had issue, including Ankaret Le Strange who married Richard Talbot, 4th Baron Talbot. These were the parents of John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury (It is possible that she was, however, only a half-sister, having Isabel (le Despenser) FitzAlan as her mother instead of Eleanor of Lancaster.)
    Eleanor FitzAlan (1356 - before 1366)
    Joan had a half-brother from her father's first marriage to Isabel le Despenser:

    Edmund of Arundel (1327 - after 1377), he was bastardised by his parents annulment December 1344. He married 1347 Sybil de Montacute, daughter of William de Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury, by whom he had three daughters.
    Joan had two uterine half-siblings from her mother's first marriage to John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont (died 14 April 1342):

    Henry de Beaumont, 3rd Lord Beaumont (4 April 1340 – 17 June 1369), married as her first husband Margaret de Vere (died 15 June 1398), by whom he had issue.
    Matilda de Beaumont (died July 1367), married Hugh de Courtney.

    Marriage and issue

    Sometime after 9 September 1359, Joan married Humphrey de Bohun, one of the most powerful noblemen in the realm. His titles included 7th Earl of Hereford, 6th Earl of Essex, 2nd Earl of Northampton, and he was the hereditary Constable of England. He was the son of William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton and Elizabeth de Badlesmere. Their marriage united two of the most prominent noble families in the kingdom; an alliance which was further strengthened by her elder brother Richard's marriage to Humphrey's sister, Elizabeth.

    Together Humphrey and Joan produced two daughters, whom upon the death of their father, divided his vast estates between them:

    Eleanor de Bohun (c.1360- 3 October 1399), co-heiress of her father. In 1376 she married Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, the youngest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. The marriage produced five children, including Anne of Gloucester. Eleanor died as a nun at Barking Abbey.
    Mary de Bohun (1369- 4 June 1394), co-heiress of her father. On 27 July 1380 she married Henry of Bolingbroke, who would later be crowned King Henry IV. She died before he ascended the throne. The marriage produced six children including King Henry V of England.

    Psalter celebrating the marriage of Joan FitzAlan's daughter Mary de Bohun to Henry of Bolingbroke on 27 July 1380

    King Henry V of England, grandson of Joan FitzAlan

    Widowhood

    Joan was left a widow in January 1373 at the age of about 25 or 26, and she chose not to remarry. Her two daughters were made wards of Edward III. Sometime after her husband's death, she received from King Edward the manor of Langham, which she held until her own death,[2] among the numerous other manors she owned. The numerous estates which comprised Joan's large dowry ensured that she was one of the principal landowners in Essex.[3] This placed her at the hub of a powerful structure of landed country gentry, who acted as her advisers and officers; Joan in turn acted as "arbitrator, feoffee in property transactions, and intercessor with the royal government".[4]

    During the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, some of Joan's manors were sacked by the rebels; this did not deter Joan from expanding and industrialising her lands after the uprising had been put down, having done much to encourage the dyeing and fulling of woollen cloth on some of her estates such as Saffron Walden.[5]

    In the Public Record Office, London, there is an extant document, written in Latin, which records the payment to Joan by John of Gaunt for the maintenance of her younger daughter Mary after the latter's marriage until she came of age in 1384.[6]

    A member of St. Helen's religious guild in Colchester, Joan founded chantries and was also a patron of Walden Abbey, having donated money for relics, vessels, vestments, and the construction of new buildings.[7] She is described in the State Rolls as having been a "great benefactress" to the monasteries of Essex.[8]

    Execution of John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter

    In 1397, Joan's brother Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel and a Lord Appellant was executed on Tower Hill for his opposition to King Richard II of England. The king's half-brother John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter, Earl of Huntingdon accompanied him to the scaffold, as one of King Richard's representatives. Less than three years later in 1400, when Holland joined a conspiracy to murder the new king Henry IV (her former son-in-law), and was captured near Joan's principal residence Pleshy Castle in Essex, he was turned over to her for punishment. Described as having possessed a "stern character",[9] she showed him no mercy, and promptly gave orders for his decapitation, after having summoned the children of her dead brother to witness the execution. Following the beheading, which was performed without benefit of a trial, she ordered that Holland's severed head be raised on the end of a pike, which was placed upon the battlements of Pleshy Castle.[10]

    Henry IV rewarded Joan for her services on behalf of the Crown, by granting her custody of forfeited lands and properties. When Henry died in 1413, Joan's grandson Henry V followed suit; therefore up until her death in 1419, a large number of forfeited estates had come under her control.[11]

    Death

    Lady Joan FitzAlan died on 7 April 1419 and was buried with her husband in Walden Abbey, which she had previously endowed.

    Children:
    1. 19. Eleanor de Bohun was born ~ 1366, (Hereford, Herefordshire, England); died 0___ 1399.
    2. Mary de Bohun was born 0___ 1368, (Hereford, Herefordshire, England); died 0___ 1394.

  9. 40.  Ralph Neville, 4th Baron Neville de Raby was born 0___ 1291, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England (son of Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville of Raby and Euphemia Clavering, Baroness of Raby); died 5 Aug 1367, Durhamshire, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: 0___ 1355; Governor of Berwick

    Notes:

    NEVILLE, RALPH, de, fourth Baron Neville of Raby (1291?-1367), was the second son and eventual heir of Ralph Neville, third baron (d. 1331), by his first wife, Euphemia, daughter and heiress of Sir John de Clavering of Warkworth, in Northumberland, and Clavering, in western Essex.

    His grandfather, Robert de Neville, who died during his father's lifetime [see Neville, Robert de, d. 1282], made one of those fortunate marriages which became traditional with this family, acquiring the lordship of Middleham, in Wensleydale, with the side valley of Coverdale, and the patronage of the abbey of Coverham, by his marriage with Mary, the heiress of the FitzRanulphs. His father, who, like his grandfather, bore none the best of reputations, did not die until 18 April 1331. Robert, the elder son, called the ‘Peacock of the North,’ whose monument may still be seen in Brancepeth Church, had been slain in a border fray by the Earl of Douglas in 1318; and his brother Ralph, who now became the heir of the Neville name, was carried off captive, but after a time was ransomed (Swallow, p. 11).

    Before his father's death Neville had served the king both on the Scottish borders and at court, where he was seneschal of the household (Dugdale, i. 292; Fœdera, iv. 256, 448). In June 1329 he had been joined with the chancellor to treat with Philip VI of France for marriages between the two royal houses (ib. iv. 392); and he had entered into an undertaking to serve Henry, lord Percy (d. 1352) [q. v.], for life in peace and war, with twenty men at arms against all men except the king (Dugdale, u.s., who gives the full terms). He tried to induce the prior and convent of Durham, to whom he had to do fealty for his Raby lands, to recognise the curious claim which his father had first made to the monks' hospitality on St. Cuthbert's day (4 Sept.) (cf. Dugdale, Baronage, i. 293; Letters from Northern Registers, p. 394).

    Neville was a man of energy, and King Edward kept him constantly employed. Scottish relations were then very critical, and Neville and Lord Percy, the only magnate of the north country whose power equalled his own, spent most of their time on the northern border. In 1334 they were made joint wardens of the marches, and were frequently entrusted with important negotiations. Neville was also governor of the castle of Bamborough, and warden of all the forests north of the Trent (Dugdale, i. 294; Swallow, p. 14; Fœdera, vols. iv.–v.). The Lanercost chronicler (p. 293) insinuates that he and Percy did less than their duty during the Scottish invasion of 1337. Neville took part in the subsequent siege of Dunbar (ib. p. 295). It was only at rare intervals that he could be spared from the north. Froissart is no doubt in error in bringing him to the siege of Tournay in 1340, but the truce with Scotland at the close of 1342 permitted his services to be used in the peace negotiations with France promoted by Pope Clement VI in the following year (Froissart, iii. 312, ed. Lettenhove; cf. Fœdera, v. 213; Dugdale). When the king was badly in want of money (1338), Neville advanced him wool from his Yorkshire estates, and in return for this and other services was granted various privileges. In October 1333 he was given the custody of the temporalities of the bishopric of Durham during its vacancy, and twelve years later the wardship of two-thirds of the lands of Bishop Kellawe, who had died in 1316 (Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense, iv. 175, 340).

    When David Bruce invaded England in 1346, Ralph and his eldest son, John, joined William de la Zouch, archbishop of York, at Richmond on 14 Oct., and, marching northwards by Barnard Castle and Auckland, shared three days later in the victory at the Red Hills to the west of Durham, near an old cross already, it would seem, known as Neville's Cross. This success saved the city of Durham, and made David Bruce a captive. Neville fought in the van, and the Lanercost writer now praises him as ‘vir verax et validus, audax et astutus et multum metuendus’ (Chron. de Lanercost, pp. 347, 350; Galfrid le Baker, p. 87). A sword is still shown at Brancepeth Castle which is averred to be that used by Ralph at Neville's Cross or Durham, as the battle was at first often called (Swallow, pp. 16–17). With Gilbert Umfreville, earl of Angus, he pursued the flying Scots across the border, took Roxburgh on terms, and harried the southern counties of Scotland (Chron. de Lanercost, p. 352). Tradition represents that he erected Neville's Cross on the Brancepeth road, half a mile out of Durham, in commemoration of the victory. The old cross was soon altered or entirely replaced by a more splendid one, which was destroyed in 1589, after the fall of the elder branch of Neville, and only the stump now remains; but a detailed description of it was printed in 1674 from an old Durham Roll by Davies in his ‘Rites and Monuments’ (Swallow, p. 16). The king rewarded Neville's services with a grant of 100l. and a license to endow two priests in the church of Sheriff-Hutton to pray for the souls of himself and his family (Dugdale). Towards the end of his life (1364) he endowed three priests in the hospital founded by his family at Well, near Bedale, not far from Middleham, for the same object (ib.)

    The imprisonment of David Bruce made the Scots much less dangerous to England; but there was still plenty of work on the borders, and the rest of Neville's life was almost entirely spent there as warden of the marches, peace commissioner, and for a time (1355) governor of Berwick. The protracted negotiations for the liberation of David Bruce also occupied him (ib.) Froissart mentions one or two visits to France, but with the exception of that of 1359, when he accompanied the king into Champagne, these are a little doubtful (ib.; Froissart, v. 365, vi. 221, 224, ed. Lettenhove). He died on 5 Aug. 1367, and, having presented a very rich vestment to St. Cuthbert, was allowed to be buried in the south aisle of Durham Cathedral, being the first layman to whom that favour was granted (Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc., i. 26). The body was ‘brought to the churchyard in a chariot drawn by seven horses, and then carried upon the shoulders of knights into the church.’ His tomb, terribly mutilated by the Scottish prisoners confined in the cathedral in 1650, still stands in the second bay from the transept.

    Neville greatly increased the prestige of his family, and his descendants were very prosperous. He married Alice, daughter of Sir Hugh Audley, who, surviving him, married Ralph, baron of Greystock (d. 1417), in Cumberland, and, dying in 1374, was buried by the side of her first husband. They had five sons: (1) John, fifth baron Neville [q. v.]; (2) Robert, like his elder brother, a distinguished soldier in the French wars (Froissart, ed. Lettenhove, xxii. 289); (3) Ralph, the founder of the family of the Nevilles of Thornton Bridge, on the Swale, near Borough- bridge, called Ralph Neville of Condell (Cundall); (4) Alexander [q. v.], archbishop of York; (5) Sir William (d. 1389?) [q. v.] Their four daughters were: (1) Margaret, married, first (1342), William, who next year became Lord Ros of Hamlake (i.e. Helmsley, in the North Riding), and secondly, he dying in 1352, Henry Percy, first earl of Northumberland [q. v.]; (2) Catherine, married Lord Dacre of Gillsland; (3) Eleanor, who married Geoffrey le Scrope, and afterwards became a nun in the Minories, London (Wills and Inventories, i. 39); (4) Euphemia, who married, first, Reginald de Lucy; secondly, Robert Clifford, lord of Westmorland, who died before 1354; and, thirdly, Sir Walter de Heslarton (near New Malton). She died in 1394 or 1395. Surtees (iv. 159) adds a sixth son, Thomas, ‘bishop-elect of Ely,’ but this seems likely to be an error.

    [Rotuli Parliamentorum; Calendarium Genealogicum, published by the Record Commission; Rymer's Fœdera, original and Record editions; Robert de Avesbury, Adam de Murimuth, Walsingham, Letters from Northern Registers and Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense in the Rolls Ser.; Chronicon de Lanercost, Maitland Club ed.; Galfrid le Baker, ed. Maunde Thompson; Froissart, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove; Surtees's Hist. of Durham, vol. iv.; Longman's Hist. of Edward III; Dugdale's Baronage; Nicolas's Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope; Segar's Baronagium Genealogicum, ed. Edmondson; Selby's Genealogist, iii. 107, &c.; Foster's Yorkshire Pedigrees.]

    end of biography

    Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby (c.1291 – 5 August 1367) was an English aristocrat, son of Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby and Euphemia de Clavering .[1]

    Neville led the English forces to victory against the Scottish king David II of Scotland at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346

    end of comment

    Birth:
    Raby Castle - history & images of this Neville Family Home ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raby_Castle

    Ralph married Alice de Audley 14 Jan 1326, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England. Alice (daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton and Isolde (Isabella) de Mortimer) was born 1302-1304, Hadley, Lambourne, Berkshire, England; died 12 Jan 1374, Greystoke Manor, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  10. 41.  Alice de Audley was born 1302-1304, Hadley, Lambourne, Berkshire, England (daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton and Isolde (Isabella) de Mortimer); died 12 Jan 1374, Greystoke Manor, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.
    Children:
    1. Margaret Neville, Baroness of Ros was born 12 Feb 1329, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England); died 12 May 1372.
    2. Ralph Neville was born Abt 1332, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England); died Abt 1380.
    3. Alexander Neville was born 0___ 1332, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England); died 16 May 1392, Leuven, Belgium; was buried Carmelite Churchyard, Leuven, Belgium.
    4. Robert Neville was born (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).
    5. 20. John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby was born 1337-1340, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 17 Oct 1388, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.
    6. William Neville was born Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.
    7. Catherine Neville was born (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).
    8. Eleanor Neville was born (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).
    9. Euphemia Neville was born (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England); died 1394-1395, England.

  11. 42.  Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick was born 0___ 1299, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ (son of Henry de Percy, Knight, 1st Baron Percy and Eleanor FitzAlan); died 0___ 1352.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Governor of Pickering Castle
    • Also Known As: 9th Baron Percy
    • Also Known As: Earl Henry III de Percy
    • Military:
    • Alt Birth: 6 Feb 1301, Leckonfield, Yorkshire, England
    • Alt Death: 25 Feb 1353, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ

    Notes:

    Henry de Percy, 9th Baron Percy and 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick (1299-1352) was the son of Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick, and Eleanor Fitzalan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel.

    Henry was sixteen when his father died, so the Barony was placed in the custody of John de Felton.[1]

    In 1316 he was granted the lands of Patrick IV, Earl of March, in Northumberland, by King Edward II of England.[2] In 1322, was made governor of Pickering Castle and of the town and castle of Scarborough and was later knighted at York.[3] Henry joined with other barons to remove the Despensers, who were favorites of Edward II.

    Following a disastrous war with the Scots, Henry was empowered along with William Zouche to negotiate the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton.[4] This was an unpopular treaty and peace between England and Scotland lasted only five years.

    He was appointed to Edward III's Council in 1327 and was given the manor and castle of Skipton. Was granted, by Edward III, the castle and barony of Warkworth in 1328. He was at the siege of Dunbar and the Battle of Halidon Hill and was subsequently appointed constable of Berwick-upon-Tweed.[5] In 1346, Henry commanded the right wing of the English, at the Battle of Neville's Cross.[6]

    Married Idonia, daughter of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford,[7] and had five children;

    Henry, b.1320, succeeded his father as 3rd Baron Percy of Alnwick
    Thomas Percy, Bishop of Norwich
    Roger
    Maud Percy, married John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby
    Eleanor Percy, married John Fitzwalter, 3rd Baron Fitzwalter (c.1315 – 18 October 1361)[8]
    Isabel Percy, married Sir William de Aton, 2nd Lord Aton, and had a daughter, Katherine Aton. Katherine Aton's son, William Eure, married Maud FitzHugh, daughter of Henry FitzHugh, 3rd Baron FitzHugh.[9]
    In 1329, he founded a chantry, to celebrate divine service for his soul.[10]

    Military:
    In 1316 he was granted the lands of Patrick IV, Earl of March, in Northumberland, by King Edward II of England.[2] In 1322, was made governor of Pickering Castle and of the town and castle of Scarborough and was later knighted at York.[3] Henry joined with other barons to remove the Despensers, who were favorites of Edward II.

    Following a disastrous war with the Scots, Henry was empowered along with William Zouche to negotiate the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton.[4] This was an unpopular treaty and peace between England and Scotland lasted only five years.

    He was appointed to Edward III's Council in 1327 and was given the manor and castle of Skipton. Was granted, by Edward III, the castle and barony of Warkworth in 1328. He was at the siege of Dunbar and the Battle of Halidon Hill and was subsequently appointed constable of Berwick-upon-Tweed.[5] In 1346, Henry commanded the right wing of the English, at the Battle of Neville's Cross.

    Henry married Idonia Clifford 0___ 1314, Yorkshire, England. Idonia (daughter of Robert de Clifford, Knight, 1st Baron de Clifford and Maude de Clare) was born ~ 1303, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England; died 24 Aug 1365, (Yorkshire, England); was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 43.  Idonia Clifford was born ~ 1303, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England (daughter of Robert de Clifford, Knight, 1st Baron de Clifford and Maude de Clare); died 24 Aug 1365, (Yorkshire, England); was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Idonia de Clifford

    Notes:

    Buried:
    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beverley_Minster

    Children:
    1. Isabel Percy was born 0___ 1320, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; died Bef 25 May 1368, Alnwick, Northumberland, England.
    2. Henry Percy, IV, 3rd Baron Percy was born 0___ 1322, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ; died 18 May 1368, Berwick Castle, Berwick-upon-Tweed, England; was buried Alnwick, Northumberland, England.
    3. 21. Maud Percy was born Abt 1335, Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; died 18 Feb 1378; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.
    4. Alianore Percy was born ~ 1336, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ; died Bef 1361.

  13. 46.  Paon de Roet, Knight was born ~ 1310, Roeulx, France; died 0___ 1380, Ghent, Belgium; was buried Old St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Paganus de Rodio
    • Also Known As: Sir Gilles de Roet

    Notes:

    Paon de Roet sometimes Payne Roet of Guienne (c.1310-1380), and also referred to as Sir Gilles de Roet, was a herald and knight from Hainaut who was involved in the early stages of the Hundred Years War. He became attached to the court of King Edward III of England through the king's marriage to Philippa of Hainaut.

    He is most notable for the fact that he became the ancestor of the monarchs of England because his daughter Katherine married John of Gaunt. Her children, given the surname "Beaufort", became the forebears of the Tudor dynasty through Margaret Beaufort. Another of his daughters also made a notable marriage, to the poet Geoffrey Chaucer.

    Early life

    Paon de Roet was "probably christened as Gilles",[1] but seems to have been known as "Paon" or "Payne", Latinised as "Paganus". He is named in a legal document in the form Paganus de Rodio — referring to Rodium, the mediaeval Latin form corresponding to the Roeulx, or Le Rœulx, a town of 3000 inhabitants, 8 miles north-east of Mons, on the highway leading from Mons to Nivelle located in the County of Hainaut.

    Paon de Roet may have been impelled to seek his fortune in England by the recital of the exploits of Fastre de Roet, who accompanied John of Beaumont in 1326, when, with three hundred followers, he went to assist the English against the Scots. Fastre was the younger brother of the last lord of Roeulx, descended from the Counts of Hainault. He and his brother Eustace fell into pecuniary straits, and were obliged to alienate their landed possessions. Fastre died in 1331, and was buried in the abbey church of Roeulx, while his brother Eustace survived till 1336. Paon was, like Fastre, a younger brother — possibly of a collateral line.

    In England

    Paon de Roet may have come to England as part of the retinue of Philippa of Hainaut, accompanying the young queen in her departure from Valenciennes to join her youthful husband Edward III in England at the close of 1327. His name does not appear in the official list of knights who accompanied the queen from Hainaut. However, Froissart says he was one of a number of additional young knights and squires who added to the queen's retinue, referred to as 'pluissier jone esquier', i.e. "plusiers jeunes escuyers" ('other young squires'); Speght (1598)[2]

    Froissart's account of the history of English monarchs includes a genealogical tree, the relevant part of which begins with Paon's name. He is described as "Paganus de Rouet Hannoniensis, aliter dictus Guien Rex Armorum" ("Paon de Rouet of Hainaut, also called Guyenne King of Arms"). The latter part refers to the title of King of Arms granted by Edward III to Roet for the territory of Guyenne (Aquitaine) which was controlled by Edward.

    France and Hainaut

    In 1347, Roet was sent to the Siege of Calais, and was one of two knights deputed by Queen Philippa to conduct out of town the citizens whom she had saved (the so-called Burghers of Calais).[3]

    He had returned to the lands of Hainaut, probably by 1349. He went to serve the queen’s sister, Marguerite, who was the empress of Germany, and his three younger children—Walter, Philippa and Katherine—were left in the care of Queen Philippa.[4] He died in Ghent in 1380.

    Family

    Paon had three daughters, Katherine, Philippa and Isabel (also called Elizabeth) de Roet, and a son, Walter. Isabel was to become Canoness of the convent of St. Waudru at Mons in Hainaut, c. 1366. Philippa married the poet Geoffrey Chaucer in 1366. They met while still children when they were attached to the household of Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster.[5]

    Katherine became governess to the daughters of John of Gaunt. After the death of John's wife Blanche in 1369, Katherine and John began a love affair which would bring forth four children born out of wedlock and would endure as a lifelong relationship. However, John made a dynastic marriage to Constance of Castille, a claimant to the throne of Castile, after which he called himself "King of Castille". When Constance died he married Katherine and legitimised their children.

    Tomb

    Roet's name listed amongst early graves lost noted on the memorial in St Paul's Cathedral
    Paon de Roet's tomb was in Old St Paul's Cathedral, near Sir John Beauchamp's tomb (commonly called "Duke Humphrey's"). The antiquary John Weever had previously recorded that "Once a fair marble stone inlaid all over with brass, nothing but the heads of a few brazen nails are at this day visible, previously engraven with the representation and coat of arms of the party defunct, thus much of a mangled funeral inscription was of late times perspicuous to be read".[6]

    By 1658, viewed without its brass plate and effigies, this tomb was described by William Dugdale. The tomb, along with the tombs of many others, including John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster's, were completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. A modern monument in the crypt lists De Roet amongst the important graves lost.

    The former inscription was as follows:

    " Hic Jacet Paganus Roet Miles Guyenne Rex
    Armorum Pater Catherine Ducisse Lancastrie."
    (Here lies Paon de Roet, knight, Guyenne King of Arms, father of Katherine Duchess of Lancaster)

    Birth:
    Roeulx is a French commune located in the department of North , in region Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy .

    Buried:
    Old St Paul's Cathedral was the medieval cathedral of the City of London that, until 1666, stood on the site of the present St Paul's Cathedral. Built from 1087 to 1314 and dedicated to Saint Paul, the cathedral was the fourth church on the site at Ludgate Hill.

    Paon de Roet's tomb was in Old St Paul's Cathedral, near Sir John Beauchamp's tomb (commonly called "Duke Humphrey's"). The antiquary John Weever had previously recorded that "Once a fair marble stone inlaid all over with brass, nothing but the heads of a few brazen nails are at this day visible, previously engraven with the representation and coat of arms of the party defunct, thus much of a mangled funeral inscription was of late times perspicuous to be read".[6]

    By 1658, viewed without its brass plate and effigies, this tomb was described by William Dugdale. The tomb, along with the tombs of many others, including John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster's, were completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. A modern monument in the crypt lists De Roet amongst the important graves lost.

    The former inscription was as follows:

    " Hic Jacet Paganus Roet Miles Guyenne Rex
    Armorum Pater Catherine Ducisse Lancastrie."
    (Here lies Paon de Roet, knight, Guyenne King of Arms, father of Katherine Duchess of Lancaster)

    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paon_de_Roet

    Paon — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  14. 47.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 23. Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France; died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.
    2. Phillipa de Roet was born ~ 1346, (Roeulx) France; died ~ 1387, (London, Middlesex, England).

  15. 52.  Thomas Holland, Knight, 1st Earl of KentThomas Holland, Knight, 1st Earl of Kent was born ~ 1314, Upholland, Lancashire, England (son of Robert de Holland, II, Knight, 1st Baron Holand and Maud La Zouche); died 26 Dec 1360.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Member of Parliament
    • Residence: Brittany, France
    • Also Known As: Baron de Holland
    • Military:
    • Military: Knight of the Garter

    Notes:

    Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, 2nd Baron Holand, KG (c. 1314 - 26 December 1360) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War.

    He was from a gentry family in Upholland, Lancashire. He was a son of Robert de Holland, 1st Baron Holand and Maud la Zouche. One of his brothers was Otho Holand, who was also made a Knight of the Garter.

    Military career...

    In his early military career, he fought in Flanders. He was engaged, in 1340, in the English expedition into Flanders and sent, two years later, with Sir John D'Artevelle to Bayonne, to defend the Gascon frontier against the French. In 1343, he was again on service in France. In 1346, he attended King Edward III into Normandy in the immediate retinue of the Earl of Warwick; and, at the taking of Caen, the Count of Eu and Guãines, Constable of France, and the Count De Tancarville surrendered themselves to him as prisoners. At the Battle of Crâecy, he was one of the principal commanders in the vanguard under the Prince of Wales and he, afterwards, served at the Siege of Calais in 1346-7. In 1348 he was invested as one of the founders and 13th Knight of the new Order of the Garter.

    Around the same time as, or before, his first expedition, he secretly married the 12-year-old Joan of Kent, daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake, granddaughter of Edward I and Margaret of France. However, during his absence on foreign service, Joan, under pressure from her family, contracted another marriage with William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury (of whose household Holland had been seneschal). This second marriage was annulled in 1349, when Joan's previous marriage with Holland was proved to the satisfaction of the papal commissioners. Joan was ordered by the Pope to return to her husband and live with him as his lawful wife; this she did, thus producing 4 children by him.

    Between 1353 and 1356 he was summoned to Parliament as Baron de Holland.

    In 1354 Holland was the king's lieutenant in Brittany during the minority of the Duke of Brittany, and in 1359 co-captain-general for all the English continental possessions.

    His brother-in-law John, Earl of Kent, died in 1352, and Holland became Earl of Kent in right of his wife.

    He was succeeded as baron by his son Thomas, the earldom still being held by his wife (though the son later became Earl in his own right). Another son, John became Earl of Huntingdon and Duke of Exeter.

    Children

    Thomas and Joan of Kent had four children:

    Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent
    John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter
    Joan Holland, who married John IV, Duke of Brittany
    Maud Holland, married firstly Hugh Courtenay grandson of Hugh de Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon and secondly, Waleran III of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny

    External links

    His profile in Britannia Biographies
    His entry in Maximilian Genealogy

    Military:
    One of the founders and 13th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348

    Military:
    In his early military career, he fought in Flanders . He was engaged, in 1340, in the English expedition into Flanders and sent, two years later, with Sir John D'Artevelle to Bayonne, to defend the Gascon frontier against the French. In 1343, he was again on service in France . In 1346, he attended King Edward III into Normandy in the immediate retinue of the Earl of Warwick ; and, at the taking of Caen , the Count of Eu and Guãines, Constable of France , and the Count De Tancarville surrendered themselves to him as prisoners. At the Battle of Crâecy , he was one of the principal commanders in the vanguard under the Prince of Wales and he, afterwards, served at the Siege of Calais in 1346-7. In 1348 he was invested as one of the founders and 13th Knight of the new Order of the Garter .

    Thomas — Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent. Joan (daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell) was born 19 Sep 1328, (Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom); died 7 Aug 1385, Wallingford Castle, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Greyfriars, Stamford, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  16. 53.  Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of KentJoan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent was born 19 Sep 1328, (Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom) (daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell); died 7 Aug 1385, Wallingford Castle, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Greyfriars, Stamford, Lincolnshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 5th Baroness Wake of Liddell
    • Also Known As: Countess of Salisbury
    • Also Known As: Fair Maid of Kent
    • Also Known As: Princess of Aquitaine
    • Also Known As: Princess of Wales

    Notes:

    Joan, LG, suo jure 4th Countess of Kent, 5th Baroness Wake of Liddell (19 September 1328 – 7 August 1385), known to history as The Fair Maid of Kent, was the first post-conquest Princess of Wales as wife to Edward, the Black Prince, son and heir of King Edward III. Although the French chronicler Jean Froissart called her "the most beautiful woman in all the realm of England, and the most loving", the appellation "Fair Maid of Kent" does not appear to be contemporary.[1] Joan assumed the title of 4th Countess of Kent and 5th Baroness Wake of Liddell after the death of her brother, John, in 1352.

    Early life

    The Earl's widow, Margaret, was left with four children for whom to care. Joan's first cousin, the new King Edward III, took on the responsibility for the family, and looked after them well. His wife, Queen Philippa, was Joan's second cousin.

    Marriages

    In 1340, at the age of twelve, Joan secretly married Thomas Holland of Upholland, Lancashire, without first gaining the royal consent necessary for couples of their rank.[3] The following winter (1340 or 1341), while Holland was overseas, her family forced her to marry William Montacute, son and heir of the first Earl of Salisbury. Joan later averred that she did not disclose her existing marriage with Thomas Holland because she had been afraid that disclosing it would lead to Thomas's execution for treason upon his return. She may also have become convinced that the earlier marriage was invalid.[4]

    Several years later, Thomas Holland returned from the Crusades, having made his fortune and the full story of his relationship with Joan came out. He appealed to the Pope for the return of his wife and confessed the secret marriage to the king. When the Earl of Salisbury discovered that Joan supported Holland’s case, he kept her a prisoner in her own home.[5] In 1349, Pope Clement VI annulled Joan’s marriage to the Earl and sent her back to Thomas Holland, with whom she lived for the next eleven years. They had five children before Holland died in 1360.[6][7]

    Their children were:

    Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent
    John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter
    Lady Joan Holland (1356–1384), who married John V, Duke of Brittany (1339–1399).
    Lady Maud Holland (1359–1391), who married firstly to Hugh Courtenay and secondly to Waleran III of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny (1355–1415).
    Edmund Holland (c. 1354), who died young. He was buried in the church of Austin Friars, London.[6]
    When the last of Joan's siblings died in 1352, she became the 4th Countess of Kent and 5th Lady Wake of Liddell.

    Descendants of Lady Joan and Thomas Holland include Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby (mother of King Henry VII) and queens consort Anne Neville, Elizabeth of York, and Catherine Parr.[8]

    Marriage into the royal family

    Evidence of the affection of Edward, the Black Prince (who was her first cousin once removed) for Joan may be found in the record of his presenting her with a silver cup, part of the booty from one of his early military campaigns. Edward's parents did not, however, favour a marriage between their son and their former ward. Queen Philippa had made a favourite of Joan at first, but both she and the king seem to have been concerned about Joan's reputation. English law was such that Joan's living ex-husband, Salisbury, might have claimed any children of her subsequent marriages as his own. In addition, Edward and Joan were within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity. The secret marriage they allegedly contracted in 1360[9] would have been invalid because of the consanguinity prohibition. At the King's request, the Pope granted a dispensation allowing the two to be legally married. The official ceremony occurred on 10 October 1361, at Windsor Castle with the King and Queen in attendance. The Archbishop of Canterbury presided.[citation needed]

    In 1362, the Black Prince was invested as Prince of Aquitaine, a region of France which belonged to the English Crown since the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II. He and Joan moved to Bordeaux, the capital of the principality, where they spent the next nine years. Two sons were born in France to the royal couple. The elder son, named Edward (27 January 1365 - 1370) after his father and grandfather, died at the age of six. Around the time of the birth of their younger son, Richard, the Prince was lured into a war on behalf of King Peter of Castile. The ensuing battle was one of the Black Prince’s greatest victories, but King Peter (Spanish: Pedro) was later killed, and there was no money to pay the troops. In the meantime, the Princess was forced to raise another army, because the Prince’s enemies were threatening Aquitaine in his absence.[citation needed]

    Transition to Dowager Princess of Wales

    By 1371, the Black Prince was no longer able to perform his duties as Prince of Aquitaine, and returned to England, where plague was wreaking havoc. In 1372, he forced himself to attempt one final, abortive campaign in the hope of saving his father’s French possessions. His health was now completely shattered. On 7 June 1376, a week before his forty-sixth birthday, he died in his bed at Westminster.

    Joan’s son was next in line to succeed King Edward III. Edward III died on 21 June 1377 and Richard became King. He was crowned Richard II at the age of 10 in the following month. Early in his reign, the young King faced the challenge of the Peasants' Revolt. The Lollards, religious reformers led by John Wyclif, had enjoyed the protection of Joan of Kent, but the violent climax of the popular movement for reform reduced the feisty Joan to a state of terror, while leaving the King with an improved reputation.[citation needed]

    As a power behind the throne, she was well loved for her influence over the young king - for example, on her return to London (via her Wickhambreaux estate) from a pilgrimage to Becket's shrine at Canterbury Cathedral in 1381, she found her way barred by Wat Tyler and his mob of rebels on Blackheath but was not only let through unharmed, but saluted with kisses and provided with an escort for the rest of her journey.

    In 1385, Sir John Holland, an adult son of her first marriage, was campaigning with the King in the Kingdom of Scotland, when a quarrel broke out between him and Ralph Stafford, son of the 2nd Earl of Stafford, a favourite of the new Queen Anne of Bohemia. Stafford was killed, and John Holland sought sanctuary at the shrine of St John of Beverley. On the King’s return, Holland was condemned to death. Joan pleaded with her son for four days to spare his half-brother. On the fifth day (the exact date in August is not known), she died, at Wallingford Castle. Richard relented, and pardoned Holland (though he was then sent on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land).[citation needed]

    Joan was buried, as requested in her will, at the Greyfriars, the site of the present hospital, in Stamford in Lincolnshire, beside her first husband. Her third husband, the Black Prince, had built a chantry for her in the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral (where he was to have been buried), with ceiling bosses of her face. Another boss in the north nave aisle is also said to be of her.[10]

    Children:
    1. 26. Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent was born 1350-1354, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 25 Apr 1397, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England.
    2. John Holland, Knight, 1st Duke of Exeter was born ~ 1352, England; died 16 Jan 1400, England.

  17. 54.  Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of ArundelRichard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel was born 1306-1313, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (son of Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel); died 24 Jan 1376, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Governor of Caernarfon Castle
    • Occupation: High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire
    • Occupation: Justiciar of North Wales
    • Also Known As: 8th Earl of Surrey
    • Military: Commander of the English Army in the North
    • Will: 5 Dec 1375

    Notes:

    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and 8th Earl of Surrey (c. 1306/1313 – 24 January 1376) was an English nobleman and medieval military leader.

    Family and early life

    Richard's birth date was uncertain perhaps 1313 or maybe 1306 in Sussex, England. FitzAlan was the eldest son of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel (8th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots), and his wife Alice de Warenne.[1] His maternal grandparents were William de Warenne and Joan de Vere. William was the only son of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (himself son of Maud Marshal by her second marriage), and his wife Alice de Lusignan (d. 1356), half-sister of Henry III of England.

    Alliance with the Despensers

    Around 1321, FitzAlan's father allied with King Edward II's favorites, Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester and his namesake son, and Richard was married to Isabel le Despenser, daughter of Hugh the Younger. Fortune turned against the Despenser party, and on 17 November 1326, FitzAlan's father was executed, and he did not succeed to his father's estates or titles.

    Gradual restoration

    However, political conditions had changed by 1330, and over the next few years Richard was gradually able to reacquire the Earldom of Arundel as well as the great estates his father had held in Sussex and in the Welsh Marches.

    Beyond this, in 1334 he was made Justiciar of North Wales (later his term in this office was made for life), High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire for life and Governor of Caernarfon Castle. He was one of the most trusted supporters of Edward the Black Prince in Wales.

    Military service in Scotland

    Despite his high offices in Wales, in the following decades Arundel spent much of his time fighting in Scotland (during the Second Wars of Scottish Independence) and France (during the Hundred Years' War). In 1337, Arundel was made Joint Commander of the English army in the north, and the next year he was made the sole Commander.

    Notable victories

    In 1340 he fought at the Battle of Sluys, and then at the siege of Tournai. After a short term as Warden of the Scottish Marches, he returned to the continent, where he fought in a number of campaigns, and was appointed Joint Lieutenant of Aquitaine in 1340.

    Arundel was one of the three principal English commanders at the Battle of Crâecy. He spent much of the following years on various military campaigns and diplomatic missions.

    In a campaign of 1375, at the end of his life, he destroyed the harbour of Roscoff.

    Great wealth

    In 1347, he succeeded to the Earldom of Surrey (or Warenne), which even further increased his great wealth. (He did not however use the additional title until after the death of the Dowager Countess of Surrey in 1361.) He made very large loans to King Edward III but even so on his death left behind a great sum in hard cash.

    Marriages and children

    This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2012)
    He married firstly February 9, 1321 at Havering-atte-Bower, Isabel le Despenser (born 1312). At that time, the future earl was eight (or fifteen) and his bride nine. He later repudiated this bride, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI in December 1344 on the grounds that he had been underaged and unwilling. He had a son Edmund (b. 1327) when he was fourteen (or twenty-one) and his wife fifteen; this son was bastardized by the annulment.

    His second wife, whom he married on 5 April 1345, was a young widow Eleanor of Lancaster, the second youngest daughter and sixth child of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth; by Papal dispensation he was allowed to marry his first wife's first cousin by their common grandmother Isabella de Beauchamp. Eleanor was the widow of John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont. The king, Edward III, himself a kinsman of both wives, attended this second marriage. By now, the Earl of Arundel had rebuilt the family wealth and was apparently a major financier of the Crown, and financial sweeteners may have been used to reconcile both the Church and the Crown.[2] By his first marriage to Isabel le Despenser (living 1356, and may have died circa 1376-7), which marriage he had annulled December 1344 [1], he had one son:

    Sir Edmund de Arundel, knt (b ca 1327; d 1376-1382), bastardized by the annulment. Edmund was nevertheless knighted, married at the age of twenty, in the summer of 1347 [2] Sybil de Montacute, a younger daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, whose elder sister Elizabeth was married to his maternal uncle (the uncle may have arranged this marriage). Edmund protested his bastardization bitterly in 1347, but was apparently ignored. After his father's death in 1376, Edmund disputed his half-brother Richard's inheritance of the earldom and associated lands and titles in 1376 and apparently tried to claim the six manors allotted to his deceased mother. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1377, and finally freed through the intervention of two of his brothers-in-law (his wife's brother John de Montacute and the second husband of Elizabeth de Montacute, Lady Le Despencer).[3] They had three daughters who were his co-heiresses and who brought a failed suit in 1382 against their half-uncle the Earl:

    Elizabeth de Arundel, who married Sir Leonard Carew and has descendants

    Philippa de Arundel (died 18 May 1452), married (as his 2nd wife) Sir Richard Sergeaux, Knt, of Colquite, Cornwall.[4] A Victorian historical novel ascribes the following five children to her: a) Richard, born December 21, 1376, and died issueless, June 24, 1396; b) Elizabeth, born 1379, wife of Sir William Marny; c) Philippa, born 1381, wife of Robert Passele; d) Alice, born at Kilquyt, September 1, 1384, wife of Guy de Saint Albino [this ; e) Joan, born 1393, died February 21, 1400. "Philippa became a widow, September 30, 1393, and died September 13, 1399." (I.P.M., 17 Ric. II., 53; 21 Ric. II., 50; 1 H. IV., 14, 23, 24.)[5]

    Alice Sergeaux later Countess of Oxford (c. 1386 - 18 May 1452), married 1stly Guy de St Aubyn of St. Erme, Cornwall, and 2ndly about 1406-7 as his 2nd wife, the 11th Earl of Oxford and widower of Alice de Holand (dsp. 1406, niece of Henry IV, and mother of two sons by him
    John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
    Robert de Vere, whose grandson, John, became the 15th Earl of Oxford.[7]

    Mary (died 29 Aug 1396), married John le Strange, 4th Lord Blackmere (from Genealogy of Fitzalans).
    By the second marriage 5 February 1345, by Papal dispensation,[6] to Eleanor of Lancaster, he had 3 sons and 3 surviving daughters:

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who succeeded him as 11th Earl of Arundel as his "eldest legitimate" son.
    John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel, 1st Baron Maltravers, who was a Marshall of England, and drowned in 1379.
    Thomas Arundel, who became Archbishop of Canterbury
    Lady Joan FitzAlan (1348 - 7 April 1419) who married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. They were the maternal grandparents of Henry V of England through their daughter Mary de Bohun.
    Lady Alice FitzAlan (1350 - 17 March 1416), who married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, uterine brother of King Richard II. They were ancestors to Queen consorts Anne Neville (wife of King Richard III), Elizabeth of York (wife of King Henry VII), and Catherine Parr (wife of King Henry VIII).
    Lady Eleanor Fitzalan (1356 - before 1366).

    The current Dukes of Norfolk descend from Lady Mary, Duchess of Norfolk, a daughter and co-heiress of Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel; the 19th Earl descended from John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel.

    Death and legacy

    Richard died on 24 January 1376 in Sussex, England. (Another source says he wrote his will on 5 December 1375, and died on 14 January 1376 at Arundel Castle).[3]. In his will, he mentioned his three surviving sons by his second wife, his two surviving daughters Joan, Dowager Countess of Hereford and Alice, Countess of Kent, his grandchildren by his second son John, etc., but left out his bastardized eldest son Edmund.

    The memorial effigies attributed to Richard FitzAlan and his second wife Eleanor of Lancaster in Chichester Cathedral are the subject of the poem "An Arundel Tomb" by Philip Larkin.

    FitzAlan died an incredibly wealthy man, despite his various loans to Edward III

    Birth:
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery on Christmas Day 1067. Roger became the first to hold the earldom of Arundel by the graces of William the Conqueror. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War and then restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    From the 11th century, the castle has served as a home and has been in the ownership of the family of the Duke of Norfolk for over 400 years. It is the principal seat of the Norfolk family. It is a Grade I listed building.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Occupation:
    The Justiciar of North Wales was responsible for the royal administration in these counties as well as the administration of justice. English law was applied to criminal law, but in other matters Welsh law was allowed to continue.

    List of Justiciars

    Otton de Grandson, 1284–1294
    Robert Tibetot, 1295–1301
    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, 1334–1352
    Arundel sold the office to Edward the Black Prince in 1352
    John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp 1385–1388
    Henry Percy (Hotspur) 1399?–1403?

    Occupation:
    Caernarfon Castle (Welsh: Castell Caernarfon) is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, north-west Wales. Click here to view its history, map & picture ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caernarfon_Castle

    Buried:
    Lewes Priory is a ruined medieval Cluniac priory in Southover, East Sussex in the United Kingdom. The ruins have been designated a Grade I listed building.

    The Priory of St Pancras was the first Cluniac house in England and had one of the largest monastic churches in the country. It was set within an extensive walled and gated precinct laid out in a commanding location fronting the tidal shore-line at the head of the Ouse valley to the south of Lewes in the County of Sussex. The Priory had daughter houses, including Castle Acre Priory in Norfolk, and was endowed with churches and extensive holdings throughout England. In Lewes it had hospitiums dedicated to St James and to St Nicholas.

    In 1264, during the Battle of Lewes, King Henry III installed his forces in the Priory precinct which came under attack from those of Simon de Montfort after his victory over Henry in battle. Henry was forced, in the Mise of Lewes, to accept the Council that was the start of Parliamentary government in England.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewes_Priory

    Richard married Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel 5 Feb 1344, Ditton Church, Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, England. Eleanor (daughter of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester and Maud Chaworth) was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales; died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]


  18. 55.  Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales (daughter of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester and Maud Chaworth); died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Eleanor of Lancaster

    Notes:

    On 5 February 1344 at Ditton Church, Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, she married Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel.[4]

    His previous marriage, to Isabel le Despenser, had taken place when they were children. It was annulled by Papal mandate as she, since her father's attainder and execution, had ceased to be of any importance to him. Pope Clement VI obligingly annulled the marriage, bastardized the issue, and provided a dispensation for his second marriage to the woman with whom he had been living in adultery (the dispensation, dated 4 March 1344/1345, was required because his first and second wives were first cousins).

    The children of Eleanor's second marriage were:

    Richard (1346–1397), who succeeded as Earl of Arundel
    John Fitzalan (bef 1349 - 1379)
    Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury (c. 1353 - 19 February 1413)
    Lady Joan FitzAlan (1347/1348 - 7 April 1419), married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford
    Lady Alice FitzAlan (1350 - 17 March 1416), married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (Thomas Holand)
    Lady Mary FitzAlan (died 29 August 1396), married John Le Strange, 4th Lord Strange of Blackmere, by whom she had issue
    Lady Eleanor FitzAlan (1356 - before 1366)

    Notes:

    Married:
    Richard married Isabel's first cousin Eleanor of Lancaster, with whom he had apparently been having an affair.

    Children:
    1. Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 11th Earl of Arundel was born 25 Mar 1346, Arundel, Sussex, England; died 21 Sep 1397, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Augustin Friars, Bread Street, London, England.
    2. John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel was born ~ 1348, Etchingham, Sussex, England; died 16 Dec 1379; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.
    3. 27. Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent was born 1350-1352, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 17 Mar 1415, (Arundel, West Sussex, England).
    4. Joan FitzAlan was born 0___ 1347, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 7 Apr 1419, Saffron Walden, Essex, England; was buried Walden Abbey, Essex, England.

  19. 58.  William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby was born 28 Feb 1333, Groby, Leicestershire, England (son of Henry de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Isabel de Verdun); died 8 Jan 1371, Newbold Verdon, Leicestershire, England.

    William married Margaret de Ufford Bef 25 Apr 1344. Margaret (daughter of Robert de Ufford, (II), Knight, 1st Earl of Suffolk and Margaret Norwich) was born ~ 1330, Ufford, Suffolk, England; died Bef 25 May 1368, Eresby, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  20. 59.  Margaret de Ufford was born ~ 1330, Ufford, Suffolk, England (daughter of Robert de Ufford, (II), Knight, 1st Earl of Suffolk and Margaret Norwich); died Bef 25 May 1368, Eresby, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England.

    Notes:

    Married:
    bef. 25 Apr 1344 Lady Margaret de Ufford, sister and cohrss. in her issue of William [de Ufford], 2nd Earl of Suffolk, and 3rd dau. of Robert [de Ufford], 1st Earl of Suffolk, by his wife Margaret de Norwich, great-aunt and hrss. in her issue of Sir John de Norwich, of Sculthorpe, co. Norfolk, and Bramfield and Mellis, co. Suffolk, and dau. of Sir Walter de Norwich, of Sculthorpe, co. Norfolk, and Bramfield and Mellis, co. Suffolk, Treasurer and Chief Baron of the Exchequer

    Children:
    1. 29. Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick was born ~ 1347, Groby, Leicestershire, England; died 22 Jan 1407, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried St. Mary's, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.
    2. Henry de Ferrers, Knight, 4th Baron Ferrers of Groby was born 16 Feb 1356, (Groby, Leicestershire, England); died 3 Feb 1388.

  21. 60.  Maurice Berkeley, Knight, 4th Baron Berkeley was born 1320-1323, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England (son of Thomas de Berkeley, Knight, 3rd Baron Berkeley and Margaret Mortimer, Baroness Berkeley); died 0Aug 1368, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England.

    Maurice married Elizabeth Despencer 0___ 1338. Elizabeth (daughter of Hugh le Despencer, IV, Knight, Baron Despenser and Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer) was born 0___ 1322, Bishop's Stoke, Westbury Upon Trym, Gloucester, England; died 13 Jul 1389; was buried St. Botolph Aldersgate, London, Middlesex, England. [Group Sheet]


  22. 61.  Elizabeth Despencer was born 0___ 1322, Bishop's Stoke, Westbury Upon Trym, Gloucester, England (daughter of Hugh le Despencer, IV, Knight, Baron Despenser and Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer); died 13 Jul 1389; was buried St. Botolph Aldersgate, London, Middlesex, England.
    Children:
    1. 30. Thomas de Berkeley was born 5 Jan 1352, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England; died 13 Jul 1417, Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England; was buried Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England.

  23. 62.  Warin de Lisle, Knight, Baron de Lisle

    Warin — Margaret Pipard. [Group Sheet]


  24. 63.  Margaret Pipard
    Children:
    1. 31. Margaret Lisle was born ~ 1359, Kingston Lisle, Sparsholt, Berkshire, England; died 20 Mar 1392; was buried Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester, England.


Generation: 7

  1. 66.  Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron AudleyHugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley was born ~ 1289, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England (son of Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton and Isolde (Isabella) de Mortimer); died 10 Nov 1347, Kent, England; was buried Tonbridge Priory, Kent, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Ambassador to France
    • Occupation: Sheriff of Rutland
    • Also Known As: 1st Earl of Gloucester
    • Also Known As: Lord of the Manor of Chilton
    • Also Known As: Lord of the Manor of Gratton

    Notes:

    Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley and 1st Earl of Gloucester (3rd Creation) (c. 1291 – 10 November 1347) was the second son of Sir Hugh de Audley, Lord Audley by Iseult de Mortimer and Great great grandson of King Henry II. He held many offices including Knight of Stratton in Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, of Gratton, Staffordshire, the King's bachelor, Sheriff of Rutland, and was the English Ambassador to France in 1341.[1][5]

    ...was the second son of Sir Hugh de Audley, Lord Audley by Iseult de Mortimer and Great great grandson of King Henry II. He held many offices including Knight of Stratton in Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, of Gratton, Staffordshire, the King's bachelor, Sheriff of Rutland, and was the English Ambassador to France in 1341.[1][5]


    His father, Hugh I de Audley (ca. 1267 - ca. 1326), was from Stratton Audley in the English County of Oxfordshire.[5][2] His mother was Isolde (Iseult) (c. 1260 – 1336 or after[5]), daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer, a member of the Mortimer family of Marcher Lords, many of whom were Earl of March.[2] Isolde was the widow of Sir Walter de Balun.[5][2] Hugh de Audley and Isolde had two children in addition to Hugh, John de Audley, born circa 1293, and Alice de Audley, born circa 1304 who married firstly Ralph de Greystoke, and later Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby[2]


    Hugh de Audley was born in Stratton Audley in the English County of Oxfordshire. He married Margaret de Clare, widow of Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall), who was the favourite (and possibly lover) of King Edward II of England.[2][4] They had a daughter, Margaret de Audley (born c. 1318 in Stafford), who was abducted as a wife by Ralph Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford.[2][4] He served as High Sheriff of Rutland from 1316 to 1324 and again from 1327 to 1349.[6] Following his death, de Audley was buried in Tonbridge Priory.[4][2][6]

    Buried:
    Tonbridge Priory was a priory in Tonbridge, Kent, England that was established in 1124. It was destroyed by fire in 1337 and then rebuilt. The priory was disestablished in 1523. The building stood in 1735, but was a ruin by 1780. The remains of the priory were demolished in 1842 when the South Eastern Railway built the railway through Tonbridge, the original Tonbridge station standing on its site.

    Map, image & history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonbridge_Priory

    Hugh — Margaret de Clare. Margaret (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre) was born 12 Oct 1293, Tonbridge Castle, Kent, England; died 9 Apr 1342, Chebsey, Staffordshire, England; was buried Tonbridge Priory, Kent, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 67.  Margaret de Clare was born 12 Oct 1293, Tonbridge Castle, Kent, England (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre); died 9 Apr 1342, Chebsey, Staffordshire, England; was buried Tonbridge Priory, Kent, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Gloucester

    Notes:

    Margaret de Clare, Countess of Cornwall, Countess of Gloucester (12 October 1293 – 09 April 1342), was an English noblewoman, heiress, and the second eldest of the three daughters of Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford and his wife, Joan of Acre, making her a granddaughter of King Edward I of England. [2][3][1] Her two husbands were Piers Gaveston and Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester.[4]

    Marriage to Piers Gaveston

    She was married to Piers Gaveston, the favourite of her uncle Edward II on 07 November 1307. [3][2][4] At the time of her marriage she was 14 years of age. According to the Vita Edwardi Secundi, this marriage was arranged by the King "to strengthen Piers and surround him with friends." Lord Gaveston celebrated the marriage with a lavish tournament at Wallingford Castle. The marriage of such a high-born heiress to a foreigner did not please the English nobility and engendered a great deal of unpopularity. They had issue, The Right Honourable Amy de Gaveston born 06 January 1312 in Tunbridge Castle, Kent, England. [3][2] It is alleged that they had another child named Joan de Gaveston born around 1310, but there is little evidence outside of hearsay to validate this claim. There are also claims that Amy de Gaveston was born to a mistress of Lord de Gaveston possibly one of Her Majesty, Queen Hainaut's ladies. [5] However, the evidence is circumstantial and the official records list Amy de Gaveston as born to Lord de Gaveston and Lady de Clare thus, it's fancy speculation.[4]


    King Edward arranged a lavish celebration after the birth of this little girl, complete with minstrels. However, Piers Gaveston was executed only six months later, leaving Margaret a widow with a small child. Her dower rights as Countess of Cornwall were disputed, and so King Edward instead assigned her Oakham Castle and other lands. She joined the Royal household and in 1316 accompanied the King in his journey from London to York.

    Inheritance and second marriage

    Following the death of their brother, Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford, at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, Margaret and her sisters, Elizabeth and Eleanor de Clare received a share of the inheritance. Margaret was now one of the co-heiresses to the vast Gloucester estate, and King Edward arranged a second marriage for her to another favourite, Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester. She was High Sheriff of Rutland from 1313 to 1319. [6] On 28 April 1317 Margaret de Clare wed Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester at Windsor Castle. [3]They had one daughter:# Margaret de Audley, born between January 1318 and November 1320. [3][2][4]

    Despenser War

    Hugh and Margaret were among the victims of their brother-in-law, Hugh the younger Despenser. In his rashness and greed for the Clare lands, he robbed Margaret of much of her rightful inheritance. In 1321, Hugh de Audley joined the other Marcher Barons in looting, burning, and causing general devastation to Despenser's lands which subsequently became the Despenser War. Hugh was captured at the Battle of Boroughbridge in 1322, and was saved from a hanging thanks to the pleas of his wife. He was imprisoned, and two months later Margaret was sent to Sempringham Priory. She remained there until 1326, when Hugh escaped prison and she was released from Sempringham.

    Countess of Gloucester

    Hugh and Margaret were reunited sometime in 1326. In summer 1336, their only daughter, Margaret Audley, was abducted by Ralph Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford. Her parents filed a complaint, but King Edward III of England supported Stafford. He appeased Hugh and Margaret by creating Hugh Earl of Gloucester. Margaret was henceforth styled Countess of Gloucester.

    Death

    Margaret died on the 9th of April 1342 and her sister Lady Elizabeth de Clare paid for prayers to be said for her soul at Tonbridge Priory located in Kent, England, where she was buried.[1][2][3][5]

    Birth:
    Tonbridge Castle is situated in the town of the same name, Kent, England.

    The twin towered gatehouse was built by Richard de Clare, third Earl of Hertford or his son Gilbert. Construction of the gatehouse took 30 years, being completed in 1260.

    Map, images, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonbridge_Castle

    Buried:
    Tonbridge Priory was a priory in Tonbridge, Kent, England that was established in 1124. It was destroyed by fire in 1337 and then rebuilt. The priory was disestablished in 1523.

    Tonbridge Priory was established in 1124 by Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare, who held Tonbridge Castle. He was buried in the priory following his death in 1136.

    Map, image & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonbridge_Priory

    Notes:

    Married:
    King Edward arranged a second marriage for her to another favourite, Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester.

    Children:
    1. 33. Margaret de Audley, 2nd Baroness Audley was born 1318-1322, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; died 7 Sep 1349, Tunbridge Castle, Tunbridge, Kent, England; was buried Tunbridge Priory, Kent, England.

  3. 68.  Guy de Beauchamp, Knight, 10th Earl of Warwick was born 0___ 1262, Elmley Castle, Worcester, England (son of William de Beauchamp and Isabel Mauduit); died 12 Aug 1315, Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England; was buried Bordesley Abbey, Worcester, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1272, Warwickshire, England

    Notes:

    Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick

    Guy had already distinguished himself in the Scottish Wars and was one of the Ordainers, who sought to restrict the powers of the King.

    Guy was one of the chief adversaries of Piers Gaveston, King Edward's favourite, who often referred to Guy as "The Mad Hound", due to the Earl's habit of foaming at the mouth when angry. In 1312, Guy de Beauchamp captured Gaveston and took him to his principal residence, Warwick Castle, where Gaveston was held prisoner and afterwards murdered.

    Guy first married Isabel de Clare, the daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester and Alice de Lusignan of Angoulãeme, but the marriage, which had produced no children, was annulled.

    On 28 February 1310, less than three years after the death of her first husband, Guy married Alice de Toeni, daughter of Ralph VII de Toeni.

    Child of Guy de Beauchamp and unnamed partner (mistress): Maud de Beauchamp (died 1366), married Geoffrey de Say, 2nd Lord Say, by whom she had issue.

    Children of Guy de Beauchamp and Alice de Toeni:

    Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick (14 February 1313/1314 – 13 November 1369), married Katherine Mortimer, by whom he had fifteen children.
    John de Beauchamp, Lord Beauchamp KG (1315 – 2 December 1360), carried the royal standard at the Battle of Crecy
    Elizabeth de Beauchamp (c. 1316–1359), married in 1328, Thomas Astley, 3rd Lord Astley, by whom she had a son William, 4th Lord Astley.
    Isabella de Beauchamp, married John de Clinton.
    Emma de Beauchamp, married Rowland Odingsells.
    Lucia de Beauchamp, married Robert de Napton.

    Following the sudden death of Guy de Beauchamp at Warwick Castle on 28 July 1315, which was rumoured to have been caused by poisoning, Alice married thirdly on 26 October 1316, William la Zouche de Mortimer, 1st Lord Zouche de Mortimer. [1]

    Father of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick; Isabel Beauchamp; Elizabeth de Beauchamp, Baroness Astley; John de Beauchamp; Emma de Beauchamp; Lucia de Beauchamp Maud de Beauchamp

    Brother of Isabella de Beauchamp, Countess Winchester; John de Beauchamp; Roger Beauchamp; Anne de Beauchamp; Margaret de Beauchamp; Amy de Beauchamp; Maud de Beauchamp Robert de BEAUCHAMP

    Half brother of Isabel Blount; Alice Foljambe (Furnival); Thomas FURNIVAL; Eleanor FURNIVAL Christine Furnival

    Burial: Bordesley Abbey, Warwickshire, England

    Foundation for Medieval Genealogy's Medieval Lands Index entry for : Guy.

    Husband: Guy Beauchamp
    Wife: Alice de Toeni
    Child: Maud Beauchamp
    Child: Thomas Beauchamp

    Marriage:

    Date: BEF 28 FEB 1309/10
    Husband: Guy de BEAUCHAMP
    Wife: Alice de TOENI
    Child: John de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Isabel de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Elizabeth de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Emma de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Maud de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Thomas de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Lucia (Jane) de BEAUCHAMP

    Marriage:

    Date: ABT 1303
    Place: of Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England

    Sources

    Royal Ancestry 2013 Vol. I p. 287-293
    Royal Ancestry by Douglas Richardson Vol. V. p. 178
    Ancestral Roots of Certain American Collonists RJCW 296b
    Marlyn Lewis.
    Royal and Noble Genealogical Data, Author: Brian Tompsett, Copyright 1994-2001, Version March 25, 2001
    Ancestry family trees
    ? Entered by Jean Maunder.

    *

    Guy married Alice de Toeni, Countess of Warwick 28 Feb 1309, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 69.  Alice de Toeni, Countess of Warwick
    Children:
    1. 34. Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of Warwick was born 14 Feb 1313, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died 13 Nov 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

  5. 70.  Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March was born 25 Apr 1287, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England (son of Edmund Mortimer, Knight, 2nd Baron Mortimer and Margaret de Fiennes, Baroness Mortimer); died 29 Nov 1330, Tyburn, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
    • Also Known As: Baron Mortimer
    • Military:
    • Military: Despencer War

    Notes:

    Early life

    Mortimer, grandson of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer and Maud de Braose, Baroness Mortimer, was born at Wigmore Castle, Herefordshire, England, the firstborn of Marcher Lord Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer, and Margaret de Fiennes. Edmund Mortimer had been a second son, intended for minor orders and a clerical career, but on the sudden death of his elder brother Ralph, Edmund was recalled from Oxford University and installed as heir. According to his biographer Ian Mortimer, Roger was possibly sent as a boy away from home to be fostered in the household of his formidable uncle, Roger Mortimer de Chirk.[2] It was this uncle who had carried the severed head of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd of Wales to King Edward I in 1282.[3] Like many noble children of his time, Roger was betrothed young, to Joan de Geneville (born 1286), the wealthy daughter of Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim Castle and Ludlow. They were married on 20 September 1301. Their first child was born in 1302.[4]

    Marriage

    Through his marriage with Joan de Geneville, Roger not only acquired increased possessions in the Welsh Marches, including the important Ludlow Castle, which became the chief stronghold of the Mortimers, but also extensive estates and influence in Ireland. However, Joan de Geneville was not an "heiress" at the time of her marriage. Her grandfather Geoffrey de Geneville, at the age of eighty in 1308, conveyed most, but not all, of his Irish lordships to Roger Mortimer, and then retired, notably alive: he finally died in 1314, with Joan succeeding as suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville. During his lifetime Geoffrey also conveyed much of the remainder of his legacy, such as Kenlys, to his younger son Simon de Geneville, who had meanwhile become Baron of Culmullin through marriage to Joanna FitzLeon. Roger Mortimer therefore succeeded to the eastern part of the Lordship of Meath, centred on Trim and its stronghold of Trim Castle. He did not succeed, however, to the Lordship of Fingal.[5]

    Military adventures in Ireland and Wales

    Roger Mortimer's childhood came to an abrupt end when his father was mortally wounded in a skirmish near Builth in July 1304. Since Roger was underage at the death of his father, he was placed by King Edward I under the guardianship of Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall. However, on 22 May 1306, in a lavish ceremony in Westminster Abbey with two hundred and fifty-nine others, he was knighted by Edward and granted livery of his full inheritance.[6]

    His adult life began in earnest in 1308, when he went to Ireland in person to enforce his authority. This brought him into conflict with the de Lacys, who turned for support to Edward Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce, King of Scots. Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland by Edward II on 23 November 1316. Shortly afterwards, at the head of a large army, he drove Bruce to Carrickfergus and the de Lacys into Connaught, wreaking vengeance on their adherents whenever they were to be found. He returned to England and Wales in 1318[7] and was then occupied for some years with baronial disputes on the Welsh border.

    Opposition to Edward II

    Main article: Despenser War
    Mortimer became disaffected with his king and joined the growing opposition to Edward II and the Despensers. After the younger Despenser was granted lands belonging to him, he and the Marchers began conducting devastating raids against Despenser property in Wales. He supported Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, in refusing to obey the king's summons to appear before him in 1321. Mortimer led a march against London, his men wearing the Mortimer uniform which was green with a yellow sleeve.[8] He was prevented from entering the capital, although his forces put it under siege. These acts of insurrection compelled the Lords Ordainers led by Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, to order the king to banish the Despensers in August. When the king led a successful expedition in October against Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere, after she had refused Queen Isabella admittance to Leeds Castle, he used his victory and new popularity among the moderate lords and the people to summon the Despensers back to England. Mortimer, in company with other Marcher Lords, led a rebellion against Edward, which is known as the Despenser War, at the end of the year.[citation needed]

    Forced to surrender to the king at Shrewsbury in January 1322, Mortimer was consigned to the Tower of London, but by drugging the constable, escaped to France in August 1323, pursued by warrants for his capture dead or alive.[9] In the following year Queen Isabella, anxious to escape from her husband, obtained his consent to her going to France to use her influence with her brother, King Charles IV, in favour of peace. At the French court the queen found Roger Mortimer, who became her lover soon afterwards. At his instigation, she refused to return to England so long as the Despensers retained power as the king's favourites.

    Historians have speculated as to the date at which Mortimer and Isabella actually became lovers.[10] The modern view is that it began while both were still in England, and that after a disagreement, Isabella abandoned Roger to his fate in the Tower. His subsequent escape became one of medieval England's most colourful episodes. However almost certainly Isabella risked everything by chancing Mortimer's companionship and emotional support when they first met again at Paris four years later (Christmas 1325). King Charles IV's protection of Isabella at the French court from Despenser's would-be assassins played a large part in developing the relationship.[11] In 1326, Mortimer moved as Prince Edward's guardian to Hainault, but only after a furious dispute with the queen, demanding she remain in France.[12] Isabella retired to raise troops in her County of Ponthieu; Mortimer arranged the invasion fleet supplied by the Hainaulters.

    Invasion of England and defeat of Edward II

    The scandal of Isabella's relations with Mortimer compelled them both to withdraw from the French court to Flanders, where they obtained assistance for an invasion of England from Count William of Hainaut, although Isabella did not arrive from Ponthieu until the fleet was due to sail. Landing in the River Orwell on 24 September 1326, they were accompanied by Prince Edward and Henry, Earl of Lancaster. London rose in support of the queen, and Edward took flight to the west, pursued by Mortimer and Isabella. After wandering helplessly for some weeks in Wales, the king was taken prisoner on 16 November, and was compelled to abdicate in favour of his son. Though the latter was crowned as Edward III of England on 25 January 1327, the country was ruled by Mortimer and Isabella, who were widely believed to have arranged the murder of Edward II the following September at Berkeley Castle.[citation needed]

    Historian and biographer of Roger Mortimer and Edward III, Ian Mortimer, retells the old story that the ex-king was not killed and buried in 1327, but secretly remained alive at Corfe Castle. When Mortimer besieged the castle, Edward II was said to escape to Rome, where he stayed under papal protection.[13]

    Powers won and lost

    Rich estates and offices of profit and power were now heaped on Mortimer. He was made constable of Wallingford Castle and in September 1328 he was created Earl of March. However, although in military terms he was far more competent than the Despensers, his ambition was troubling to all. His own son Geoffrey, the only one to survive into old age, mocked him as "the king of folly." During his short time as ruler of England he took over the lordships of Denbigh, Oswestry, and Clun (the first of which belonged to Despenser, the latter two had been the Earl of Arundel's). He was also granted the marcher lordship of Montgomery by the queen.[citation needed]


    The "Tyburn Tree"

    The jealousy and anger of many nobles were aroused by Mortimer's use of power. Henry, Earl of Lancaster, one of the principals behind Edward II's deposition, tried to overthrow Mortimer, but the action was ineffective as the young king passively stood by. Then, in March 1330, Mortimer ordered the execution of Edmund, Earl of Kent, the half-brother of Edward II. After this execution Henry Lancaster prevailed upon the young king, Edward III, to assert his independence. In October 1330, a Parliament was summoned to Nottingham, just days before Edward's eighteenth birthday, and Mortimer and Isabella were seized by Edward and his companions from inside Nottingham Castle. In spite of Isabella's entreaty to her son, "Fair son, have pity on the gentle Mortimer," Mortimer was conveyed to the Tower. Accused of assuming royal power and of various other high misdemeanours, he was condemned without trial and ignominiously hanged at Tyburn on 29 November 1330, his vast estates forfeited to the crown. His body hung at the gallows for two days and nights in full view of the populace. Mortimer's widow Joan received a pardon in 1336 and survived till 1356. She was buried beside Mortimer at Wigmore, but the site was later destroyed.[14]

    In 2002, the actor John Challis, the current owner of the remaining buildings of Wigmore Abbey, invited the BBC programme House Detectives at Large to investigate his property. During the investigation, a document was discovered in which Mortimer's widow Joan petitioned Edward III for the return of her husband's body so she could bury it at Wigmore Abbey. Mortimer's lover Isabella had buried his body at Greyfriars in Coventry following his hanging. Edward III replied, "Let his body rest in peace." The king later relented, and Mortimer's body was transferred to Wigmore Abbey, where Joan was later buried beside him.[citation needed]

    Children of Roger and Joan

    The marriages of Mortimer's children (three sons and eight daughters) cemented Mortimer's strengths in the West.

    Sir Edmund Mortimer knt (1302-1331), married Elizabeth de Badlesmere; they produced Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, who was restored to his grandfather's title.
    Margaret Mortimer (1304 - 5 May 1337), married Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley
    Maud Mortimer (1307 - aft. 1345), married John de Charlton, Lord of Powys[15]
    Geoffrey Mortimer (1309-1372/6)
    John Mortimer (1310-1328)
    Joan Mortimer (c. 1312-1337/51), married James Audley, 2nd Baron Audley
    Isabella Mortimer (c. 1313 - aft. 1327)
    Katherine Mortimer (c. 1314-1369), married Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick
    Agnes Mortimer (c. 1317-1368), married Laurence Hastings, 1st Earl of Pembroke
    Beatrice Mortimer (d. 16 October 1383), who married firstly, Edward of Norfolk (d. before 9 August 1334), son and heir apparent of Thomas of Brotherton, by whom she had no issue, and secondly, before 13 September 1337, Thomas de Brewes (d. 9 or 16 June 1361), by whom she had three sons and three daughters.[16]
    Blanche Mortimer (c. 1321-1347), married Peter de Grandison, 2nd Baron Grandison

    Royal descendants

    Through his son Sir Edmund Mortimer, he is an ancestor of the last Plantagenet monarchs of England from King Edward IV to Richard III. By Edward IV's daughter, Elizabeth of York, the Earl of March is an ancestor to King Henry VIII and to all subsequent monarchs of England.

    Roger Mortimer, 1st earl of March, (born 1287?—died Nov. 29, 1330, Tyburn, near London, Eng.), lover of the English king Edward II’s queen, Isabella of France, with whom he contrived Edward’s deposition and murder (1327). For three years thereafter he was virtual king of England during the minority of Edward III.

    The descendant of Norman knights who had accompanied William the Conqueror, he inherited wealthy family estates and fortunes, principally in Wales and Ireland, and in 1304 became 8th Baron of Wigmore on the death of his father, the 7th baron. He devoted the early years of his majority to obtaining effective control of his Irish lordships against his wife’s kinsmen, the Lacys, who summoned to their aid Edward Bruce, brother of King Robert I of Scotland, when he was fighting to become king of Ireland. In 1316 Mortimer was defeated at Kells and withdrew to England, but afterward, as King Edward II’s lieutenant in Ireland (November 1316), he was largely instrumental in overcoming Bruce and in driving the Lacys from Meath.

    In 1317 he was associated with the Earl of Pembroke’s “middle party” in English politics; but distrust of the Despensers (see Despenser, Hugh Le and Hugh Le) drove him, in common with other marcher lords, into opposition and violent conflict with the Despensers in South Wales in 1321. But, receiving no help from Edward II’s other enemies, Roger and his uncle Roger Mortimer of Chirk made their submission in January 1322. Imprisoned in the Tower of London, Roger escaped in 1323 and fled to France, where in 1325 he was joined by Queen Isabella, who became his mistress. The exiles invaded England in September 1326; the fall of the Despensers was followed by the deposition of Edward II and his subsequent murder (1327), in which Mortimer was deeply implicated.

    Thereafter, as the queen’s paramour, Mortimer virtually ruled England. He used his position to further his own ends. Created Earl of March in October 1328, he secured for himself the lordships of Denbigh, Oswestry, and Clun, formerly belonging to the Earl of Arundel; the marcher lordships of the Mortimers of Chirk; and Montgomery, granted to him by the queen. His insatiable avarice, his arrogance, and his unpopular policy toward Scotland aroused against Mortimer a general revulsion among his fellow barons, and in October 1330 the young king Edward III, at the instigation of Henry of Lancaster, had him seized at Nottingham and conveyed to the Tower. Condemned for crimes declared to be notorious by his peers in Parliament, he was hanged at Tyburn as a traitor, and his estates were forfeited to the crown.

    One night in August 1323, a captive rebel baron, Sir Roger Mortimer, drugged his guards and escaped from the Tower of London. With the king's men-at-arms in pursuit he fled to the south coast and sailed to France. There he was joined by Isabella, the Queen of England, who threw herself into his arms.

    A year later, as lovers, they returned with an invading army: King Edward II's forces crumbled before them and Mortimer took power. He removed Edward II in the first deposition of a monarch in British history. Then the ex-king was apparently murdered, some said with a red-hot poker, in Berkeley Castle.

    Birth:
    History, map & images of Wigmore Castle ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wigmore_Castle

    Military:
    Military adventures in Ireland and Wales

    Roger Mortimer's childhood came to an abrupt end when his father was mortally wounded in a skirmish near Builth in July 1304. Since Roger was underage at the death of his father, he was placed by King Edward I under the guardianship of Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall. However, on 22 May 1306, in a lavish ceremony in Westminster Abbey with two hundred and fifty-nine others, he was knighted by Edward and granted livery of his full inheritance.[6]

    His adult life began in earnest in 1308, when he went to Ireland in person to enforce his authority. This brought him into conflict with the de Lacys, who turned for support to Edward Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce, King of Scots. Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland by Edward II on 23 November 1316. Shortly afterwards, at the head of a large army, he drove Bruce to Carrickfergus and the de Lacys into Connaught, wreaking vengeance on their adherents whenever they were to be found. He returned to England and Wales in 1318[7] and was then occupied for some years with baronial disputes on the Welsh border.

    Died:
    hanged as a traitor...

    Roger married Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville 20 Sep 1301. Joan (daughter of Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusigman, 2nd Baroness Geneville) was born 2 Feb 1286, Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England; died 19 Oct 1396, King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 71.  Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville was born 2 Feb 1286, Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England (daughter of Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusigman, 2nd Baroness Geneville); died 19 Oct 1396, King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Baroness Mortimer
    • Also Known As: Countess of March
    • Also Known As: Jeanne de Joinville

    Notes:

    Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville, Countess of March, Baroness Mortimer (2 February 1286 – 19 October 1356), also known as Jeanne de Joinville, was the daughter of Sir Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusignan. She inherited the estates of her grandparents, Geoffrey de Geneville, 1st Baron Geneville, and Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville. She was one of the wealthiest heiresses in the Welsh Marches and County Meath, Ireland. She was the wife of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, the de facto ruler of England from 1327 to 1330. She succeeded as suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville on 21 October 1314 upon the death of her grandfather, Geoffrey de Geneville.[1][2]

    As a result of her husband's insurrection against King Edward II of England, she was imprisoned in Skipton Castle for two years. Following the execution of her husband in 1330 for usurping power in England, Joan was once more taken into custody. In 1336, her lands were restored to her after she received a full pardon for her late husband's crimes from Edward II's son and successor, Edward III of England.

    Family and inheritance

    Ludlow Castle in Shropshire, the birthplace of Joan de Geneville
    Joan was born on 2 February 1286 at Ludlow Castle in Shropshire.[3] She was the eldest child of Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim Castle and Ludlow, whose father Sir Geoffrey de Geneville, 1st Baron Geneville, was Justiciar of Ireland. Her mother Jeanne of Lusignan was part of one of the most illustrious French families, daughter of Hugh XII of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and of Angoulãeme, and sister of Yolanda of Lusignan, the suo jure Countess of La Marche. Joan had two younger sisters, Matilda and Beatrice who both became nuns at Aconbury Priory.[4] She also had two half-sisters from her mother's first marriage to Bernard Ezi III, Lord of Albret: Mathe, Dame d'Albret (died 1283), and Isabelle, Dame d'Albret (died 1 December 1294), wife of Bernard VI, Count of Armagnac.

    When her father died in Ireland shortly before June 1292, Joan became one of the wealthiest and most eligible heiresses in the Welsh Marches, with estates that included the town and castle of Ludlow, the lordship of Ewyas Lacy, the manors of Wolferlow, Stanton Lacy, and Mansell Lacy in Shropshire and Herefordshire as well as a sizeable portion of County Meath in Ireland.[5][6] She was due to inherit these upon the death of her grandfather, but in 1308, Baron Geneville conveyed most of the Irish estates which had belonged to his late wife Maud de Lacy to Joan and her husband Roger Mortimer. They both went to Ireland where they took seisin of Meath on 28 October of that same year. The baron died on 21 October 1314 at the House of the Friars Preachers at Trim, and Joan subsequently succeeded him, becoming the suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville.[1][2]

    Marriage

    Joan married Roger Mortimer, eldest son of Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Wigmore, and Margaret de Fiennes on 20 September 1301 at the manor of Pembridge.[7] Marriage to Joan was highly beneficial to Mortimer as it brought him much influence and prestige in addition to the rich estates he gained through their matrimonial alliance.[8][9] Three years later in 1304 he succeeded as Baron Mortimer, making Joan Baroness Mortimer. He was knighted on Whitsunday 22 May 1306 by King Edward I. The knighting ceremony took place in Westminster Abbey and was known as the Feast of the Swan as all those present made their personal vows upon two swans.[10] Two hundred and fifty-nine other young men received knighthoods along with Mortimer including the Prince of Wales who would shortly afterwards succeed his father as Edward II. Following the ceremony was a magnificent banquet held at the Great Hall of Westminster.[11]

    Upon taking seizen of her Irish lands in 1308, Joan and Mortimer travelled back and forth between their estates in Ireland and those in the Welsh Marches. Given that Joan opted to accompany her husband to Ireland rather than remain at home, and that she produced 12 surviving children over a period of just 17 years led Roger Mortimer's biographer Ian Mortimer to suggest they enjoyed a closer and more affectionate relationship than was typical of noble couples in the 14th-century. He described their union as having been " a mutually beneficial secure medieval partnership".[12]

    Issue

    Together Joan and Mortimer had twelve surviving children:[12][13][14]


    Effigies of Joan's daughter, Katherine Mortimer and her husband Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick. St. Mary's Church, Warwick

    Margaret Mortimer (2 May 1304- 5 May 1337), married Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley, by whom she had issue.
    Sir Edmund Mortimer (died 16 December 1331), married Elizabeth de Badlesmere, daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, and Margaret de Clare, by whom he had two sons, Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, and John, who died young.
    Roger Mortimer, married Joan Le Botiller
    Geoffrey Mortimer, Lord of Towyth (died 1372/5 May 1376), married Jeanne de Lezay, by whom he had issue.
    John Mortimer. He was killed in a tournament at Shrewsbury sometime after 1328.
    Katherine Mortimer (1314- 4 August 1369), married Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, by whom she had fifteen children, including Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, and William de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny, who married Lady Joan FitzAlan.
    Joan Mortimer (died between 1337–1351), married James Audley, 2nd Baron Audley, by whom she had issue.
    Agnes Mortimer, married Laurence Hastings, 1st Earl of Pembroke, by whom she had issue
    Isabella Mortimer (died after 1327)
    Beatrice Mortimer (died 16 October 1383), married firstly Edward of Norfolk, and secondly, Thomas de Braose, 1st Baron Braose. She had issue by her second husband.
    Maud Mortimer (died after August 1345), married John de Charlton, Lord of Powys, by whom she had issue.
    Blanche Mortimer (c.1321- 1347), married Peter de Grandison, 2nd Baron Grandison, by whom she had issue.
    Mortimer's affair with Queen Isabella[edit]

    Joan's husband Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, is allegedly depicted in the foreground with Queen Isabella in this 14th-century manuscript illustration
    Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland on 23 November 1316 and left for Ireland with a large force in February 1317.[15] While there, he fought against the Scots Army led by Edward Bruce, the younger brother of Robert the Bruce (who hoped to make Edward king of Ireland), and Bruce's Norman-Irish allies, the de Lacy's. Joan accompanied her husband to Ireland. They returned to England in 1318 after Mortimer had driven the Scots north to Carrickfergus, and dispersed the de Lacys, who were Joan's relatives. For the next few years, Mortimer occupied himself with baronial disputes on the Welsh border; nevertheless, on account of the increasing influence of Hugh Despenser, the Elder, and Hugh Despenser the Younger over King Edward II, Roger Mortimer became strongly disaffected with his monarch, especially after the younger Despenser had been granted lands which rightfully belonged to Mortimer.[16]

    In October 1321 King Edward and his troops besieged Leeds Castle, after the governor's wife, Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere, refused Queen Isabella admittance and subsequently ordered her archers to fire upon Isabella and her escort after the latter attempted to gain entry to the castle. Elizabeth, the third Badlesmere daughter, was married to Joan and Mortimer's eldest son, Edmund. King Edward exploited his new popularity in the wake of his military victory at Leeds to recall to England the Despensers, whom the Lords Ordainers, led by Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, had forced him to banish in August 1321.[17] The Marcher lords, already in a state of insurrection for some time prior to the Despensers' banishment,[n 1] immediately rose up against the King in full force, with Mortimer leading the confederation alongside Ordainer Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.[18] The King quelled the rebellion, which is also known as the Despenser War; Mortimer and his uncle Roger Mortimer de Chirk both surrendered to him at Shrewsbury on 22 January 1322. Mortimer and his uncle were dispatched as prisoners to the Tower of London,[16] where they were kept in damp, unhealthy quarters. This was likely a factor in Roger Mortimer de Chirk's death in 1326. Joan's husband had fared better; by drugging the constable and the Tower guards, he managed to escape to France on 1 August 1323.[19] It was there that he later became the lover of Queen Isabella, who was estranged from the King as a result of the Despensers' absolute control over him. She had been sent to France on a peace mission by Edward but used the occasion to seek help from her brother, Charles IV to oust the Despensers.[20] The scandal of their love affair forced them to leave the French court for Flanders, where they obtained help for an invasion of England.[21]

    Joan's imprisonment

    Skipton Castle, Yorkshire, where Joan was imprisoned from 1324 to 1326

    While the couple were still in France, King Edward had retaliated against Mortimer by taking Joan and all of their children into custody, and "treating them with severity".[22] In April 1324 Joan was removed from Hampshire where she had been confined in a lodging under house arrest and sent to Skipton Castle in Yorkshire; there she was imprisoned in a cell and endured considerable suffering and hardship.[23] Most of her household had been dismissed and she was permitted a small number of attendants to serve her. She was granted just one mark per day for her necessities, and out of this sum she had to feed her servants.[24] She was additionally allowed ten marks per annum at Easter and Michaelmas for new clothes.[25] Her daughters suffered worse privations having been locked up inside various religious houses with even less money at their disposal.[24] Joan was transferred from Skipton to Pontefract Castle in July 1326.[26]

    Countess of March

    Mortimer and Isabella landed in England two months later in September 1326, and they joined forces with Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster. On 16 November, King Edward was taken prisoner and eventually murdered at Berkeley Castle, presumably by Mortimer's hired assassins.[27] From 1327 to 1330, Mortimer and Isabella jointly held the Office of Regent for her son, King Edward III who was duly crowned following his father's death. Mortimer was made constable of Wallingford Castle; in September 1328, Mortimer was created Earl of March. This made Joan henceforth, the Countess of March; although it is not known what she thought about her husband's illegal assumption of power and flagrant affair with the Queen. What has been established is that Joan was never an active participant in her husband's insurrection against King Edward.[28]

    Mortimer and Queen Isabella were the de facto rulers of England. Hostility against the power Mortimer wielded over the kingdom and the young King Edward III, increased; his former friend Henry of Lancaster encouraged the King to assert his authority to oust Mortimer. When Mortimer ordered the execution of Edmund, Earl of Kent, half-brother of the late King Edward, anger and outrage engulfed the country. The King deposed his mother and her lover; Roger Mortimer was seized, arrested, and on 29 November 1330, hanged at Tyburn, London.[29]

    Following her husband's execution, Joan – as the wife of a traitor – was imprisoned again, this time in Hampshire where years before she had been placed under house arrest; her children were also taken into custody. In 1331, she was given an allowance for household expenses; however, her lands were only restored to her in 1336 after King Edward III granted her a full pardon for her late husband's crimes. In 1347 she received back the Liberty of Trim.[30]

    Death

    Joan de Geneville, Baroness Geneville, the widowed Countess of March, died on 19 October 1356 at the age of seventy. She was buried in Wigmore Abbey beside her husband, whose body had been returned to her by Edward III as she had requested. Her tomb no longer exists as the abbey was destroyed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries and only the ruins remain to this day.

    Lady Geneville's numerous direct descendants include the current British Royal Family, Sir Winston Churchill, and the 1st American President George Washington.

    Birth:
    Click this link to view images, history & map of the massive Ludlow Castle in Shropshire ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludlow_Castle

    Children:
    1. Edmund Mortimer was born ~ 1304, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 16 Dec 1331, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.
    2. Margaret Mortimer, Baroness Berkeley was born 2 May 1304, (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England); died 5 May 1337; was buried St. Augustine's Abbey, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.
    3. Joan de Mortimer, 2nd Baroness Geneville was born 2 Feb 1286, Ludlow Castle, Ludlow, Shropshire, England; died 19 Oct 1356.
    4. 35. Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick was born 0___ 1314, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 4 Aug 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

  7. 72.  Edward II, King of EnglandEdward II, King of England was born 25 Apr 1284, Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales (son of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England); died 21 Sep 1327, Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward of Caernarfon

    Notes:

    Edward II who reigned as King of England from 1307-1327 was widely held as a weak and ineffective king, losing disastrously to the Scots at Bannockburn in 1314. His tendency to ignore his nobility, in favour of low-born favourites, led to constant political unrest and eventually to his deposition. His father, a notable military leader, made a point of training young Edward in warfare and statecraft starting in his childhood. Edward preferred less noble pursuits and although impressive physically, he was a bit of a wimp. Edward I attributed his son’s problems to Piers Gaveston, a Gascon Knight who some believe to have been the prince's lover.

    Edward II is today perhaps best remembered for a story about his alleged murder with a red-hot poker plunged anally into his entrails, which has been seen by some as evidence of his homosexuality. Although pictured in the film Braveheart as highly effeminate, this portrayal is inaccurate as Edward II's robust physical appearance was similar to his father's, right down to the drooping eyelid.

    The King was captured and condemned by Parliament in 1327 as 'incorrigible and without hope of amendment'. He was forced to abdicate in favour of his teenage son Edward III, and he died in Berkeley Castle later that year.

    Braveheart's ridiculous depiction of William Wallace being Edward III's father is impossible. Wallace was executed in 1305, seven years before Edward III was born.

    During Richard II's reign, the Peasants Revolt of 1381 was sparked off by the Poll Tax of one shilling a head on the whole population, regardless of the individual's means to pay it. A large part of society consisted of villeins, men and women tied to the land on which they were born and worked. The sum, small enough to the better-off, represented an unacceptable impost upon their slender resources, and when they refused to pay, or were unable to do so, they were pursued with the full rigour of the law. They retaliated by murdering the Royal Officials who attempted to collect the tax, and this invited further retribution from the Government.

    *

    Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir to the throne following the death of his older brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland, and in 1306 he was knighted in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Edward succeeded to the throne in 1307, following his father's death. In 1308, he married Isabella of France, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV, as part of a long-running effort to resolve the tensions between the English and French crowns.

    Edward had a close and controversial relationship with Piers Gaveston, who had joined his household in 1300. The precise nature of Edward and Gaveston's relationship is uncertain; they may have been friends, lovers or sworn brothers. Gaveston's arrogance and power as Edward's favourite provoked discontent both among the barons and the French royal family, and Edward was forced to exile him. On Gaveston's return, the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms called the Ordinances of 1311. The newly empowered barons banished Gaveston, to which Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite. Led by Edward's cousin, the Earl of Lancaster, a group of the barons seized and executed Gaveston in 1312, beginning several years of armed confrontation. English forces were pushed back in Scotland, where Edward was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Widespread famine followed, and criticism of the King's reign mounted.

    The Despenser family, in particular Hugh Despenser the Younger, became close friends and advisers to Edward, but in 1321 Lancaster and many of the barons seized the Despensers' lands and forced the King to exile them. In response, Edward led a short military campaign, capturing and executing Lancaster. Edward and the Despensers strengthened their grip on power, revoking the 1311 reforms, executing their enemies and confiscating estates. Unable to make progress in Scotland, Edward finally signed a truce with Robert. Opposition to the regime grew, and when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty in 1325, she turned against Edward and refused to return. Isabella allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and invaded England with a small army in 1326. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, where he was captured in November. Edward was forced to relinquish his crown in January 1327 in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III, and he died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September, probably murdered on the orders of the new regime.

    Edward's relationship with Gaveston inspired Christopher Marlowe's 1592 play Edward II, along with other plays, films, novels and media. Many of these have focused on the possible sexual relationship between the two men. Edward's contemporaries criticised his performance as a king, noting his failures in Scotland and the oppressive regime of his later years, although 19th-century academics later argued that the growth of parliamentary institutions during his reign was a positive development for England over the longer term. Debate has continued into the 21st century as to whether Edward was a lazy and incompetent king, or simply a reluctant and ultimately unsuccessful ruler.

    Birth:
    Iimages of Caenaron Castle ... http://bit.ly/1xgRUAj

    Died:
    One night in August 1323, a captive rebel baron, Sir Roger Mortimer, drugged his guards and escaped from the Tower of London. With the king's men-at-arms in pursuit he fled to the south coast and sailed to France. There he was joined by Isabella, the Queen of England, who threw herself into his arms. A year later, as lovers, they returned with an invading army: King Edward II's forces crumbled before them and Mortimer took power. He removed Edward II in the first deposition of a monarch in British history. Then the ex-king was apparently murdered, some said with a red-hot poker, in Berkeley Castle.

    Images of Berkeley Castle ... http://bit.ly/1yHywy3

    Edward married Isabella of France, Queen of England 0___ 1308. Isabella (daughter of Philip of France, IV, King of France and Joan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of Champagne) was born Abt 1279, Paris, France; died 22 Aug 1358, Castle Rising, Norfolk, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, London, Middlesex, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 73.  Isabella of France, Queen of EnglandIsabella of France, Queen of England was born Abt 1279, Paris, France (daughter of Philip of France, IV, King of France and Joan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of Champagne); died 22 Aug 1358, Castle Rising, Norfolk, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, London, Middlesex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isabella Capet

    Notes:

    Click here for Queen Isabella's biography ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_of_France

    Isabella of France (1295 – 22 August 1358), sometimes described as the She-wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife of Edward II. She was the youngest surviving child and only surviving daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. Queen Isabella was notable at the time for her beauty, diplomatic skills, and intelligence.

    Isabella arrived in England at the age of 12 [2] during a period of growing conflict between the king and the powerful baronial factions. Her new husband was notorious for the patronage he lavished on his favourite, Piers Gaveston, but the queen supported Edward during these early years, forming a working relationship with Piers and using her relationship with the French monarchy to bolster her own authority and power. After the death of Gaveston at the hands of the barons in 1312, however, Edward later turned to a new favourite, Hugh Despenser the younger, and attempted to take revenge on the barons, resulting in the Despenser War and a period of internal repression across England. Isabella could not tolerate Hugh Despenser and by 1325 her marriage to Edward was at a breaking point.

    Travelling to France under the guise of a diplomatic mission, Isabella began an affair with Roger Mortimer, and the two agreed to depose Edward and oust the Despenser family. The Queen returned to England with a small mercenary army in 1326, moving rapidly across England. The King's forces deserted him. Isabella deposed Edward, becoming regent on behalf of her son, Edward III. Many have believed that Isabella then arranged the murder of Edward II. Isabella and Mortimer’s regime began to crumble, partly because of her lavish spending, but also because the Queen successfully, but unpopularly, resolved long-running problems such as the wars with Scotland.

    In 1330, Isabella’s son Edward III deposed Mortimer in turn, taking back his authority and executing Isabella’s lover. The Queen was not punished, however, and lived for many years in considerable style—although not at Edward III’s court—until her death in 1358. Isabella became a popular "femme fatale" figure in plays and literature over the years, usually portrayed as a beautiful but cruel, manipulative figure.

    Film

    In Derek Jarman's film Edward II (1991), based on Marlowe's play, Isabella is portrayed (by actress Tilda Swinton) as a "femme fatale" whose thwarted love for Edward causes her to turn against him and steal his throne. In contrast to the negative depictions, Mel Gibson's film Braveheart (1995) portrays Isabella (played by the French actress Sophie Marceau) more sympathetically. In the film, an adult Isabella is fictionally depicted as having a romantic affair with the Scottish hero William Wallace. However, in reality, she was 9-years-old at the time of Wallace's death.[153] Additionally, Wallace is incorrectly suggested to be the father of her son, Edward III, despite Wallace's death many years before Edward's birth.[154]

    *

    Buried:
    Christ Church Greyfriars, also known as Christ Church Newgate Street,[1] was a church in Newgate Street, opposite St Paul's Cathedral in the City of London. Established as a monastic church in the thirteenth century, it became a parish church after the dissolution of the monastery.

    Following its destruction in the Great Fire of London of 1666, it was rebuilt to the designs of Sir Christopher Wren. Except for the tower, the church was largely destroyed by bombing during the Second World War. The ruins are now a public garden.

    Died:
    Castle Rising is a ruined medieval fortification in the village of Castle Rising, Norfolk, England. It was built soon after 1138 by William d'Aubigny II, who had risen through the ranks of the Anglo-Norman nobility to become the Earl of Arundel.

    Map, image, history & source for Castle Rising ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castle_Rising_(castle)

    Children:
    1. 36. Edward III, King of England was born 13 Nov 1312, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was christened 20 Nov 1312; died 21 Jun 1377, Richmond Palace, London, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. Joan of the Tower, Queen of Scotland was born 5 Jul 1321, Tower Hill, London, Middlesex, England; died 7 Sep 1362, Hertford, Hertfordshire, England; was buried Grey Friars Church, London, Middlesex, England.

  9. 76.  William de Bohun, Knight, 1st Earl of Northampton was born 0___ 1312, Caldecot, Rutland, Northampton, England (son of Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England); died 16 Sep 1360, (England).

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Diplomat
    • Military: 30 Sep 1342; Battle of Morlaix, France

    Notes:

    William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton, KG (c. 1312 – 16 September 1360) was an English nobleman and military commander.

    Lineage

    He was the fifth son of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth of Rhuddlan. He had a twin brother, Edward. His maternal grandparents were Edward I of England and his first Queen consort Eleanor of Castile.

    Life

    William de Bohun assisted at the arrest of Roger Mortimer in 1330, allowing Edward III to take power. After this, he was a trusted friend and commander of the king and he participated in the renewed wars with Scotland.[1]

    In 1332, he received many new properties: Hinton and Spaine in Berkshire; Great Haseley, Ascott, Deddington, Pyrton and Kirtlington in Oxfordshire; Wincomb in Buckinghamshire; Longbenington in Lincolnshire; Kneesol in Nottinghamshire; Newnsham in Gloucestershire, Wix in Essex, and Bosham in Sussex.

    In 1335, he married Elizabeth de Badlesmere (1313 - 8 June 1356). Her parents Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, and Margaret de Clare had both turned against Edward II the decade before. Elizabeth and William were granted some of the property of Elizabeth's first husband, who had also been Mortimer's son and heir.

    William was created Earl of Northampton in 1337, one of the six earls created by Edward III to renew the ranks of the higher nobility. Since de Bohun was a younger son, and did not have an income suitable to his rank, he was given an annuity until suitable estates could be found.

    In 1349 he became a Knight of the Garter. He served as High Sheriff of Rutland from 1349 until his death in 1360.[2]

    Campaigns in Flanders, Brittany, Scotland, Victor at Sluys & Crecy

    In 1339 he accompanied the King to Flanders. He served variously in Brittany and in Scotland, and was present at the great English victories at Sluys and was a commander at Crâecy.

    His most stunning feat was commanding an English force to victory against a much bigger French force at the Battle of Morlaix in 1342. Some of the details are in dispute, but it is clear that he made good use of pit traps, which stopped the French cavalry.

    Renowned Diplomat

    In addition to being a warrior, William was also a renowned diplomat. He negotiated two treaties with France, one in 1343 and one in 1350. He was also charged with negotiating in Scotland for the freedom of King David Bruce, King of Scots, who was held prisoner by the English.

    Issue

    1. Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford (1341-1373)

    Mary de Bohun (1368-1394); mother of Henry V of England
    2. Elizabeth de Bohun (c. 1350-1385); married Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel

    In Historical Fiction

    In Bernard Cornwell's series the Grail Quest, the Earl of Northampton plays a minor role as Thomas of Hookton's lord.

    Notes

    Jump up ^ Mortimer, Ian (2008). The Perfect King The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation. Vintage. p. 138.
    Jump up ^ The history of the worthies of England, Volume 3 By Thomas Fuller. Retrieved 2011-07-13.

    *

    William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton, KG (c. 1312 – 16 September 1360) was an English nobleman and military commander.


    Lineage

    He was the fifth son of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth of Rhuddlan. He had a twin brother, Edward. His maternal grandparents were Edward I of England and his first Queen consort Eleanor of Castile.

    Life

    William de Bohun assisted at the arrest of Roger Mortimer in 1330, allowing Edward III to take power. After this, he was a trusted friend and commander of the king and he participated in the renewed wars with Scotland.[1]

    In 1332, he received many new properties: Hinton and Spaine in Berkshire; Great Haseley, Ascott, Deddington, Pyrton and Kirtlington in Oxfordshire; Wincomb in Buckinghamshire; Longbenington in Lincolnshire; Kneesol in Nottinghamshire; Newnsham in Gloucestershire, Wix in Essex, and Bosham in Sussex.

    In 1335, he married Elizabeth de Badlesmere (1313 – 8 June 1356). Her parents Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, and Margaret de Clare had both turned against Edward II the decade before. Elizabeth and William were granted some of the property of Elizabeth's first husband, who had also been Mortimer's son and heir.

    William was created Earl of Northampton in 1337, one of the six earls created by Edward III to renew the ranks of the higher nobility. Since de Bohun was a younger son, and did not have an income suitable to his rank, he was given an annuity until suitable estates could be found.

    In 1349 he became a Knight of the Garter. He served as High Sheriff of Rutland from 1349 until his death in 1360.[2]

    Campaigns in Flanders, Brittany, Scotland, Victor at Sluys & Crecy[edit]
    In 1339 he accompanied the King to Flanders. He served variously in Brittany and in Scotland, and was present at the great English victories at Sluys and was a commander at Crâecy.

    His most stunning feat was commanding an English force to victory against a much bigger French force at the Battle of Morlaix in 1342. Some of the details are in dispute, but it is clear that he made good use of pit traps, which stopped the French cavalry.

    Renowned Diplomat

    In addition to being a warrior, William was also a renowned diplomat. He negotiated two treaties with France, one in 1343 and one in 1350. He was also charged with negotiating in Scotland for the freedom of King David Bruce, King of Scots, who was held prisoner by the English.

    Issue

    1. Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford (1341-1373)

    Mary de Bohun (1368-1394); mother of Henry V of England
    2. Elizabeth de Bohun (c. 1350-1385); married Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel

    Military:
    The Battle of Morlaix was a battle fought in Morlaix on 30 September 1342 between England and France. The English besieged the town, but a French relief force arrived. The English constructed a strong defensive position. After repeated attacks, the French forced the English to retreat into the woods. The French force then withdrew. Notably it was the first use of a tactical withdrawal by the English in medieval warfare.

    Outcome of the battle

    Whatever the details of the fighting, the final result was that 50 French knights were killed and 150 French captured including Geoffrey de Charny and a number of ‘populari’ which seems to indicate that at least some of the infantry were involved in the melee. The English force now made apprehensive by the remaining French forces withdrew into the wood at their back where they were safe from a full blooded cavalry charge. What was left of de Blois’ force then evidently relieved Morlaix and the besieging English, now trapped in the wood, themselves became the object of a siege for several days.

    William married Elizabeth Badlesmere, Countess of Northampton 0___ 1335, Badlesmere Castle, Badlesmere, Kent, England. Elizabeth (daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, Knight, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere) was born 0___ 1313, Badlesmere Manor, Kent, England; died 8 Jun 1356, (Lancashire) England; was buried Black Friars, Blackburn, Lancashire, England. [Group Sheet]


  10. 77.  Elizabeth Badlesmere, Countess of Northampton was born 0___ 1313, Badlesmere Manor, Kent, England (daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, Knight, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere); died 8 Jun 1356, (Lancashire) England; was buried Black Friars, Blackburn, Lancashire, England.

    Notes:

    Elizabeth de Badlesmere, Countess of Northampton (1313 – 8 June 1356) was the wife of two English noblemen, Sir Edmund Mortimer and William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton. She was a co-heiress of her brother Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere.

    At the age of eight she was sent to the Tower of London along with her mother, Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere and her four siblings after the former maltreated Queen consort Isabella by ordering an assault upon her and refusing her admittance to Leeds Castle.

    Family

    Elizabeth was born at Castle Badlesmere, Kent, England in 1313 to Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare. She was the third of four daughters. She had one younger brother, Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere, who married Elizabeth Montagu, but did not have any children.

    Her paternal grandparents were Guncelin de Badlesmere and Joan FitzBernard, and her maternal grandparents were Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond and Juliana FitzGerald of Offaly.

    Elizabeth's father was hanged, drawn and quartered on 14 April 1322 for having participated in the Earl of Lancaster's rebellion against King Edward II of England; and her mother imprisoned in the Tower of London until 3 November 1322. She had been arrested the previous October for ordering an assault upon Queen consort Isabella after refusing her admittance to Leeds Castle, where Baron Badlesmere held the post of Governor.[1] Elizabeth and her siblings were also sent to the Tower along with their mother.[2] She was eight years old at the time and had been married for five years to her first husband; although the marriage had not yet been consummated due to her young age.

    In 1328, Elizabeth's brother Giles obtained a reversal of his father's attainder, and he succeeded to the barony as the 2nd Baron Badlesmere. Elizabeth, along with her three sisters, was a co-heiress of Giles, who had no children by his wife. Upon his death in 1338, the barony fell into abeyance. The Badlesmere estates were divided among the four sisters, and Elizabeth's share included the manors of Drayton in Sussex, Kingston and Erith in Kent, a portion of Finmere in Oxfordshire as well as property in London.[3]

    Marriages and issue

    On 27 June 1316, when she was just three years old, Elizabeth married her first husband Sir Edmund Mortimer (died 16 December 1331)[4] eldest son and heir of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville. The marriage contract was made on 9 May 1316, and the particulars of the arrangement between her father and prospective father-in-law are described in Welsh historian R. R. Davies' Lords and Lordship in the British Isles in the late Middle Ages. Lord Badlesmere paid Roger Mortimer the sum of ¹2000, and in return Mortimer endowed Elizabeth with five rich manors for life and the reversion of other lands.[5] The marriage, which was not consummated until many years afterward, produced two sons:

    Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March (11 November 1328 Ludlow Castle- 26 February 1360), married Philippa Montacute, daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, by whom he had issue, including Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March).
    John Mortimer (died young)
    By the order of King Edward III, Elizabeth's father-in-law, the Earl of Mortimer was hanged in November 1330 for having assumed royal power, along with other crimes. His estates were forfeited to the Crown, therefore Elizabeth's husband did not succeed to the earldom and died a year later. Elizabeth's dower included the estates of Maelienydd and Comot Deuddwr in the Welsh Marches.[6]

    In 1335, just over three years after the death of Edmund Mortimer, Elizabeth married secondly William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (1312–1360), fifth son of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth of Rhuddlan. He was a renowned military commander and diplomat. Their marriage was arranged to end the mutual hostility which had existed between the Bohun and Mortimer families.[7] A papal dispensation was required for their marriage as de Bohun and her first husband, Sir Edmund Mortimer were related in the third and fourth degrees of consanguinity by dint of their common descent from Enguerrand de Fiennes, Seigneur de Fiennes. Elizabeth and de Bohun received some Mortimer estates upon their marriage.[8]

    By her second marriage, Elizabeth had two more children:[9]

    Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford 6th Earl of Essex, 2nd Earl of Northampton (24 March 1342 - 16 January 1373), after 9 September 1359, married Joan Fitzalan, by whom he had two daughters, Eleanor de Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester, and Mary de Bohun, wife of Henry of Bolingbroke (who later reigned as King Henry IV).
    Elizabeth de Bohun (c.1350- 3 April 1385), on 28 September 1359, married Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel, by whom she had seven children including Thomas Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel, Elizabeth FitzAlan, and Joan FitzAlan, Baroness Bergavenny.
    In 1348, the earldom of March was restored to her eldest son Roger who succeeded as the 2nd Earl.

    Death

    Elizabeth de Badlesmere died on 8 June 1356, aged about forty-three years old. She was buried in Black Friars Priory, London. She left a will dated 31 May 1356, requesting burial at the priory. Mention of Elizabeth's burial is found in the records (written in Latin) of Walden Abbey which confirm that she was buried in Black Friars:

    Anno Domini MCCCIxx.obiit Willielmus de Boun, Comes Northamptoniae, cujus corpus sepelitur in paret boreali presbyterii nostri. Et Elizabetha uxor ejus sepelitur Lundoniae in ecclesia fratrum praedictorum ante major altare.[10]

    Children:
    1. 38. Humphrey de Bohun, Knight was born 25 Mar 1341, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; died 16 Jan 1373; was buried Walden Abbey, Essex, England.
    2. Elizabeth de Bohun, Countess of Arundel, Countess of Surrey was born ~ 1350, Derbyshire, England; died 3 Apr 1385, Arundel, West Sussex, England.

  11. 54.  Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of ArundelRichard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel was born 1306-1313, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (son of Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel); died 24 Jan 1376, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Governor of Caernarfon Castle
    • Occupation: High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire
    • Occupation: Justiciar of North Wales
    • Also Known As: 8th Earl of Surrey
    • Military: Commander of the English Army in the North
    • Will: 5 Dec 1375

    Notes:

    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and 8th Earl of Surrey (c. 1306/1313 – 24 January 1376) was an English nobleman and medieval military leader.

    Family and early life

    Richard's birth date was uncertain perhaps 1313 or maybe 1306 in Sussex, England. FitzAlan was the eldest son of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel (8th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots), and his wife Alice de Warenne.[1] His maternal grandparents were William de Warenne and Joan de Vere. William was the only son of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (himself son of Maud Marshal by her second marriage), and his wife Alice de Lusignan (d. 1356), half-sister of Henry III of England.

    Alliance with the Despensers

    Around 1321, FitzAlan's father allied with King Edward II's favorites, Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester and his namesake son, and Richard was married to Isabel le Despenser, daughter of Hugh the Younger. Fortune turned against the Despenser party, and on 17 November 1326, FitzAlan's father was executed, and he did not succeed to his father's estates or titles.

    Gradual restoration

    However, political conditions had changed by 1330, and over the next few years Richard was gradually able to reacquire the Earldom of Arundel as well as the great estates his father had held in Sussex and in the Welsh Marches.

    Beyond this, in 1334 he was made Justiciar of North Wales (later his term in this office was made for life), High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire for life and Governor of Caernarfon Castle. He was one of the most trusted supporters of Edward the Black Prince in Wales.

    Military service in Scotland

    Despite his high offices in Wales, in the following decades Arundel spent much of his time fighting in Scotland (during the Second Wars of Scottish Independence) and France (during the Hundred Years' War). In 1337, Arundel was made Joint Commander of the English army in the north, and the next year he was made the sole Commander.

    Notable victories

    In 1340 he fought at the Battle of Sluys, and then at the siege of Tournai. After a short term as Warden of the Scottish Marches, he returned to the continent, where he fought in a number of campaigns, and was appointed Joint Lieutenant of Aquitaine in 1340.

    Arundel was one of the three principal English commanders at the Battle of Crâecy. He spent much of the following years on various military campaigns and diplomatic missions.

    In a campaign of 1375, at the end of his life, he destroyed the harbour of Roscoff.

    Great wealth

    In 1347, he succeeded to the Earldom of Surrey (or Warenne), which even further increased his great wealth. (He did not however use the additional title until after the death of the Dowager Countess of Surrey in 1361.) He made very large loans to King Edward III but even so on his death left behind a great sum in hard cash.

    Marriages and children

    This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2012)
    He married firstly February 9, 1321 at Havering-atte-Bower, Isabel le Despenser (born 1312). At that time, the future earl was eight (or fifteen) and his bride nine. He later repudiated this bride, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI in December 1344 on the grounds that he had been underaged and unwilling. He had a son Edmund (b. 1327) when he was fourteen (or twenty-one) and his wife fifteen; this son was bastardized by the annulment.

    His second wife, whom he married on 5 April 1345, was a young widow Eleanor of Lancaster, the second youngest daughter and sixth child of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth; by Papal dispensation he was allowed to marry his first wife's first cousin by their common grandmother Isabella de Beauchamp. Eleanor was the widow of John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont. The king, Edward III, himself a kinsman of both wives, attended this second marriage. By now, the Earl of Arundel had rebuilt the family wealth and was apparently a major financier of the Crown, and financial sweeteners may have been used to reconcile both the Church and the Crown.[2] By his first marriage to Isabel le Despenser (living 1356, and may have died circa 1376-7), which marriage he had annulled December 1344 [1], he had one son:

    Sir Edmund de Arundel, knt (b ca 1327; d 1376-1382), bastardized by the annulment. Edmund was nevertheless knighted, married at the age of twenty, in the summer of 1347 [2] Sybil de Montacute, a younger daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, whose elder sister Elizabeth was married to his maternal uncle (the uncle may have arranged this marriage). Edmund protested his bastardization bitterly in 1347, but was apparently ignored. After his father's death in 1376, Edmund disputed his half-brother Richard's inheritance of the earldom and associated lands and titles in 1376 and apparently tried to claim the six manors allotted to his deceased mother. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1377, and finally freed through the intervention of two of his brothers-in-law (his wife's brother John de Montacute and the second husband of Elizabeth de Montacute, Lady Le Despencer).[3] They had three daughters who were his co-heiresses and who brought a failed suit in 1382 against their half-uncle the Earl:

    Elizabeth de Arundel, who married Sir Leonard Carew and has descendants

    Philippa de Arundel (died 18 May 1452), married (as his 2nd wife) Sir Richard Sergeaux, Knt, of Colquite, Cornwall.[4] A Victorian historical novel ascribes the following five children to her: a) Richard, born December 21, 1376, and died issueless, June 24, 1396; b) Elizabeth, born 1379, wife of Sir William Marny; c) Philippa, born 1381, wife of Robert Passele; d) Alice, born at Kilquyt, September 1, 1384, wife of Guy de Saint Albino [this ; e) Joan, born 1393, died February 21, 1400. "Philippa became a widow, September 30, 1393, and died September 13, 1399." (I.P.M., 17 Ric. II., 53; 21 Ric. II., 50; 1 H. IV., 14, 23, 24.)[5]

    Alice Sergeaux later Countess of Oxford (c. 1386 - 18 May 1452), married 1stly Guy de St Aubyn of St. Erme, Cornwall, and 2ndly about 1406-7 as his 2nd wife, the 11th Earl of Oxford and widower of Alice de Holand (dsp. 1406, niece of Henry IV, and mother of two sons by him
    John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
    Robert de Vere, whose grandson, John, became the 15th Earl of Oxford.[7]

    Mary (died 29 Aug 1396), married John le Strange, 4th Lord Blackmere (from Genealogy of Fitzalans).
    By the second marriage 5 February 1345, by Papal dispensation,[6] to Eleanor of Lancaster, he had 3 sons and 3 surviving daughters:

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who succeeded him as 11th Earl of Arundel as his "eldest legitimate" son.
    John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel, 1st Baron Maltravers, who was a Marshall of England, and drowned in 1379.
    Thomas Arundel, who became Archbishop of Canterbury
    Lady Joan FitzAlan (1348 - 7 April 1419) who married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. They were the maternal grandparents of Henry V of England through their daughter Mary de Bohun.
    Lady Alice FitzAlan (1350 - 17 March 1416), who married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, uterine brother of King Richard II. They were ancestors to Queen consorts Anne Neville (wife of King Richard III), Elizabeth of York (wife of King Henry VII), and Catherine Parr (wife of King Henry VIII).
    Lady Eleanor Fitzalan (1356 - before 1366).

    The current Dukes of Norfolk descend from Lady Mary, Duchess of Norfolk, a daughter and co-heiress of Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel; the 19th Earl descended from John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel.

    Death and legacy

    Richard died on 24 January 1376 in Sussex, England. (Another source says he wrote his will on 5 December 1375, and died on 14 January 1376 at Arundel Castle).[3]. In his will, he mentioned his three surviving sons by his second wife, his two surviving daughters Joan, Dowager Countess of Hereford and Alice, Countess of Kent, his grandchildren by his second son John, etc., but left out his bastardized eldest son Edmund.

    The memorial effigies attributed to Richard FitzAlan and his second wife Eleanor of Lancaster in Chichester Cathedral are the subject of the poem "An Arundel Tomb" by Philip Larkin.

    FitzAlan died an incredibly wealthy man, despite his various loans to Edward III

    Birth:
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery on Christmas Day 1067. Roger became the first to hold the earldom of Arundel by the graces of William the Conqueror. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War and then restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    From the 11th century, the castle has served as a home and has been in the ownership of the family of the Duke of Norfolk for over 400 years. It is the principal seat of the Norfolk family. It is a Grade I listed building.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Occupation:
    The Justiciar of North Wales was responsible for the royal administration in these counties as well as the administration of justice. English law was applied to criminal law, but in other matters Welsh law was allowed to continue.

    List of Justiciars

    Otton de Grandson, 1284–1294
    Robert Tibetot, 1295–1301
    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, 1334–1352
    Arundel sold the office to Edward the Black Prince in 1352
    John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp 1385–1388
    Henry Percy (Hotspur) 1399?–1403?

    Occupation:
    Caernarfon Castle (Welsh: Castell Caernarfon) is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, north-west Wales. Click here to view its history, map & picture ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caernarfon_Castle

    Buried:
    Lewes Priory is a ruined medieval Cluniac priory in Southover, East Sussex in the United Kingdom. The ruins have been designated a Grade I listed building.

    The Priory of St Pancras was the first Cluniac house in England and had one of the largest monastic churches in the country. It was set within an extensive walled and gated precinct laid out in a commanding location fronting the tidal shore-line at the head of the Ouse valley to the south of Lewes in the County of Sussex. The Priory had daughter houses, including Castle Acre Priory in Norfolk, and was endowed with churches and extensive holdings throughout England. In Lewes it had hospitiums dedicated to St James and to St Nicholas.

    In 1264, during the Battle of Lewes, King Henry III installed his forces in the Priory precinct which came under attack from those of Simon de Montfort after his victory over Henry in battle. Henry was forced, in the Mise of Lewes, to accept the Council that was the start of Parliamentary government in England.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewes_Priory

    Richard married Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel 5 Feb 1344, Ditton Church, Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, England. Eleanor (daughter of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester and Maud Chaworth) was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales; died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 55.  Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales (daughter of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester and Maud Chaworth); died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Eleanor of Lancaster

    Notes:

    On 5 February 1344 at Ditton Church, Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, she married Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel.[4]

    His previous marriage, to Isabel le Despenser, had taken place when they were children. It was annulled by Papal mandate as she, since her father's attainder and execution, had ceased to be of any importance to him. Pope Clement VI obligingly annulled the marriage, bastardized the issue, and provided a dispensation for his second marriage to the woman with whom he had been living in adultery (the dispensation, dated 4 March 1344/1345, was required because his first and second wives were first cousins).

    The children of Eleanor's second marriage were:

    Richard (1346–1397), who succeeded as Earl of Arundel
    John Fitzalan (bef 1349 - 1379)
    Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury (c. 1353 - 19 February 1413)
    Lady Joan FitzAlan (1347/1348 - 7 April 1419), married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford
    Lady Alice FitzAlan (1350 - 17 March 1416), married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (Thomas Holand)
    Lady Mary FitzAlan (died 29 August 1396), married John Le Strange, 4th Lord Strange of Blackmere, by whom she had issue
    Lady Eleanor FitzAlan (1356 - before 1366)

    Notes:

    Married:
    Richard married Isabel's first cousin Eleanor of Lancaster, with whom he had apparently been having an affair.

    Children:
    1. Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 11th Earl of Arundel was born 25 Mar 1346, Arundel, Sussex, England; died 21 Sep 1397, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Augustin Friars, Bread Street, London, England.
    2. John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel was born ~ 1348, Etchingham, Sussex, England; died 16 Dec 1379; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.
    3. Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent was born 1350-1352, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 17 Mar 1415, (Arundel, West Sussex, England).
    4. 39. Joan FitzAlan was born 0___ 1347, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 7 Apr 1419, Saffron Walden, Essex, England; was buried Walden Abbey, Essex, England.

  13. 80.  Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville of RabyRalph Neville, 1st Baron Neville of Raby was born 18 Oct 1262, Raby, Durham, England (son of Robert Neville and Mary FitzRanulph, Heiress of Middleham); died 18 Apr 1331, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 3rd Baron Neville of Raby
    • Also Known As: Sir Ranulf de Neville

    Notes:

    Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby (18 October 1262 / 1270 – 18 April 1331) was a Norman nobleman and member of the powerful Neville family, son of Robert de Neville and Mary fitz Ranulf.[a]

    Neville married first Euphemia de Clavering daughter of Robert de Clavering (5th Baron of Warkworth & Clavering) and Margaret La Zouche, sister of Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby. Ralph and Euphemia had fourteen children.[1] His second marriage was to Margery de Thwenge, daughter of John De Thwenge and Joan De Mauley[1]

    Children

    Ralph had the following children with Euphemia de Clavering:

    Joan de Neville (c.1283) m. John of Willington (1281–1388) son of Ralph de Willington and Juliana Lomene.
    Anastasia de Neville (c.1285), married Sir Walter de Fauconberg (1264 - 24 June 1314 Battle of Bannockburn).
    Sir Robert de Neville of Middleham (c. 1287 – June 1319)
    Ida de Neville (c.1289)
    Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby (c. 1291 – 5 August 1367), married Alice de Audley and had children
    Eupheme de Neville (c. 1291)
    Alice de Neville (c. 1293)
    Sir Alexander de Neville (c. 1297 - 15 March 1367)
    John Neville (1299 - 19 July 1333 Battle of Halidon Hill)
    Mary de Neville (c. 1301)
    William de Neville (c. 1303)
    Margaret de Neville (c. 1305)
    Thomas de Neville (c. 1306 - before June 1349)
    Avelina de Neville (c. 1307), married Norville Norton and had children

    Notes
    Jump up ^ The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography uses a different numbering system and numbers him the 3rd Baron Neville and his father the 2nd etc. (Tuck 2008).
    ^ Jump up to: a b Neville family.

    References
    "Neville family". tudorplace.com. Retrieved October 2010.[unreliable source?][better source needed]
    Tuck, Anthony (January 2008) [2004]. "Neville, Ralph, fourth Lord Neville (c.1291–1367)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19950. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) The first edition of this text is available as an article on Wikisource: Lee, Sidney, ed. (1894). "Neville, Ralph de (DNB00)". Dictionary of National Biography 40. London: Smith, Elder & Co.

    Ralph married Euphemia Clavering, Baroness of Raby ~ 1286, Raby, Durham, England. Euphemia (daughter of Robert FitzRoger Clavering, 5th Baron Warkworth, 1st Baron Clavering and Margery Mary de la Zouche) was born 0___ 1267, Clavering, Essex, England; died 0___ 1320, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England). [Group Sheet]


  14. 81.  Euphemia Clavering, Baroness of Raby was born 0___ 1267, Clavering, Essex, England (daughter of Robert FitzRoger Clavering, 5th Baron Warkworth, 1st Baron Clavering and Margery Mary de la Zouche); died 0___ 1320, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Euphemia de Clavering
    • Alt Death: 0___ 1329

    Notes:

    Born: Abt 1267, Clavering, Essex, England
    Marriage: Sir Ranulf DE NEVILLE, 1st Baron Neville De Raby [1414] about 1286 in Raby, Durham, England 1
    Died: 1320, , , England about age 53
    Sources, Comments and Notes
    Source :
    "Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby (18 October 1262 / 1270 - 18 April 1331) was an English aristocrat and member of the powerful Neville family, son of Roger de Neville and Mary Tailboys. He married first Euphemia de Clavering daughter of Robert de Clavering (5th Baron of Warkworth & Clavering) and Margaret La Zouche, with whom he had fourteen children. His second marriage was to Margery de Thwenge daughter of John De Thwenge and Joan De Mauley.

    Ralph had the following children with Euphemia de Clavering:
    Joan de Neville (c.1283)
    Anastasia de Neville (c.1285), married Sir Walter de Fauconberg
    Sir Robert de Neville of Middleham (c.1287 - June 1319)
    Ida de Neville (c.1289)
    Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby (c.1291 - 5 August 1367), married Alice de Audley and had issue
    Eupheme de Neville (c.1291)
    Alice de Neville (c.1293)
    Sir Alexander de Neville (c.1297 - 15 March 1366/7)
    John Neville (1299 - 19 July 1333)
    Mary de Neville (c.1301)
    William de Neville (c.1303)
    Margaret de Neville (c.1305)
    Thomas de Neville (c.1306 - bef June 1349)
    Avelina de Neville (c.1307), married Norville Norton and had issue"
    ___________________________
    Source Par Charles H. Browning:
    "..., the son of Sir John, third Baron de Nevill, of Raby, K.G., constituted admiral of the king's fleet, d. October 17, 1385, the son of Ralph de Nevill, second Baron, d. 1367, son of Ralph, Baron de Nevill, of Raby, and his first wife, Lady Euphemia, sister of John de Clavering, and daughter of Robert Fitz-Roger, son of Roger Fitz-John, the son of Robert Fitz-Robert, one of the Sureties for the Magna Charta."
    __________________________
    Source :
    "Ranulf (Randolph) de Neville, 1st Lord of Raby (1262 - 1331)
    ...
    He married, firstly, Eupheme FitzRobert, daughter of Robert FitzRoger, 1st Lord FitzRoger and Margaret de la Zouche. He married, secondly, Margery de Thweng, daughter of John de Thweng, before 1331.1 He died circa 1337 at Raby Castle, Durham, County Durham, England.
    ..."
    __________________________
    Source Par Charles Robert Young:
    "THE NEVILLE FAMILY (extract):
    ...
    8. Ranulph de Neville, Lord of Raby d.1331 = Eupheme
    9. Ralph de Neville, Lord of Raby d.1367 = Alice
    ..."
    Euphemia married Sir Ranulf DE NEVILLE, 1st Baron Neville De Raby [1414], son of Robert DE NEVILLE, Jr, Baron De Raby [1418] and Mary FITZ RALPH [1543], about 1286 in Raby, Durham, England.1 (Sir Ranulf DE NEVILLE, 1st Baron Neville De Raby [1414] was born on 18 Oct 1262 in Raby, Durham, England 1 2 and died on 18 Apr 1331 in Raby Castle, Durham, England.)

    Children:
    1. Joan de Neville was born ~ 1283, (Raby, Durham, England).
    2. Anastasia de Neville was born ~ 1285, (Raby, Durham, England).
    3. Robert de Neville, of Middleham was born 0___ 1287, (Raby, Durham, England); died 0Jun 1319.
    4. 40. Ralph Neville, 4th Baron Neville de Raby was born 0___ 1291, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 5 Aug 1367, Durhamshire, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.
    5. Alexander de Neville was born ~ 1297, (Raby, Durham, England); died 15 Mar 1367.
    6. John Neville was born 0___ 1299, (Raby, Durham, England); died 19 Jul 1333.
    7. Thomas de Neville was born ~ 1306, (Raby, Durham, England); died Bef June 1349.

  15. 82.  Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of StrattonHugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton was born 0___ 1267, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England (son of James de Audley, Knight and Ela Longespee); died Bef 1326; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Member of Parliament
    • Residence: London, Middlesex, England
    • Also Known As: Sir Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester

    Notes:

    Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton, was the son of James de Aldithley and Ela Longespâee, the daughter of William II Longespâee and Idoina de Camville.

    He married Isolde de Mortimer about 1290.

    They were the parents of at least three children

    Sir Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester, who married Margaret de Clare, the daughter of Gilbert de Clare and Joan of Acre.
    Alice de Audley, who married Ralph de Neville, 2nd Baron Neville of Raby, the son of Ralph de Neville and Euphemia de Clavering
    James de Audley.

    Hugh de Alditheley or Audley, brother of Nicholas, Lord Audley of Heleigh, was summoned to parliament as "Hugh de Audley, Seniori" on 15 May, 1321, 14th Edward II. His lordship had been engaged during the reign of Edward I in the king's service and was called "Senior" to distinguish him from his son. Being concerned in the insurrection of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, 15th Edward II [1322], the baron was committed a close prisoner to Wallingford Castle but making his peace with the king he obtained his release and suffered nothing further. He sat in the parliament on the 11th [1318] and 14th [1321] of Edward II.

    Buried:
    Plot: Inside Church

    Died:
    As a prisoner in Wallingford Castle, Berkshire, England...

    Hugh married Isolde (Isabella) de Mortimer ~ 1290. Isolde was born 0___ 1270, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 0___ 1338, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  16. 83.  Isolde (Isabella) de MortimerIsolde (Isabella) de Mortimer was born 0___ 1270, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 0___ 1338, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isoldt de Mortimer
    • Also Known As: Lady of the Manor of Eastingdon, Gloucestershire, Thornbury, and Herefordshire

    Notes:

    Isolde married Walter de Balun, (it is said that he died after an accident at a tournament on his wedding day while at Southampton waiting to go to the Holy Land with Henry lll). No children from this marriage.

    Isolde also married Hugh I de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton, about 1290.

    They had at least three children

    Hugh II de Audley, 1st and last Earl of Gloucester, who married Margaret de Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare and Joan of Acre
    Alice de Audley, who married Ralph de Neville, 2nd Baron Neville of Raby, the son of Ralph de Neville and Euphemia de Clavering
    Sir James de Audley

    Isolde's parentage is in conflict at this time. Some genealogies have her as the daughter of Hugh de Mortimer and Agatha de Ferriáeres or Edmund de Mortimer and Margaret de Fiennes. I have also seen her as the daughter of Hugh de Mortimer and unknown mistress.

    Buried:
    Note: According to Effigies and Brasses her effigy is in the Church...

    Children:
    1. Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley was born ~ 1289, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; died 10 Nov 1347, Kent, England; was buried Tonbridge Priory, Kent, England.
    2. 41. Alice de Audley was born 1302-1304, Hadley, Lambourne, Berkshire, England; died 12 Jan 1374, Greystoke Manor, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

  17. 84.  Henry de Percy, Knight, 1st Baron Percy was born 25 Mar 1273, Petworth, Sussex, England (son of Henry de Percy, Knight, 7th Feudal Baron of Topcliffe and Eleanor de Warenne); died 0Oct 1314, Alnwick, Northumberland, England.

    Notes:

    Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick (1273-1314)[3] was a medieval English magnate.

    He fought under King Edward I of England in Wales and Scotland and was granted extensive estates in Scotland, which were later retaken by the Scots under King Robert I of Scotland. He added Alnwick to the family estates in England, founding a dynasty of northern warlords. He rebelled against King Edward II over the issue of Piers Gaveston and was imprisoned for a few months. After his release, he declined to fight under Edward II at the Battle of Bannockburn, remaining at Alnwick, where he died a few months later, aged 41.

    Origins

    Henry was born at Petworth in Sussex on 25 March 1273, seven months after his father's death, saving the family line from extinction, as two older brothers had died in infancy, and all six uncles had died without leaving any legitimate heir. He was fortunate in having the powerful John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey as his maternal grandfather. Henry was the son of Henry de Percy (d.1272), 7th feudal baron of Topcliffe, Yorkshire,[4] by his wife, Eleanor de Warenne, daughter of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey by Alice de Lusignan, Countess of Surrey, half sister of King Henry III.[5] His great-great-grandfather was Jocelin de Louvain (d.1180) who had married Agnes de Percy (d.1203), one of the two daughters and co-heiresses of William II de Percy (d.1174/5), 3rd feudal baron of Topcliffe, whose descendants had adopted the surname "de Percy".[4]

    Drawing made in 1611 of seal of Henry de Percy attached to the Barons' Letter, 1301, showing his use of the arms of Brabant (Percy (modern):[2] Or, a lion rampant azure.
    In 1293 Henry came into his inheritance of estates in Sussex and Yorkshire, including Topcliffe Castle, the ancient family seat. In 1294 he married Eleanor, daughter of the Earl of Arundel. He then proceeded to change the family coat of arms from Azure, five fusils in fess or[7] ("Percy ancient") to Or, a lion rampant azure ("Percy modern")(a blue lion rampant on a gold background). Blue and gold were the Earl Warenne's colours and a gold lion rampant had been the Arundel's arms. Alternatively the arms are said to be the arms of Brabant.[2] This emphasised his royal and noble connections and marked his ambition. This was also the year he went to war for the first time, summoned to fight in France, but then diverted to Wales to join Edward I in suppressing a Welsh rebellion. There he learned the grim business of medieval warfare, and command and supply of armies in the field.

    Marriage and progeny

    Henry de Percy married Eleanor FitzAlan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel,[8] and had two sons:

    Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy (b.1299), who succeeded his father.
    William de Percy (c.1303-1355).
    Knighthood and war in Scotland[edit]

    The view from Stirling Castle with the present Stirling Bridge in the foreground and the Wallace Monument in the middle distance
    By the summer of 1295 Henry was in the north with his grandfather Earl Warenne. Edward I's deliberately humiliating treatment of King John I of Scotland and his nobles was making war inevitable. Warenne was King John's father in law, used as an intermediary by Edward. In 1294 Philip IV of France had taken back Aquitaine from the English crown and now negotiated a treaty with the Scots to wage war on Edward on two fronts. During March 1296 Edward I's army surrounded Berwick on Tweed, then the largest town in Scotland and an important seaport. It was here on 30 March that Henry Percy was knighted by the King.[9] Later on the same day the town was taken and the ruthless king, apparently provoked by the inhabitants previously baring their buttocks at him, ordered the city put to the sword "whatever the age or sex" and according to the Scotichronicon 7,500 were executed.[10]

    Percy, under Warenne's command, was sent north to Dunbar where the castle was held by the Earls of Mar, Menteith and Ross, together with many lesser nobles. After they had beaten a Scottish force outside the castle the king joined them, and the castle soon surrendered. The rest of Scotland was occupied in the space of a few weeks and English administrators installed. King John Balliol was forced to abdicate and Warenne appointed to govern Scotland as a province. Having proved his ability Henry Percy was given the task of governing Ayr, Galloway and Cumberland, based at Carlisle Castle. With King Edward now turning his attention to affairs in France there was only a year or so of peace before the situation in Scotland began to unravel. In the summer of 1297 William Wallace murdered the English sheriff of Lanark and was joined by Robert Bruce, Bishop Lockhart, James Stewart and Sir William Douglas in the Scottish lowlands while Andrew Murray started a Highland uprising.

    Working closely with Robert Clifford from Westmorland, Percy confronted the other rebels at Irvine while Wallace was in central Scotland, and negotiated their submission, subduing southern Scotland for a while. Warenne then began an expedition to hunt down Wallace and Murray, finding them waiting north of the River Forth near Stirling Castle. The ensuing Battle of Stirling Bridge was a disaster for the English army. Percy and his fellow commanders could only watch helplessly from the castle as their infantry, caught on the far side of the one narrow bridge were slaughtered. Murray was however killed in the battle. The English were temporarily expelled from Scotland and on the defensive, with the Scots raiding northern England. In the following spring of 1298 King Edward returned from France and assembled a large army, including many Welsh longbow archers, to begin a new and determined assault on Scotland. They caught up with Wallace at Falkirk on 22 July where Henry Percy was part of the fourth reserve division of experienced and highly mobile cavalry.[11]

    Baron and Scottish landowner

    Early in 1299 the King granted the estates of Ingram Balliol, who had been involved in the Scottish rebellions, to Henry Percy, including land in England and south west Scotland. This not only gave him greater income and status, but also a vested interest in the continuing conquest of Scotland. The king also summoned Percy to attend parliament as a peer of the realm, making him a baron by writ. His family had previously had the courtesy title of baron because of their land holdings. Percy had proved himself an able soldier and administrator and found royal favour. The rest of the year was spent skirmishing with Scottish guerilla groups, and the following summer campaigning with the king although little was achieved other than the capture of Caerlaverock Castle after a long siege, at which he was present with his elderly grandfather Earl Warenne. The Caerlaverock Poem or Roll of Arms made at the siege by the heralds records the armorials of Warenne and Percy in a single verse, translated from Norman French into modern English thus:[12]


    Arms of Warenne: Chequy or and azure
    "John the good Earl of Warenne
    Of the other squadron held the reins
    To regulate and govern,
    As he who well knew how to lead,
    Noble and honourable men.
    His banner with gold and azure
    Was nobly chequered.
    And he had in his company
    Henry de Percy, his nephew (son nevou) (sic)
    Who seemed to have made a vow
    To rout the Scots.
    A blue lion rampant on yellow
    Was his banner very conspicuous"

    Correspondence in late 1301 shows Percy at his estate at Leconfield in Yorkshire, where his wife probably lived, at a safe distance from Scottish raiding parties. In February 1303 Percy was sent north in a cavalry force led by Johannes de Seagrave which was defeated at Roslin. He then joined King Edward's summer offensive, reaching Dunfermline in early November. Robert Bruce had already changed sides to support Edward and in February 1304 most of the Scots negotiated a settlement with the English king. Henry Percy is known to have played a prominent role in the negotiations.[13] Only Stirling Castle now remained to be subdued, and was battered by catapults during the spring of 1304, while King Edward's militant queen, Marguerite of France, watched from a specially built wooden shelter.

    The siege culminated in the commissioning of Warwolf, a giant trebuchet which flattened the curtain walls. The defenders had tried to surrender four days earlier, but had been made to wait by the king while he tried out his new toy. In September 1305 the first joint English and Scottish parliament met at Westminster to agree a constitution for the unified state, with Percy playing a leading role in the negotiations, but Robert Bruce, a leading representative of the Scots, was already conspiring to rebel. On 25 March 1306 Robert Bruce was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Abbey, upon which Edward confiscated his lands and gave them to Henry Percy. The King now appointed Percy to command northwest England and southwest Scotland, with orders to suppress the rebellion without mercy. Bruce's army was soon defeated in battle, but Bruce escaped to wage a guerilla campaign against the English from the wild countryside of Galloway. For several years afterwards the English Barons held the castles of southern and central Scotland, but were ambushed and harried in the countryside.

    A new monarch

    Edward I, on his way to launch a new campaign against the Scots, died on 7 July 1307 before crossing the border. The dying Edward I, asked his assembled barons to give the succession to his only surviving son Edward. He also asked them to maintain the banishment Piers Gaveston from England. Henry Percy was not present, being left in charge of southern Scotland. The death of Edward I, with the conquest of Scotland incomplete, was a personal disaster for Percy. After years of hard fighting he now had extensive land holdings in southern Scotland, but this was of less interest to Edward II who promptly recalled Gaveston and made him Earl of Cornwall, an office of great wealth. Gaveston, a formidable tournament fighter in the melee, openly despised and insulted the old king's stalwart warriors.

    Edward II left Scotland in August 1307 after replacing his father's loyal and experienced commanders, Clifford, Valence and Percy who were sent home, only to be recalled to Scotland in October. By then, however, Robert Bruce had escaped from Galloway to the Highlands, and had raised new forces and taken eastern Scotland by the end of the year. In August 1308 Bruce captured Argyll, previously loyal to King Edward and then raided Northumberland. Percy and Clifford were again summoned to defend Galloway, at their own expense, against an onslaught by Robert Bruce's surviving brother Edward. They were able to hold the castles, but not the countryside. Percy had travelled south to Westminster in February that year for the king's coronation, where he would have seen Gaveston's arrogance.

    The ceremony was delayed for a week while the French delegation, alarmed that the king preferred Gaveston's company to that of Isabella, his 12-year-old French bride, threatened to boycott the coronation. In the event Gaveston was given precedence over the other Earls. At the following feast Gaveston dressed in an outfit of royal purple and pearls, and called the king over to sit with him, instead of Queen Isabella. The French delegation walked out and one earl drew his sword and had to be restrained from attacking Gaveston. During the spring of 1308 the barons in parliament pressed the king to exile Gaveston, developing the Doctrine of Capacities, distinguishing between loyalty to the king and loyalty to the crown. On 16 June 1308, Gaveston was appointed Lieutenant of Ireland, to get him out of the country, with Henry de Percy as a witness.

    Founding a dynasty in Northumberland

    Alnwick Castle by Canaletto
    In 1309 Henry was able to buy Alnwick Castle from Anthony Bek, the Prince Bishop of Durham, giving him a base near to the action in Scotland and a substantial annual income of about ¹475 from the associated lands. To make the purchase price of ¹4666 he borrowed ¹2666 from Italian merchant bankers, the Lombard Society.[14] When William Vesci had died in 1297 without a legitimate heir, Bek had been entrusted with the estates of the Vesci family on behalf of his son, the illegitimate William Vesci of Kildare. Vesci of Kildare did receive the other family lands in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire and it is unclear whether he was defrauded by the greedy bishop over the sale of Alnwick. In the same year of 1297 Henry obtained a royal licence to fortify his mansion at Petworth and two mansions in Yorkshire.[15]

    The return of Gaveston

    By the summer of 1309 Edward II had managed to cajole most of his earls into allowing Piers Gaveston to return to England, although the most powerful earl, Lancaster, was implacably opposed. On 27 June 1309 Gaveston, restored to the Earldom of Cornwall, returned to England and soon proved as obnoxious as before, calling Lancaster "Churl" and Warwick "Black Cur".[16] Henry Percy would have been preoccupied with the purchase of Alnwick at that time and generally tried to stay out of the trouble with Gaveston.

    At the parliament of February and March 1310 the King was forced to accept the election of twenty one Lords Ordainers to govern the country. In June the king began a campaign in Scotland in which Percy fought, although many barons senior to Percy declined to take part. Robert Bruce continued to fight a guerilla war, refusing to give battle, so little was achieved, while relations between the king and his earls further deteriorated. In May 1311 Gaveston ordered Percy to hold Perth for the summer with two hundred knights and no infantry, a dangerous task at a time when the king's army was withdrawing to England. Surviving this Percy was back in London in October.[17]

    The barons now forced the king to send Gaveston into exile in Flanders, but he was soon recalled and was in York with his heavily pregnant wife in January 1312, with his lands restored. Percy was ordered out of Scarborough Castle and Gaveston took it over. Violence was now inevitable. In April the king and Gaveston were chased out of Newcastle by the sudden arrival of an army under Lancaster, Percy and Clifford, fleeing to Scarborough. In their haste they left behind Gaveston's wife and baby daughter and a great hoard of treasure, which it took Lancaster, Percy and Clifford four days to catalogue. Lancaster held onto this for future bargaining with the king.[18] Gaveston was soon besieged at Scarborough Castle by Percy, Clifford, and the earls of Warenne and Pembroke, surrendering after a month. Percy remained in York when Gaveston was taken south to Warwick and then executed.

    Imprisonment

    The king, seeking revenge for the death of his friend, stopped short of civil war with the rebel earls but made an example of the less powerful Baron Percy by confiscating his lands on 28 July 1312, and having him imprisoned by the Sheriff of Yorkshire. The earls made Percy's release a priority in their difficult negotiations with the king and he was freed in January 1313.[19] and was formally pardoned in October. Gaveston's treasure was returned to the king soon after.

    The final year

    King Edward now prepared for a campaign in Scotland in 1314, culminating in his total defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn. Percy, along with five of the earls and many other nobles refused summonses to this campaign because it had not been sanctioned by parliament, as required by the Ordinances. There are no contemporary records of Percy being at Bannockburn[20] and it seems that he remained at Alnwick, defending his land against Scottish raiders. His friend and comrade Robert Clifford did go, and was killed in the battle. Within days of the battle Percy was summoned to Newcastle to prepare an emergency defence of northern England against an invasion. Instead of an all-out invasion, Robert Bruce sent raiding parties to extort money from the northern counties. Only a few months later in the first half of October 1314 Henry Percy died, aged forty one, of unknown causes.

    Henry — Eleanor FitzAlan. Eleanor (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel) was born 0___ 1282; died 0___ 1328; was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  18. 85.  Eleanor FitzAlan was born 0___ 1282 (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel); died 0___ 1328; was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Lady Percy

    Notes:

    Buried:
    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beverley_Minster

    Children:
    1. 42. Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick was born 0___ 1299, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ; died 0___ 1352.

  19. 86.  Robert de Clifford, Knight, 1st Baron de Clifford was born ~ 1274, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England (son of Roger de Clifford, II, Knight and Isabella Vipont); died 24 Jun 1314, Bannockburn, Scotland; was buried Shap Abbey, Cumbria, England.

    Other Events:

    • Military: Battle of Falkirk

    Notes:

    Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford (c. 1274–1314), of Appleby Castle, Westmorland, feudal baron of Appleby and feudal baron of Skipton in Yorkshire, was an English soldier who became 1st Lord Warden of the Marches, responsible for defending the English border with Scotland.

    Origins[edit]
    He was born in Clifford Castle,[citation needed] Herefordshire, a son of Roger II de Clifford (d.1282) (a grandson of Walter II de Clifford (d.1221), feudal baron of Clifford[1]) by his wife Isabella de Vipont (d.1291), one of the two daughters and co-heiresses of Robert II de Vipont (d.1264), feudal baron of Appleby, grandson of Robert I de Vieuxpont (d.1227/8). Thenceforth the Clifford family quartered the arms of Vipont: Gules, six annulets or.

    The ancient Norman family which later took the name de Clifford arrived in England during the Norman Conquest of 1066, and became feudal barons of Clifford, first seated in England at Clifford Castle in Herefordshire. The de Clifford family was directly descended in the male line from Duke Richard I of Normandy (933-996), great-grandfather of William the Conqueror:[2] the father of Walter de Clifford, 1st feudal baron of Clifford (d.1190) was Richard FitzPontz (d. circa 1138), the son of Pontz, the son of William Count of Eu, a son of Richard I of Normandy (933-996) by his wife Gunnor.[3]

    Inheritances

    As his father had predeceased his own father, in 1286 Robert inherited the estates of his grandfather, Roger I de Clifford (d.1286). Following the death of his mother Isabella de Vipont in 1291 he inherited a one-half moiety of the extensive Vipont feudal baron of Appleby in Westmorland. In 1308 he was granted the remaining moiety by his childless aunt Idonea de Vipont (d.1333)[4] and thus became one of the most powerful barons in England.

    Career

    During the reigns of Kings Edward I and Edward II, Clifford was a prominent soldier. In 1296 he was sent with Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy to quell the Scots who asked for terms of surrender at Irvine. He was appointed Governor of Carlisle. During the reign of Edward I he was styled Warden of the Marches and during the reign of Edward II, as Lord Warden of the Marches, being the first holder of this office.[5] In 1298 he fought for King Edward I at the Battle of Falkirk in which William Wallace was defeated, for which he was rewarded with Governorship of Nottingham Castle. He was summoned to Parliament by writ as a baron in 1299. He won great renown at the Siege of Caerlaverock Castle in 1300, during which his armorials (Chequy or and azure, a fesse gules) were recorded by the heralds on the famous Caerlaverock Roll or Poem, thus (translated from French):[6]

    "Strength from wisdom drawing, Robert Lord de Clifford's mind is bent on his enemies' subjection. Through his mother his descent comes from that renowned Earl Marshal at Constantinople said to have battled with a unicorn and struck the monster dead. All the merits of his grandsire, Roger, still in Robert spring. Of no praise is he unworthy; wiser none was with the King. Honoured was his banner, checky gold and blue, a scarlet fess. Were I maiden, heart and body I would yield to such noblesse!"
    He was one of many who sealed the 1301 Barons' Letter to the Pope, in the Latin text of which he is described as Robertus de Clifford, Castellanus de Appelby ("Constable of Appleby Castle").[7] After the death of King Edward I in 1307, he was appointed counsellor to Edward II, together with the Earl of Lincoln, Earl of Warwick and Earl of Pembroke. In the same year of 1307 the new king Edward II appointed him Marshal of England, and in this capacity he probably organised Edward II's coronation on 25 February 1308. On 12 March 1308 he was relieved of the marshalcy, the custodianship of Nottingham Castle and of his Forest justiceship, but on 20 August 1308 he was appointed captain and chief guardian of Scotland.[8] In 1310 Edward II also granted him Skipton Castle and the Honour of Skipton in Yorkshire, held until that date by Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln (1251-1311).[9] Henry de Lacy had married Margaret Longespâee, Robert de Clifford's cousin and heiress of the feudal barony of Clifford, which had descended in a female line from Robert de Clifford's great-great uncle, Walter II de Clifford (d.1263), Margaret Longespâee's maternal grandfather.[3]

    In 1312 together with the Earl of Lancaster he took part in the movement against Piers Gaveston Edward II's favourite, whom he besieged in Scarborough Castle.

    Marriage & progeny

    In 1295 in Clifford Castle he married Maud de Clare, eldest daughter of Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond by his wife Juliana FitzGerald. By Maud he had three children:[10]

    Roger de Clifford, 2nd Baron de Clifford.
    Robert de Clifford, 3rd Baron de Clifford.
    Idonia de Clifford, wife of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy.
    Death & burial[edit]
    Clifford was killed on 24 June 1314 fighting at the Battle of Bannockburn[5] and was buried at Shap Abbey in Westmoreland.

    References

    Jump up ^ Sanders, pp.35-6, Clifford; Vivian, p.194, Pedigree of Clifford
    Jump up ^ Vivian, Lt.Col. J.L., (Ed.) The Visitations of the County of Devon: Comprising the Heralds' Visitations of 1531, 1564 & 1620, Exeter, 1895, p.194
    ^ Jump up to: a b Vivian, p.194
    Jump up ^ Sanders, I.J. English Baronies: A Study of their Origin and Descent 1086-1327, Oxford, 1960, p.104, Appleby
    ^ Jump up to: a b Notes and Queries, Oxford University Press, 15 March 1862, p. 220
    Jump up ^ http://www.theheraldrysociety.com/articles/early_history_of_heraldry/siege_of_caerlaverock.htm
    Jump up ^ Howard de Walden, Lord, Some Feudal Lords and their Seals 1301, published 1903 reprinted 1984, image of seal p.31
    Jump up ^ Henry Summerson, Robert Clifford, first Lord Clifford, Oxford Online Dictionary of National Biography, 2004
    Jump up ^ Sanders, I.J. English Baronies: A Study of their Origin and Descent 1086-1327, Oxford, 1960, p.143
    Jump up ^ "Clifford, Robert de". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.

    Military:
    In 1298 he fought for King Edward I at the Battle of Falkirk in which William Wallace was defeated, for which he was rewarded with Governorship of Nottingham Castle.

    Buried:
    Photos, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shap_Abbey

    Died:
    during the Battle of Bannockburn ... was a significant Scottish victory in the First War of Scottish Independence, and a landmark in Scottish history.

    History ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn

    Robert married Maude de Clare 0___ 1295, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England. Maude (daughter of Thomas de Clare, Knight, Lord of Thomond and Juliana Fitzgerald, Lady of Thomond) was born 0___ 1276; died 0___ 1327. [Group Sheet]


  20. 87.  Maude de Clare was born 0___ 1276 (daughter of Thomas de Clare, Knight, Lord of Thomond and Juliana Fitzgerald, Lady of Thomond); died 0___ 1327.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Baroness of Clifford
    • Also Known As: Maud de Clare

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appleby_Castle

    Children:
    1. 43. Idonia Clifford was born ~ 1303, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England; died 24 Aug 1365, (Yorkshire, England); was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England.
    2. Robert de Clifford, Knight, 3rd Baron de Clifford was born 5 Nov 1305, (Skipton, North Yorkshire, England); died 20 May 1344.

  21. 104.  Robert de Holland, II, Knight, 1st Baron Holand was born ~ 1280-1283, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 7 Oct 1328, Boreham Wood, Essex, England; was buried 0Oct 1328, Greyfriars Church, Preston, Lancashire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Robert de Holand
    • Military: Battle of Boroughbridge
    • Occupation: 1314-1321; Member of Parliament (House of Lords)

    Notes:

    Robert de Holland, 1st Baron Holand (c. 1283 - 1328) was an English nobleman, born in Lancashire.

    He was a son of Sir Robert de Holland of Upholland, Lancashire and Elizabeth, daughter of William de Samlesbury.

    He was a member of the noble Holland family and a favourite official of Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster and had been knighted by 1305. His favoured treatment by the powerful earl caused his rival knights in the area, led by Sir Adam Banastre, Sir Henry de Lea, and Sir William de Bradshagh (Bradshaw), to start a campaign of violence towards him and the earl's other supporters known as the Banastre Rebellion. The rebels protested against the earl's actions and authority by attacking the homes of his supporters and several castles, including Liverpool Castle. Sir Robert later assisted in the hunt for fugitives after the rebels had been routed in Preston by a force under the command of the Sheriff.

    The manors of Thornton and Bagworth were acquired by him in 1313. From 1314 to 1321 he was called to Parliament as a member of the House of Lords. In 1322 his part in the Battle of Boroughbridge, when he defected from Lancaster to the King, was deemed treacherous and cowardly and led to his disfavour. Although King Edward III of England would later pardon him, the partisans of the Earl of Lancaster considered him a traitor and had him executed.[1] The execution occurred in 1328 by beheading in Essex; his head was sent to the new earl and his body to Lancashire to be buried.

    Marriage and issue

    He married before 1309/10 (being contracted to marry in or before 1305/6) Maud la Zouche, daughter and co-heiress of Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby, by his wife, Eleanor de Segrave. Robert and Maud had nine children:

    Robert de Holand (born c.1311-12 [aged 16 in 1328, aged 30 and more in 1349] - died 16 March 1372/3). He married before 25 June 1343 (date of fine) Elizabeth _____.

    Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, KG (died 26 or 28 December 1360), of Broughton, Buckinghamshire, Hawes (in Brackley), Brackley and King’s Sutton, Northamptonshire, Horden, Durham, etc., Captain and Lieutenant of Brittany, 1354-5, Warden of the Channel Islands, 1356, Captain of the Fort of Cruyk, Normandy, 1357, Captain of St. Sauveur-le-Vicomte [Manche] in Normandy, 1359, Warden of the Town of Barfleur, 1359, Joint Captain and Lieutenant of Normandy, 1359, Captain and Lieutenant-General in France and Normandy, 1360. He married Joan Plantagenet, the 'Fair Maid of Kent'. One of the founders and 13th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.

    Sir Otho Holand, KG (died 3 September 1359), of Ashford, Chesterfield, and Dalbury, Derbyshire, Yoxall, Staffordshire, Talworth (in Long Ditton), Surrey, etc., Governor of the Channel Islands, 1359. He married Joan _____. He was one of the founders and 23rd Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.

    Alan de Holand, of Great Houghton, Yorkshire, living 13 October 1331 (date of fine). He was killed sometime before 30 October 1339 by William Bate, of Dunham-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire.

    Isabel de Holand. Mistress of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey.

    Margaret de Holand (died 20 or 22 August 1349). She married John la Warre, Knt., of Wickwar, Gloucestershire.

    Maud de Holand (living 1342). She married (1st) John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray; (2nd) Thomas de Swinnerton, Knt., 3rd Lord Swinnerton.

    Elizabeth de Holand (died 13 July 1387). She married Henry Fitz Roger, Knt., of Chewton, Somerset, descendant of Herbert of Winchester.[2]

    Eleanor de Holand (died before 21 Nov. 1341). She married John Darcy, Knt., 2nd Lord Darcy of Knaith.

    *

    more...

    Sir Robert's ahnentafel: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=AHN&db=labron00&id=I12550

    Robert married Maud La Zouche ~ 1304, Winchester, Sussex, England. Maud (daughter of Alan La Zouche, Knight, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby and Eleanor de Segrave, Baroness of Zouche) was born 0___ 1290, Ashby Magna, Leicester, England; died 31 May 1349, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Brackley, Northamptonshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  22. 105.  Maud La Zouche was born 0___ 1290, Ashby Magna, Leicester, England (daughter of Alan La Zouche, Knight, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby and Eleanor de Segrave, Baroness of Zouche); died 31 May 1349, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Brackley, Northamptonshire, England.

    Notes:

    Birth:
    Ashby Magna is a small English village and civil parish in the Harborough district of Leicestershire. The parish has a population of 294, increasing at the 2011 census to 347.

    The village is of Danish origin and recorded in the Domesday Book as 'Essebi' or 'Asseby'. Its name derives from the 'ash' tree, from 'by', Old Danish for a farmstead or settlement, and from 'Magna', Latin for great. It was large by medieval standards but the population has remained static at around 300-400.

    Children:
    1. 52. Thomas Holland, Knight, 1st Earl of Kent was born ~ 1314, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 26 Dec 1360.
    2. Elizabeth de Holland

  23. 106.  Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent was born 5 Aug 1301, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England (son of Edward I, King of England and Margaret of France, Queen Consort of England); died 19 Mar 1330, Winchester Castle, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Notes:

    Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent (5 August 1301 – 19 March 1330) was the sixth son of Edward I of England, and a younger half-brother of Edward II. Edward I had intended to make substantial grants of land to Edmund, but when the king died in 1307, Edward II failed to follow through on his father's intentions, much due to his favouritism towards Piers Gaveston. Edmund still remained loyal to his brother, and in 1321 he was created Earl of Kent. He played an important part in Edward's administration, acting both as diplomat and military commander, and in 1321–22 helped suppress a rebellion against the king.

    Discontent against the king grew, however, and eventually affected also Edmund. The antagonism was largely caused by Edward's preference for his new favourites, Hugh Despenser the Younger and his father. In 1326, Edmund joined a rebellion led by Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer, whereby Edward II was deposed. Edmund failed to get along with the new administration, and in 1330 he was caught planning a new rebellion, and executed.

    Once the new king, Edward III, came of age and assumed personal control of government, he annulled the charges against his uncle. The title and estates of the Earl of Kent descended on Edmund's son, also called Edmund. When this Edmund died, in 1331, his brother John became earl. Though he was officially exonerated, Edmund did not enjoy a great reputation during his life and afterwards, due to his unreliable political dealings.

    Family background and early years

    Edward I of England had a great number of children with his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, but only one son who survived into adulthood – the future Edward II (b. 1284).[a] After Eleanor died, the king married Margaret of France, with whom he had two children: Thomas (b. 1300) and, when the king was sixty-two, Edmund.[1][b] Edmund was born at Woodstock in Oxfordshire on 5 August 1301, and was therefore referred to as Edmund of Woodstock.[2] Son of the English king, he was also, through his mother, grandson of Philip III of France.[2] On 7 July 1307, before Edmund had turned six, King Edward I died, leaving Edmund's half-brother Edward to succeed as King Edward II.[3]

    Though not resident in the two boys' household, Edward I had taken great interest in the princes' upbringing and well-being.[4] Before he died, the king had promised to provide Edmund with substantial grants of land. In August 1306, Edward I signed a charter promising Edmund land worth 7000 marks a year, and in May 1307, 1000 marks was added to this.[5] He probably intended to give the earldom of Norfolk to Thomas, while Edmund would receive the earldom of Cornwall, which had been left vacant after Edward I's cousin Edmund died without children in 1300.[5] When Edward II came to the throne, however, he went against his father's wishes by granting the earldom of Cornwall to his favourite Piers Gaveston.[6] According to the chronicle Vita Edwardi Secundi, this act was a grave insult to the king's younger brothers.[7] Edward II nevertheless took steps to provide his half-brother with an income; grants made in 1315 and 1319 secured Edmund 2000 marks a year.[2] In May 1321, Edmund received the strategically important Gloucester Castle, and further grants followed his creation as Earl of Kent on 28 July 1321.[8][c]

    Edward II's close relationship to Gaveston had been a source of conflict at court, and Gaveston's execution by a group of rebellious barons in 1312 had brought the country to the brink of civil war.[9] As Edmund came of age, he became an important member of the circle around his brother. In 1318, the Treaty of Leake was drafted as an effort to reconcile the opposing parties, and Edmund – as his first public act – was among the witnesses to sign this treaty.[10] Further official appointments followed. In the spring of 1320 he took part in an embassy to Pope John XXII in Avignon, where the mission was to absolve the king of his oath to uphold the Ordinances, a set of restrictions imposed on royal authority by the baronage.[10] Later that year, he joined his brother the king in Amiens, where Edward was paying homage to the French king.[11] In October 1320, Edmund attended his first parliament.[2]

    Civil war

    As the political conflict escalated into full-scale rebellion in 1321–22, Edmund played an important role in its suppression. The opposition stemmed from resentment against the king's new favourites, Hugh Despenser the Younger and Hugh Despenser the Elder.[12] When Bartholomew Badlesmere, steward of the royal household, defected to the opposition, Edward made his youngest brother Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports in place of Badlesmere on 16 June.[8] In the parliament of July 1321, Edmund briefly sided with the opposition when he agreed to exile the Despensers, but later claimed this had been done under duress, and in November sat on the council that annulled the exile.[2]

    In October, Edmund was once more employed in a move against Badlesmere, when he took part in a siege on Leeds Castle in Kent, which was held by Badlesmere.[2] After Badlesmere was forced to surrender, hostilities moved to the Welsh Marches, where Roger Mortimer and others were in open revolt.[13] Once confronted with the royal army, Mortimer surrendered without a fight, and attention turned to the leader of the baronial opposition, Thomas of Lancaster. Edmund, who had taken part in the Marcher campaign, was now ordered, with the Earl of Surrey, to take Lancaster's castle of Pontefract.[14] On 17 March 1322, Lancaster was captured after his defeat at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and brought to Pontefract.[15] Here, Edmund was on the jury that condemned him to death for treason.[d]

    Even with Lancaster defeated, the battle against the rebels was not over. Edmund was charged with overtaking Wallingford Castle from Maurice de Berkeley in January 1323, a task which he fulfilled with great success.[2] For his loyalty, Edmund was rewarded with substantial holdings in Wales, primarily land forfeited by Roger Mortimer.[e] The greater part of the spoils of war, however, went to the Despensers, who both benefited greatly from the forfeiture of the rebels. By 1326, the Despensers, father and son respectively, enjoyed incomes of ¹3,800 and ¹7,000, while Edmund's annual income was at only 2,355 marks (¹1,570).[16]

    Scotland and France

    With domestic opposition largely neutralised, the king turned his attention to Scotland. A major campaign was organised in August, but the effort ended in total failure when the English were routed by the Scots, led by Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Old Byland on 14 October 1322.[17] Edward II himself had to flee the battlefield to avoid capture, and Edmund was with him as the royal army retreated to York.[18] The king's inability to handle the Scottish situation was becoming apparent. Andrew Harclay, who had defeated Lancaster at Boroughbridge, and for this had been created Earl of Carlisle and appointed Warden of the Marches to Scotland, signed a peace treaty with the Scots without royal sanction in January 1323.[19] When the king found out, he ordered Harclay's arrest. Edmund was one of the judges who passed judgement on Harclay, who was hanged, drawn and quartered for treason.[2] With Harclay gone, Edmund was given responsibilities for the defence of the northern border, but the situation remained untenable.[8] On 30 May 1323, Edmund was on the council that agreed to a thirteen-year truce with Scotland.[2]

    Meanwhile, the English king's possessions in France were coming under threat from the French king. Charles IV of France demanded that Edward again pay homage for his Duchy of Aquitaine,[f] while at the same time threatening to confiscate the duchy under the pretext of a local dispute involving the priory at Saint-Sardos.[20] In April 1324, Edmund and Alexander de Bicknor, Archbishop of Dublin, were sent to France on a diplomatic mission.[21] While some historians have criticised Edmund for his failure to reach a diplomatic settlement,[22] others have pointed to the difficult circumstances he faced, and how others had fared little better.[16] When diplomacy failed, Edmund was appointed Edward's lieutenant in France on 20 July 1324.[2] Though there was a desperate need for reinforcements from England, these never arrived.[23] In the short war that followed, the English lands were quickly overrun by the French, and Edmund was besieged at La Râeole. Here he held out until 22 September, at which point he was forced to surrender and agree to a six-month truce.[23]

    Deposition of Edward II

    Edward II's refusal to pay homage to the French king was based on concern for his royal sovereignty, but also on fear of a potential resurgence of domestic resistance.[24] For this reason, he sent his wife Isabella to negotiate with King Charles, who was her brother.[25] The Queen departed for France on 9 March 1325, and in September she was joined by her son, the heir to the throne, Prince Edward.[26] Isabella's negotiations were successful, and it was agreed that the young Prince Edward would perform homage in the king's place, which he did on 24 September.[2] Not long after this, Edmund joined the queen and prince in Paris. A circle of opposition was emerging around the queen, including the exiled Roger Mortimer. Edmund, who had previously been steadfast in his support for his half-brother, now joined the plot against the king.[27] Though he still distrusted Mortimer, his hatred for the Despensers seems to have been even greater at this point.[28] When Edmund, along with the others, ignored the king's order to return to England, his lands were confiscated in March 1326.[2]


    Queen Isabella with the captive Hugh Despenser the Elder and the Earl of Arundel. From a 15th-century manuscript.
    In August, Isabella and Mortimer invaded England with mercenary soldiers, and Edmund took part in the invasion.[29] The invasion won the support of a great part of the English nobility, including Edmund's brother Thomas, and Henry, Earl of Lancaster, Thomas of Lancaster's brother.[30] Edmund took part in the trials of the two Despensers, and in the council transferring power to Prince Edward, who was crowned King Edward III.[2] For his participation in the coup, Edmund received a reward of land belonging to the Despensers, and the Earl of Arundel, who was also executed as a supporter of Edward II.[2] As the Northern situation was still difficult, Edmund was given joint command of the Scottish Border with Lancaster, but the two fell out, and Lancaster was soon after given sole command.[31] It did not take long for Edmund to grow disenchanted with the new regime; one source of contention was the dominant position at court of Mortimer, who has been described as Isabella's lover.[32] In the autumn of 1328, Edmund and his brother Thomas joined Henry of Lancaster in a conspiracy against Isabella and Mortimer. The conspiracy was a product of shared interest, however, rather than strong personal ties. Once it became clear that it would fail, the two brothers abandoned the venture.[33]

    Death and aftermath

    After participating in the planned rebellion, Edmund became less popular at court. He was still allowed to accompany the king's wife Philippa to her coronation in January 1330, but his appearances at court became less frequent.[2] At this point he became involved in another plot against the court, when he was convinced by rumours that his brother was still alive.[34][g] It later emerged that Roger Mortimer himself was responsible for leading Edmund into this belief, in a form of entrapment.[35] The plot was revealed, and in the parliament of March 1330 Edmund was indicted and condemned to death as a traitor.[34] Upon hearing that the verdict was death, the condemned earl pleaded with Edward III for his life, offering to walk from Winchester to London with a rope around his neck as a sign of atonement. Edward III however knew that leniency was not an option for the aforementioned entrapment utilized by Mortimer could extend to him and potentially be subversive to his own kingship if his father, Edward II truly was alive. Thus Edward III sanctioned the killing of his uncle. It was almost impossible to find anyone willing to perform the execution of a man of royal blood, until a convicted murderer eventually beheaded Edmund in exchange for a pardon.[2] Edmund's body was initially buried in a Franciscan church in Winchester, but it was removed to Westminster Abbey in 1331.[36]

    The execution of a royal prince was a great provocation to the seventeen-year-old Edward III, who had not been informed about the decision, and it probably contributed to the king's decision to rise up against his protector.[37] In 1330, Edward III carried out a coup installing himself in personal control of government, and Mortimer was executed.[38] Among the charges against Mortimer was that of procuring Edmund's death, and the charges against the late earl of Kent were annulled.[39] In late 1325, Edmund had married Margaret Wake, sister of Thomas Wake, Baron Wake of Liddell, and the couple had several children.[2] His lands and titles descended on his oldest son by the same name, but this Edmund himself died in October 1331. The earldom then passed to the younger son John.[40]

    Edmund was not particularly popular while he was alive, nor did he enjoy a good reputation after his death. His unreliability in political issues, and repeated shifts in allegiance, might have contributed to this. His household was also said to behave in a way that caused popular resentment, taking provisions as they passed through the countryside while offering little compensation.[2] At the same time, it has been pointed out that Edmund showed a great deal of loyalty to Edward II, in spite of receiving relatively little rewards and recognition from his brother.[41]

    Died:
    ...in 1330 he was caught planning a new rebellion, and executed.

    Edmund married Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell (England). Margaret (daughter of John Wake, Knight, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell and Joan de Fiennes) was born ~ 1297, (England); died 29 Sep 1349, (England). [Group Sheet]


  24. 107.  Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell was born ~ 1297, (England) (daughter of John Wake, Knight, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell and Joan de Fiennes); died 29 Sep 1349, (England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Kent

    Notes:

    Margaret Wake, suo jure 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell and Countess of Kent (c. 1297 – 29 September 1349) was the wife of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, the youngest surviving son of Edward I of England and Margaret of France.

    Family

    She was the daughter of John Wake, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell, (son of Baldwin Wake and Hawise de Quincy) and Joan de Fiennes. By her father, she was descended from Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Gwynedd and Joan, Lady of Wales, the illegitimate daughter of John I of England. Her mother, Joan de Fiennes, was a daughter of William de Fiennes and Blanche (Lady of Loupeland) de Brienne. She was a sister of Margaret de Fiennes, making Wake a cousin of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. Joan de Fiennes also descended from Emperor Jean de Brienne and Berengaria of Leâon, herself the granddaughter of Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile.

    Marriages

    Margaret married John Comyn (c. 1294-1314) around 1312, son of the John Comyn who was murdered by Robert the Bruce in 1306. Her husband John died at the Battle of Bannockburn, and their only child, Aymer Comyn (1314–1316) died as a toddler. She married for a second time, to Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent. They received a dispensation in October 1325, and the wedding probably took place at Christmas.

    Through her marriage to Edmund of Woodstock (who was executed for treason in 1330), she was the mother of two short-lived Earls of Kent, of Margaret and Joan of Kent (wife of Edward, the Black Prince). The pregnant Margaret and her children were confined to Salisbury Castle, and her brother Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell was accused of treason but later pardoned. When King Edward III of England reached his majority and overthrew the regents, he took in Margaret and her children and treated them as his own family. She succeeded briefly as Baroness Wake of Liddell in 1349, but died during an outbreak of the plague that autumn.

    Margaret and Edmund's descendants include King Henry VII and queen consorts Anne Neville, Elizabeth of York, and Catherine Parr.

    Children:
    1. 53. Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent was born 19 Sep 1328, (Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom); died 7 Aug 1385, Wallingford Castle, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Greyfriars, Stamford, Lincolnshire, England.

  25. 108.  Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel was born 1 May 1285, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England (son of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel); died 17 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Paris, France
    • Also Known As: 3rd Earl of Arundel

    Notes:

    Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel[a] (1 May 1285 – 17 November 1326) was an English nobleman prominent in the conflict between Edward II and his barons. His father, Richard FitzAlan, 2nd Earl of Arundel, died on 9 March 1301, while Edmund was still a minor. He therefore became a ward of John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, and married Warenne's granddaughter Alice. In 1306 he was styled Earl of Arundel, and served under Edward I in the Scottish Wars, for which he was richly rewarded.

    After Edward I's death, Arundel became part of the opposition to the new king Edward II, and his favourite Piers Gaveston. In 1311 he was one of the so-called Lords Ordainers who assumed control of government from the king. Together with Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, he was responsible for the death of Gaveston in 1312. From this point on, however, his relationship to the king became more friendly. This was to a large extent due to his association with the king's new favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger, whose daughter was married to Arundel's son. Arundel supported the king in suppressing rebellions by Roger Mortimer and other Marcher Lords, and eventually also Thomas of Lancaster. For this he was awarded with land and offices.

    His fortune changed, however, when the country was invaded in 1326 by Mortimer, who had made common cause with the king's wife, Queen Isabella. Immediately after the capture of Edward II, the queen, Edward III's regent, ordered Arundel executed, his title forfeit and his property confiscated. Arundel's son and heir Richard only recovered the title and lands in 1331, after Edward III had taken power from the regency of Isabella and Mortimer. In the 1390s, a cult emerged around the late earl. He was venerated as a martyr, though he was never canonised.

    Family and early life

    Edmund FitzAlan was born in the Castle of Marlborough, in Wiltshire, on 1 May 1285.[1] He was the son of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel, and his wife, Alice of Saluzzo, daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo in Italy. Richard had been in opposition to the king during the political crisis of 1295, and as a result he had incurred great debts and had parts of his land confiscated.[2] When Richard died in 09/03/1301, Edmund's wardship was given to John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. Warenne's only son, William, had died in 1286, so his daughter Alice was now heir apparent to the Warenne earldom. Alice was offered in marriage to Edmund, who for unknown reasons initially refused her. By 1305 he had changed his mind, however, and the two were married.[3]

    In April 1306, shortly before turning twenty-one, Edmund was granted possession of his father's title and land. On 22 May 1306, he was knighted by Edward I, along with the young Prince Edward – the future Edward II.[1] The knighting was done in expectation of military service the Scottish Wars, and after the campaign was over, Arundel was richly rewarded. Edward I pardoned the young earl a debt of ¹4,234. This flow of patronage continued after the death of Edward I in 1307; in 1308 Edward II returned the hundred of Purslow to Arundel, an honour that Edward I had confiscated from Edmund's father.[4] There were also official honours in the early years of Edward II's reign. At the new king's coronation on 25 February 1308, Arundel officiated as chief butler (or pincerna), a hereditary office of the earls of Arundel.[3]

    Opposition to Edward II

    Though the reign of Edward II was initially harmonious, he soon met with opposition from several of his earls and prelates.[5] At the source of the discontent was the king's relationship with the young Gascon knight Piers Gaveston, who had been exiled by Edward I, but was recalled immediately upon Edward II's accession.[6] Edward's favouritism towards the upstart Gaveston was an offence to the established nobility, and his elevation to the earldom of Cornwall was particularly offensive to the established nobility.[7] A group of magnates led by Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, forced Gaveston into exile in 1308.[8] By 1309, however, Edward had reconciled himself with the opposition, and Gaveston was allowed to return.[9]

    Arundel joined the opposition at an early point, and did not attend the Stamford parliament in July 1309, where Gaveston's return was negotiated.[10] After Gaveston returned, his behaviour became even more offensive, and opposition towards him grew.[11] In addition to this, there was great discontent with Edward II's failure to follow up his father's Scottish campaigns.[12] On 16 March 1310, the king had to agree to the appointment of a committee known as the Lords Ordainers, who were to be in charge of the reform of the royal government. Arundel was one of eight earls among the twenty-one Ordainers.[13]

    The Ordainers once more sent Gaveston into exile in 1311, but by 1312 he was back.[14] Now the king's favourite was officially an outlaw, and Arundel was among the earls who swore to hunt him down. The leader of the opposition – after Lincoln's death the year before – was now Thomas, Earl of Lancaster.[15] In June 1312 Gaveston was captured, tried before Lancaster, Arundel and the earls of Warwick and Hereford, and executed.[16] A reconciliation was achieved between the king and the offending magnates, and Arundel and the others received pardons, but animosity prevailed. In 1314 Arundel was among the magnates who refused to assist Edward in a campaign against the Scottish, resulting in the disastrous English defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn.[10]

    Return to loyalty

    Around the time of Bannockburn, however, Arundel's loyalty began to shift back towards the king. Edward's rapprochement towards the earl had in fact started earlier, when on 2 November 1313, the king pardoned Arundel's royal debts.[17] The most significant factor in this process though, was the marriage alliance between Arundel and the king's new favourites, the Despensers. Hugh Despenser the Younger and his father Hugh Despenser the elder were gradually taking over control of the government, and using their power to enrich themselves.[18] While this alienated most of the nobility, Arundel's situation was different. At some point in 1314–1315, his son Richard was betrothed to Isabel, daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger.[17] Now that he found himself back in royal favour, Arundel started receiving rewards in the form of official appointments. In 1317 he was appointed Warden of the Marches of Scotland, and in August 1318, he helped negotiate the Treaty of Leake, which temporarily reconciled the king with Thomas of Lancaster.[10]


    Clun Castle was the source of the personal animosity between Arundel and Roger Mortimer.
    With Arundel's change of allegiance came a conflict of interest. In August 1321, a demand was made to the king that Hugh Despenser and his father, Hugh Despenser the elder, be sent into exile.[19] The king, facing a rebellion in the Welsh Marches, had no choice but to assent.[20] Arundel voted for the expulsion, but later he claimed that he did so under compulsion, and also supported their recall in December.[10] Arundel had suffered personally from the rebellion, when Roger Mortimer seized his castle of Clun.[21][22] Early in 1322, Arundel joined King Edward in a campaign against the Mortimer family.[20] The opposition soon crumbled, and the king decided to move against Thomas of Lancaster, who had been supporting the marcher rebellion all along. Lancaster was defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge in March, and executed.[23]

    In the aftermath of the rebellion, the Despensers enriched themselves on the forfeited estates of the rebels, and Hugh Despenser the elder was created Earl of Winchester in May 1322.[24] Also Arundel, who was now one of the king's principal supporters, was richly rewarded. After the capture of Roger Mortimer in 1322, he received the forfeited Mortimer lordship of Chirk in Wales.[10] He was also trusted with important offices: he became Chief Justiciar of North and South Wales in 1323, and in 1325 he was made Warden of the Welsh Marches, responsible for the array in Wales.[1] He also extended his influence through marriage alliances; in 1325 he secured marriages between two of his daughters and the sons and heirs of two of Lancaster's main allies: the deceased earls of Hereford and Warwick.[b]

    Final years and death

    In 1323, Roger Mortimer, who had been held in captivity in the Tower of London, escaped and fled to France.[22] Two years later, Queen Isabella travelled to Paris on an embassy to the French king. Here, Isabella and Mortimer developed a plan to invade England and replace Edward II on the throne with his son, the young Prince Edward, who was in the company of Isabella.[25] Isabella and Mortimer landed in England on 24 September 1326, and due to the virulent resentment against the Despenser regime, few came to the king's aid.[26] Arundel initially escaped the invading force in the company of the king, but was later dispatched to his estates in Shropshire to gather troops.[27] At Shrewsbury he was captured by his old enemy John Charlton of Powys, and brought to Queen Isabella at Hereford. On 17 November – the day after Edward II had been taken captive – Arundel was executed, allegedly on the instigation of Mortimer.[10] According to a chronicle account, the use of a blunt sword was ordered, and the executioner needed 22 strokes to sever the earl's head from his body.[28]


    The ruins of Haughmond Abbey, Arundel's final resting place.
    Arundel's body was initially interred at the Franciscan church in Hereford. It had been his wish, however, to be buried at the family's traditional resting place of Haughmond Abbey in Shropshire, and this is where he was finally buried.[29] Though he was never canonised, a cult emerged around the late earl in the 1390s, associating him with the 9th-century martyr king St Edmund. This veneration may have been inspired by a similar cult around his grandson, Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who was executed by Richard II in 1397.[30]

    Arundel was attainted at his execution; his estates were forfeited to the crown, and large parts of these were appropriated by Isabella and Mortimer.[31] The castle and honour of Arundel was briefly held by Edward II's half-brother Edmund, Earl of Kent, who was executed on 3 September 1330.[1] Edmund FitzAlan's son, Richard, failed in an attempted rebellion against the crown in June 1330, and had to flee to France. In October the same year, the guardianship of Isabella and Mortimer was supplanted by the personal rule of King Edward III. This allowed Richard to return and reclaim his inheritance, and on 8 February 1331, he was fully restored to his father's lands, and created Earl of Arundel.[32]

    Issue

    Edmund and Alice had at least seven children:[33]

    Name Birth date Death date Notes
    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel c. 1313 24 January 1376 Married (1) Isabel le Despenser, (2) Eleanor of Lancaster
    Edmund — c. 1349
    Michael — —
    Mary — 29 August 1396 Married John le Strange, 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere[34]
    Aline — 20 January 1386 Married Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Knockin[35]
    Alice — 1326 Married John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford
    Katherine — d. 1375/76 Married (1) Henry Hussey, 2nd Baron Hussey, (2) Andrew Peverell
    Eleanor — — Married Gerard de Lisle, 1st Baron Lisle
    Elizabeth - - Married William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer
    Ancestry[edit]

    Residence:
    in exile...

    Died:
    executed...

    Edmund married Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel 0___ 1305. Alice (daughter of William de Warenne and Joan de Vere) was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England; died 23 May 1338. [Group Sheet]


  26. 109.  Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England (daughter of William de Warenne and Joan de Vere); died 23 May 1338.

    Notes:

    Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel (15 June 1287 -23 May 1338) was an English noblewoman and heir apparent to the Earldom of Surrey. In 1305, she married Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel.

    Family

    Alice, the only daughter of William de Warenne (1256-1286) and Joan de Vere, was born on 15 June 1287 in Warren, Sussex, six months after her father was accidentally killed in a tournament on 15 December 1286. On the death of her paternal grandfather, John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey in 1304, her only sibling John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey succeeded to the earldom. He became estranged from his childless wife and they never reconciled, leaving Alice as the heir presumptive to the Surrey estates and title.

    Marriage to the Earl of Arundel

    In 1305, Alice married Edmund Fitzalan, 9th Earl of Arundel,[1] the son of Richard Fitzalan, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo.[2] He had initially refused her, for reasons which were not recorded;[citation needed] however, by 1305, he had changed his mind and they were wed.[1] They had nine recorded children,[citation needed] and their chief residence was Arundel Castle in Sussex. Arundel inherited his title on 9 March 1302 upon his father's death.[2] He was summoned to Parliament as Lord Arundel in 1306, and was later one of the Lords Ordainers. He also took part in the Scottish wars.

    The Earl of Arundel and his brother-in-law John de Warenne were the only nobles who remained loyal to King Edward II, after Queen Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March returned to England in 1326. He had allied himself to the King's favourite Hugh le Despenser, and agreed to the marriage of his son to Despenser's granddaughter. Arundel had previously been granted many of the traitor Mortimer's forfeited estates, and was appointed Justice of Wales in 1322 and Warden of the Welsh Marches in 1325. He was also made Constable of Montgomery Castle which became his principal base.

    The Earl of Arundel was captured in Shropshire by the Queen's party.[3] On 17 November 1326 in Hereford, Arundel was beheaded by order of the Queen, leaving Alice de Warenne a widow. Her husband's estates and titles were forfeited to the Crown following Arundel's execution, but later restored to her eldest son, Richard.[citation needed]

    Alice died before 23 May 1338,[1] aged 50. Her brother died in 1347 without legitimate issue, thus the title of Surrey eventually passed to Alice's son, Richard.

    Issue

    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, known as Copped Hat, (1306 Arundel Castle, Sussex – 24 January 1376), also succeeded to the title of Earl of Surrey on 12 April 1361. He married firstly Isabel le Despenser, whom he later repudiated, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI. He had a son Edmund who was bastardised by the annulment. His second wife, whom he married on 5 February 1345, by Papal dispensation, was Eleanor of Lancaster, the daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth. She was the widow of John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont. Richard and Eleanor had three sons and four daughters, including Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel and Joan de Bohun, Countess of Hereford.
    Edward FitzAlan (1308–1398)
    Alice FitzAlan (born 1310), married John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford.
    Joan FitzAlan (born 1312), married Warin Gerard, Baron L'Isle.
    Aline FitzAlan (1314–1386), married Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Knockyn, by whom she had issue.
    John FitzAlan (born 1315)
    Catherine FitzAlan (died 1376), married firstly Andrew Peverell, and secondly Henry Hussey of Cockfield. Had issue by her second husband.
    Elizabeth FitzAlan (1320–1389), married William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, by whom she had one daughter, Elizabeth.
    Eleanor FitzAlan

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery on Christmas Day 1067. Roger became the first to hold the earldom of Arundel by the graces of William the Conqueror. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War and then restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    View image, history & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Children:
    1. 54. Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel was born 1306-1313, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 24 Jan 1376, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.
    2. Mary de Arundel was born Corfham Castle, Diddlebury, Shropshire, England; died 29 Aug 1396, Corfham, Shropshire, England.
    3. Aline FitzAlan was born 0___ 1314, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 20 Jan 1386.
    4. Elizabeth FitzAlan was born 0___ 1320, (England); died 0___ 1389.

  27. 110.  Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and LeicesterHenry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester was born 0___ 1281, Grosmont Castle, Monmouth, England (son of Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet, Prince of England and Blanche de Capet d'Artois, Queen of Navarre, Princess of France); died 22 Sep 1345, Leicester, Leicestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Military: Appointed Captain-General of all The King's Forces in The Marches of Scotland.
    • Death: 25 Mar 1345

    Notes:

    Henry, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Lancaster (c. 1281 – 22 September 1345) was an English nobleman, one of the principals behind the deposition of Edward II of England.

    Origins

    He was the younger son of Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester,[1] who was a son of King Henry III by his wife Eleanor of Provence. Henry's mother was Blanche of Artois, Queen Dowager of Navarre.

    Henry's elder brother Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, succeeded their father in 1296, but Henry was summoned to Parliament on 6 February 1298/99 by writ directed to Henrico de Lancastre nepoti Regis ("Henry of Lancaster, nephew of the king", Edward I), by which he is held to have become Baron Lancaster. He took part in the Siege of Caerlaverock in July 1300.

    Petition for succession and inheritance

    After a period of longstanding opposition to King Edward II and his advisors, including joining two open rebellions, Henry's brother Thomas was convicted of treason, executed and had his lands and titles forfeited in 1322. Henry did not participate in his brother's rebellions; he later petitioned for his brother's lands and titles, and on 29 March 1324 he was invested as Earl of Leicester. A few years later, shortly after his accession in 1327, the young Edward III of England returned the earldom of Lancaster to him, along with other lordships such as that of Bowland.

    Revenge

    On the Queen's return to England in September 1326 with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, Henry joined her party against King Edward II, which led to a general desertion of the king's cause and overturned the power of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester, and his namesake son Hugh the younger Despenser.

    He was sent in pursuit and captured the king at Neath in South Wales. He was appointed to take charge of the king and was responsible for his custody at Kenilworth Castle.

    Full restoration and reward[edit]
    Henry was appointed "chief advisor" for the new king Edward III of England,[2] and was also appointed captain-general of all the king's forces in the Scottish Marches.[3] He was appointed High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1327. He also helped the young king to put an end to Mortimer's regency and tyranny, also had him declared a traitor and executed in 1330.

    Loss of sight

    In about the year 1330, he became blind.

    Nickname

    According to Froissart, he was nicknamed Wryneck, or Tort-col in French, possibly due to a medical condition.[citation needed]

    Succession

    He was succeeded as Earl of Lancaster and Leicester by his eldest son, Henry of Grosmont, who subsequently became Duke of Lancaster.

    Issue[edit]


    He married Maud Chaworth, before 2 March 1296/1297.[4]

    Henry and Maud had seven children:

    Henry, Earl of Derby, (about 1300–1360/61)
    Blanche of Lancaster, (about 1305–1380) married Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell
    Matilda of Lancaster, (about 1310–1377); married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster and had descendants.
    Joan of Lancaster, (about 1312–1345); married John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray and had descendants
    Isabel of Lancaster, Abbess of Amesbury, (about 1317-after 1347)
    Eleanor of Lancaster, (about 1318–1371/72) married (1) John De Beaumont and (2) 5 Feb. 1344/5, Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and had descendants
    Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320–1362), who married Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy, and was the mother of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland.

    In about the year 1330, he became blind.

    Buried:
    at the Monastery of Canons...

    Henry married Maud Chaworth Bef 2 Mar 1297. Maud (daughter of Patrick Chaworth, Knight, Lord of Kidwelly and Isabella Beauchamp) was born 2 Feb 1282, Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales; died 3 Dec 1322, Montisfort, Hampshire, England; was buried Montisfort, Hampshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  28. 111.  Maud Chaworth was born 2 Feb 1282, Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales (daughter of Patrick Chaworth, Knight, Lord of Kidwelly and Isabella Beauchamp); died 3 Dec 1322, Montisfort, Hampshire, England; was buried Montisfort, Hampshire, England.

    Notes:

    Maud de Chaworth (2 February 1282-3 Dec 1322) was an English noblewoman and wealthy heiress. She was the only child of Patrick de Chaworth. Sometime before 2 March 1297, she married Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, by whom she had seven children.

    Parents

    Maud was the daughter of Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Baron of Kidwelly, in Carmarthenshire, South Wales, and Isabella de Beauchamp. Her maternal grandfather was William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. Her father, Patrick de Chaworth died on 7 July 1283. He was thought to be 30 years old. Three years later, in 1286, Isabella de Beauchamp married Hugh Despenser the Elder and had two sons and four daughters by him. This made Maud the half-sister of Hugh the younger Despenser. Her mother, Isabella de Beauchamp, died in 1306.

    Childhood

    Maud was only a year old when her father died, and his death left her a wealthy heiress. However, because she was an infant, she became a ward of Eleanor of Castile, Queen consort of King Edward I of England. Upon Queen Eleanor's death in 1290, her husband, King Edward I, granted Maud's marriage to his brother Edmund, Earl of Lancaster on 30 December 1292.
    Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester was the son of Eleanor of Provence and Henry III of England. He first married Aveline de Forz, Countess of Albemarle, in 1269. Later, in Paris on 3 February 1276, he married Blanche of Artois, who was a niece of Louis IX of France and Queen of Navarre by her first marriage. Blanche and Edmund had four children together, one of whom was Henry, who would later become 3rd Earl of Leicester and Maud Chaworth’s husband.

    Marriage and issue


    Edmund Crouchback betrothed Maud to his son Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster.[1] Henry and Maud were married sometime before 2 March 1297. Henry was probably born between the years 1280 and 1281, making him somewhat older than Maud, but not by much since they were either fourteen or fifteen-years-old.

    Since Maud inherited her father’s property, Henry also acquired this property through the rights of marriage. Some of that property was of the following: Hampshire, Glamorgan, Wiltshire, and Carmarthenshire. Henry was the nephew of the King of England, as well as being closely related to the French royal family line. Henry's half-sister Jeanne (or Juana) was Queen of Navarre in her own right and married Philip IV of France. Henry was the uncle of King Edward II's Queen Isabella and of three Kings of France. He was also the younger brother of Thomas (Earl of Lancaster) and first cousin of Edward II.

    Maud is often described as the "Countess of Leicester" or "Countess of Lancaster", but she never bore the titles as she died in 1322, before her husband received them. Henry was named "Earl of Leicester" in 1324 and "Earl of Lancaster" in 1327. Henry never remarried and died on 22 September 1345, when he would have been in his mid-sixties. All but one of his seven children with Maud outlived him.

    Maud and Henry had seven children:

    Blanche of Lancaster, (about 1302/05–1380); Maud’s eldest daughter was probably born between 1302 and 1305, and was named after her father’s mother Blanche of Artois. Around 9 October 1316, she married Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell. Blanch was about forty-five when Thomas died, and she lived as a widow for more than thirty years. She was one of the executers of her brother Henry’s will when he died in 1361. Blanche outlived all her siblings, dying shortly before 12 July 1380 in her seventies. Born in the reign of Edward I, she survived all the way into the reign of his great grandson Richard II.

    Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, (about 1310–1361); Maud’s only son Henry was usually called Henry of Grosmont to distinguish him from his father. He was one of the great magnates of the fourteenth century, well known and highly respected. He took after his father and was well-educated, literate, and pious; he was a soldier and a diplomat. Henry produced his own memoir "Le Livre de Seyntz Medicines", which was completed in 1354. At one point, Henry of Grosmont was considered to be the richest man in England aside from the Prince of Wales. He emerged as a political figure in his own right within England: he was knighted and represented his father in Parliament. He married Isabella, daughter of Henry, Lord Beaumont. His daughter Blanche was betrothed and eventually married to the son of Edward III, John of Gaunt. In 1361, Henry was killed by a new outbreak of the Black Death, leaving John of Gaunt his inheritance and eventually his title through his daughter Blanche.[2]

    Maud of Lancaster, Countess of Ulster, (c. 1310 – 5 May 1377). There is some discrepancy as to when Maud died.[3][4] She married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster in 1327. They had one child, Elizabeth de Burgh, who was born 6 July 1332. Eleven months after the birth of their child, Earl William was murdered at “Le Ford” in Belfast, apparently by some of his own men. The countess Maud fled to England with her baby and stayed with the royal family. In 1337, Maud of Lancaster managed to ensure that the Justiciar of Ireland was forbidden to pardon her husband’s killers. She fought for her dower rights and exerted some influence there. She remarried in 1344 to Ralph Ufford and returned to Ireland, where she had another daughter, Maud. After her second husband fell ill in 1346, she again returned to England. Maud of Lancaster died on 5 May 1377.
    Joan of Lancaster, (about 1312–1345); married between 28 February and 4 June 1327 to John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray. John’s father was executed for reasons unknown, and young John was imprisoned in the Tower of London along with his mother Alice de Braose until late 1326. A large part of his inheritance was granted to Hugh Despenser the Younger, who was his future wife’s uncle; however, he was set free in 1327 before the marriage. Joan of Lancaster probably died 7July 1349. Joan and John, 3rd Lord Mowbray had six children.

    Isabel of Lancaster, Prioress of Amesbury, (about 1317–after 1347); One of the youngest daughters of Maud and Henry, she lived quietly, going on pilgrimages and spending a lot of time alone. She also spent a great deal of time outside the cloister on non-spiritual matters. Her father had given her quite a bit of property, which she administered herself. She owned hunting dogs and had personal servants. She used her family connections to secure privileges and concessions.[5]

    Eleanor of Lancaster, (1318- Sept. 1372); married John Beaumont between September and November 1330. Eleanor bore John a son, Henry, who married Margaret de Vere, a sister of Elizabeth and Thomas de Vere, Earl of Oxford. John Beaumont was killed in a jousting tournament in Northampton on 14 April 1342. Eleanor then became the mistress of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, who was married to her first cousin Isabel, daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger. Richard obtained a divorce from the Pope and married Eleanor on 5 February 1345 in the presence of Edward III. They had five children together, three sons and two daughters. Eleanor died on 11 January 1372.

    Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320–1362); married Henry, Lord Percy before 4 September 1334; he fought at the battle of Crecy in 1346, and served in Gascony under the command of his brother-in-law Henry of Grosmont. Their son was Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. Mary of Lancaster died on 1 September 1362, the year after her brother Henry.

    Birth:
    Photo, map & history of Kidwelly ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidwelly

    Children:
    1. Henry of Grosmont, Knight, 1st Duke of Lancaster was born ~ 1310, Grosmont Castle, Grosmont, Monmouthshire, Wales; died 23 Mar 1361, Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire, England.
    2. Joan Plantagenet, Baroness Mowbray was born ~ 1312, Norfolk, England; died 7 Jul 1349, Yorkshire, England; was buried Byland Abbey, Coxwold, North Yorkshire, England.
    3. 55. Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales; died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.
    4. Mary Plantagenet, Baroness of Percy was born 1319-1320, Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire, England; died 1 Sep 1362, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; was buried Alnwick, Northumberland, England.

  29. 116.  Henry de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby was born ~ 1302, Groby, Leicestershire, England (son of William de Ferrers and Ellen de Segrave); died 15 Sep 1343; was buried Ulverscroft Priory, Leicestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Buried:
    Image, map & history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulverscroft_Priory

    Henry married Isabel de Verdun Bef Feb 1330. [Group Sheet]


  30. 117.  Isabel de Verdun (daughter of Theobald de Verdun, II, Lord Weoberley and Elizabeth de Clare).
    Children:
    1. 58. William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby was born 28 Feb 1333, Groby, Leicestershire, England; died 8 Jan 1371, Newbold Verdon, Leicestershire, England.
    2. Phillippe de Ferrers

  31. 118.  Robert de Ufford, (II), Knight, 1st Earl of Suffolk was born 9 Aug 1298, Ufford, Suffolk, England (son of Robert de Ufford, I, 1st Lord Ufford and Cecily Valoines); died 4 Nov 1369, (Suffolk, Suffolkshire, England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Robert Ufford
    • Also Known As: Suffolk

    Notes:

    Robert de Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk, KG (9 August 1298 - 4 November 1369) was an English peer. He was created Earl of Suffolk in 1337.

    Early life

    Born 9 August 1298, Robert de Ufford was the second but eldest surviving son of Robert de Ufford (1279–1316), Lord Ufford of Ufford, Suffolk, and Cecily de Valoignes (d.1325), daughter and coheir of Sir Robert de Valoignes (d.1289) and Eve de La Pecche. He had a younger brother, Sir Ralph Ufford (d.1346).[1][2]

    On 19 May 1318 he had livery of his father's Suffolk lands. He was knighted and received some official employments, being occupied, for example, in 1326 in levying ships for the royal use in Suffolk, and serving in November 1327 on a commission of the peace in the eastern counties under the statute of Winchester. In May and June 1329 he attended the young Edward III on his journey to Amiens.[3]

    He was employed on state affairs down to the end of the rule of Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, and on 1 May 1330 received a grant for life of Orford Castle in Suffolk, which had been previously held by his father; he also obtained grants of other lands. On 28 July he was appointed to array and command the levies of Norfolk and Suffolk summoned to fight "against the king's rebels". Nevertheless, in October he associated himself with William de Montacute in the attack on Mortimer at Nottingham. He took part in the capture of Mortimer in Nottingham Castle, and was implicated in the deaths of Sir Hugh de Turplington and Richard de Monmouth that occurred during the scuffle; that on 12 February 1331 he received a special pardon for the homicide. He was rewarded by the grant of the manors of Cawston and Fakenham in Norfolk, and also of some houses in Cripplegate that had belonged to Mortimer's associate, John Maltravers, succeeding Maltravers in some posts. He was summoned as a baron to parliament on 27 January 1332. From that time he was one of the most trusted warriors, counsellors, and diplomats in Edward III's service.[3]

    Earl of Suffolk

    On 1 November 1335 Ufford was appointed a member of an embassy empowered to treat with the Scots. He then served in a campaign against them, and was made warden of Bothwell Castle. On 14 January 1337 he was made admiral of the king's northern fleet jointly with Sir John Ros; Ufford ceased to hold this office later in the year. In March he was created Earl of Suffolk, and was granted lands. During his absence in parliament the Scots retook Bothwell Castle.[3]

    Hundred Years' War

    In opening moves of the Edwardian War, Suffolk was sent on 3 October 1337, with Henry Burghersh, the Earl of Northampton, and Sir John Darcy, to treat for peace or a truce with the French. Further powers were given them to deal with Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and other allies, and on 7 October they were also commissioned to treat with David Bruce, then staying in France, and were accredited to the two cardinals sent by the pope to make an Anglo-French reconciliation. Next year, on 1 July, Suffolk was associated with John de Stratford and others on an embassy to France, and left England along with the two cardinals sent to treat for peace. He attended the king in Brabant, serving in September 1339 in the expedition that besieged Cambrai, and in the army that prepared to fight a major battle at Buironfosse that came to nothing, where he and the Earl of Derby held a joint command. On 15 November of the same year he was appointed joint ambassador to Louis I, Count of Flanders and the Flemish estates, to treat for an alliance.[3]

    After Edward's return to England, Suffolk stayed behind with Salisbury, in garrison at Ypres. During Lent 1340 they attacked the French near Lille, pursued the enemy into the town, were made prisoners and were sent to Paris. Philip VI of France, it was said, wished to kill them, and they were spared only through the intervention of John of Bohemia. The truce of 25 September 1340 provided for the release of all prisoners, but it was only after a heavy ransom, to which Edward III contributed, that Suffolk was freed. He took part in a tournament at Dunstable in the spring of 1342 and at great jousts in London. He was one of the members of Edward's Round Table at Windsor, which assembled in February 1344, and fought in a tournament at Hertford in September 1344. he was one of the early members of Order of the Garter.[3]

    Suffolk served through the English intervention in the Breton War of Succession during July 1342, and at the siege of Rennes. In July 1343 he was joint ambassador to Pope Clement VI at Avignon. On 8 May 1344 he was appointed captain and admiral of the northern fleet, and on 3 July accompanied Edward on a short expedition to Flanders. He continued admiral in person or deputy until March 1347, when he was succeeded by Sir John Howard. On 11 July 1346 Suffolk sailed with the king from Portsmouth on the invasion of France which resulted in the battle of Crâecy. On the retreat northwards, a day after the passage of the River Seine, Suffolk and Sir Hugh le Despenser defeated a French force. Suffolk was one of those who advised Edward to select the field of Crâecy as his battle-ground; in the English victory he fought in on the left wing. Next morning, 27 August, he took part in the Earl of Northampton's reconnaissance that resulted in a sharp fight with the unbroken remnant of the French army.[3]

    Suffolk's diplomatic activity went on. He was one of the commissioners appointed to treat with France on 25 September 1348, and with Flanders on 11 October. The negotiations were conducted at Calais. On 10 March 1349, and again on 15 May 1350, he had similar commissions. On 29 August 1350 he fought in the naval victory, the Battle of Winchelsea. In May 1351 and in June 1352 he was chief commissioner of array in Norfolk and Suffolk.[3]

    In south-west France

    In September 1355 Suffolk sailed with The Black Prince, to Aquitaine. Between October and December he was on the prince's raid through Languedoc to Narbonne, where he commanded the rear-guard, William de Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, serving with him. After his return he was quartered at Saint-Emilion, his followers being stationed round Libourne. In January 1356 he led another foray, towards Rocamadour. Suffolk also shared in the Black Prince's northern foray of 1356, and in the battle of Poitiers which resulted from it, where he commanded, with Salisbury, the third "battle" or the rearward. The Prince's attempted retreat over the Miausson, threw the brunt of the first fighting on Suffolk and Salisbury. On the march back to Bordeaux he led the vanguard. Now 58 years old, he took part in the expedition into the County of Champagne in 1359. After that he was employed only in embassies, the last of those on which he served being that commissioned on 8 February 1362 to negotiate the proposed marriage of Edmund of Langley to the daughter of the Count of Flanders.[3]

    Last years

    In his declining years Suffolk devoted himself to the removal of Leiston Abbey, near Saxmundham, to a new site somewhat further inland. In 1363 it was transferred to its new home, where some ruins remain.[3]

    Suffolk died on 4 November 1369.[3]

    Marriage and issue

    In 1334 he married Margaret Norwich (d. 2 April 1368), daughter of Sir Walter Norwich (d.1329), Treasurer of the Exchequer, and Catherine de Hedersete, by whom he had a large family, including:[2]

    Robert Ufford, who predeceased his father without issue.[2]
    William de Ufford, 2nd Earl of Suffolk (d. 15 February 1382), second son, who married Joan Montagu (2 February 1349 - before 27 June 1376), daughter of Edward Montagu, 1st Baron Montagu (d. 3 July 1461) and Alice of Norfolk, by whom he had four sons and a daughter.[4]
    Walter Ufford (born 3 October 1343), third son, who married, before February 1359, Elizabeth de Montagu (c.1344 - before July 1361), daughter of Edward Montagu, 1st Baron Montagu (d. 3 July 1461) and Alice of Norfolk, by whom he had no issue.[4]
    Joan Ufford, eldest daughter, who was contracted to marry her father's ward, John de St Philibert; however the marriage did not take place.[2]
    Catharine Ufford (born c.1317, date of death unknown)[citation needed] married Robert de Scales, 3rd Baron Scales.[2][5]
    Cecily Ufford (born c. 1327 – died before 29 March 1372),[citation needed] who married William, Lord Willoughby of Eresby.[2]
    Margaret Ufford (born c. 1330 – died before 25 May 1368),[citation needed] who married Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby.[2]
    Maud Ufford, who became a nun at the Augustinian priory in Campsea Ashe, Suffolk.[2]

    Robert married Margaret Norwich 0___ 1334. Margaret (daughter of Walter de Norwich, Knight and Catherine de Hadersete) was born 0___ 1286, Mettingham, Suffolk, England; died 2 Apr 1368. [Group Sheet]


  32. 119.  Margaret Norwich was born 0___ 1286, Mettingham, Suffolk, England (daughter of Walter de Norwich, Knight and Catherine de Hadersete); died 2 Apr 1368.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Margaret de Norwich
    • Alt Death: 3 Sep 1375, Thurston, Suffolk, England

    Notes:

    Birth:
    daughter of Sir Walter de Norwich, Knight, Lord High Treasurer

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Orford Castle is a castle in the village of Orford, Suffolk, England, located 12 miles (20 km) northeast of Ipswich, with views over the Orford Ness. It was built between 1165 and 1173 by Henry II of England to consolidate royal power in the region. The well-preserved keep, described by historian R. Allen Brown as "one of the most remarkable keeps in England", is of a unique design and probably based on Byzantine architecture. The keep still stands among the earth-covered remains of the outer fortifications.

    Photos, map, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orford_Castle

    Children:
    1. 59. Margaret de Ufford was born ~ 1330, Ufford, Suffolk, England; died Bef 25 May 1368, Eresby, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England.
    2. Cecily Ufford was born 29 Mar 1372, Eresby, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England.

  33. 120.  Thomas de Berkeley, Knight, 3rd Baron BerkeleyThomas de Berkeley, Knight, 3rd Baron Berkeley was born 1293-1296, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England (son of Maurice de Berkeley, III, Knight, 2nd Baron Berkeley and Eva la Zouche); died 27 Oct 1361, Gloucestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Thomas de Berkeley (c. 1293 or 1296 – 27 October 1361), The Rich, feudal baron of Berkeley, of Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire, England, was a peer. His epithet, and that of each previous and subsequent head of his family, was coined by John Smyth of Nibley (d.1641), steward of the Berkeley estates, the biographer of the family and author of "Lives of the Berkeleys".

    Origins

    He was the eldest son and heir of Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley by his wife Eve la Zouche.

    Career

    In 1327 he was made joint custodian of the deposed King Edward II, whom he received at Berkeley Castle. He was later commanded to deliver custody of the king to his fellow custodians, namely John Maltravers, 1st Baron Maltravers and Sir Thomas Gournay. He left the king at Barkeley Castle and with heavy cheere perceiving what violence was intended he journeyed to Bradley. The king was murdered at Berkeley Castle during his absence. As an accessory to the murder of the deposed king, he was tried by a jury of 12 knights in 1330 and was honourably acquitted.

    Marriages & progeny

    He married twice:

    Firstly to Margaret Mortimer, daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, by whom he had five children:
    Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley (born 1320, date of death unknown), The Valiant, eldest son and heir.
    Thomas de Berkeley (born c. 1325, date of death unknown)
    Roger de Berkeley (born 1326, date of death unknown)
    Alphonsus de Berkeley (born 1327, date of death unknown)
    Joan de Berkeley (born 1330, date of death unknown), wife of Reginald de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham.

    Secondly on 30 May 1347 he married Catherine [1] Clivedon (21 January 1351[sic][clarification needed] – 1428) by whom he had a further four children as follows:
    Thomas Berkeley (born 7 June 1348, date of death unknown)
    Maurice de Berkeley (27 May 1349 – 3 June 1368)
    Edmund de Berkeley (born 10 July 1350, date of death unknown)
    John Berkeley (21 January 1351 – 1428) of Beverstone Castle, Gloucestershire, a secondary residence of his father

    Death & succession

    He died on 27 October 1361 in Gloucestershire and was succeeded by Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley (born 1320, date of death unknown), eldest son and heir from his first marriage.

    References

    Jump up ^ Plea rolls of the Court of Common Pleas; National Archives; http://aalt.law.uh.edu/AALT6/R2/CP40no483/483_0892.htm; first entry: mentions Katherine, formerly wife of Thomas de Berkele of Barkele, knight, as complainant; Year: 1381
    Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who came to America before 1700, Frederick Lewis Weis, 1992, seventh edition.
    Ancestral roots of sixty colonists who came to New England 1623–1650. Frederick Lewis Weis (earlier edition).
    Magna Charta Sureties, 1215., Frederick Lewis Weis, Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., William R. Beall, 1999, 5th Ed.
    Magna Charta Sureties, 1215", Frederick Lewis Weis, 4th Ed.
    The Complete Peerage, Cokayne.
    Burke's Peerage, 1938.
    Plantagenet Ancestry of Seventeenth-Century Colonists, David Faris, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1996.
    Royal Genealogy information held at University of Hull.

    Birth:
    Berkeley Castle (historically sometimes spelt Berkley Castle) is a castle in the town of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, UK (grid reference ST685989). The castle's origins date back to the 11th century and it has been designated by English Heritage as a grade I listed building.

    The castle has remained within the Berkeley family since they reconstructed it in the 12th century, except for a period of royal ownership by the Tudors. It is traditionally believed to be the scene of the murder of King Edward II in 1327.

    View images, history & map ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berkeley_Castle

    Thomas — Margaret Mortimer, Baroness Berkeley. Margaret (daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville) was born 2 May 1304, (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England); died 5 May 1337; was buried St. Augustine's Abbey, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  34. 121.  Margaret Mortimer, Baroness Berkeley was born 2 May 1304, (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England) (daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville); died 5 May 1337; was buried St. Augustine's Abbey, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Margaret Mortimer, Baroness Berkeley (2 May 1304 – 5 May 1337) was the wife of Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley. She was the eldest daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, the de facto ruler of England from 1327 to 1330, and his wife Joan de Geneville, Baroness Geneville.[1]

    Birth:
    History, map & images of Wigmore Castle ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wigmore_Castle

    Children:
    1. 60. Maurice Berkeley, Knight, 4th Baron Berkeley was born 1320-1323, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England; died 0Aug 1368, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England.

  35. 122.  Hugh le Despencer, IV, Knight, Baron Despenser was born ~ 1286, England (son of Hugh le Despenser, Knight, 1st Earl of Winchester and Isabella Beauchamp); died 24 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried (Hulton Abbey, Staffordshire, England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 1st Lord Despenser

    Notes:

    Hugh le Despenser, 1st Lord Despenser (c. 1286[1] – 24 November 1326), also referred to as "the younger Despenser",[2] was the son and heir of Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester (the elder Despenser) by his wife Isabella de Beauchamp daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick.[3] He rose to national prominence as royal chamberlain and a favourite of Edward II of England. A series of subsequent controversies eventually led to him being hanged, drawn and quartered.

    Titles and possessions

    Hugh le Despenser the younger was knight of Hanley Castle, Worcestershire, King's Chamberlain, Constable of Odiham Castle, Keeper of Porchester Castle and town, Keeper of the royal Bristol Castle, the town and barton of Bristol and, in Wales, Keeper of Dryslwyn Castle and town and of Dryslwyn, and the region of Cantref Mawr, Carmarthenshire.

    Also in Wales, by marriage he became Lord of Glamorgan, seated at Cardiff Castle.

    He was also Keeper of the castles, manor, and lands of Brecknock, Hay, Cantref Selyf, etc., in County Brecon, and, in England of Huntington, Herefordshire.

    He was given Wallingford Castle although this had previously been given to Queen Isabella for life.

    Marriage

    In May 1306 Hugh le Despenser the younger was knighted, and that summer he married Eleanor de Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 9th Lord of Clare and 7th Earl of Hertford and Joan of Acre.

    Eleanor's grandfather, Edward I, owed the elder Despenser 2,000 marks (¹1,000,000 at today's prices) and the marriage settled this debt, and was a reward for the elder Hugh's loyal service.

    When Eleanor's brother, Gilbert, was killed in 1314 at the Battle of Bannockburn, she unexpectedly became one of the three co-heiresses to the rich Gloucester earldom, and in her right, Hugh inherited Glamorgan and other properties.[4] In just a few years Hugh went from a landless knight to one of the wealthiest magnates in the kingdom.

    Eleanor was also the niece of the new king, Edward II of England, and this connection brought Despenser closer to the English royal court. He joined the baronial opposition to Piers Gaveston, the king's favourite (and Hugh's brother-in-law, as Gaveston was married to Eleanor's sister Margaret).

    Eager for power and wealth, Despenser seized Tonbridge Castle in 1315, after his brother-in-law's death under the misapprehension that it belonged to his mother-in-law (he relinquished it on discovering that the rightful owner was the Archbishop of Canterbury).[5] In 1318 he murdered Llywelyn Bren, a Welsh hostage in his custody.

    Eleanor and Hugh had nine children to survive infancy:

    Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer (1308–1349), 2nd Baron Le Despencer, who was restored to his grandfather's title of Baron le Despencer in 1338. At his death without issue, his nephew Edward, son of Edward (below), was created Baron Le Despencer in a new creation of 1357.
    Gilbert le Despenser, (1309–1381).

    Edward le Despenser, (1310–1342), soldier, killed at the siege of Vannes;[6] father of Edward II le Despenser, Knight of the Garter, who became Baron Le Despencer in a new creation of 1357. His son was Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester and 2nd Baron Le Despencer of the 1357 creation, who was married to a daughter of Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, youngest son of Edward III, and was attainted and beheaded in 1400 for his attempts to restore Richard II, his wife's cousin, to the throne. His attainder was reversed in 1461, with the victory of Edward IV, and the barony of the first creation (1264/1295) was eventually awarded in 1604 to Dame Mary Fane, heiress of Thomas's daughter Isabel Le Despencer, who married two cousins. The barony is now held by the Viscounts Falmouth.

    Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Arundel (1312–1356), married, as his 1st wife, Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel. The marriage was annulled and their child, Edmund, was disinherited.
    John le Despenser, (1311 – June 1366).
    Eleanor le Despenser, (c. 1315–1351), nun at Sempringham Priory
    Joan le Despenser, (c. 1317–1384), nun at Shaftesbury Abbey
    Margaret le Despenser, (c. 1319–1337), nun at Whatton Priory
    Elizabeth le Despenser, Baroness Berkeley|Elizabeth le Despenser]], born 1325, died 13 July 1389, married Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley.

    Political manoeuverings

    Hugh le Despenser the younger became royal chamberlain in 1318. As a royal courtier, Despenser manoeuvred into the affections of King Edward, displacing the previous favourite, Roger d'Amory. This was much to the dismay of the baronage as they saw him both taking their rightful places at court and being a worse version of Gaveston. By 1320 his greed was running free. He also supposedly vowed to be revenged on Roger Mortimer because Mortimer's grandfather had killed Hugh's grandfather, and once stated (though probably in jest) that he regretted he could not control the wind. By 1321 he had earned many enemies in every stratum of society, from Queen Isabella to the barons to the common people. There was even a plot to kill Despenser by sticking his wax likeness with pins.

    Finally the barons prevailed upon King Edward and forced Despenser and his father into exile in August 1321. Following the exile of the Despensers, the barons who opposed them fell out among themselves, and the King summoned the two men back to England. Early in the following year, King Edward took advantage of these divisions to secure the surrender of Marcher Lord Roger Mortimer, and the defeat and execution of the Earl of Lancaster, the Despensers' chief opponents. The pair returned and King Edward quickly reinstated Despenser as royal favourite. The time from the Despensers' return from exile until the end of Edward II's reign was a time of uncertainty in England. With the main baronial opposition leaderless and weak, having been defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and Edward willing to let them do as they pleased, the Despensers were left unchecked. This maladministration caused hostile feeling for them and, by proxy, Edward II. Despenser repeatedly pressed King Edward to execute Mortimer,[citation needed] who had been held prisoner in the Tower of London, following his surrender. However, Mortimer escaped from the Tower and fled to France.

    Criminality

    Like his father, Hugh Despenser the Elder, the younger Despenser was accused by a significant number of people of widespread criminality. Examples include;

    Theft from Relatives - Despenser seized the Welsh lands of his wife's inheritance, ignoring the claims of his two brothers-in-law and cheated his sister-in-law Elizabeth de Clare out of Gower and Usk.
    Theft - forced Alice de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, to give up her lands,
    Torture - he had Lady Baret's arms and legs broken until she went insane.
    Murder - unlawfully killing a prisoner (Llweyn Bren) who was awaiting trial[7]
    Piracy - during his exile he became a pirate in the English Channel, "a sea monster, lying in wait for merchants as they crossed the sea".[8]
    False Imprisonment & Death Threats - he imprisoned Sir William Cokerell in the Tower of London, where Cokerell was forced to pay to save his life[9]
    Accusations of sodomy[edit]
    14th century court historian Froissart wrote that "he was a sodomite." According to Froissart, Despenser's penis was severed and burned in his execution as a punishment for his sodomy and heresy.[10]

    Relationship with Isabella and downfall

    Queen Isabella had a special dislike for Hugh le Despenser the younger. Alison Weir, in her 2005 book Queen Isabella: Treachery, Adultery, and Murder in Medieval England, speculates that he had raped Isabella and that was the source of her hatred. While Isabella was in France to negotiate between her husband and the French king, she formed a liaison with Roger Mortimer and began planning an invasion. Despenser supposedly tried to bribe French courtiers to assassinate Isabella, sending barrels of silver as payment.[citation needed] Roger Mortimer and the Queen invaded England in October 1326. Their forces numbered only about 1,500 mercenaries to begin with, but the majority of the nobility rallied to them throughout October and November. By contrast, very few people were prepared to fight for Edward II, mainly because of the hatred that the Despensers had aroused.

    The Despensers fled West with the King, with a sizeable sum from the treasury. The escape was unsuccessful. Separated from the elder Despenser, the King and the younger Despenser were deserted by most of their followers, and were captured near Neath in mid-November. King Edward was placed in captivity and later forced to abdicate in favour of his son. The elder Despenser (the father) was hanged at Bristol on 27 October 1326, and younger Despenser (the son) was brought to trial.

    Trial and execution

    The execution of Hugh le Despenser the younger, from a manuscript of Jean Froissart.
    Hugh le Despenser the Younger tried to starve himself before his trial,[11] but he did face trial on 24 November 1326, in Hereford, before Mortimer and the Queen. In Froissart's account of the execution, Despenser was then tied firmly to a ladder, and—in full view of the crowd—had his genitals sliced off and burned in his still-conscious sight, then his entrails slowly pulled out, and, finally, his heart cut out and thrown into the fire. Froissart (or rather Jean le Bel's chronicle, on which he relied) is the only source to describe castration, where all other contemporary accounts have Despenser hanged, drawn and quartered (which usually involved castration).[12]

    Finally, his corpse was beheaded, his body cut into four pieces, and his head mounted on the gates of London.[2]

    Remains

    Four years later, in December 1330, his widow was given permission to gather and bury his remains at the family's Gloucestershire estate,[2] but only the head, a thigh bone and a few vertebrae were returned to her.[13]

    What may be the body of Despenser was identified in February 2008 in the village of Abbey Hulton in Staffordshire, the former site of Hulton Abbey. The skeleton, which was first uncovered during archaeological work in the 1970s, appeared to be that of a victim of a drawing and quartering as it had been beheaded and chopped into several pieces with a sharp blade, suggesting a ritual killing. Furthermore, it lacked several body parts, including the ones given to Despenser's wife. Radiocarbon analysis dated the body to between 1050 and 1385, and later tests suggested it to be that of a man over 34 years old. Despenser was 40 at the time of his death. In addition, the Abbey is located on lands that belonged to Hugh Audley, Despenser's brother-in-law, at the time.[13]

    Legacy

    No book-length biographical study of Hugh le Despenser exists, although The Tyranny and Fall of Edward II: 1321–1326 by historian Natalie Fryde is a study of Edward's reign during the years that the Despensers' power was at its peak. Fryde pays particular attention to the subject of the Despensers' ill-gotten landholdings.[14] The numerous accusations against the younger Despenser at the time of his execution have never been the subject of close critical scrutiny, although Roy Martin Haines called them "ingenuous" and noted their propagandistic nature.[15]

    Despite the crucial and disastrous role he played in the reign of Edward II, Despenser is almost a minor character in Christopher Marlowe's play Edward II (1592), where, as "Spencer", he is little more than a substitute for the dead Gaveston. In 2006, he was selected by BBC History Magazine as the 14th century's worst Briton.[16]

    His image on the stained glass window of the Banqueting Hall of Cardiff Castle, shows his coat of arms inverted—a symbol of disgrace.

    Ancestry

    Edward II of England and Hugh Despenser the elder extorted the lands of Alice de Lacy, 4th Countess of Lincoln, and to make the transfers of title appear legitimate, declared Hugh the younger her "kinsman".

    [show]Ancestors of Hugh Despenser the Younger

    Notable descendants

    Anne Neville, the queen consort of King Richard III of England, is a direct descendant of Hugh le Despenser the younger. Anne's grandmother, Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Worcester and Warwick, was the granddaughter of Edward le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer, who in turn was the grandson of the younger Despenser.

    The sixth and last queen consort to Henry VIII, Catherine Parr, also descended from the 1st Baron le Despencer, through his daughter Margaret, who married Robert de Ferrers, 4th Baron Ferrers of Chartley.[17]

    The New England Protestant reformer Anne (Marbury) Hutchinson was a descendant of Hugh through his grandson Edward.[18] Through her, many Americans including Franklin D. Roosevelt and George W. Bush, can claim Hugh the younger as an ancestor.[19]

    *

    Died:
    Hanged, drawn and quartered for High treason...

    Hugh married Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer 1 May 1306, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. Eleanor (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre) was born 0Oct 1292, Caerphilly Castle, Caerphilly, Urban, Glamorgan, Wales; died 30 Jun 1337, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England; was buried (Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ). [Group Sheet]


  36. 123.  Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer was born 0Oct 1292, Caerphilly Castle, Caerphilly, Urban, Glamorgan, Wales (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre); died 30 Jun 1337, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England; was buried (Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ).
    Children:
    1. Isabe le Despenser, Countess of Arundel was born 0___ 1312; died ~ 1376.
    2. 61. Elizabeth Despencer was born 0___ 1322, Bishop's Stoke, Westbury Upon Trym, Gloucester, England; died 13 Jul 1389; was buried St. Botolph Aldersgate, London, Middlesex, England.
    3. Edward le Despencer


Generation: 8

  1. 82.  Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of StrattonHugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton was born 0___ 1267, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England (son of James de Audley, Knight and Ela Longespee); died Bef 1326; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Member of Parliament
    • Residence: London, Middlesex, England
    • Also Known As: Sir Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester

    Notes:

    Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton, was the son of James de Aldithley and Ela Longespâee, the daughter of William II Longespâee and Idoina de Camville.

    He married Isolde de Mortimer about 1290.

    They were the parents of at least three children

    Sir Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester, who married Margaret de Clare, the daughter of Gilbert de Clare and Joan of Acre.
    Alice de Audley, who married Ralph de Neville, 2nd Baron Neville of Raby, the son of Ralph de Neville and Euphemia de Clavering
    James de Audley.

    Hugh de Alditheley or Audley, brother of Nicholas, Lord Audley of Heleigh, was summoned to parliament as "Hugh de Audley, Seniori" on 15 May, 1321, 14th Edward II. His lordship had been engaged during the reign of Edward I in the king's service and was called "Senior" to distinguish him from his son. Being concerned in the insurrection of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, 15th Edward II [1322], the baron was committed a close prisoner to Wallingford Castle but making his peace with the king he obtained his release and suffered nothing further. He sat in the parliament on the 11th [1318] and 14th [1321] of Edward II.

    Buried:
    Plot: Inside Church

    Died:
    As a prisoner in Wallingford Castle, Berkshire, England...

    Hugh married Isolde (Isabella) de Mortimer ~ 1290. Isolde was born 0___ 1270, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 0___ 1338, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 83.  Isolde (Isabella) de MortimerIsolde (Isabella) de Mortimer was born 0___ 1270, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 0___ 1338, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isoldt de Mortimer
    • Also Known As: Lady of the Manor of Eastingdon, Gloucestershire, Thornbury, and Herefordshire

    Notes:

    Isolde married Walter de Balun, (it is said that he died after an accident at a tournament on his wedding day while at Southampton waiting to go to the Holy Land with Henry lll). No children from this marriage.

    Isolde also married Hugh I de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton, about 1290.

    They had at least three children

    Hugh II de Audley, 1st and last Earl of Gloucester, who married Margaret de Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare and Joan of Acre
    Alice de Audley, who married Ralph de Neville, 2nd Baron Neville of Raby, the son of Ralph de Neville and Euphemia de Clavering
    Sir James de Audley

    Isolde's parentage is in conflict at this time. Some genealogies have her as the daughter of Hugh de Mortimer and Agatha de Ferriáeres or Edmund de Mortimer and Margaret de Fiennes. I have also seen her as the daughter of Hugh de Mortimer and unknown mistress.

    Buried:
    Note: According to Effigies and Brasses her effigy is in the Church...

    Children:
    1. 66. Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley was born ~ 1289, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; died 10 Nov 1347, Kent, England; was buried Tonbridge Priory, Kent, England.
    2. Alice de Audley was born 1302-1304, Hadley, Lambourne, Berkshire, England; died 12 Jan 1374, Greystoke Manor, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

  3. 134.  Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of HertfordGilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford was born 2 Sep 1243, Christchurch, Hampshire, England (son of Richard de Clare, Knight, 6th Earl of Gloucester and Maud de Lacy); died 7 Dec 1295, Monmouth Castle, Monmouth, Monmouthshire, Wales; was buried Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 7th Earl of Gloucester
    • Also Known As: 9th Earl Clare
    • Also Known As: Gilbert "The Red"
    • Also Known As: Lord of Glamorgan

    Notes:

    Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 9th Lord of Clare (2 September 1243 - 7 December 1295) was a powerful English noble. Also known as "Red" Gilbert de Clare or "The red earl", probably because of his hair colour or fiery temper in battle.[3] He held the Lordship of Glamorgan which was one of the most powerful and wealthy of the Welsh Marcher Lordships as well as many other English manors such as the Manor of Chilton.

    Lineage

    Gilbert de Clare was born at Christchurch, Hampshire, the son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester, and of Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, daughter of John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy.[4] Gilbert inherited his father's estates in 1262. He took on the titles, including Lord of Glamorgan, from 1263. Being under age at his father's death, he was made a ward of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford.

    Massacre of the Jews at Canterbury

    In April 1264, Gilbert de Clare led the massacre of the Jews at Canterbury,[5] as Simon de Montfort had done in Leicester. Gilbert de Clare’s castles of Kingston and Tonbridge were taken by the King, Henry III. However, the King allowed de Clare's Countess Alice de Lusignan, who was in the latter, to go free because she was his niece; but on 12 May de Clare and de Montfort were denounced as traitors.

    The Battle of Lewes

    Two days later, just before the Battle of Lewes, on 14 May, Simon de Montfort knighted the Earl and his brother Thomas. The Earl commanded the central division of the Baronial army, which formed up on the Downs west of Lewes. When Prince Edward had left the field in pursuit of Montfort's routed left wing, the King and Earl of Cornwall were thrown back to the town. Henry took refuge in the Priory of St Pancras, and Gilbert accepted the surrender of the Earl of Cornwall, who had hidden in a windmill. Montfort and the Earl were now supreme and de Montfort in effect de facto King of England.

    Excommunication

    On 20 October 1264, Gilbert and his associates were excommunicated by Pope Clement IV, and his lands placed under an interdict.[citation needed] In the following month, by which time they had obtained possession of Gloucester and Bristol, the Earl was proclaimed to be a rebel. However at this point he changed sides as he fell out with de Montfort and the Earl, in order to prevent de Montfort's escape, destroyed ships at the port of Bristol and the bridge over the River Severn at Gloucester.[citation needed]Having changed sides, de Clare shared the Prince's victory at Kenilworth on 16 July, and in the Battle of Evesham, 4 August, in which de Montfort was slain, he commanded the second division and contributed largely to the victory.[citation needed]On 24 June 1268 he took the Cross at Northampton in repentance and contrition for his past misdeeds.[citation needed][clarification needed]

    Activities as a Marcher Lord

    In October 1265, as a reward for supporting Prince Edward, Gilbert was given the castle and title of Abergavenny and honour and castle of Brecknock.At Michaelmas his disputes with Llewelyn the Last were submitted to arbitration, but without a final settlement. Meanwhile, he was building Caerphilly Castle into a fortress. At the end of the year 1268 he refused to obey the King's summons to attend parliament, alleging that, owing to the constant inroads of Llewelyn the Last, his Welsh estates needed his presence for their defence. At the death of Henry III, 16 November 1272, the Earl took the lead in swearing fealty to Edward I, who was then in Sicily on his return from the Crusade. The next day, with the Archbishop of York, he entered London and proclaimed peace to all, Christians and Jews, and for the first time, secured the acknowledgment of the right of the King's eldest son to succeed to the throne immediately.Thereafter he was joint Guardian of England, during the King's absence, and on the new King's arrival in England, in August 1274, entertained him at Tonbridge Castle.

    The Welsh war in 1282

    See also: Conquest of Wales by Edward I
    During Edward's invasion of Wales in 1282, de Clare insisted on leading an attack into southern Wales. King Edward made de Clare the commander of the southern army invading Wales. However, de Clare's army faced disaster after being heavily defeated at the Battle of Llandeilo Fawr. Following this defeat, de Clare was relieved of his position as the southern commander and was replaced by William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke (whose son had died during the battle).

    Private Marcher War

    In the next year, 1291, he quarrelled with the Earl of Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, grandson of his onetime guardian, about the Lordship of Brecknock, where de Bohun accused de Clare of building a castle on his land culminated in a private war between them. Although it was a given right for Marcher Lords to wage private war the King tested this right in this case, first calling them before a court of their Marcher peers, then realising the outcome would be coloured by their likely avoidance of prejudicing one of their greatest rights they were both called before the superior court, the Kings own. At this both were imprisoned by the King, both sentenced to having their lands forfeit for life and de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester, as the aggressor, was fined 10,000 marks, and the Earl of Hereford 1,000 marks.They were released almost immediately and both of their lands completely restored to them - however they had both been taught a very public lesson and their prestige diminished and the King's authority shown for all.

    Marriage and succession

    Gilbert's first marriage was to Alice de Lusignan, also known as Alice de Valence, the daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan and of the family that succeeded the Marshal family to the title of the Earl of Pembroke in the person of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke. They married in 1253, when Gilbert was ten years old. She was of high birth, being a niece of King Henry, but the marriage floundered. Gilbert and Alice separated in 1267; allegedly, Alice's affections lay with her cousin, Prince Edward. Previous to this, Gilbert and Alice had produced two daughters: Isabella de Clare (10 March 1262 – 1333), after a marriage with Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick having been contemplated, or possibly having taken place and then annulled, married Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley Joan de Clare (1264-after 1302), married (1) Duncan Macduff, 7th Earl of Fife; (2) Gervase Avenel.

    After his marriage to Alice de Lusignan was annulled in 1285, Gilbert married Joan of Acre, a daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife Eleanor of Castile. King Edward sought to bind de Clare, and his assets, more closely to the Crown by this means. By the provisions of the marriage contract, their joint possessions and de Clare's extensive lands could only be inherited by a direct descendant, i.e. close to the Crown, and if the marriage proved childless, the lands would pass to any children Joan may have by further marriage.

    On 3 July 1290, the Earl gave a great banquet at Clerkenwell to celebrate his marriage of 30 April 1290 with Joan of Acre (1272 - 23 April 1307) after waiting for the Pope to sanction the marriage. Edward then gave large estates to Gilbert, including one in Malvern. Disputed hunting rights on these led to several armed conflicts with Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, that Edward resolved.[6] Gilbert made gifts to the Priory, and also had a "great conflict" about hunting rights and a ditch that he dug, with Thomas de Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford, that was settled by costly litigation.[7] Gilbert had a similar conflict with Godfrey Giffard, Bishop and Administrator of Worcester Cathedral (and formerly Chancellor of England. Godfrey, who had granted land to the Priory, had jurisdictional disputes about Malvern Priory, resolved by Robert Burnell, the then Chancellor.[8] Thereafter, Gilbert and Joan are said to have taken the Cross and set out for the Holy Land. In September, he signed the Barons' letter to the Pope, and on 2 November, surrendered to the King his claim to the advowson of the Bishopric of Llandaff.

    Gilbert and Joan had one son: also

    Gilbert, and three daughters: Eleanor, Margaret and Elizabeth.

    Gilbert, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester (1291–1314) succeeded to his father's titles and was killed at the Battle of Bannockburn.
    Eleanor de Clare (1292–1337) married Hugh Despenser the Younger, favourite of her uncle Edward II. Hugh was executed in 1326, and Eleanor married secondly William de la Zouche.
    Margaret de Clare (1293–1342) married firstly Piers Gaveston (executed in 1312) and then Hugh de Audley.
    The youngest sister Elizabeth de Clare (1295–1360) married John de Burgh in 1308 at Waltham Abbey, then Theobald of Verdun in 1316, and finally Roger d'Amory in 1317. Each marriage was brief, produced one child (a son by the 1st, daughters by the 2nd and 3rd), and left Elizabeth a widow.

    Death and burial

    He died at Monmouth Castle on 7 December 1295, and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey, on the left side of his grandfather Gilbert de Clare. His extensive lands were enjoyed by his surviving wife Joan of Acre until her death in 1307. Gilbert and Joan had a descendant named Ursula Hildyard of Yorkshire, who in 1596 married (Sir) Richard Jackson of Killingwoldgraves, near Beverley in the East Riding.[citation needed] Jackson died in 1610 and was interred at Bishop Burton. In 1613, James posthumously awarded a coat of arms and a knighthood to Richard for meretorious military service in the Lowlands of Scotland.

    Buried:
    image, map & history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tewkesbury_Abbey

    Died:
    Images for Monmounth Castle ... https://www.google.com/search?q=monmouth+castle+wales&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=815&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjGlI_Uj4nLAhWFkh4KHWskBTsQsAQIMg

    Gilbert — Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre. Joan (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England) was born 0Apr 1272, Acre, Israel; died 23 Apr 1307, Clare Castle, Clare, Suffolk, England; was buried Clare Priory, Clare, Suffolk, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 135.  Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre was born 0Apr 1272, Acre, Israel (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England); died 23 Apr 1307, Clare Castle, Clare, Suffolk, England; was buried Clare Priory, Clare, Suffolk, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Gloucester
    • Also Known As: Countess of Hertford
    • Also Known As: Joan of Acre

    Notes:

    Joan of Acre (April 1272 - 23 April 1307) was an English princess, a daughter of King Edward I of England and Queen Eleanor of Castile.[2] The name "Acre" derives from her birthplace in the Holy Land while her parents were on a crusade.

    She was married twice; her first husband was Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, one of the most powerful nobles in her father's kingdom; her second husband was Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in her household whom she married in secret.

    Joan is most notable for the claim that miracles have allegedly taken place at her grave, and for the multiple references to her in literature.

    Birth and childhood

    Joan (or Joanna, as she is sometimes called) of Acre was born in the spring of 1272 in the Kingdom of Acre, Outremer, now in modern Israel, while her parents, Edward I and Eleanor of Castile, were on crusade.[3] At the time of Joan's birth, her grandfather, Henry III, was still alive and thus her father was not yet king of England. Her parents departed from Acre shortly after her birth, traveling to Sicily and Spain[4] before leaving Joan with Eleanor's mother, Joan, Countess of Ponthieu, in France.[5] Joan lived for several years in France where she spent her time being educated by a bishop and “being thoroughly spoiled by an indulgent grandmother.”[6] Joan was free to play among the “vine clad hills and sunny vales”[7] surrounding her grandmother’s home, although she required “judicious surveillance.”[8]

    As Joan was growing up with her grandmother, her father was back in England, already arranging marriages for his daughter. He hoped to gain both political power and more wealth with his daughter's marriage, so he conducted the arrangement in a very “business like style”.[9] He finally found a man suitable to marry Joan (aged 5 at the time), Hartman, son of King Rudoph I, of Germany. Edward then brought her home from France for the first time to meet him.[10] As she had spent her entire life away from Edward and Eleanor, when she returned she “stood in no awe of her parents”[6] and had a fairly distanced relationship with them.

    Unfortunately for King Edward, his daughter’s suitor died before he was able to meet or marry Joan. The news reported that Hartman had fallen through a patch of shallow ice while “amusing himself in skating” while a letter sent to the King himself stated that Hartman had set out on a boat to visit his father amidst a terrible fog and the boat had smashed into a rock, drowning him.[11]

    First marriage

    Edward arranged a second marriage almost immediately after the death of Hartman.[12] Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, who was almost thirty years older than Joan and newly divorced, was his first choice.[13] The earl resigned his lands to Edward upon agreeing to get them back when he married Joan, as well as agreed on a dower of two thousand silver marks.[14] By the time all of these negotiations were finished, Joan was twelve years old.[14] Gilbert de Clare became very enamored with Joan, and even though she had to marry him regardless of how she felt, he still tried to woo her.[15] He bought her expensive gifts and clothing to try to win favor with her.[16] The couple were married on 30 April 1290 at Westminster Abbey, and had four children together.[17] They were:

    Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford
    Eleanor de Clare
    Margaret de Clare
    Elizabeth de Clare

    Joan's first husband, Gilbert de Clare died on 7 December 1295.[18]

    Secret second marriage

    Joan had been a widow for only a little over a year when she caught the eye of Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in Joan’s father’s household.[19] Joan fell in love and convinced her father to have Monthermer knighted. It was unheard of in European royalty for a noble lady to even converse with a man who had not won or acquired importance in the household. However, in January 1297 Joan secretly married [20] Ralph. Joan's father was already planning another marriage for Joan to Amadeus V, Count of Savoy,[20] to occur 16 March 1297. Joan was in a dangerous predicament, as she was already married, unbeknownst to her father.

    Joan sent her four young children to their grandfather, in hopes that their sweetness would win Edward's favor, but her plan did not work.[21] The king soon discovered his daughter's intentions, but not yet aware that she had already committed to them,[18] he seized Joan’s lands and continued to arrange her marriage to Amadeus of Savoy.[17] Soon after the seizure of her lands, Joan told her father that she had married Ralph. The king was enraged and retaliated by immediately imprisoning Monthermer at Bristol Castle.[17] The people of the land had differing opinions on the princess’ matter. It has been argued that the ones who were most upset were those who wanted Joan’s hand in marriage.[22]

    With regard to the matter, Joan famously said, “It is not considered ignominious, nor disgraceful for a great earl to take a poor and mean woman to wife; neither, on the other hand, is it worthy of blame, or too difficult a thing for a countess to promote to honor a gallant youth.”[23] Joan's statement in addition to a possibly obvious pregnancy seemed to soften Edward’s attitude towards the situation.[22] Joan's first child by Monthermer was born in October 1297; by the summer of 1297, when the marriage was revealed to Edward I, Joan's condition would certainly have been apparent, and would have convinced Edward that he had no choice but to recognize his daughter's marriage. Edward I eventually relented for the sake of his daughter and released Monthermer from prison in August 1297.[17] Monthermer paid homage 2 August, and being granted the titles of Earl of Gloucester and Earl of Hertford, he rose to favour with the King during Joan's lifetime.[24]

    Monthermer and Joan had four children:

    Mary de Monthermer, born October 1297. In 1306 her grandfather King Edward I arranged for her to wed Duncan Macduff, 8th Earl of Fife.
    Joan de Monthermer, born 1299, became a nun at Amesbury.
    Thomas de Monthermer, 2nd Baron Monthermer, born 1301.
    Edward de Monthermer, born 1304 and died 1339.

    Relationship with family

    Joan of Acre was the seventh of Edward I and Eleanor’s fourteen children. Most of her older siblings died before the age of seven, and many of her younger siblings died before adulthood.[25] Those who survived to adulthood were Joan, her younger brother, Edward of Caernarfon (later Edward II), and four of her sisters: Eleanor, Margaret, Mary, and Elizabeth.[26]

    Joan, like her siblings, was raised outside her parents' household. She lived with her grandmother in Ponthieu for four years, and was then entrusted to the same caregivers who looked after her siblings.[27] Edward I did not have a close relationship with most of his children while they were growing up, yet “he seemed fonder of his daughters than his sons.”[26]

    However, Joan of Acre’s independent nature caused numerous conflicts with her father. Her father disapproved of her leaving court after her marriage to the Earl of Gloucester, and in turn “seized seven robes that had been made for her.”[28] He also strongly disapproved of her second marriage to Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in her household, even to the point of attempting to force her to marry someone else.[28][29] While Edward ultimately developed a cordial relationship with Monthermer, even giving him the title of Earl,[28] there appears to have been a notable difference in the Edward’s treatment of Joan as compared to the treatment of the rest of her siblings. For instance, her father famously paid messengers substantially when they brought news of the birth of grandchildren, but did not do this upon birth of Joan’s daughter.[30]

    In terms of her siblings, Joan kept a fairly tight bond. She and Monthermer both maintained a close relationship with her brother, Edward, which was maintained through letters. After Edward became estranged from his father and lost his royal seal, “Joan offered to lend him her seal” .[31]

    Death

    Joan died on 23 April 1307, at the manor of Clare in Suffolk.[24] The cause of her death remains unclear, though one popular theory is that she died during childbirth, a common cause of death at the time. While Joan's age in 1307 (about 35) and the chronology of her earlier pregnancies with Ralph de Monthermer suggest that this could well be the case, historians have not confirmed the cause of her death.[32]

    Less than four months after her death, Joan’s father died. Joan's widower, Ralph de Monthermer, lost the title of Earl of Gloucester soon after the deaths of his wife and father-in-law. The earldom of Gloucester was given to Joan’s son from her first marriage, Gilbert, who was its rightful holder. Monthermer continued to hold a nominal earldom in Scotland, which had been conferred on him by Edward I, until his death.

    Joan’s burial place has been the cause of some interest and debate. She is interred in the Augustinian priory at Clare, which had been founded by her first husband's ancestors and where many of them were also buried. Allegedly, in 1357, Joan’s daughter, Elizabeth De Burgh, claimed to have “inspected her mother's body and found the corpse to be intact,”,[32] which in the eyes of the Roman Catholic Church is an indication of sanctity. This claim was only recorded in a fifteenth-century chronicle, however, and its details are uncertain, especially the statement that her corpse was in such a state of preservation that "when her paps [breasts] were pressed with hands, they rose up again." Some sources further claim that miracles took place at Joan's tomb,[32] but no cause for her beatification or canonization has ever been introduced.

    Children:
    1. 67. Margaret de Clare was born 12 Oct 1293, Tonbridge Castle, Kent, England; died 9 Apr 1342, Chebsey, Staffordshire, England; was buried Tonbridge Priory, Kent, England.
    2. 123. Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer was born 0Oct 1292, Caerphilly Castle, Caerphilly, Urban, Glamorgan, Wales; died 30 Jun 1337, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England; was buried (Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ).
    3. Elizabeth de Clare was born 14 Sep 1295, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

  5. 136.  William de Beauchamp was born ~ 1215, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England (son of Walter de Beauchamp and Joan Mortimer); died 0___ 1268, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England.

    Notes:

    William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick (1237-1298) was an English nobleman and soldier, described as a “vigorous and innovative military commander."[1] He was active in the field against the Welsh for many years, and at the end of his life campaigned against the Scots.

    Career

    He became hereditary High Sheriff of Worcestershire for life on the death of his father in 1268.

    He was a close friend of Edward I of England, and was an important leader in Edward's invasion of Wales in 1277.[2][3] In 1294 he raised the siege of Conwy Castle, where the King had been penned in,[4] crossing the estuary.[5] He was victorious on 5 March 1295 at the battle of Maes Moydog, against the rebel prince of Wales, Madog ap Llywelyn.[6] In a night attack on the Welsh infantry he used cavalry to drive them into compact formations which were then shot up by his archers and charged.[7]R

    Family

    His father was William de Beauchamp (d.1268) of Elmley Castle and his mother Isabel Mauduit, sister and heiress of William Mauduit, 8th Earl of Warwick, from whom he inherited his title in 1268. He had a sister, Sarah, who married Richard Talbot.

    He married Maud FitzJohn. Their children included:

    Isabella de Beauchamp,[8] married firstly, Sir Patrick de Chaworth and, secondly, Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester
    Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick, who married Alice de Toeni, widow of Thomas de Leyburne

    *

    Birth:
    The ruins of an important Norman and medieval castle, from which the village derives its name, are located in the deer park, just over half a mile south on Bredon Hill. The castle is supposed to have been built for Robert Despenser in the years following the Norman Conquest. After his death (post 1098) it descended to his heirs, the powerful Beauchamp family. It remained their chief seat until William de Beauchamp inherited the earldom and castle of Warwick from his maternal uncle, William Maudit, 8th Earl of Warwick, in 1268. Thereafter, Elmley Castle remained a secondary property of the Earls of Warwick until it was surrendered to the Crown in 1487. In 1528 the castle seems to have been still habitable, for Walter Walshe was then appointed constable and keeper, and ten years later Urian Brereton succeeded to the office. In 1544, however, prior to the grant to Christopher Savage (d.1545), who had been an Esquire of the Body of King Henry VIII, a survey was made of the manor and castle of Elmley, and it was found that the castle, strongly situated upon a hill surrounded by a ditch and wall, was completely uncovered and in decay.

    Map & Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elmley_Castle

    William — Isabel Mauduit. Isabel (daughter of William de Maudit, IV, Knight, Baron of Hanslape & Hartley and Alice de Newburgh) was born ~ 1214, Hanslope, Buckinghamshire, England; died 7 Jan 1268, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 137.  Isabel Mauduit was born ~ 1214, Hanslope, Buckinghamshire, England (daughter of William de Maudit, IV, Knight, Baron of Hanslape & Hartley and Alice de Newburgh); died 7 Jan 1268, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England.
    Children:
    1. William de Beauchamp, Knight, 9th Earl of Warwick was born 0___ 1237, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England; died 0___ 1298, (Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England).
    2. 68. Guy de Beauchamp, Knight, 10th Earl of Warwick was born 0___ 1262, Elmley Castle, Worcester, England; died 12 Aug 1315, Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England; was buried Bordesley Abbey, Worcester, England.

  7. 140.  Edmund Mortimer, Knight, 2nd Baron Mortimer was born 0___ 1251, (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England) (son of Roger Mortimer, Knight, 1st Baron Mortimer and Maud de Braose, Lady Mortimer); died 17 Jul 1304, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edmund de Mortimer, 7th Lord Mortimer

    Notes:

    Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Lord Mortimer (1251 – 17 July 1304)[1] was the second son and eventual heir of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer. His mother was Maud de Braose. As a younger son, Edmund had been intended for clerical or monastic life, and had been sent to study at Oxford University.

    He was made Treasurer of York in 1265. By 1268 he is recorded as studying Theology in the house of the Archbishop of York. King Henry III showed favour by supplementing his diet with the luxury of venison.

    The sudden death of his elder brother, Ralph, in 1274,[2] made him heir to the family estates; yet he continued to study at Oxford. But his father's death eventually forced his departure.

    He returned to the March in 1282 as the new Lord Mortimer of Wigmore and immediately became involved in Welsh Marches politics. Together with his brother Roger Mortimer, Baron of Chirk, John Giffard, and Roger Lestrange, he devised a plan to trap Llywelyn ap Gruffudd.[3] Edmund, a great-grandson of Llywelyn the Great, sent a message to his kinsman Llywelyn, grandson of Llywelyn the Great, telling him he was coming to Llywelyn's aid and arranged to meet with him at Builth. At Irfon Bridge[4] the Welsh prince became separated from his army. Edmund's brothers secretly forded the river behind Llywelyn's army and surprised the Welsh. In the resulting battle Llywelyn was killed and beheaded. Edmund then sent his brother Roger Mortimer of Chirk to present Llywelyn's severed head to King Edward I of England at Rhuddlan Castle. The head was displayed on the Tower of London as a warning to all rebels.[5]

    In return for his services Edmund was knighted by King Edward at Winchester in 1283. In September 1285, he married Margaret de Fiennes, the daughter of William II de Fiennes and Blanche de Brienne (herself the granddaughter of John of Brienne by his third wife Berenguela of Leon), the family entering the blood royal. Their surviving children were:

    Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (25 April 1287 – 29 November 1330) married Joan de Geneville,[6] by whom he had twelve children.
    Maud Mortimer, married Sir Theobald II de Verdun, by whom she had four daughters, Joan de Verdun, who married John de Montagu (d. August 1317), eldest son and heir apparent of William Montagu, 2nd Baron Montagu; Elizabeth de Verdun, who married Bartholomew de Burghersh, 1st Baron Burghersh; Margaret de Verdun, who married firstly Sir William le Blount of Sodington, Worcestershire, secondly Sir Mark Husee, and thirdly Sir John de Crophill; and (allegedly) Katherine de Verdun.[6][7]
    John Mortimer, accidentally slain in a joust by John de Leyburne.[6]
    Walter Mortimer, a priest, Rector of Kingston.[6]
    Edmund, a priest, Rector of Hodnet, Shropshire and Treasurer of the cathedral at York.[6]
    Hugh Mortimer, a priest, Rector of church at Old Radnor.[6]
    They also had two daughters who became nuns; Elizabeth and Joan.[6]

    Mortimer served in the king's Scottish campaign, and returned to fight in Wales. He was mortally wounded in a skirmish near Builth, and died at Wigmore Castle.

    Notes

    Jump up ^ 'M Prestwich, The Three Edwards' (2003)
    Jump up ^ J. J. Crump, ‘Mortimer, Roger (III) de, lord of Wigmore (1231–1282)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
    Jump up ^ known in Welsh as Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf
    Jump up ^ also known as Orewin Bridge
    Jump up ^ M Prestwich,(1), 13–14.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Sir Bernard Burke. A genealogical history of the dormant, abeyant, forfeited, and extinct peerages of the British empire, Harrison, 1866. p. 384. Google eBook
    Jump up ^ Richardson IV 2011, pp. 252, 255.
    References[edit]
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. IV (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1460992709.
    Bibliography[edit]
    Mortimer, Ian. The Greatest Traitor: The Life of Sir Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, Ruler of England 1327–1330, (Jonathan Cape, London 2003).
    Cokayne, G. E. The Complete Peerage of Great Britain and Ireland of titles extinct, abeyant, and dormant, 14 vols (London, 1910–37).
    Prestwich, M, The Three Edwards: War and State in England, 1272–1377, London, 2003.
    Prestwich, M, Plantagenet England, 1265–1399 London, 2005.

    Died:
    History, map & images of Wigmore Castle ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wigmore_Castle

    Edmund — Margaret de Fiennes, Baroness Mortimer. Margaret (daughter of William de Fiennes, II, Knight, Baron Tingy and Blanche de Brienne, Baroness Tingry) was born Aft 1269; died 7 Feb 1333. [Group Sheet]


  8. 141.  Margaret de Fiennes, Baroness Mortimer was born Aft 1269 (daughter of William de Fiennes, II, Knight, Baron Tingy and Blanche de Brienne, Baroness Tingry); died 7 Feb 1333.

    Notes:

    Margaret de Fiennes, Baroness Mortimer (after 1269 – 7 February 1333), was an English noblewoman born to William II de Fiennes, Baron Tingry and Blanche de Brienne. Her paternal grandparents were Enguerrand II de Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde. Her maternal grandparents were Jean de Brienne and Jeanne, Dame de Chateaudun.

    Margaret had a sister, Joan de Fiennes (c. 1273 - before 26 October 1309), whose daughter, Margaret Wake, was the mother of Joan of Kent. Therefore, Margaret de Fiennes was a great-aunt of Joan, the Fair Maid of Kent. Margaret de Fiennes was also a first cousin of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.

    In September 1285, when she was fourteen or fifteen years old, Margaret married Edmund Mortimer of Wigmore, 2nd Baron Mortimer, the son of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer and Maud de Braose. They had eight children.

    Children

    Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (25 April 1287 – 29 November 1330) married Joan de Geneville,[1] by whom he had twelve children. Through this union are descended the last Plantagenet monarchs of England from King Edward IV to Richard III, and every monarch of England after King Henry VII.
    Maud Mortimer, married Sir Theobald II de Verdun, by whom she had four daughters, Joan, Elizabeth, Margaret, and Katherine de Verdun. Queen consort Catherine Parr is a descendant of Margaret de Verdun by her marriage to Sir Thomas de Crophull.[1][2]
    John Mortimer, accidentally slain in battle by John de Leyburne.[1]
    Walter Mortimer, a priest, Rector of Kingston.[1]
    Edmund, a priest, Rector of Hodnet and Treasurer of the cathedral at York.[1]
    Hugh Mortimer, a priest, Rector of the church at Old Radnor.[1]
    They also had two daughters who became nuns; Elizabeth and Joan.[1]

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Sir Bernard Burke. A genealogical history of the dormant, abeyant, forfeited, and extinct peerages of the British empire, Harrison, 1866. pg 384. Google eBook
    Jump up ^ Douglas Richardson. Magna Carta Ancestry, Genealogical Publishing Com, 2005. pg 247-49.
    Richardson, Douglas, Kimball G. Everingham, and David Faris. Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Royal ancestry series. (p. 155) Baltimore, Md: Genealogical Pub. Co, 2004. googlebooks Accessed March 30, 2008

    Children:
    1. 70. Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March was born 25 Apr 1287, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 29 Nov 1330, Tyburn, England.
    2. Maud de Mortimer was born (1295-1300), (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England); died 18 Sep 1312, Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England.

  9. 142.  Piers de Geneville was born 0___ 1256, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland (son of Geoffrey de Geneville and Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville); died 0Jun 1292.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Sir Piers de Geneville of Trim and Ludlow Castle

    Piers married Joan of Lusigman, 2nd Baroness Geneville 0___ 1283. Joan was born 0___ 1260, Angouleme, France; died 13 Apr 1323; was buried Abbaye de Valence, France. [Group Sheet]


  10. 143.  Joan of Lusigman, 2nd Baroness Geneville was born 0___ 1260, Angouleme, France; died 13 Apr 1323; was buried Abbaye de Valence, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Jeanne of Lusignan

    Notes:

    Joan of Lusignan (1260 – 13 April 1323) was a French noblewoman. She succeeded her uncle, Guy de la Marche, Knt., sometime in the period, 1310/13, as Lady of Couche and Peyrat, but not as Countess of La Marche since after her sister, Yolande's death, it was annexed by Philip IV of France and given as an appanage to Philip's son Charles the Fair. Previously, in 1308, following the death of her brother Guy (or Guiard), Jeanne and her sister Isabelle, as co-heiresses, had sold the county of Angoulãeme to the King.[1]

    She was married twice. Her first husband was Bernard Ezi III, Lord of Albret, by whom she had two daughters. By her second husband Sir Piers de Geneville, she had another three daughters; the eldest of whom was Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville, wife of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, the de facto ruler of England from 1327 to 1330.

    She is sometimes referred to as Jeanne of Lusignan.

    Family

    Joan was a younger daughter of Hugh XII of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Angoulãeme, lord of Lusignan and Fougáeres, and Jeanne de Fougáeres.[2]

    Marriages

    Joan married firstly Bernard Ezi III, Lord of Albret, by whom she had two daughters:

    Mathe, Dame d'Albret (died 1283)
    Isabelle, Dame d'Albret (died 1 December 1294), married Bernard VI, Count of Armagnac, as his first wife. Their marriage was childless.[3]
    After the death of her first husband on 24 December 1280, Joan married secondly before 11 Oct. 1283 (date of charter), Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim and Ludlow Castle (1256 – before June 1292), by whom she had another three daughters:

    Joan de Geneville (2 February 1286 – 19 October 1356), in 1301 married Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (d. 29 November 1330), by whom she had twelve children.
    Maud de Geneville, a nun at Aconbury Priory
    Beatrice de Geneville, a nun at Aconbury Priory
    Death and legacy[edit]
    Joan died 13 April 1323 at the age of 63, and was buried at the Abbaye de Valence.

    end

    Children:
    1. 71. Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville was born 2 Feb 1286, Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England; died 19 Oct 1396, King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

  11. 144.  Edward I, King of EnglandEdward I, King of England was born 17 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was christened 22 Jun 1239, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom (son of Henry III, King of England and Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile); died 7 Jul 1307, Burgh by Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria, England; was buried 28 Oct 1307, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward Longshanks

    Notes:

    More on King Edward I ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England

    Remember Mel Gibson's role as William Wallace in his 1995 movie, "Braveheart", about the 13th c. Scottish Rebellion? Here is the fellow he battled, brilliantly portrayed by Patrick McGoohan... Here's a clip of that movie... http://www.cinemagia.ro/trailer/braveheart-braveheart-inima-neinfricata-1054/

    Edward I, called Longshanks (1239-1307), king of England (1272-1307), Lord of Gascony, of the house of Plantagenet. He was born in Westminster on June 17, 1239, the eldest son of King Henry III, and at 15 married Eleanor of Castile. In the struggles of the barons against the crown for constitutional and ecclesiastical reforms, Edward took a vacillating course. When warfare broke out between the crown and the nobility, Edward fought on the side of the king, winning the decisive battle of Evesham in 1265. Five years later he left England to join the Seventh Crusade.

    Following his father's death in 1272, and while he was still abroad, Edward was recognized as king by the English barons; in 1273, on his return to England, he was crowned.

    The first years of Edward's reign were a period of the consolidation of his power. He suppressed corruption in the administration of justice, restricted the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to church affairs, and eliminated the papacy's overlordship over England. On the refusal of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd (died 1282), ruler of Wales, to submit to the English crown, Edward began the military conflict that resulted, in 1284, in the annexation of Llewelyn's principality to the English crown. In 1290 Edward expelled all Jews from England. War between England and France broke out in 1293 as a result of the efforts of France to curb Edward's power in Gascony. Edward lost Gascony in 1293 and did not again come into possession of the duchy until 1303. About the same year in which he lost Gascony, the Welsh rose in rebellion.
    Greater than either of these problems was the disaffection of the people of Scotland. In agreeing to arbitrate among the claimants to the Scottish throne, Edward, in 1291, had exacted as a prior condition the recognition by all concerned of his overlordship of Scotland. The Scots later repudiated him and made an alliance with France against England. To meet the critical situations in Wales and Scotland, Edward summoned a parliament, called the Model Parliament by historians because it was a representative body and in that respect was the forerunner of all future parliaments. Assured by Parliament of support at home, Edward took the field and suppressed the Welsh insurrection. In 1296, after invading and conquering Scotland, he declared himself king of that realm. In 1298 he again invaded Scotland to suppress the revolt led by Sir William Wallace. In winning the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, Edward achieved the greatest military triumph of his career, but he failed to crush Scottish opposition.

    The conquest of Scotland became the ruling passion of his life. He was, however, compelled by the nobles, clergy, and commons to desist in his attempts to raise by arbitrary taxes the funds he needed for campaigns. In 1299 Edward made peace with France and married Margaret, sister of King Philip III of France. Thus freed of war, he again undertook the conquest of Scotland in 1303. Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. No sooner had Edward established his government in Scotland, however, than a new revolt broke out and culminated in the coronation of Robert Bruce as king of Scotland. In 1307 Edward set out for the third time to subdue the Scots, but he died en route near Carlisle on July 7, 1307. He also had a daughter with Eleanor of Castile that died young.

    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Edward I [37370] Burgh by Sands, Cumbria, England

    is the 22nd great-grandfather of David Hennessee:

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    and also of Sheila Ann Mynatt Hennessee (1945-2016):

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=I27517&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    Died:
    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church, St. Michael's, until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Photos, maps & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgh_by_Sands

    Edward married Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England 18 Oct 1254, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain. Eleanor (daughter of Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu) was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain; died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. [Group Sheet]


  12. 145.  Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain (daughter of Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu); died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Ponthieu

    Notes:

    Eleanor of Castile (1241 - 28 November 1290) was the first queen consort of Edward I of England. She was also Countess of Ponthieu in her own right from 1279 until her death in 1290, succeeding her mother and ruling together with her husband.

    Eleanor was better-educated than most medieval queens, and exerted a strong cultural influence on the nation. She was a keen patron of literature, and encouraged the use of tapestries, carpets and tableware in the Spanish style, as well as innovative garden designs. She was also a successful businesswoman, endowed with her own fortune as Countess of Ponthieu.

    Issue

    Daughter, stillborn in May 1255 in Bordeaux, France. Buried in Dominican Priory Church, Bordeaux, France.
    Katherine (c 1261 – 5 September 1264) and buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Joanna (January 1265 - before 7 September 1265), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    John (13 July 1266 – 3 August 1271), died at Wallingford, in the custody of his granduncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall. Buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Henry (before 6 May 1268 – 16 October 1274), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Eleanor (18 June 1269 – 29 August 1298). She was long betrothed to Alfonso III of Aragon, who died in 1291 before the marriage could take place, and in 1293 she married Count Henry III of Bar, by whom she had one son and one daughter.
    Daughter (1271 Palestine ). Some sources call her Juliana, but there is no contemporary evidence for her name.
    Joan (April 1272 – 7 April 1307). She married (1) in 1290 Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, who died in 1295, and (2) in 1297 Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer. She had four children by each marriage.
    Alphonso (24 November 1273 - 19 August 1284), Earl of Chester.
    Margaret (15 March 1275 – after 1333). In 1290 she married John II of Brabant, who died in 1318. They had one son.
    Berengaria (1 May 1276 – before 27 June 1278), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Daughter (December 1277/January 1278 - January 1278), buried in Westminster Abbey. There is no contemporary evidence for her name.
    Mary (11 March 1279 – 29 May 1332), a Benedictine nun in Amesbury.
    Son, born in 1280 or 1281 who died very shortly after birth. There is no contemporary evidence for his name.
    Elizabeth (7 August 1282 – 5 May 1316). She married (1) in 1297 John I, Count of Holland, (2) in 1302 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex. The first marriage was childless; by Bohun, Elizabeth had ten children.
    Edward II of England, also known as Edward of Caernarvon (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327). In 1308 he married Isabella of France. They had two sons and two daughters.
    It is often said, on the basis of antiquarian genealogies from the 15th-17th centuries, that Eleanor delivered 2 daughters in the years after Edward II's birth. The names most often associated with these ephemeral daughters are "Beatrice" and "Blanche"; later writers also mention "Juliana" and "Euphemia," and even a "Berenice," probably by confusion with the historical daughter Berengaria. At least one eighteenth-century writer made "Beatrice" and Berengaria into twins, presumably because of the alliteration of names; but Berengaria's birth in 1276 (not the 1280s) was noted by more than one chronicler of the day, and none of them reports that Berengaria had a twin sister. Queen Eleanor's wardrobe and treasury accounts survive almost intact for the years 1288-1290 and record no births in those years, nor do they ever refer to daughters with any of those names. Even more records survive from King Edward's wardrobe between 1286 and 1290 than for his wife's, and they too are silent on any such daughters. It is most unlikely that they ever existed in historical fact. It is more likely that there were other pregnancies and short-lived children in the years prior to 1266, when records for Eleanor's movements are very slight.

    Eleanor as a mother

    It has been suggested that Eleanor and Edward were more devoted to each other than to their children. As king and queen, however, it was impossible for them to spend much time in one place, and when they were very young, the children could not travel constantly with their parents. The children had a household staffed with attendants carefully chosen for competence and loyalty, with whom the parents corresponded regularly. The children lived in this comfortable establishment until they were about seven years old; then they began to accompany their parents, if at first only on important occasions. By their teens they were with the king and queen much of the time. In 1290, Eleanor sent one of her scribes to join her children's household, presumably to help with their education. She also sent gifts to the children regularly, and arranged for the entire establishment to be moved near to her when she was in Wales. In 1306 Edward sharply scolded Margerie de Haustede, Eleanor's former lady in waiting who was then in charge of his children by his second wife, because Margerie had not kept him well informed of their health. Edward also issued regular instructions for the care and guidance of these children.

    Two incidents cited to imply Eleanor's lack of interest in her children are easily explained in the contexts of royal childrearing in general, and of particular events surrounding Edward and Eleanor's family. When their six-year-old son Henry lay dying at Guildford in 1274, neither parent made the short journey from London to see him; but Henry was tended by Edward's mother Eleanor of Provence. The boy had lived with his grandmother while his parents were absent on crusade, and since he was barely two years old when they left England in 1270, he could not have had many worthwhile memories of them at the time they returned to England in August 1274, only weeks before his last illness and death. In other words, the dowager queen was a more familiar and comforting presence to her grandson than his parents would have been at that time, and it was in all respects better that she tended him then. Furthermore, Eleanor was pregnant at the time of his final illness and death; exposure to a sickroom would probably have been discouraged. Similarly, Edward and Eleanor allowed her mother, Joan of Dammartin, to raise their daughter Joan in Ponthieu (1274–78). This implies no parental lack of interest in the girl; the practice of fostering noble children in other households of sufficient dignity was not unknown and Eleanor's mother was, of course, dowager queen of Castile. Her household was thus safe and dignified, but it does appear that Edward and Eleanor had cause to regret their generosity in letting Joan of Dammartin foster young Joan. When the girl reached England in 1278, aged six, it turned out that she was badly spoiled. She was spirited and at times defiant in childhood, and in adulthood remained a handful for Edward, defying his plans for a prestigious second marriage for her by secretly marrying one of her late first husband's squires. When the marriage was revealed in 1297 because Joan was pregnant, Edward was enraged that his dignity had been insulted by her marriage to a commoner of no importance. Joan, at twenty-five, reportedly defended her conduct to her father by saying that nobody saw anything wrong if a great earl married a poor woman, so there could be nothing wrong with a countess marrying a promising young man. Whether or not her retort ultimately changed his mind, Edward restored to Joan all the lands he had confiscated when he learned of her marriage, and accepted her new husband as a son-in-law in good standing. Joan marked her restoration to favour by having masses celebrated for the soul of her mother Eleanor.

    Birth:
    Maps & History of Burgos ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Burgos

    Children:
    1. Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre was born 0Apr 1272, Acre, Israel; died 23 Apr 1307, Clare Castle, Clare, Suffolk, England; was buried Clare Priory, Clare, Suffolk, England.
    2. Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales; died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.
    3. 72. Edward II, King of England was born 25 Apr 1284, Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales; died 21 Sep 1327, Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England.

  13. 146.  Philip of France, IV, King of FrancePhilip of France, IV, King of France was born APRIL-JUNE 1268, Fontainebleu, France; died 29 Nov 1314, Fontainebleu, France; was buried Saint Denis Basilica, France.

    Notes:

    It was Philip the Fair who was the source of "Friday, the 13th" being bad luck because at daybreak on Friday, 13 October 1307, hundreds of Templars in France were simultaneously arrested by agents of Philip the Fair, to be later tortured into admitting heresy in the Order.

    The Templars were supposedly answerable to only the Pope, but Philip used his influence over Clement V , who was largely his pawn, to disband the organization. Pope Clement did attempt to hold proper trials, but Philip used the previously forced confessions to have many Templars burned at the stake before they could mount a proper defense.

    History with images of King Philip .. .http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_IV_of_France

    Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (French: Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (French: le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also, as Philip I, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.

    Philip relied on skillful civil servants, such as Guillaume de Nogaret and Enguerrand de Marigny, to govern the kingdom rather than on his barons. Philip and his advisors were instrumental in the transformation of France from a feudal country to a centralized state. Philip, who sought an uncontested monarchy, compelled his vassals by wars and restricted feudal usages. His ambitions made him highly influential in European affairs. His goal was to place his relatives on thrones. Princes from his house ruled in Naples and Hungary. He tried and failed to make another relative the Holy Roman Emperor. He began the long advance of France eastward by taking control of scattered fiefs.[1]

    The most notable conflicts of Philip's reign include a dispute with Edward I of England, who was also his vassal as the Duke of Aquitaine, and a war with the County of Flanders, which gained temporary autonomy following Philip’s embarrassing defeat at the Battle of the Golden Spurs (1302). To further strengthen the monarchy, he tried to control the French clergy and entered in conflict with Pope Boniface VIII. This conflict led to the transfer of the papal court in the enclave of Avignon in 1309.

    In 1306, Philip the Fair expelled the Jews from France and, in 1307, he annihilated the order of the Knights Templar. Philip was in debt to both groups and saw them as a "state within the state".

    His final year saw a scandal amongst the royal family, known as the Tour de Nesle Affair, during which the three daughters-in-law of Philip were accused of adultery. His three sons were successively kings of France, Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV.

    Photos of the Fountainbleu Palace ... http://bit.ly/1lbsJLj

    View a panorama of The Basilica of St. Denis where King Philip is interred ... http://bit.ly/1gLnKkC

    Birth:
    Palace of Fontainebleu

    Died:
    Palace of Fontainebleu

    Philip married Joan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of Champagne 16 Aug 1284. Joan was born 14 Jan 1273, Bar-sur-Seine, Champagne, France; died 2 Apr 1305, Chateau de Vincennes, France. [Group Sheet]


  14. 147.  Joan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of ChampagneJoan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of Champagne was born 14 Jan 1273, Bar-sur-Seine, Champagne, France; died 2 Apr 1305, Chateau de Vincennes, France.

    Notes:

    Joan was described as having been a plump, plain woman, whereas her beautiful daughter Isabella resembled her father more in physical appearance. As regards her character, Joan was bold, courageous, and enterprising. She even led an army against the Count of Bar when he rebelled against her.

    Quenn Joan is the ancestor of the:

    20th, 21st & 22nd great grandmother of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell Byars (1894-1985)

    24th, 25th & 26th great grandmother of the grandchildren of Perry Green Byars (1894-1968)

    Children:
    1. 73. Isabella of France, Queen of England was born Abt 1279, Paris, France; died 22 Aug 1358, Castle Rising, Norfolk, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, London, Middlesex, England.

  15. 152.  Humphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of HerefordHumphrey de Bohun, VII, 4th Earl of Hereford was born ~ 1276, Pleshey Castle, Essex, England (son of Humphrey de Bohun, V, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Fiennes); died 16 Mar 1322, Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, England; was buried Friars Minor, York, Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Lord High Constable of England
    • Also Known As: Count of Holland
    • Also Known As: Earl of Essex
    • Military: Battle of Bannockburn, June 1314
    • Military: Battle of Boroughbridge

    Notes:

    Sir Humphrey (VII) de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford (1276 - 16 March 1322) was a member of a powerful Anglo-Norman family of the Welsh Marches and was one of the Ordainers who opposed Edward II's excesses.

    Family background

    Arms of Bohun: Azure, a bend argent cotised or between six lions rampant or

    Counter seal of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, showing the so-called "Bohun swan" above the escutcheon
    Humphrey de Bohun's birth year is uncertain although several contemporary sources indicate that it was 1276. His father was Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and his mother was Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand II de Fiennes, chevalier, seigneur of Fiennes. He was born at Pleshey Castle, Essex.

    Humphrey (VII) de Bohun succeeded his father as Earl of Hereford and Earl of Essex, and Constable of England (later called Lord High Constable). Humphrey held the title of Bearer of the Swan Badge, a heraldic device passed down in the Bohun family. This device did not appear on their coat of arms, (az, a bend ar cotised or, between 6 lioncels or) nor their crest (gu, doubled erm, a lion gardant crowned), but it does appear on Humphrey's personal seal (illustration).

    Scotland

    Humphrey was one of several earls and barons under Edward I who laid siege to Caerlaverock Castle in Scotland in 1300 and later took part in many campaigns in Scotland. He also loved tourneying and gained a reputation as an "elegant" fop. In one of the campaigns in Scotland Humphrey evidently grew bored and departed for England to take part in a tournament along with Piers Gaveston and other young barons and knights. On return all of them fell under Edward I's wrath for desertion, but were forgiven. It is probable that Gaveston's friend, Edward (the future Edward II) had given them permission to depart. Later Humphrey became one of Gaveston's and Edward II's bitterest opponents.

    He would also have been associating with young Robert Bruce during the early campaigns in Scotland, since Bruce, like many other Scots and Border men, moved back and forth from English allegiance to Scottish. Robert Bruce, King Robert I of Scotland, is closely connected to the Bohuns. Between the time that he swore his last fealty to Edward I in 1302 and his defection four years later, Bruce stayed for the most part in Annandale, rebuilding his castle of Lochmaben in stone, making use of its natural moat. Rebelling and taking the crown of Scotland in February 1306, Bruce was forced to fight a war against England which went poorly for him at first, while Edward I still lived. After nearly all his family were killed or captured he had to flee to the isle of Rathlin, Ireland. His properties in England and Scotland were confiscated.

    Humphrey de Bohun received many of Robert Bruce's forfeited properties. It is unknown whether Humphrey was a long-time friend or enemy of Robert Bruce, but they were nearly the same age and the lands of the two families in Essex and Middlesex lay very close to each other. After Bruce's self-exile, Humphrey took Lochmaben, and Edward I awarded him Annandale and the castle. During this period of chaos, when Bruce's queen, Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter of the Earl of Ulster, was captured by Edward I and taken prisoner, Hereford and his wife Elizabeth became her custodians. She was exchanged for Humphrey after Bannockburn in 1314. Lochmaben was from time to time retaken by the Scots but remained in the Bohun family for many years, in the hands of Humphrey's son William, Earl of Northampton, who held and defended it until his death in 1360.

    Battle of Bannockburn

    At the Battle of Bannockburn (23-24 June 1314), Humphrey de Bohun should have been given command of the army because that was his responsibility as Constable of England. However, since the execution of Piers Gaveston in 1312 Humphrey had been out of favour with Edward II, who gave the Constableship for the 1314 campaign to the youthful and inexperienced Earl of Gloucester, Gilbert de Clare. Nevertheless, on the first day, de Bohun insisted on being one of the first to lead the cavalry charge. In the melee and cavalry rout between the Bannock Burn and the Scots' camp he was not injured although his rash young cousin Henry de Bohun, who could have been no older than about 22, charged alone at Robert Bruce and was killed by Bruce's axe.

    On the second day Gloucester was killed at the start of battle. Hereford fought throughout the day, leading a large company of Welsh and English knights and archers. The archers might have had success at breaking up the Scots schiltrons until they were overrun by the Scots cavalry. When the battle was lost Bohun retreated with the Earl of Angus and several other barons, knights and men to Bothwell Castle, seeking a safe haven. However, all the refugees who entered the castle were taken prisoner by its formerly pro-English governor Walter fitz Gilbert who, like many Lowland knights, declared for Bruce as soon as word came of the Scottish King's victory. Humphrey de Bohun was ransomed by Edward II, his brother-in-law, on the pleading of his wife Isabella. This was one of the most interesting ransoms in English history. The Earl was traded for Bruce's queen, Elizabeth de Burgh and daughter, Marjorie Bruce, two bishops amongst other important Scots captives in England. Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan, who had crowned Robert Bruce in 1306 and for years had been locked in a cage outside Berwick, was not included; presumably she had died in captivity.[1]

    Ordainer

    Like his father, grandfather, and great-great-grandfather, this Humphrey de Bohun was careful to insist that the king obey Magna Carta and other baronially-established safeguards against monarchic tyranny. He was a leader of the reform movements that promulgated the Ordinances of 1311 and fought to insure their execution.

    The subsequent revival of royal authority and the growing ascendancy of the Despensers (Hugh the elder and younger) led de Bohun and other barons to rebel against the king again in 1322. De Bohun had special reason for opposing the Despensers, for he had lost some of his estates in the Welsh Marches to their rapacity and he felt they had besmirched his honour. In 1316 De Bohun had been ordered to lead the suppression of the revolt of Llywelyn Bren in Glamorgan which he did successfully. When Llewelyn surrendered to him the Earl promised to intercede for him and fought to have him pardoned. Instead Hugh the younger Despenser had Llewelyn executed without a proper trial. Hereford and the other marcher lords used Llywelyn Bren's death as a symbol of Despenser tyranny.

    Death at Boroughbridge

    Main article: Battle of Boroughbridge
    The rebel forces were halted by loyalist troops at the wooden bridge at Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, where Humphrey de Bohun, leading an attempt to storm the bridge, met his death on 16 March 1322.

    Although the details have been called into question by a few historians, his death may have been particularly gory. As recounted by Ian Mortimer:[2]

    "[The 4th Earl of] Hereford led the fight on the bridge, but he and his men were caught in the arrow fire. Then one of de Harclay's pikemen, concealed beneath the bridge, thrust upwards between the planks and skewered the Earl of Hereford through the anus, twisting the head of the iron pike into his intestines. His dying screams turned the advance into a panic."'
    Humphrey de Bohun may have contributed to the failure of the reformers' aims. There is evidence that he suffered for some years, especially after his countess's death in 1316, from clinical depression.[3]

    Marriage and children

    His marriage to Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (Elizabeth Plantagenet), daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, on 14 November 1302, at Westminster gained him the lands of Berkshire.

    Elizabeth had an unknown number of children, probably ten, by Humphrey de Bohun.

    Until the earl's death the boys of the family, and possibly the girls, were given a classical education under the tutelage of a Sicilian Greek, Master "Digines" (Diogenes), who may have been Humphrey de Bohun's boyhood tutor.[citation needed] He was evidently well-educated, a book collector and scholar, interests his son Humphrey and daughter Margaret (Courtenay) inherited.

    Mary or Margaret (the first-born Margaret) and the first-born Humphrey were lost in infancy and are buried in the same sarcophagus in Westminster Abbey. Since fraternal twins were known in the Castilian royal family of Elizabeth Bohun, who gave birth to a pair who lived to manhood, Mary (Margaret?) and Humphrey, see next names, may have been twins, but that is uncertain. The name of a possible lost third child, if any, is unknown—and unlikely.

    Hugh de Bohun? This name appears only in one medieval source, which gives Bohun names (see Flores Historiarum) and was a probably a copyist's error for "Humphrey". Hugh was never used by the main branch of the Bohuns in England.[4] Date unknown, but after 1302, since she and Humphrey did not marry until late in 1302.

    Eleanor de Bohun (17 October 1304 – 1363),[5] married James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde and Thomas Dagworth, 1st Baron Dagworth.

    Humphrey de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Mary or Margaret) Infant.

    Mary or Margaret de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Humphrey) Infant.

    John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (About 1307 – 1336)

    Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (About 1309 to 1311 – 1361).

    Margaret de Bohun (3 April 1311 – 16 December 1391), married Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon. Gave birth to about 16 to 18 children (including an Archbishop, a sea commander and pirate, and more than one Knight of the Garter) and died at the age of eighty.

    William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (About 1310-1312 –1360). Twin of Edward. Married Elizabeth de Badlesmere, daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare, by whom he had issue.

    Edward de Bohun (About 1310-1312 –1334). Twin of William. Married Margaret, daughter of William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros, but they had no children. He served in his ailing elder brother's stead as Constable of England. He was a close friend of young Edward III, and died a heroic death attempting to rescue a drowning man-at-arms from a Scottish river while on campaign.

    Eneas de Bohun, (Birth date unknown, died after 1322, when he's mentioned in his father's will). Nothing known of him.

    Isabel de Bohun (b. ? May 1316). Elizabeth died in childbirth, and this child died on that day or very soon after. Buried with her mother in Waltham Abbey, Essex.

    Notes

    This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2012)
    Jump up ^ Ronald McNair Scott, Robert the Bruce - King of Scots, Canongate, 1988; pp. 75-76 and 164.
    Jump up ^ Mortimer, The Greatest Traitor, page 124.
    Jump up ^ See Conway-Davies, 115, footnote 2, from a contemporary chronicler's account of Humphrey de Bohun, Cotton MS. Nero C. iii, f. 181, "De ce qe vous auez entendu qe le counte de Hereford est moreis pensifs qil ne soleit." "There were some. . . [fine] qualities about the earl of Hereford, and he was certainly a bold and able warrior, though gloomy and thoughtful."
    Jump up ^ Le Melletier, 16-17, 38-45, 138, in his comprehensive research into this family, cites no one named Hugh Bohun.
    Jump up ^ See Cokayne, Complete Peerage, s.v. "Dagworth" p. 28, footnote j.: "She was younger than her sister, Margaret, Countess of Devon (Parl. Rolls. vol. iv., p. 268), not older, as stated by genealogists."
    References[edit]
    Cokayne, G. (ed. by V. Gibbs). Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom (Vols II, IV, V, VI, IX: Bohun, Dagworth, Essex, Hereford, Earls of, Montague), London: 1887–1896.
    Conway-Davies, J. C. The Baronial Opposition to Edward II: Its Character and Policy. (Many references, esp. 42 footnote 1, 114, 115 & footnote 2, 355-367, 426–9, 435–9, 473–525) Cambridge(UK): 1918.
    Le Melletier, Jean, Les Seigneurs de Bohun, 1978, p. 16, 39–40.
    Mortimer, Ian. The Greatest Traitor: The Life of Sir Roger Mortimer, Ruler of England 1327–1330 (100–9, 114, 122–6), London: 2003
    Scott, Ronald McNair. Robert the Bruce: King of Scots (144–164) NY: 1989
    Further reading[edit]
    Wikisource has the text of the 1885–1900 Dictionary of National Biography's article about Bohun, Humphrey VIII de.

    Secondary sources

    Altschul, Michael. A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares 1217–1314. (132–3, ) Baltimore:1965.
    Barron, Evan MacLeod. The Scottish War of Independence. (443, 455) Edinburgh, London:1914, NY:1997 (reprint).
    Barrow, G. W. S. Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland. (222, 290, 295–6, 343–4) Berkeley, Los Angeles:1965.
    Beltz, George Frederick. Memorials of the Order of the Garter. (148–150) London:1841.
    Bigelow, M[elville] M. "The Bohun Wills" I. American Historical Review (v.I, 1896). 415–41.
    Dictionary of National Biography. [Vol II: Bohun; Vol. VI: Edward I, Edward II; Vol. XI: Lancaster]. London and Westminster. Various dates.
    Eales, Richard and Shaun Tyas, eds., Family and Dynasty in Late Medieval England, Shaun Tyas, Donington:2003, p. 152.
    Fryde, E. B. and Edward Miller. Historical Studies of the English Parliament vol. 1, Origins to 1399, (10–13, 186, 285–90, 296) Cambridge (Eng.): 1970.
    Hamilton, J. S. Piers Gaveston Earl of Cornwall 1307-1312: Politics and Patronage in the Reign of Edward II (69, 72, 95–98, 104–5) Detroit: 1988
    Hutchison, Harold F. Edward II. (64–86, 104–5, 112–3) London: 1971.
    Jenkins, Dafydd. "Law and Government in Wales Before the Act of Union". Celtic Law Papers (37–38) Aberystwyth:1971.
    McNamee, Colin. The Wars of the Bruces. (51, 62–66) East Linton (Scotland):1997.
    Tout, T. F. and Hilda Johnstone. The Place of the Reign of Edward II in English History. (86, 105–6, 125 & footnote 3, 128–34) Manchester: 1936.
    Primary sources[edit]
    Flores historiarum. H. R. Luard, ed. (vol. iii, 121) London: 1890.
    Vita Edwardi Secundi. (117–119) N. Denholm-Young, Ed. and Tr.
    External links[edit]

    Birth:
    Pleshey Castle was originally a motte and bailey castle, which consisted of a wooden palisade and tower on a high man-made hill (motte) surrounded by two baileys (castle yard or ward), which at some time in the castle's early history was surrounded by a moat. Later, probably in the 12th century, the motte was fortified with a stone castle. The motte at Pleshey is now about 15 metres high, and is one of the largest mottes in England.[citation needed] The castle was dismantled in 1158 but was subsequently rebuilt at the end of the 12th century.[citation needed] The castle was passed to the Dukes of Gloucester through marriage and after Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester had been executed by Richard II in 1397, it decayed and became ruined. Most of the masonry was dismantled for building material in 1629, leaving just the motte and other earthworks.[citation needed]

    Map and more history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleshey

    Occupation:
    The Lord High Constable of England is the seventh of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Great Chamberlain and above the Earl Marshal. His office is now called out of abeyance only for coronations. The Lord High Constable was originally the commander of the royal armies and the Master of the Horse. He was also, in conjunction with the Earl Marshal, president of the Court of Chivalry or Court of Honour. In feudal times, martial law was administered in the court of the Lord High Constable.

    The constableship was granted as a grand serjeanty with the Earldom of Hereford by the Empress Matilda to Miles of Gloucester, and was carried by his heiress to the Bohuns, Earls of Hereford and Essex. They had a surviving male heir, and still have heirs male, but due to the power of the monarchy the constableship was irregularly given to the Staffords, Dukes of Buckingham; and on the attainder of Edward Stafford, the third Duke, in the reign of King Henry VIII, it became merged into the Crown. Since that point it has not existed as a separate office, except as a temporary appointment for the Coronation of a monarch; in other circumstances the Earl Marshal exercises the traditional duties of the office.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_High_Constable_of_England

    Military:
    The Battle of Bannockburn (Bláar Allt nam Báanag, often mistakenly called Bláar Allt a' Bhonnaich in Scottish Gaelic) (24 June 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the First War of Scottish Independence, and a landmark in Scottish history.

    Stirling Castle, a Scots royal fortress, occupied by the English, was under siege by the Scottish army. The English king, Edward II, assembled a formidable force to relieve it. This attempt failed, and his army was defeated in a pitched battle by a smaller army commanded by the King of Scots, Robert the Bruce.

    More ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn

    Military:
    The Battle of Boroughbridge was a battle fought on 16 March 1322 between a group of rebellious barons and King Edward II of England, near Boroughbridge, north-west of York. The culmination of a long period of antagonism between the King and Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, his most powerful subject, it resulted in Lancaster's defeat and execution. This allowed Edward to re-establish royal authority, and hold on to power for another five years.

    Not in itself a part of the Wars of Scottish Independence, the battle is significant for its employment of tactics learned in the Scottish wars in a domestic, English conflict. Both the extensive use of foot soldiers rather than cavalry, and the heavy impact caused by the longbow, represented significant steps in military developments.

    More ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Boroughbridge

    Humphrey married Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England 14 Nov 1302, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. Elizabeth (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England) was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales; died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]


  16. 153.  Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England); died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Elizabeth of Rhuddlan

    Notes:

    Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (7 August 1282 - 5 May 1316) was the eighth and youngest daughter of King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castile. Of all of her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother King Edward II, as they were only two years apart in age.

    First marriage

    In April 1285 there were negotiations with Floris V for Elizabeth's betrothal to his son John I, Count of Holland. The offer was accepted and John was sent to England to be educated. On 8 January 1297 Elizabeth was married to John at Ipswich. In attendance at the marriage were Elizabeth's sister Margaret, her father, Edward I of England, her brother Edward, and Humphrey de Bohun. After the wedding Elizabeth was expected to go to Holland with her husband, but did not wish to go, leaving her husband to go alone.

    After some time travelling England, it was decided Elizabeth should follow her husband. Her father accompanied her, travelling through the Southern Netherlands between Antwerp, Mechelen, Leuven and Brussels, before ending up in Ghent. There they remained for a few months, spending Christmas with her two sisters Eleanor and Margaret. On 10 November 1299, John died of dysentery, though there were rumours of his murder. No children had been born from the marriage.

    Second marriage

    On her return trip to England, Elizabeth went through Brabant to see her sister Margaret. When she arrived in England, she met her stepmother Margaret, whom Edward had married while she was in Holland. On 14 November 1302 Elizabeth was married to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, 3rd of Essex, also Constable of England, at Westminster Abbey.[citation needed]

    Offspring

    The children of Elizabeth and Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford were:

    Hugh de Bohun (September 1303 – 1305)
    Lady Eleanor de Bohun (17 October 1304 – 1363)
    Humphrey de Bohun (b&d 1305) (buried with Mary or Margaret)
    Mary or Margaret de Bohun (b&d 1305) (buried with Humphrey)
    John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (23 November 1306 – 1335)
    Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (6 December c. 1309 – 1361)
    Margaret de Bohun, 2nd Countess of Devon (3 April 1311 – 1391)
    William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (1312–1360).
    Edward de Bohun (1312–1334), twin of William
    Eneas de Bohun, (1314 - after 1322); he is mentioned in his father's will
    Isabel de Bohun (b&d 5 May 1316)

    Later life

    During Christmas 1315, Elizabeth, who was pregnant with her eleventh child, was visited by her sister-in-law, Queen Isabella of France. This was a great honour, but the stress of it may have caused unknown health problems that later contributed to Elizabeth's death in childbirth.[citation needed] On 5 May 1316 she went into labour, giving birth to her daughter Isabella. Both Elizabeth and her daughter Isabella died shortly after the birth, and were buried together in Waltham Abbey.

    Birth:
    Rhuddlan Castle (Welsh: Castell Rhuddlan) is a castle located in Rhuddlan, Denbighshire, Wales. It was erected by Edward I in 1277 following the First Welsh War.

    View images, map & history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhuddlan_Castle

    Buried:
    Waltham Abbey is a market town of about 20,400 people in Epping Forest District in the southwest of the county of Essex, 24 km (15 mi) NNE of central London on the Greenwich Meridian, between the River Lea in the west and Epping Forest in the east.

    Waltham Abbey takes its name from the Abbey Church of Waltham Holy Cross, a scheduled ancient monument that was prominent in the town's early history.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waltham_Abbey_(town)

    Died:
    shortly after childbirth...

    Notes:

    Married:
    Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the most notable religious buildings in the United Kingdom and has been the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556 the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, however, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the original abbey church.

    According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site (then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island)) in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III.

    Since 1066, when Harold Godwinson and William the Conqueror were crowned, the coronations of English and British monarchs have been held there. There have been at least 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100. Two were of reigning monarchs (Henry I and Richard II), although, before 1919, there had been none for some 500 years.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Abbey

    Children:
    1. Eleanor de Bohun, Countess of Ormonde was born 17 Oct 1304, Knaresborough Castle, North Yorkshire, England; died 7 Oct 1363.
    2. Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon was born 3 Apr 1311; died 16 Dec 1391.
    3. 76. William de Bohun, Knight, 1st Earl of Northampton was born 0___ 1312, Caldecot, Rutland, Northampton, England; died 16 Sep 1360, (England).
    4. Agnes (Margaret) de Bohun, Baroness Ferrers of Chartley was born 0___ 1313, Caldecot, Rutland, Northampton, England.

  17. 154.  Bartholomew de Badlesmere, Knight, 1st Baron BadlesmereBartholomew de Badlesmere, Knight, 1st Baron Badlesmere was born 18 Aug 1275, Blean, Canterbury, Kent, England (son of Gunselm de Badlesmere and Joan LNU); died 14 Apr 1322, Blean, Canterbury, Kent, England.

    Notes:

    Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere (circa 1275 - 14 April 1322), English soldier, diplomat, Member of Parliament, landowner and nobleman, was the son and heir of Gunselm de Badlesmere (died circa 1301). He fought in the English army both in France and Scotland during the later years of the reign of Edward I of England[2] and the earlier part of the reign of Edward II of England. He was executed after participating in an unsuccessful rebellion led by the Earl of Lancaster.

    Career

    The earliest records of Bartholomew's life relate to his service in royal armies, which included campaigns in Gascony (1294), Flanders (about 1297) and Scotland (1298, 1300, 1301-4, 1306, 1307, 1308, 1310–11, 1314, 1315 and 1319).[3] However, even at a relatively young age his activities were not limited to soldiering. In October 1300, was one of the household of Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln who were permitted by the King to accompany the Earl when he set out for Rome during the following month in order to complain to Pope Boniface VIII of injury done by the Scots.[4][5]

    A writ issued on 13 April 1301, presumably soon after the death of Jocelin (Guncelinis, Goscelinus) de Badlesmere, initiated inquests into the identity of the next heir of lands that he held direct from the King. This led to a hearing on 30 April of that year in relation to property in Kent at Badlesmere and Donewelleshethe, where it was confirmed that the heir was his son Bartholomew, then aged 26.[6]

    Bartholomew de Badlesmere and Fulk Payfrer were the knights who represented the county of Kent at the Parliament that sat at Carlisle from January 1306/7 until 27 March 1307.[7] Also in 1307 Bartholomew was appointed governor of Bristol Castle.[2] In that role he took charge of the subjugation of the city when it defied royal authority in 1316.[8]

    In 1310, Bartholomew acted as deputy Constable of England on behalf of the Earl of Hereford.[9] Bartholomew served as his lieutenant when Hereford refused to perform his duties in the Scottish campaign of 1310-11.[10] He was one of the retinue of the Earl of Gloucester at the Battle of Bannockburn on 24 June 1314, Bartholomew's own sub-retinue consisting of at least 50 men.[10] He was criticised for not coming to his aid when Gloucester lost his life in an impetuous attack on the Scottish sheltron on that occasion.[11]

    In the following January, Bartholomew was one of the many notables who attended the funeral of Piers Gaveston.[12]

    On 28 April 1316, Bartholomew was one of four men who were authorised to grant safe conducts in the King's name to Robert Bruce and other Scots so that they could come to England to negotiate a truce. In December of that year, he was commissioned, along with the Bishop of Ely and the Bishop of Norwich to go on an embassy to Pope John XXII at Avignon to seek his help against the Scots and request a Bull to release the King from his oath to the Ordinances.[13] In June of the same year, Bartholomew's daughter Elizabeth married Edward, the son and heir of Roger Mortimer. Elizabeth's father was sufficiently wealthy to pay ¹2,000 for the marriage, in exchange for which extensive property was settled on the bride.[14]

    On 1 November 1317, the King appointed Bartholomew as custodian of Leeds Castle in Kent [15] This was followed by a transaction on 20 March 1317/18 by which the King granted the castle and manor of Leeds along with the advowson of the priory of Leeds to Bartholomew and his heirs in exchange for the manor and advowson of Adderley, Shropshire, which Bartholomew surrendered to the King [16]

    By late November 1317, Bartholomew made a compact with a number of noblemen and prelates, including the Earl of Pembroke, the Earl of Hereford and the Archbishop of Canterbury with the aim of reducing the influence on the King of advisors of whom they disapproved.[17] Bartholomew and his associates formed a loose grouping which has been referred to by modern historians as the "Middle Party", who detested alike Edward's minions, like the Despensers, and his violent enemies like Lancaster. However, although he was very hostile to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, Bartholomew helped to make peace between the king and the earl in 1318.[2]

    On 1 October 1318, Bartholomew was with the King at York, setting out to repel an invasion by the Scots.[18] Nineteen days later, he was appointed as the King's household steward in place of William Montagu. This position was of major importance, as it provided continual access to the King's presence and considerable influence over who else could obtain access to him.[19] Bartholomew was still holding this appointment in June 1321. Financial grants that he received during this period included ¹500 on appointment as steward and over ¹1,300 in October 1319.[20]

    In 1319, Bartholomew obtained the king's licence to found a priory on his manor of Badlesmere, but the proposed priory was never established.[21] In June of the following year, he hosted a splendid reception at Chilham Castle for Edward II and his entourage when they were travelling to Dover en route for France.[22] Also in 1320, he was granted control of Dover Castle and Wardenship of the Cinque Ports and in 1321 was appointed governor of Tunbridge Castle.

    During the earlier part of 1321, Bartholomew, along with the Bishop of Worcester and the Bishop of Carlisle and others represented the King in unsuccessful negotiations with the Scots for either a permanent peace or an extended truce.[23]

    Rebellion

    By the summer of 1321, Bartholomew defied the King by associating with their mutual enemy the Earl of Lancaster and his allies in their active opposition to Edward's "evil councillors" such as the Despensers. The Lancastrian forces moved from the North to London, reaching the capital by the end of July.

    In the autumn, the King started to apply pressure targeted on Bartholomew, probably partly because many of his manors were closer to London than those of magnates such as Lancaster and partly because of anger at the disloyalty of his own household steward. Edward took control of Dover Castle and forbade Bartholomew entrance to the county of Kent, an injunction that he promptly breached. Bartholomew then returned to Witney, Oxfordshire, where a tournament attended by many of his new allies was being held. When returning to London from a pilgrimage to Canterbury, the Queen did not take the most direct route but detoured to Leeds Castle, where she demanded access, precipitating the siege and its aftermath that is described in detail in the article about Bartholomew's wife. Although Bartholomew assembled an armed force and marched from Witney towards Kent, by the time he reached Kingston upon Thames it was clear that he would not receive help from Lancaster and his followers and so he was not able to take effective action to relieve the siege.[24] During the following months, civil war broke out.

    On 26 December 1321, the King ordered the sheriff of Gloucester to arrest Bartholomew.[25] Shortly afterwards, the King offered safe conducts to the rebels who would come over to him, with the specific exception of Bartholomew de Badlesmere.[26]

    Details contained in arrest warrants signpost the progress of Bartholomew and his companions across England. By 15 January 1321/2, they had occupied and burned the town of Bridgnorth and sacked the castles at Elmley and Hanley.[27] By 23 February, the rebels had been sighted in Northamptonshire.[28] On 1 March, Bartholomew was reported as one of a number of prominent rebels who had reached Pontefract.[29] On 11 March the sheriff of Nottingham and Derby was ordered to arrest the same group, who had taken Burton upon Trent but they departed from that town when the royal army approached.[30]

    On 16 March 1321/2, the Earl of Lancaster and his allies were defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge.

    Death

    Bartholomew fled south from Boroughbridge and, according to the "Livere de Reis", was captured in a small wood near Brickden and taken by the Earl of Mar to Canterbury.[31] Alternative details appear in John Leland's "Collectanea", which states that "Syr Barptolemew Badelesmere was taken at Stow Parke yn the Manoyr of the Bishop of Lincoln that was his nephew."[32] Stow Park is about 10 miles north-west of the centre of Lincoln, where the current bishop was Henry Burghersh. Stow Park was one of the principal residences of the Bishop in that era but none of the medieval buildings still survive above ground.[33] The identity of "Brickden" is uncertain but may well refer to Buckden, Huntingdonshire, another place where the Bishop of Lincoln had a manor house (Buckden Towers). If so, that may be the reason for the differing accounts of the place that Bartholomew had reached when he was arrested, as they both featured residences of his nephew.

    Bartholomew was tried at Canterbury on 14 April 1322 and sentenced to death. On the same day he was drawn for three miles behind a horse to Blean, where he held property.[34] There he was hanged and beheaded. His head was displayed on the Burgh Gate at Canterbury and the rest of his body left hanging at Blean. There is probably remained for quite some time, as it was not until the Lent Parliament of 1324 that the prelates successfully petitioned for the bodies of the nobles still hanging on the gallows to be given ecclesiastical burial.[35] In a book that was first published in 1631, the antiquary John Weever stated that Bartholomew was buried at White Friars, Canterbury;[36] this was a community of the Order of St Augustine.[37]

    Property

    By the latter part of his life, Bartholomew possessed a vast portfolio of properties, either in his own right or jointly with his wife Margaret. These assets were forfeited because of Bartholomew’s rebellion. During the first four years of reign of Edward III, a series of inquisitions post mortem established the properties to which Margaret was entitled and also those of which her son Giles would be the right heir. Much of the property was restored to Bartholomew’s widow or assigned to Giles, who at that juncture was still a minor in the King’s wardship.[38]

    Some of the properties that Bartholomew held are listed below; the list is not exhaustive and he did not necessarily hold all of them at the same time.

    Bedfordshire: The manor of Sondyington (i.e. Sundon).
    Buckinghamshire: The manor of Hambleden. Also the manors of Cowley and Preston, both of which were in the parish of Preston Bissett.
    Essex: The manors of Chingford, Latchley (i.e. Dagworth Manor at Pebmarsh), Little Stambridge and Thaxted.
    Gloucestershire: The manor of Oxenton.
    Herefordshire: The manor of Lenhales and Lenhales Castle at Lyonshall.
    Hertfordshire: The manors of Buckland, Mardleybury (at Welwyn) and Plashes (at Standon).
    Kent: The manors of Badlesmere, Bockingfold (north of Goudhurst), Chilham, Hothfield, Kingsdown, Lesnes, Rydelyngwelde (i.e. Ringwould), Tonge and Whitstable. Bartholomew’s possessions in this county included Chilham Castle and Leeds Castle.
    Oxfordshire: The manor of Finmere.
    Shropshire: The manors of Adderley and Ideshale (at Shifnal).
    Suffolk: The manors of Barrow and Brendebradefeld (i.e. Bradfield Combust).
    Sussex: The manors of Eastbourne and Laughton. Also reversions of the manors of Drayton, Etchingham and West Dean.
    Wiltshire: The manors of Castle Combe, Knook, Orcheston and West Heytesbury
    The relevant inquisitions post mortem also contain details of numerous advowsons and other property rights that Bartholomew owned.

    Family

    Bartholomew married Margaret, the widow of Gilbert de Umfraville. The marriage had taken place by 30 June 1308, when the couple were jointly granted the manor of Bourne, Sussex.[39] Margaret was a daughter of Thomas de Clare and his wife Juliana FitzGerald.[40] A comprehensive overview of their children can be seen in the records of numerous inquisitions post mortem that were held after the death of their son Giles on 7 June 1338.[41] The evidence given at each hearing rested on local knowledge and there were some inconsistencies about the names of Giles' sisters and their precise ages. However, taken as a whole, it is clear from the inquisition records that the names of Bartholomew's children were as follows, listed in descending order of age:

    Margery de Badlesmere, married William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros, then Thomas de Arundel
    Maud de Badlesmere, married Robert FitzPayn, then John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford
    Elizabeth de Badlesmere, married Sir Edmund Mortimer, then William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton
    Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere, married Elizabeth Montagu, and died without issue[42]
    Margaret de Badlesmere, married John Tiptoft, 2nd Baron Tibetot

    Birth:
    More about Badlesmere ... http://bit.ly/1OpzcUw

    Died:
    near Blean...

    was hanged, drawn and quartered by orders of King Edward II, following his participation in the Earl of Lancaster's rebellion and his subsequent capture after the Battle of Boroughbridge

    Bartholomew married Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere Bef 30 Jun 1308. Margaret (daughter of Thomas de Clare, Knight, Lord of Thomond and Juliana Fitzgerald, Lady of Thomond) was born ~ 1 Apr 1287, Ireland; died 22 Oct 1333, Aldgate, London, Middlesex, England. [Group Sheet]


  18. 155.  Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere was born ~ 1 Apr 1287, Ireland (daughter of Thomas de Clare, Knight, Lord of Thomond and Juliana Fitzgerald, Lady of Thomond); died 22 Oct 1333, Aldgate, London, Middlesex, England.

    Notes:

    Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere (ca. 1 April 1287 – 22 October 1333/3 January 1334, disputed) was a Norman-Irish noblewoman, suo jure heiress, and the wife of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere.[1]

    She was arrested and subsequently imprisoned in the Tower of London for the duration of a year from November 1321 to November 1322, making her the first recorded female prisoner in the Tower's history.[2][3] She was jailed on account of having ordered an armed assault on Isabella of France, Queen consort of King Edward II of England. Before Margaret had instructed her archers to fire upon Isabella and her escort, she had refused the Queen admittance to Leeds Castle where her husband, Baron Badlesmere held the post of governor, but which was legally the property of Queen Isabella as part of the latter's dowry. Margaret surrendered the castle on 31 October 1321 after it was besieged by the King's forces using ballistas. Edward's capture of Leeds Castle was the catalyst which led to the Despenser War in the Welsh Marches and the north of England.

    Upon her release from the Tower, Margaret entered a religious life at the convent house of the Minorite Sisters outside Aldgate. King Edward granted her a stipend to pay for her maintenance.

    Background

    Margaret was born at an unrecorded place in either Ireland or England on or about 1 April 1287, the youngest child of Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond and Juliana FitzGerald of Offaly, and granddaughter of Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester. She had two brothers, Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Thomond, and Richard de Clare, 1st Lord Clare, Lord of Thomond, who was killed at the Battle of Dysert O'Dea in 1318;[4] and an elder sister, Maud, whose first husband was Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford. Margaret had an illegitimate half-brother, Richard.[5] Her parents resided in both Ireland and England throughout their marriage;[6] it has never been established where Juliana was residing at the time of Margaret's birth although the date is known.

    *

    A foremother of 24 times to David A. Hennessee (1942) ... http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=24&disallowspouses=1&generations=24&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I43875

    Her father died on 29 August 1287, when she was almost five months of age. His cause of death has never been ascertained by historians. Her mother married her second husband, Nicholas Avenel sometime afterwards, but the exact date of this marriage is not known. Between 11 December 1291 and 16 February 1292, Margaret acquired another stepfather when her mother married her third husband, Adam de Cretynges.

    Inheritance

    A series of inquisitions post mortem held in response to writs issued on 10 April 1321 established that Margaret, the wife of Bartholomew de Badlesmere and Maud, wife of Sir Robert de Welle (sisters of Richard de Clare and both aged 30 years and above) were the next heirs of Richard's son Thomas.[7] Thomas' estate included the stewardship of the Forest of Essex, the town and castle at Thomond and numerous other properties in Ireland that are listed in the reference.

    First Marriage

    She married firstly before the year 1303, Gilbert de Umfraville, son of Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus, and Elizabeth Comyn. Upon their marriage, the Earl of Angus granted Gilbert and Margaret the manors of Hambleton and Market Overton; however, when Gilbert died childless prior to 1307, the manors passed to Margaret.

    Second Marriage

    On an unrecorded date earlier than 30 June 1308, when the couple were jointly granted the manor of Bourne, Sussex,[8] Margaret married Bartholomew de Badlesmere, an English soldier and court official who was afterwards created 1st Baron Badlesmere by writ of summons. He had held the post of Governor of Bristol Castle since 1307, and during his life accumulated many renumerative grants and offices. It is feasible that Margaret's marriage to Badlesmere had been arranged by her brother-in-law, Baron Clifford; Badlesmere having been one of Clifford's retainers during the Scottish Wars. Clifford was later killed at the Battle of Bannockburn, where Badlesmere also fought.

    Margaret was styled as Baroness Badlesmere on 26 October 1309 (the date her husband was by writ summoned to Parliament by the title of Baron Badlesmere) and henceforth known by that title.[9]

    When Margaret was visiting Cheshunt Manor in Hertfordshire in 1319, she was taken hostage by a group of sixty people, both men and women.[10] Her captors demanded a ransom of ¹100 for her release. She was held prisoner for one night before being rescued on the following day by the King's favourite, Hugh Despenser the Younger.[10] Hugh was married to Margaret's first cousin, Eleanor de Clare, eldest daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester and Joan of Acre and also Eleanor was Edward II's niece. The King ordered the arrest and imprisonment of twenty of Margaret's kidnappers; they all, however, were eventually pardoned.

    Issue

    The five children of Margaret and Baron Badlesmere were:

    Margery de Badlesmere (1308/1309- 18 October 1363), married before 25 November 1316 William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros of Hamlake, by whom she had six children.
    Maud de Badlesmere (1310- 24 May 1366), married firstly, Robert FitzPayn; secondly, John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford, by whom she had seven children.
    Elizabeth de Badlesmere (1313- 8 June 1356), married firstly in 1316 Sir Edmund Mortimer, eldest son of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville; she married secondly in 1335, William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton. Both marriages produced children.
    Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere (18 October 1314- 7 June 1338), married Elizabeth Montagu, but did not have any children by her.
    Margaret de Badlesmere (born 1315), married Sir John Tiptoft, 2nd Lord Tiptoft, by whom she had one son, Robert Tiptoft.
    The siege of Leeds Castle[edit]

    Queen consort Isabella, whom Margaret offended by refusing her admittance to Leeds Castle
    Margaret's husband, Baron Badlesmere was appointed Governor of the Royal Castle of Leeds in Kent in the fifth year of Edward II's reign (1312).[11] In October 1321, nine years after his assumption of the office, the queen consort Isabella went on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Thomas at Canterbury. She decided to interrupt her journey by stopping at Leeds Castle which legally belonged to her as the fortress and its demesne were Crown property and part of her dowry to be retained in widowhood.[12] Badlesmere, who by then had become disaffected with King Edward and had joined the swelling ranks of his opponents, was away at a meeting of the Contrariants[n 1] in Oxford at the time and had left Margaret in charge of the castle.

    Shortly before, Baron Badlesmere had deposited all of his treasure and goods inside Leeds Castle for safe-keeping.[13]

    Due to her strong dislike of Isabella as well as her own belligerent and quarrelsome character,[14][n 2] Margaret refused the Queen admittance.[15] It was suggested by Francis Lancellott that Margaret's antipathy towards Queen Isabella had its origins in about 1317 when she had asked Isabella to use her influence on behalf of a friend who was seeking an appointment in the Exchequer Office. When Isabella refused her request, for reasons unknown, a quarrel ensued and henceforth Margaret became the Queen's enemy.[16] Margaret allegedly told Isabella's marshal, whom she met on the lowered drawbridge, that "the Queen must seek some other lodging, for I would not admit anyone within the castle without an order from my lord [Baron Badlesmere]".[17] After issuing her message, she subsequently ordered her archers to loose their arrows upon Isabella from the battlements when the Queen (having apparently ignored Margaret's communication) approached the outer barbican,[18][19] in an attempt to enter the castle by force.[20] The unexpected, lethal volley of arrows, which killed six of the royal escort, compelled Isabella to make a hasty retreat from the castle and to seek alternative accommodation for the night.[21] Historian Paul C. Doherty suggests that the pilgrimage was a ruse on the part of the King and Queen in order to create a casus belli. Edward would have known beforehand that Baron Badlesmere was with the Contrariants in Oxford and had left Leeds Castle in the hands of the belligerently hostile Baroness Badlesmere; therefore he had given instructions for Isabella to deliberately stop at Leeds aware she would likely be refused admittance. Using the insult against the Queen as a banner, he would then be able to gather the moderate nobles and outraged populace to his side as a means of crushing the Contrariants.[22]

    When King Edward heard of the violent reception his consort was given by Margaret, he was predictably outraged and personally mustered a sizeable force of men "aged between sixteen and sixty", including at least six earls,[23] to join him in a military expedition which he promptly led against Margaret and her garrison at Leeds Castle to avenge the grievous insult delivered to the Queen by one of his subjects. Following a relentless assault of the fortress, which persisted for more than five days[n 3] and with the King's troops using ballistas, Margaret surrendered at curfew on 31 October having received a "promise of mercy" from Edward.[24] Throughout the siege, she had expected the Earl of Lancaster to arrive with his soldiery to relieve her, but this he had refused to do;[23][n 4] nor had any of the other Contrariants or the Marcher Lords[n 5] come to her assistance, which left her to defend the castle with merely her husband's nephew, Bartholomew de Burghersh, and the garrison troops.[23] Baron Badlesmere, although supportive of Margaret's conduct, had during that crucial time, sought refuge at Stoke Park, seat of the Bishop of Lincoln; however he did manage to despatch some knights from Witney to augment the garrison troops in the defence of Leeds.[15] Once King Edward had gained possession of the castle and the Badlesmere treasure within, the seneschal, Walter Colepepper and 12 of the garrison were hanged from the battlements.[23][25][n 6] Margaret was arrested and sent as a prisoner, along with her five children and Bartholomew de Burghersh, to the Tower of London;[14][26] she therefore became the first recorded woman imprisoned in the Tower.[2][3] On her journey to the fortress, she was insulted and jeered at by the citizens of London who, out of loyalty to Isabella, had followed her progression through the streets to vent their fury against the person who had dared maltreat their queen.[27]

    Aftermath

    Main article: Despenser War

    The King's military victory at Leeds, accomplished with the help of six influential earls including the Earls of Pembroke and Richmond, encouraged him to reclaim and assert the prerogative powers that Lancaster and the Lords Ordainers had so long denied him.[28][n 7] The dominant baronial oligarchy broke up into factions. Many of the nobles who had previously been hostile to Edward rushed to his side to quell the insurrection of the Marcher Lords, known as the Despenser War, which had erupted in full force after the King defiantly recalled to England the two Despensers (father and son,) whom the Ordainers had compelled him to banish in August 1321.[29] The first sparks to the uprising had been ignited when, prior to his expulsion, the rapacious Hugh le Despenser the Younger had persuaded the infatuated King to grant him lands in the Welsh Marches which rightfully belonged to entrenched Marcher barons such as Roger Mortimer,[30] his uncle Roger Mortimer de Chirk, and Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, a staunch Ordainer albeit the King's brother-in-law.[n 8] They had formed a confederation and made devastating raids against Despenser holdings in Wales; and Mortimer led his men in an unsuccessful march on London. These mutinous events, in addition to other incidents which created a tense situation and called for a mobilisation of forces throughout the realm, eventually led to the Ordainers constraining the King to exile the favourites. However, subsequent to his capture of Leeds Castle and the harsh sentences he had meted out to the insubordinate Margaret de Clare and her garrison, King Edward defied the Contrariants by persuading the bishops to declare the Despensers' banishment illegal at a convocation of the clergy, and he summoned them home.[28] This act had dire consequences in addition to the Despenser War: it paved the way for the complete domination of the grasping Despensers over Edward and his kingdom, leading to Roger Mortimer and Queen Isabella's 1326 Invasion of England, their assumption of power, the execution of the two Despensers, and finally, Edward's deposition.

    Imprisonment

    Margaret was the first recorded woman imprisoned in the Tower of London[2][3]

    Baron Badlesmere excused his wife's bellicose actions at Leeds with his declaration that when he had left Margaret in charge of Leeds, he had given her strict instructions not to admit anyone inside the castle without his specific orders.[18] This, he had insisted, included the Queen, with the words that "the royal prerogative of the King in the case of refusal of entry should not be assumed to provide a legal right for the Queen, who was merely his wife".[25] As a result of Margaret's imprisonment, Badlesmere remained firmly aligned with the King's opponents; shortly afterwards he participated in the Earl of Lancaster's rebellion. Badlesmere was captured after taking part in the Battle of Boroughbridge on 16 March 1322 which had ended with a royalist victory. Following trial at Canterbury, he was executed at Blean on 14 April 1322.[20]

    Margaret remained imprisoned in the Tower until 3 November 1322, when she was released on the strength of a bond from her son-in-law William de Ros and five others.[31] Presumably her children were released with her, but a record of the exact dates of their liberation has not been found.

    Later life

    Margaret retired to the convent house of the Minorite Sisters, outside Aldgate,[32] where the abbess Alice de Sherstede was personally acquainted with Queen Isabella, who took an interest in the convent's business affairs.[33] On 13 February 1322/3, the King granted Margaret a stipend of two shillings a day for her maintenance, which was paid to her by the Sheriff of Essex.[34] She also received a considerable proportion of her late husband's manors for her dowry.[35]

    Edward demonstrated his good will toward Margaret again on 1 July 1324, by giving her "permission to go to her friends within the realm whither she will, provided that she be always ready to come to the king when summoned".[36] It appears that after then she lived at Hambleton, Rutland as it was from there that on 27 May 1325 she submitted a petition in connection with property at Chilham.[37]

    Her son Giles obtained a reversal of his father's attainder in 1328, and succeeded by writ to the barony as the 2nd Baron Badlesmere. By this time Edward III had ascended the throne; however, the de facto rulers of England were Queen Isabella and her lover, Marcher Lord Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (father-in-law of Margaret's daughter Elizabeth), who jointly held the Office of Regent for the new king. Edward II had been deposed in January 1327 and allegedly murdered in September by Mortimer's hired assassins.[38] The regency of Queen Isabella and Lord Mortimer ended in October 1330 when Edward III now nearly 18 had Mortimer hanged as a traitor and Queen Isabella exiled for the remaining 28 years of her life at Castle Rising in Norfolk.

    Margaret died between 22 October 1333 [39] and 3 January 1333/4.[40]

    Died:
    in the Convent house of the Minorite Sisters...

    Children:
    1. Margery de Badlesmere was born 0___ 1306, Badlesmere Manor, Kent, England; died 18 Oct 1363.
    2. Maude de Badlesmere, Countess of Oxford was born 0___ 1310, Badlesmere Manor, Kent, England; died 24 May 1366, Hall Place, Earl's Colne, Essex, England; was buried Colne Priory, Essex, England.
    3. 77. Elizabeth Badlesmere, Countess of Northampton was born 0___ 1313, Badlesmere Manor, Kent, England; died 8 Jun 1356, (Lancashire) England; was buried Black Friars, Blackburn, Lancashire, England.

  19. 108.  Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel was born 1 May 1285, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England (son of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel); died 17 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Paris, France
    • Also Known As: 3rd Earl of Arundel

    Notes:

    Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel[a] (1 May 1285 – 17 November 1326) was an English nobleman prominent in the conflict between Edward II and his barons. His father, Richard FitzAlan, 2nd Earl of Arundel, died on 9 March 1301, while Edmund was still a minor. He therefore became a ward of John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, and married Warenne's granddaughter Alice. In 1306 he was styled Earl of Arundel, and served under Edward I in the Scottish Wars, for which he was richly rewarded.

    After Edward I's death, Arundel became part of the opposition to the new king Edward II, and his favourite Piers Gaveston. In 1311 he was one of the so-called Lords Ordainers who assumed control of government from the king. Together with Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, he was responsible for the death of Gaveston in 1312. From this point on, however, his relationship to the king became more friendly. This was to a large extent due to his association with the king's new favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger, whose daughter was married to Arundel's son. Arundel supported the king in suppressing rebellions by Roger Mortimer and other Marcher Lords, and eventually also Thomas of Lancaster. For this he was awarded with land and offices.

    His fortune changed, however, when the country was invaded in 1326 by Mortimer, who had made common cause with the king's wife, Queen Isabella. Immediately after the capture of Edward II, the queen, Edward III's regent, ordered Arundel executed, his title forfeit and his property confiscated. Arundel's son and heir Richard only recovered the title and lands in 1331, after Edward III had taken power from the regency of Isabella and Mortimer. In the 1390s, a cult emerged around the late earl. He was venerated as a martyr, though he was never canonised.

    Family and early life

    Edmund FitzAlan was born in the Castle of Marlborough, in Wiltshire, on 1 May 1285.[1] He was the son of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel, and his wife, Alice of Saluzzo, daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo in Italy. Richard had been in opposition to the king during the political crisis of 1295, and as a result he had incurred great debts and had parts of his land confiscated.[2] When Richard died in 09/03/1301, Edmund's wardship was given to John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. Warenne's only son, William, had died in 1286, so his daughter Alice was now heir apparent to the Warenne earldom. Alice was offered in marriage to Edmund, who for unknown reasons initially refused her. By 1305 he had changed his mind, however, and the two were married.[3]

    In April 1306, shortly before turning twenty-one, Edmund was granted possession of his father's title and land. On 22 May 1306, he was knighted by Edward I, along with the young Prince Edward – the future Edward II.[1] The knighting was done in expectation of military service the Scottish Wars, and after the campaign was over, Arundel was richly rewarded. Edward I pardoned the young earl a debt of ¹4,234. This flow of patronage continued after the death of Edward I in 1307; in 1308 Edward II returned the hundred of Purslow to Arundel, an honour that Edward I had confiscated from Edmund's father.[4] There were also official honours in the early years of Edward II's reign. At the new king's coronation on 25 February 1308, Arundel officiated as chief butler (or pincerna), a hereditary office of the earls of Arundel.[3]

    Opposition to Edward II

    Though the reign of Edward II was initially harmonious, he soon met with opposition from several of his earls and prelates.[5] At the source of the discontent was the king's relationship with the young Gascon knight Piers Gaveston, who had been exiled by Edward I, but was recalled immediately upon Edward II's accession.[6] Edward's favouritism towards the upstart Gaveston was an offence to the established nobility, and his elevation to the earldom of Cornwall was particularly offensive to the established nobility.[7] A group of magnates led by Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, forced Gaveston into exile in 1308.[8] By 1309, however, Edward had reconciled himself with the opposition, and Gaveston was allowed to return.[9]

    Arundel joined the opposition at an early point, and did not attend the Stamford parliament in July 1309, where Gaveston's return was negotiated.[10] After Gaveston returned, his behaviour became even more offensive, and opposition towards him grew.[11] In addition to this, there was great discontent with Edward II's failure to follow up his father's Scottish campaigns.[12] On 16 March 1310, the king had to agree to the appointment of a committee known as the Lords Ordainers, who were to be in charge of the reform of the royal government. Arundel was one of eight earls among the twenty-one Ordainers.[13]

    The Ordainers once more sent Gaveston into exile in 1311, but by 1312 he was back.[14] Now the king's favourite was officially an outlaw, and Arundel was among the earls who swore to hunt him down. The leader of the opposition – after Lincoln's death the year before – was now Thomas, Earl of Lancaster.[15] In June 1312 Gaveston was captured, tried before Lancaster, Arundel and the earls of Warwick and Hereford, and executed.[16] A reconciliation was achieved between the king and the offending magnates, and Arundel and the others received pardons, but animosity prevailed. In 1314 Arundel was among the magnates who refused to assist Edward in a campaign against the Scottish, resulting in the disastrous English defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn.[10]

    Return to loyalty

    Around the time of Bannockburn, however, Arundel's loyalty began to shift back towards the king. Edward's rapprochement towards the earl had in fact started earlier, when on 2 November 1313, the king pardoned Arundel's royal debts.[17] The most significant factor in this process though, was the marriage alliance between Arundel and the king's new favourites, the Despensers. Hugh Despenser the Younger and his father Hugh Despenser the elder were gradually taking over control of the government, and using their power to enrich themselves.[18] While this alienated most of the nobility, Arundel's situation was different. At some point in 1314–1315, his son Richard was betrothed to Isabel, daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger.[17] Now that he found himself back in royal favour, Arundel started receiving rewards in the form of official appointments. In 1317 he was appointed Warden of the Marches of Scotland, and in August 1318, he helped negotiate the Treaty of Leake, which temporarily reconciled the king with Thomas of Lancaster.[10]


    Clun Castle was the source of the personal animosity between Arundel and Roger Mortimer.
    With Arundel's change of allegiance came a conflict of interest. In August 1321, a demand was made to the king that Hugh Despenser and his father, Hugh Despenser the elder, be sent into exile.[19] The king, facing a rebellion in the Welsh Marches, had no choice but to assent.[20] Arundel voted for the expulsion, but later he claimed that he did so under compulsion, and also supported their recall in December.[10] Arundel had suffered personally from the rebellion, when Roger Mortimer seized his castle of Clun.[21][22] Early in 1322, Arundel joined King Edward in a campaign against the Mortimer family.[20] The opposition soon crumbled, and the king decided to move against Thomas of Lancaster, who had been supporting the marcher rebellion all along. Lancaster was defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge in March, and executed.[23]

    In the aftermath of the rebellion, the Despensers enriched themselves on the forfeited estates of the rebels, and Hugh Despenser the elder was created Earl of Winchester in May 1322.[24] Also Arundel, who was now one of the king's principal supporters, was richly rewarded. After the capture of Roger Mortimer in 1322, he received the forfeited Mortimer lordship of Chirk in Wales.[10] He was also trusted with important offices: he became Chief Justiciar of North and South Wales in 1323, and in 1325 he was made Warden of the Welsh Marches, responsible for the array in Wales.[1] He also extended his influence through marriage alliances; in 1325 he secured marriages between two of his daughters and the sons and heirs of two of Lancaster's main allies: the deceased earls of Hereford and Warwick.[b]

    Final years and death

    In 1323, Roger Mortimer, who had been held in captivity in the Tower of London, escaped and fled to France.[22] Two years later, Queen Isabella travelled to Paris on an embassy to the French king. Here, Isabella and Mortimer developed a plan to invade England and replace Edward II on the throne with his son, the young Prince Edward, who was in the company of Isabella.[25] Isabella and Mortimer landed in England on 24 September 1326, and due to the virulent resentment against the Despenser regime, few came to the king's aid.[26] Arundel initially escaped the invading force in the company of the king, but was later dispatched to his estates in Shropshire to gather troops.[27] At Shrewsbury he was captured by his old enemy John Charlton of Powys, and brought to Queen Isabella at Hereford. On 17 November – the day after Edward II had been taken captive – Arundel was executed, allegedly on the instigation of Mortimer.[10] According to a chronicle account, the use of a blunt sword was ordered, and the executioner needed 22 strokes to sever the earl's head from his body.[28]


    The ruins of Haughmond Abbey, Arundel's final resting place.
    Arundel's body was initially interred at the Franciscan church in Hereford. It had been his wish, however, to be buried at the family's traditional resting place of Haughmond Abbey in Shropshire, and this is where he was finally buried.[29] Though he was never canonised, a cult emerged around the late earl in the 1390s, associating him with the 9th-century martyr king St Edmund. This veneration may have been inspired by a similar cult around his grandson, Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who was executed by Richard II in 1397.[30]

    Arundel was attainted at his execution; his estates were forfeited to the crown, and large parts of these were appropriated by Isabella and Mortimer.[31] The castle and honour of Arundel was briefly held by Edward II's half-brother Edmund, Earl of Kent, who was executed on 3 September 1330.[1] Edmund FitzAlan's son, Richard, failed in an attempted rebellion against the crown in June 1330, and had to flee to France. In October the same year, the guardianship of Isabella and Mortimer was supplanted by the personal rule of King Edward III. This allowed Richard to return and reclaim his inheritance, and on 8 February 1331, he was fully restored to his father's lands, and created Earl of Arundel.[32]

    Issue

    Edmund and Alice had at least seven children:[33]

    Name Birth date Death date Notes
    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel c. 1313 24 January 1376 Married (1) Isabel le Despenser, (2) Eleanor of Lancaster
    Edmund — c. 1349
    Michael — —
    Mary — 29 August 1396 Married John le Strange, 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere[34]
    Aline — 20 January 1386 Married Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Knockin[35]
    Alice — 1326 Married John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford
    Katherine — d. 1375/76 Married (1) Henry Hussey, 2nd Baron Hussey, (2) Andrew Peverell
    Eleanor — — Married Gerard de Lisle, 1st Baron Lisle
    Elizabeth - - Married William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer
    Ancestry[edit]

    Residence:
    in exile...

    Died:
    executed...

    Edmund married Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel 0___ 1305. Alice (daughter of William de Warenne and Joan de Vere) was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England; died 23 May 1338. [Group Sheet]


  20. 109.  Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England (daughter of William de Warenne and Joan de Vere); died 23 May 1338.

    Notes:

    Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel (15 June 1287 -23 May 1338) was an English noblewoman and heir apparent to the Earldom of Surrey. In 1305, she married Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel.

    Family

    Alice, the only daughter of William de Warenne (1256-1286) and Joan de Vere, was born on 15 June 1287 in Warren, Sussex, six months after her father was accidentally killed in a tournament on 15 December 1286. On the death of her paternal grandfather, John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey in 1304, her only sibling John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey succeeded to the earldom. He became estranged from his childless wife and they never reconciled, leaving Alice as the heir presumptive to the Surrey estates and title.

    Marriage to the Earl of Arundel

    In 1305, Alice married Edmund Fitzalan, 9th Earl of Arundel,[1] the son of Richard Fitzalan, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo.[2] He had initially refused her, for reasons which were not recorded;[citation needed] however, by 1305, he had changed his mind and they were wed.[1] They had nine recorded children,[citation needed] and their chief residence was Arundel Castle in Sussex. Arundel inherited his title on 9 March 1302 upon his father's death.[2] He was summoned to Parliament as Lord Arundel in 1306, and was later one of the Lords Ordainers. He also took part in the Scottish wars.

    The Earl of Arundel and his brother-in-law John de Warenne were the only nobles who remained loyal to King Edward II, after Queen Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March returned to England in 1326. He had allied himself to the King's favourite Hugh le Despenser, and agreed to the marriage of his son to Despenser's granddaughter. Arundel had previously been granted many of the traitor Mortimer's forfeited estates, and was appointed Justice of Wales in 1322 and Warden of the Welsh Marches in 1325. He was also made Constable of Montgomery Castle which became his principal base.

    The Earl of Arundel was captured in Shropshire by the Queen's party.[3] On 17 November 1326 in Hereford, Arundel was beheaded by order of the Queen, leaving Alice de Warenne a widow. Her husband's estates and titles were forfeited to the Crown following Arundel's execution, but later restored to her eldest son, Richard.[citation needed]

    Alice died before 23 May 1338,[1] aged 50. Her brother died in 1347 without legitimate issue, thus the title of Surrey eventually passed to Alice's son, Richard.

    Issue

    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, known as Copped Hat, (1306 Arundel Castle, Sussex – 24 January 1376), also succeeded to the title of Earl of Surrey on 12 April 1361. He married firstly Isabel le Despenser, whom he later repudiated, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI. He had a son Edmund who was bastardised by the annulment. His second wife, whom he married on 5 February 1345, by Papal dispensation, was Eleanor of Lancaster, the daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth. She was the widow of John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont. Richard and Eleanor had three sons and four daughters, including Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel and Joan de Bohun, Countess of Hereford.
    Edward FitzAlan (1308–1398)
    Alice FitzAlan (born 1310), married John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford.
    Joan FitzAlan (born 1312), married Warin Gerard, Baron L'Isle.
    Aline FitzAlan (1314–1386), married Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Knockyn, by whom she had issue.
    John FitzAlan (born 1315)
    Catherine FitzAlan (died 1376), married firstly Andrew Peverell, and secondly Henry Hussey of Cockfield. Had issue by her second husband.
    Elizabeth FitzAlan (1320–1389), married William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, by whom she had one daughter, Elizabeth.
    Eleanor FitzAlan

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery on Christmas Day 1067. Roger became the first to hold the earldom of Arundel by the graces of William the Conqueror. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War and then restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    View image, history & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Children:
    1. 54. Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel was born 1306-1313, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 24 Jan 1376, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.
    2. Mary de Arundel was born Corfham Castle, Diddlebury, Shropshire, England; died 29 Aug 1396, Corfham, Shropshire, England.
    3. Aline FitzAlan was born 0___ 1314, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 20 Jan 1386.
    4. Elizabeth FitzAlan was born 0___ 1320, (England); died 0___ 1389.

  21. 110.  Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and LeicesterHenry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester was born 0___ 1281, Grosmont Castle, Monmouth, England (son of Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet, Prince of England and Blanche de Capet d'Artois, Queen of Navarre, Princess of France); died 22 Sep 1345, Leicester, Leicestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Military: Appointed Captain-General of all The King's Forces in The Marches of Scotland.
    • Death: 25 Mar 1345

    Notes:

    Henry, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Lancaster (c. 1281 – 22 September 1345) was an English nobleman, one of the principals behind the deposition of Edward II of England.

    Origins

    He was the younger son of Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester,[1] who was a son of King Henry III by his wife Eleanor of Provence. Henry's mother was Blanche of Artois, Queen Dowager of Navarre.

    Henry's elder brother Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, succeeded their father in 1296, but Henry was summoned to Parliament on 6 February 1298/99 by writ directed to Henrico de Lancastre nepoti Regis ("Henry of Lancaster, nephew of the king", Edward I), by which he is held to have become Baron Lancaster. He took part in the Siege of Caerlaverock in July 1300.

    Petition for succession and inheritance

    After a period of longstanding opposition to King Edward II and his advisors, including joining two open rebellions, Henry's brother Thomas was convicted of treason, executed and had his lands and titles forfeited in 1322. Henry did not participate in his brother's rebellions; he later petitioned for his brother's lands and titles, and on 29 March 1324 he was invested as Earl of Leicester. A few years later, shortly after his accession in 1327, the young Edward III of England returned the earldom of Lancaster to him, along with other lordships such as that of Bowland.

    Revenge

    On the Queen's return to England in September 1326 with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, Henry joined her party against King Edward II, which led to a general desertion of the king's cause and overturned the power of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester, and his namesake son Hugh the younger Despenser.

    He was sent in pursuit and captured the king at Neath in South Wales. He was appointed to take charge of the king and was responsible for his custody at Kenilworth Castle.

    Full restoration and reward[edit]
    Henry was appointed "chief advisor" for the new king Edward III of England,[2] and was also appointed captain-general of all the king's forces in the Scottish Marches.[3] He was appointed High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1327. He also helped the young king to put an end to Mortimer's regency and tyranny, also had him declared a traitor and executed in 1330.

    Loss of sight

    In about the year 1330, he became blind.

    Nickname

    According to Froissart, he was nicknamed Wryneck, or Tort-col in French, possibly due to a medical condition.[citation needed]

    Succession

    He was succeeded as Earl of Lancaster and Leicester by his eldest son, Henry of Grosmont, who subsequently became Duke of Lancaster.

    Issue[edit]


    He married Maud Chaworth, before 2 March 1296/1297.[4]

    Henry and Maud had seven children:

    Henry, Earl of Derby, (about 1300–1360/61)
    Blanche of Lancaster, (about 1305–1380) married Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell
    Matilda of Lancaster, (about 1310–1377); married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster and had descendants.
    Joan of Lancaster, (about 1312–1345); married John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray and had descendants
    Isabel of Lancaster, Abbess of Amesbury, (about 1317-after 1347)
    Eleanor of Lancaster, (about 1318–1371/72) married (1) John De Beaumont and (2) 5 Feb. 1344/5, Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and had descendants
    Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320–1362), who married Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy, and was the mother of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland.

    In about the year 1330, he became blind.

    Buried:
    at the Monastery of Canons...

    Henry married Maud Chaworth Bef 2 Mar 1297. Maud (daughter of Patrick Chaworth, Knight, Lord of Kidwelly and Isabella Beauchamp) was born 2 Feb 1282, Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales; died 3 Dec 1322, Montisfort, Hampshire, England; was buried Montisfort, Hampshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  22. 111.  Maud Chaworth was born 2 Feb 1282, Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales (daughter of Patrick Chaworth, Knight, Lord of Kidwelly and Isabella Beauchamp); died 3 Dec 1322, Montisfort, Hampshire, England; was buried Montisfort, Hampshire, England.

    Notes:

    Maud de Chaworth (2 February 1282-3 Dec 1322) was an English noblewoman and wealthy heiress. She was the only child of Patrick de Chaworth. Sometime before 2 March 1297, she married Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, by whom she had seven children.

    Parents

    Maud was the daughter of Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Baron of Kidwelly, in Carmarthenshire, South Wales, and Isabella de Beauchamp. Her maternal grandfather was William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. Her father, Patrick de Chaworth died on 7 July 1283. He was thought to be 30 years old. Three years later, in 1286, Isabella de Beauchamp married Hugh Despenser the Elder and had two sons and four daughters by him. This made Maud the half-sister of Hugh the younger Despenser. Her mother, Isabella de Beauchamp, died in 1306.

    Childhood

    Maud was only a year old when her father died, and his death left her a wealthy heiress. However, because she was an infant, she became a ward of Eleanor of Castile, Queen consort of King Edward I of England. Upon Queen Eleanor's death in 1290, her husband, King Edward I, granted Maud's marriage to his brother Edmund, Earl of Lancaster on 30 December 1292.
    Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester was the son of Eleanor of Provence and Henry III of England. He first married Aveline de Forz, Countess of Albemarle, in 1269. Later, in Paris on 3 February 1276, he married Blanche of Artois, who was a niece of Louis IX of France and Queen of Navarre by her first marriage. Blanche and Edmund had four children together, one of whom was Henry, who would later become 3rd Earl of Leicester and Maud Chaworth’s husband.

    Marriage and issue


    Edmund Crouchback betrothed Maud to his son Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster.[1] Henry and Maud were married sometime before 2 March 1297. Henry was probably born between the years 1280 and 1281, making him somewhat older than Maud, but not by much since they were either fourteen or fifteen-years-old.

    Since Maud inherited her father’s property, Henry also acquired this property through the rights of marriage. Some of that property was of the following: Hampshire, Glamorgan, Wiltshire, and Carmarthenshire. Henry was the nephew of the King of England, as well as being closely related to the French royal family line. Henry's half-sister Jeanne (or Juana) was Queen of Navarre in her own right and married Philip IV of France. Henry was the uncle of King Edward II's Queen Isabella and of three Kings of France. He was also the younger brother of Thomas (Earl of Lancaster) and first cousin of Edward II.

    Maud is often described as the "Countess of Leicester" or "Countess of Lancaster", but she never bore the titles as she died in 1322, before her husband received them. Henry was named "Earl of Leicester" in 1324 and "Earl of Lancaster" in 1327. Henry never remarried and died on 22 September 1345, when he would have been in his mid-sixties. All but one of his seven children with Maud outlived him.

    Maud and Henry had seven children:

    Blanche of Lancaster, (about 1302/05–1380); Maud’s eldest daughter was probably born between 1302 and 1305, and was named after her father’s mother Blanche of Artois. Around 9 October 1316, she married Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell. Blanch was about forty-five when Thomas died, and she lived as a widow for more than thirty years. She was one of the executers of her brother Henry’s will when he died in 1361. Blanche outlived all her siblings, dying shortly before 12 July 1380 in her seventies. Born in the reign of Edward I, she survived all the way into the reign of his great grandson Richard II.

    Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, (about 1310–1361); Maud’s only son Henry was usually called Henry of Grosmont to distinguish him from his father. He was one of the great magnates of the fourteenth century, well known and highly respected. He took after his father and was well-educated, literate, and pious; he was a soldier and a diplomat. Henry produced his own memoir "Le Livre de Seyntz Medicines", which was completed in 1354. At one point, Henry of Grosmont was considered to be the richest man in England aside from the Prince of Wales. He emerged as a political figure in his own right within England: he was knighted and represented his father in Parliament. He married Isabella, daughter of Henry, Lord Beaumont. His daughter Blanche was betrothed and eventually married to the son of Edward III, John of Gaunt. In 1361, Henry was killed by a new outbreak of the Black Death, leaving John of Gaunt his inheritance and eventually his title through his daughter Blanche.[2]

    Maud of Lancaster, Countess of Ulster, (c. 1310 – 5 May 1377). There is some discrepancy as to when Maud died.[3][4] She married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster in 1327. They had one child, Elizabeth de Burgh, who was born 6 July 1332. Eleven months after the birth of their child, Earl William was murdered at “Le Ford” in Belfast, apparently by some of his own men. The countess Maud fled to England with her baby and stayed with the royal family. In 1337, Maud of Lancaster managed to ensure that the Justiciar of Ireland was forbidden to pardon her husband’s killers. She fought for her dower rights and exerted some influence there. She remarried in 1344 to Ralph Ufford and returned to Ireland, where she had another daughter, Maud. After her second husband fell ill in 1346, she again returned to England. Maud of Lancaster died on 5 May 1377.
    Joan of Lancaster, (about 1312–1345); married between 28 February and 4 June 1327 to John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray. John’s father was executed for reasons unknown, and young John was imprisoned in the Tower of London along with his mother Alice de Braose until late 1326. A large part of his inheritance was granted to Hugh Despenser the Younger, who was his future wife’s uncle; however, he was set free in 1327 before the marriage. Joan of Lancaster probably died 7July 1349. Joan and John, 3rd Lord Mowbray had six children.

    Isabel of Lancaster, Prioress of Amesbury, (about 1317–after 1347); One of the youngest daughters of Maud and Henry, she lived quietly, going on pilgrimages and spending a lot of time alone. She also spent a great deal of time outside the cloister on non-spiritual matters. Her father had given her quite a bit of property, which she administered herself. She owned hunting dogs and had personal servants. She used her family connections to secure privileges and concessions.[5]

    Eleanor of Lancaster, (1318- Sept. 1372); married John Beaumont between September and November 1330. Eleanor bore John a son, Henry, who married Margaret de Vere, a sister of Elizabeth and Thomas de Vere, Earl of Oxford. John Beaumont was killed in a jousting tournament in Northampton on 14 April 1342. Eleanor then became the mistress of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, who was married to her first cousin Isabel, daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger. Richard obtained a divorce from the Pope and married Eleanor on 5 February 1345 in the presence of Edward III. They had five children together, three sons and two daughters. Eleanor died on 11 January 1372.

    Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320–1362); married Henry, Lord Percy before 4 September 1334; he fought at the battle of Crecy in 1346, and served in Gascony under the command of his brother-in-law Henry of Grosmont. Their son was Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. Mary of Lancaster died on 1 September 1362, the year after her brother Henry.

    Birth:
    Photo, map & history of Kidwelly ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidwelly

    Children:
    1. Henry of Grosmont, Knight, 1st Duke of Lancaster was born ~ 1310, Grosmont Castle, Grosmont, Monmouthshire, Wales; died 23 Mar 1361, Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire, England.
    2. Joan Plantagenet, Baroness Mowbray was born ~ 1312, Norfolk, England; died 7 Jul 1349, Yorkshire, England; was buried Byland Abbey, Coxwold, North Yorkshire, England.
    3. 55. Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales; died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.
    4. Mary Plantagenet, Baroness of Percy was born 1319-1320, Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire, England; died 1 Sep 1362, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; was buried Alnwick, Northumberland, England.

  23. 160.  Robert Neville was born 0___ 1237, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; died 0___ 1282.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Robert de Neville, II
    • Alt Death: 6 Jun 1271, Middleham, Yorkshire, England

    Notes:

    Robert de Neville, who died during his father's lifetime [see Neville, Robert de, d. 1282], made one of those fortunate marriages which became traditional with this family, acquiring the lordship of Middleham, in Wensleydale, with the side valley of Coverdale, and the patronage of the abbey of Coverham, by his marriage with Mary, the heiress of the FitzRanulphs.

    end of comment

    Robert de Neville, II
    Also Known As: "alt. d. 6/6/1271 Coverham Abbey", "North Riding", "Yorkshire", "England"
    Birthdate: 1237 (34)
    Birthplace: Castle Raby, Staindrop, County Durham, England
    Death: June 6, 1271 (34)
    Middleham, North Riding of Yorkshire, England
    Place of Burial: Yorkshire, England
    Immediate Family:
    Husband of Anne (Warwick) and Mary de Neville
    Father of Anastasia De Neville; Margaret de Wynton; Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville de Raby; Henry Neville; Joan Neville and 2 others
    Managed by: Bernard Raimond Assaf
    Last Updated: July 15, 2017

    About Robert de Neville, II
    Robert (II) de Neville1

    M, #19615, b. circa 1240, d. 1271

    Robert (II) de Neville was born circa 1240 at Raby, County Durham, England.
    He was the son of Robert (I) de Neville, Lord of Raby and unknown wife (?).
    He married Mary fitz Ranulf, daughter of Ralf fitz Ranulf, Lord of Middleham and Anastasia de Percy, circa 1260 in a Middleham, Yorkshire, England marriage.
    He died in 1271.
    Children of Robert (II) de Neville and Mary fitz Ranulf

    1.Ranulf de Neville, 1st Lord Neville+1 b. 18 Oct 1262, d. c 1337

    2.Randolph de Neville+2 b. 18 Oct 1262, d. 18 Apr 1332

    3.Ralph de Neville1 b. b 1271, d. a 1321

    4.Robert de Neville1 b. 1321, d. a 1321

    http://thepeerage.com/p1962.htm#i19615

    *********************************************************
    Section ABN: Descendants of Geoffrey Neville

    David Thaler

    18043 NE 132nd St, Redmond WA 98052

    Send questions and corrections to: dthaler@microsoft.com

    HTML generated by Issue v1.3.6 on 8 Dec. 2008

    http://www.armidalesoftware.com/issue/

    From Thaler_export.ged

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation One

    1. GEOFFREY1 NEVILLE was born between 1139 and 1235, and died in 1249[6]. He married MARGARET. [6]

    Child: + 2 i. ROBERT2, d. in 1282; m. IDA.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation Two

    2. ROBERT2 NEVILLE (Geoffrey1), son of (1) Geoffrey1 and Margaret NEVILLE, was born between 1172 and 1250, and died in 1282[6]. He married IDA. [6]

    Child: + 3 i. ROBERT3, d. in 1271; m. MARY in 1270.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation Three

    3. ROBERT3 NEVILLE (Robert2, Geoffrey1), son of (2) Robert2 and Ida NEVILLE, was born between 1186 and 1256, and died in 1271[6]. He married in 1270, MARY[6], who died in 1320[6]. [6]

    Child: + 4 i. RANDOLPH4, 1ST BARON NEVILLE OF RABY, d. in 1331; m. (OI-7) EUPHEMIA DE CLAVERING.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation Four

    4. RANDOLPH4 DE NEVILLE, 1ST BARON NEVILLE OF RABY (Robert3, Robert2, Geoffrey1), son of (3) Robert3 and Mary NEVILLE, was born between 1231 and 1272, and died in 1331[2]. He married (OI-7) EUPHEMIA DE CLAVERING, daughter of (OI-6) Baron Robert FitzRoger and (ADX-15) Margery (de la ZOUCHE). [3, 6, 11]

    Child: + 5 i. RALPH5, 2ND BARON NEVILLE, b. circa 1291, d. on 5 Aug. 1367; m. (CC-6) ALICE DE AUDLEY.

    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

    Generation Five

    5. RALPH5 NEVILLE, 2ND BARON NEVILLE (Randolph4, Robert3, Robert2, Geoffrey1), son of (4) Randolph4, 1st Baron Neville of Raby and (OI-7) Euphemia (de CLAVERING), was born circa 1291[11], and died on 5 Aug. 1367[11]. He married (CC-6) ALICE DE AUDLEY, daughter of (CC-4) Baron Hugh and (AAS-10) Isolde (de MORTIMER), who was born circa 1300 in Hadley, Staffordshire, England, United Kingdom, died on 12 Jan. 1373/4[8, 11], and was buried in Cathedral Church, Durham, Durham, England. [4, 16, 6, 11]

    Child: + 6 i. JOHN6, 3RD BARON NEVILLE, b. circa 1329, d. on 17 Oct. 1388; m. (ADI-5) MAUD DE PERCY before 1362.

    --^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation Six

    6. JOHN6 DE NEVILLE, 3RD BARON NEVILLE (Ralph5, Randolph4, Robert3, Robert2, Geoffrey1), son of (5) Ralph5, 2nd Baron Neville and (CC-6) Alice (de AUDLEY) (GREYSTOKE), was born circa 1329[12], and died on 17 Oct. 1388[12]. He married before 1362, (ADI-5) MAUD DE PERCY[12], daughter of (ADI-4) Henry, 2nd Baron Percy and (P-79) Idoine (de CLIFFORD), who died before 18 Feb. 1378/9[12]. [16, 7, 13]

    Children: + 7 i. ELEANOR7, d. after 16 July 1447; m. (XM-3) RALPH DE LUMLEY, 1ST BARON LUMLEY.

    + 8 ii. THOMAS, BARON FURNIVALL, d. on 14 March 1406/7; m. (PH-2) JOAN FURNIVALL before 1 July 1379.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation Seven

    7. ELEANOR7 NEVILLE (John6, Ralph5, Randolph4, Robert3, Robert2, Geoffrey1), daughter of (6) John6, 3rd Baron Neville and (ADI-5) Maud (de PERCY), was born between 1343 and 1380, and died after 16 July 1447[9]. She married (XM-3) RALPH DE LUMLEY, 1ST BARON LUMLEY, son of (XM-2) Marmaduke and Margaret LUMLEY, who was born INT circa 1360 (61 ())[9], and died on 5 Jan. 1399/1400[9]. [16, 10]

    Child: See (XM-3) Ralph de LUMLEY, 1st Baron Lumley

    8. THOMAS7 NEVILLE, BARON FURNIVALL (John6, Ralph5, Randolph4, Robert3, Robert2, Geoffrey1), son of (6) John6, 3rd Baron Neville and (ADI-5) Maud (de PERCY), was born between 1343 and 1365, and died on 14 March 1407[15]. He married before 1 July 1379, (PH-2) JOAN FURNIVALL[15], daughter of (PH-1) Baron William, who was born circa Oct. 1368[15], and died in 1395[15]. [5, 14]

    Child: + 9 i. MAUDE8, b. in 1392, d. in 1423; m. (AJK-7) JOHN TALBOT, LORD LIEUTENANT OF IRELAND.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation Eight

    9. MAUDE8 DE NEVILLE (Thomas7, John6, Ralph5, Randolph4, Robert3, Robert2, Geoffrey1), daughter of (8) Thomas7, Baron Furnivall and (PH-2) Joan (FURNIVALL), was born in 1392[1], and died in 1423[1]. She married (AJK-7) JOHN TALBOT, LORD LIEUTENANT OF IRELAND, son of (AJK-6) Sir Richard and (AIT-21) Ankaret (le STRANGE), who was born in 1384[1], and died on 17 July 1453[1]. [5, 15]

    Child: See (AJK-7) John TALBOT, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Robert De NEVILLE (Sir)

    Died: AFT Jul 1373

    Father: Robert De NEVILLE (Sir)

    Mother: Isabel De BYRON

    Married 1: Joan De ATHERTON (dau. of Henry De Atherton and Emma Aintree)

    Children:

    1. Robert De NEVILLE of Hornby (Sir)

    2. John De NEVILLE (b. ABT 1325)

    3. Giles De NEVILLE (b. ABT 1327)

    4. Thomas De NEVILLE (b. ABT 1329)

    5. William De NEVILLE (b. ABT 1331)

    6. Geoffrey De NEVILLE (b. ABT 1333)

    Married 2: Elizabeth De St. LAWRENCE (dau. of Thomas De St. Laurence) AFT 1338, St. Lawrence, Kent, England

    end of biography

    Robert — Mary FitzRanulph, Heiress of Middleham. Mary was born 0___ 1244, Middleham, Yorkshire, England; died 11 Apr 1320, Yorkshire, England; was buried Coverham, Yorkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  24. 161.  Mary FitzRanulph, Heiress of Middleham was born 0___ 1244, Middleham, Yorkshire, England; died 11 Apr 1320, Yorkshire, England; was buried Coverham, Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Mary de Neville (Fitzrandolph)

    Notes:

    Mary de Neville (Fitzrandolph)
    Also Known As: "Fitzralph", "Heiress of Middleham"
    Birthdate: 1244 (76)
    Birthplace: Middleham, Yorkshire, England
    Death: April 11, 1320 (76)
    Yorkshire, England
    Place of Burial: Coverham, Yorkshire, England
    Immediate Family:
    Daughter of Ranulf FitzRanulf, Sir., Lord of Spennithorne and Middleham and Anastasia FitzRanulf
    Wife of Robert de Neville, II
    Mother of Anastasia De Neville; Margaret de Wynton; Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville de Raby; Henry Neville; Joan Neville and 2 others
    Sister of Joan of Middleham and Anastasia FitzRandolph
    Half sister of Ralph fitz Ranulf, Sir, Lord of Spennithorne; Piers fitz Ranulf; Henry fitz Ranulf and Adam fitz Ranulf
    Occupation: Heiress of Middleham
    Managed by: Mike Bullock
    Last Updated: July 15, 2017

    About Mary de Neville
    Mary FitzRalph1,2
    F, #11547, b. circa 1246, d. circa 11 April 1320
    Father Sir Ralph FitzRandolph, Lord Middleham3 b. c 1218, d. 31 Mar 1270
    Mother Anastasia de Percy3 b. c 1220, d. b 28 Apr 1272
    Mary FitzRalph was born circa 1246 at of Middleham, Durham, England. She married Robert de Neville, son of Sir Robert de Neville, Sheriff of Northumberland, circa 1260; They had 5 sons (Sir Ranulph, 1st Lord Neville of Raby; Robert; Ralph; Henry; & Reynold) and 4 daughters (Margaret, wife of Gilbert de Wauton; Jane; Merisia; & Anastasia).2 Mary FitzRalph died circa 11 April 1320 at Coverham, Yorkshire, England; Buried at Coverham Abbey, Yorkshire.2
    Family Robert de Neville b. b 1240, d. 6 Aug 1271
    Child
    Sir Randolph de Neville, 1st Lord Neville of Raby, Constable of Warkworth Castle+2 b. 18 Oct 1262, d. c 18 Apr 1331
    Citations
    1.[S3190] Unknown author, Stemmata Robertson, p. 239; Wallop Family, Vol. 4, line 728.
    2.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 240-241.
    3.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 240.
    From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p385.htm#i11547
    ______________
    Mary fitz Ranulf1
    F, #19616, b. circa 1244, d. before 11 April 1320
    Last Edited=6 Apr 2013
    Mary fitz Ranulf was born circa 1244 at Middleham, Yorkshire, England.2 She was the daughter of Ralf fitz Ranulf, Lord of Middleham and Anastasia de Percy.1,2 She married Robert (II) de Neville, son of Robert (I) de Neville, Lord of Raby and unknown wife (?), circa 1260 in a Middleham, Yorkshire, England marriage.2 She died before 11 April 1320 at Coverham, Yorkshire, England.1,2 She was buried at Caverham Abbey.3
    Children of Mary fitz Ranulf and Robert (II) de Neville
    1.Ranulf de Neville, 1st Lord Neville+1 b. 18 Oct 1262, d. c 18 Apr 1331
    2.Ralph de Neville1 b. b 1271, d. a 1321
    3.Robert de Neville1 b. b 1271, d. a 1321
    Citations
    1.[S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 14. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    2.[S125] Richard Glanville-Brown, online , Richard Glanville-Brown (RR 2, Milton, Ontario, Canada), downloaded 17 August 2005.
    3.[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume IX, page 496. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
    From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p1962.htm#i19616
    ______________
    Mary TAILBOYS
    Born: ABT 1244, Middleham
    Died: BEF 11 Apr 1320
    Father: Ralph TAILBOYS
    Mother: Anastasia De PERCY
    Married: Robert De NEVILLE
    Children:
    1. Ralph De NEVILLE (1° B. Neville of Raby)
    2. Jane De NEVILLE
    3. Mericia (Mercy) De NEVILLE
    4. Anastasia De NEVILLE
    5. Margaret De NEVILLE
    6. Henry De NEVILLE
    7. Reginald De NEVILLE
    8. Robert De NEVILLE
    From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/TALBOYS.htm#Mary TAILBOYS1
    __________________
    Mary fitz Ranulf1

    F, #19616, b. circa 1244, d. before 11 April 1320

    Last Edited=29 Apr 2009

    Mary fitz Ranulf was born circa 1244 at Middleham, Yorkshire, England.
    She was the daughter of Ralf fitz Ranulf, Lord of Middleham and Anastasia de Percy.
    She married Robert (II) de Neville, son of Robert (I) de Neville, Lord of Raby and unknown wife (?), circa 1260 in a Middleham, Yorkshire, England marriage.
    She died before 11 April 1320 at Coverham, Yorkshire, England.
    She was buried at Caverham Abbey.
    From circa 1260, her married name became de Neville.
    Children of Mary fitz Ranulf and Robert (II) de Neville

    1.Ranulf de Neville, 1st Lord Neville+1 b. 18 Oct 1262, d. c 1337

    2.Randolph de Neville+2 b. 18 Oct 1262, d. 18 Apr 1332

    3.Ralph de Neville1 b. b 1271, d. a 1321

    4.Robert de Neville1 b. 1321, d. a 1321

    Citations

    http://thepeerage.com/p1962.htm#i19616

    Mary TAILBOYS is another name for Mary fitz Ranulf.

    http://www.thepeerage.com/p1962.htm#i19616

    Born: ABT 1244, Middleham

    Died: BEF 11 Apr 1320

    Father: Ralph TAILBOYS

    Mother: Anastasia De PERCY

    Married: Robert De NEVILLE

    Children:

    1. Ralph De NEVILLE (1° B. Neville of Raby)

    2. Jane De NEVILLE

    3. Mericia (Mercy) De NEVILLE

    4. Anastasia De NEVILLE

    5. Margaret De NEVILLE

    6. Henry De NEVILLE

    7. Reginald De NEVILLE

    8. Robert De NEVILLE

    http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/TALBOYS.htm

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Mimi & I spent a couple of nights at, "The Wensleydale Heifer", pub and hotel ... DAH

    Children:
    1. 80. Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville of Raby was born 18 Oct 1262, Raby, Durham, England; died 18 Apr 1331, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.

  25. 162.  Robert FitzRoger Clavering, 5th Baron Warkworth, 1st Baron Clavering was born ~ 1241, Clavering, Essex, England; died 0___ 1310, Clavering, Essex, England.

    Notes:

    Born: Abt 1241, Clavering, Essex, England 2
    Marriage: Margery Mary DE LA ZOUCHE [1417] in 1265 in Warkworth, Northumberland, England 1
    Died: 1310, Clavering, Essex, England about age 69 2
    Sources, Comments and Notes
    Source Par Charles H. Browning:
    "..., the son of Sir John, third Baron de Nevill, of Raby, K.G., constituted admiral of the king's fleet, d. October 17, 1385, the son of Ralph de Nevill, second Baron, d. 1367, son of Ralph, Baron de Nevill, of Raby, and his first wife, Lady Euphemia, sister of John de Clavering, and daughter of Robert Fitz-Roger, son of Roger Fitz-John, the son of Robert Fitz-Robert, one of the Sureties for the Magna Charta."
    ______________________________
    Source Par Mostyn John Armstrong:
    "... After this sir Robert Fitz-Roger de Clavering, married Margery, daughter of lord Zouch, and died lord in the 3d of Edward II. and John de Clavering was his fon and heir, aged 40; he was a knight, and left left Eve his only daughter and heir, by Hawife his wife, daughter of fir Pain Tibetot..."
    ______________________________
    Source Par Thomas Gregory Smart:
    "... Descent through Clavering.
    i.\emdash b Robert Fitzroger, 5th Baron Warkworth, summoned to Parliament, 1295."
    _____________________________
    Source <
    "... Roger. He died in 1249; his son, Robert was one and a half at the time. Consequentially, a guardian was appointed to care for the family's property: William de Valence, half-brother of the king, Henry III , and later Earl of Pembroke . In his record of events, the chronicler Matthew Paris characterised it as "a noble castle". Valence remained guardian until 1268, when it reverted to Robert Fitz John. King Edward I of England stayed at Warkworth Castle for a night in 1292. The English king was asked to mediate in a dispute over the Scottish throne and laid his own claim, leading to the Anglo-Scottish Wars. After the Scottish victory at the Battle of Stirling Bridg in 1297, Robert and his son, John de Clavering, were captured. They were subsequently released and in 1310 John assumed control of the family estates. A year later, John made the Crown inheritor. Such was the importance of large castles during the Scottish Wars, the Crown subsidised their maintenance and even construction. In 1319, King Edward II paid for a garrison of four men-at-arms and eight hobilars to enhance the existing force of twelve men-at-arms. Ralph Neville was the keeper of Warkworth Castle in 1322. As he was married to John's daughter, Euphemia, Ralph may have hoped to inherit the Clavering estates, however that was not to be the case. A Scottish force besieged the castle unsuccessfully in 1327. "
    _____________________________
    Source Par Anthony Hall,Robert Morden:
    "ALINGTON, a Member of the Manor of Werkworth, of which Roger de Clavering died possessed, 33 Hen., III. leaving his Son and Heir Robert, very young, who was committed to the Tuition of William dt Valence, the King's Brother."
    _____________________________
    Source Publiâe par Eneas Mackenzie:
    "... The manor of Corbridge was granted by the crown, 6 king John, to Robert, son of Roger de Clavering, baron of Warkworth, to hold, with all its regalities, in fee-farm, by the annual service of ¹40, with the privilege of a weekly market, and an annual fair on the eve, day, and day after the festival of St. John the Baptist. It had also the privilege of sending two members to parliament, which privilege was disused on account of the burthen of the members' expences; the names of two of whom are on record, viz. Adam Fitz-Allan, and Hugh Fitz-Hugh, 23 king Edward I. John, the last Baron Clavering, granted the reversion of his honour of Warkworth, and of this and his other manors in this county, to the crown, 6 king Edward I. which were given by king Edward III. to Henry Percy. The widow of John Lord Clavering held a third part of Corbridge manor for her dower; but Henry Percy died seized of the whole, 26 king Edward III. and left it, with other great estates, to his son and heir of the same name."
    [Wikipedia: "Corbridge is a village in Northumberland , England , situated 16 miles (26 km) west of Newcastle and 4 miles (6 km) east of Hexham . Villages in the vicinity include Halton , Acomb , Aydon and Sandhoe .]
    _____________________________
    "Genealogy of the Founders of the Abbey of Sibton.
    THE Lady Sibyl, sister of JOHN DE CATNETO, daughter of RALPH DE CATNETO, who came at the Conquest of England, was married to Sir ROBERT FITZ-WALTER, Founder of the House of St. Faith, of Horsham ;who begat of her a son by name Roger ;and John, Sheriff; and WILLIAM DE CATNETO. Roger; and John, the Sheriff, died without issue ; but William took a Wife, and begat of her three daughters, namely: Margaret; Clemence and Sara.
    Clemence and Sara died without issue ;but Margaret was married to a certain Norman HUGH DE CRESCY; who begat of her a Son, named Roger. ROGER DE CRESCY took a Wife by name ISABELLA DE RYE; and begat of her four sons, namely: Hugh; Roger ; John and Stephen, who all died without issue. The aforesaid Margaret, after her husband Sir HUGH DE CRESCY was dead, married another Nobleman, by name, ROBERT FITZ-ROGER ;who begat of her JOHN FITZ-ROBERT.
    John begat a son by name ROGER. The same ROGER begat a son by name ROBERT FITZ-ROGER, now Patron. Who after the death of STEPHEN DE CRESCY succeeded by Inheritance to the Barony of Horsford, as heir of the Lady MARGARET DE CHENET, who married two husbands as is aforesaid.

    But the aforesaid ROBERT [FITZ-ROGER] married a Wife, by name, MARGERY DE LA ZOUCHE, of whom he begat many sons and daughters, son of KingHenry, caused to be namely : JOHN; ALEXANDER; ROGER ; ROBERT; ALAN; HENRY; and EDMUND. JOHN married a Wife, by name, HAWISE, of whom he begat a daughter, by name, EVA, who now claims to be the Patroness of the House of Sibton, of St. Faith, and of Blythburgh as of Hereditary Right."
    ____________________________
    Source :
    "ROBERT FitzRoger of Warkworth, Northumberland and Clavering, Essex, son of ROGER FitzJohn of Warkworth & his wife --- (-before 29 Apr 1310). A manuscript genealogy of the founders of Horsham priory, Norfolk names "Robertum filium Rogeri, nunc patronum" as the son of "Rogerum", son of "Johannem filium Roberti", adding that he inherited "post obitum Stephani de Crescy...in hereditate baronniµ de Horsford, quasi hµres dominµ Margeriµ de Cheny" [his paternal great-grandmother]. He was summoned to Parliament in 1295 whereby he is held to have become Lord FitzRoger.

    m MARGARET la Zouche, daughter of ---. A manuscript genealogy of the founders of Horsham priory, Norfolk records that "Robertum filium Rogeri, nunc patronum" married "Margeriam de la Souche". Her precise relationship to the Zouche family has not been ascertained. Robert & his wife had eight children:

    1. JOHN FtzRobert of Costessey, Norfolk ([1265/66]-Aynhoe, Northamptonshire [1/23] Jan 1332, bur Langley Abbey, Norfolk). ...
    2. Alexander. ...
    3. Roger. ...
    4. Robert. ...
    5. Alan. ...
    6. Henry. ...
    7. Edmund. ...
    8. Ellen. ...." [and Euphemia ?]

    Robert married Margery Mary DE LA ZOUCHE [1417] in 1265 in Warkworth, Northumberland, England.1 (Margery Mary DE LA ZOUCHE [1417] was born about 1245 in Clavering, Essex, England 3 and died in 1329 in Clavering, Essex, England.)

    Robert married Margery Mary de la Zouche 0___ 1265, Warkworth, Alnwick, Northumberland, England. Margery (daughter of Alan la Zouche and Helen de Quincy) was born ~ 1245, Clavering, Essex, England; died 0___ 1329, Clavering, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]


  26. 163.  Margery Mary de la Zouche was born ~ 1245, Clavering, Essex, England (daughter of Alan la Zouche and Helen de Quincy); died 0___ 1329, Clavering, Essex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Margaret la Zouche

    Children:
    1. 81. Euphemia Clavering, Baroness of Raby was born 0___ 1267, Clavering, Essex, England; died 0___ 1320, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).

  27. 164.  James de Audley, Knight was born 0___ 1220, Heleighley Castle, Staffordshire, England; died 11 Jun 1272, Ireland.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Justiciar of Ireland
    • Also Known As: James Aiditheley
    • Also Known As: James de Aldithel
    • Also Known As: James de Aldthley, Justice of Chester

    Notes:

    James de Audley (1220 - 1272), or James de Aldithel and Alditheley, was an English baron.[1]

    Biography

    Audley was born in 1220 to Henry de Audley, and was, like him, a lord-marcher. In 1257 he accompanied Richard, king of the Romans, to his coronation at Aachen (Matt. Paris), sailing on 29 April (Rymer) and returning to England in the autumn to take part in the Welsh campaign (1257-1260).

    In the following year (1258) he was one of the royalist members of the council of fifteen nominated by the Provisions of Oxford, and witnessed, as 'James of Aldithel,' their confirmation by the king (18 Oct.).

    He also, with his brother-in-law, Peter de Montfort, was appointed commissioner to treat with Llewelyn (18 Aug.), and two years later he acted as an itinerant justice.

    On Llewelyn of Wales attacking Mortimer, a royalist marcher, Audley joined Prince Edward at Hereford, 9 January 1263 to resist the invasion. But the barons, coming to Llewelyn's assistance, dispersed the royalist forces, and seized on his castles and estates.

    He is wrongly said by Dugdale and Foss to have been made 'justice of Ireland' in this year, but in December he was one of the royalist sureties in the appeal to Louis of France.

    At the time of the battle of Lewes (May 1264) he was in arms for the king on the Welsh marches (Matthew Paris), and he was one of the first to rise against the government of Simon de Montfort.

    On Gloucester embracing the royal cause, early in 1265, Audley joined him with the other marchers, and took part in the campaign of Evesham and the overthrow of the baronial party.

    He appears to have gone on a pilgrimage to Galicia in 1268, and also, it is stated, to Palestine in 1270; but though his name occurs among the 'Crucesignati' of 21 May 1270, it is clear that he never went, for he was appointed justiciary of Ireland a few months later, his name first occurring in connection with that office 5 September 1270.

    He also served as High Sheriff of Staffordshire and Shropshire in 1261 and 1270.[2] During his tenure as Justiciar of Ireland he led several expeditions against 'the Irish rebels,' but died by 'breaking his neck' about 11 June 1272 (when he is last mentioned as justiciary), and was succeeded by his son James, who did homage 29 July 1272.

    References

    Jump up ^ "(Sir) James DE AUDLEY Knight, Justiciar of Ireland". washington.ancestryregister.com. Archived from the original on March 20, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
    Jump up ^ Collections for a history of Staffordshire. Staffordshire Record Society. 1912. p. 276.

    end of biography

    Birth:
    Heighley Castle (or Heleigh Castle) is a ruined medieval castle near Madeley, Staffordshire. The castle was completed by the Audley family in 1233 and for over 300 years was one of their ancestral homes. It was held for Charles I during the English Civil War and was destroyed by Parliamentary forces in the 1640s. The ruinous remains comprise masonry fragments, mostly overgrown by vegetation. The site is protected by Grade II listed building status and is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The castle is privately owned and is not open to visitors.

    Heleigh Castle was built by Henry de Aldithley (c.1175-1246) (later "de Audley"), Sheriff of Shropshire 1227-1232. He also built the nearby Red Castle, Shropshire. He endowed the nearby Cistercian Abbey of St. Mary at Hulton in 1223, and donated to it a large amount of land, some of which was an inheritance from his mother and some of which was purchased.

    ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heighley_Castle

    James married Ela Longespee 0___ 1244. Ela (daughter of William Longespee, II, Knight, Earl of Salisbury, Crusader and Odoine de Camville) was born ~ 1228, (Salisbury, Wiltshire) England; died 22 Nov 1299. [Group Sheet]


  28. 165.  Ela Longespee was born ~ 1228, (Salisbury, Wiltshire) England (daughter of William Longespee, II, Knight, Earl of Salisbury, Crusader and Odoine de Camville); died 22 Nov 1299.
    Children:
    1. Nicholas de Audley was born Bef 1258, Heleighley Castle, Staffordshire, England; died 28 Aug 1299, Brimsfield,,Gloucestershire,Englan.
    2. Maud Audley was born ~ 1260, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England.
    3. 82. Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton was born 0___ 1267, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; died Bef 1326; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England.

  29. 168.  Henry de Percy, Knight, 7th Feudal Baron of Topcliffe died 0___ 1272, (Alnwick, Northumberland, England).

    Henry married Eleanor de Warenne 8 Sep 1268. Eleanor (daughter of John de Warenne, Knight, 6th Earl of Surrey and Alice de Lusignan) was born 0___ 1251. [Group Sheet]


  30. 169.  Eleanor de Warenne was born 0___ 1251 (daughter of John de Warenne, Knight, 6th Earl of Surrey and Alice de Lusignan).
    Children:
    1. 84. Henry de Percy, Knight, 1st Baron Percy was born 25 Mar 1273, Petworth, Sussex, England; died 0Oct 1314, Alnwick, Northumberland, England.

  31. 170.  Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of ArundelRichard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel was born 2 Mar 1266, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (son of John FitzAlan, Knight, 7th Earl of Arundel and Isabella Mortimer); died 9 Mar 1302, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England.

    Notes:

    Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel (7th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots) (3 February 1266/7 – 9 March 1301/2) was an English Norman medieval nobleman.

    Lineage

    He was the son of John FitzAlan, 7th Earl of Arundel (6th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots) and Isabella Mortimer, daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Wigmore and Maud de Braose. His paternal grandparents were John Fitzalan, 6th Earl of Arundel and Maud le Botiller.

    Richard was feudal Lord of Clun and Oswestry in the Welsh Marches. After attaining his majority in 1289 he became the 8th Earl of Arundel, by being summoned to Parliament by a writ directed to the Earl of Arundel.

    He was knighted by King Edward I of England in 1289.

    Fought in Wales, Gascony & Scotland

    He fought in the Welsh wars, 1288 to 1294, when the Welsh castle of Castell y Bere (near modern-day Towyn) was besieged by Madog ap Llywelyn. He commanded the force sent to relieve the siege and he also took part in many other campaigns in Wales ; also in Gascony 1295-97; and furthermore in the Scottish wars, 1298-1300.

    Marriage & Issue

    He married sometime before 1285, Alice of Saluzzo (also known as Alesia di Saluzzo), daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo in Italy. Their issue:

    Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel.
    John, a priest.
    Alice FitzAlan, married Stephen de Segrave, 3rd Lord Segrave.
    Margaret FitzAlan, married William le Botiller (or Butler).
    Eleanor FitzAlan, married Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy.[a]

    Burial

    Richard and his mother are buried together in the sanctuary of Haughmond Abbey, long closely associated with the FitzAlan family.

    Ancestry

    [show]Ancestors of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel

    Notes

    Jump up ^ Standard accounts of the Percy family identify Eleanor as the daughter of the "Earl of Arundel". Arrangements for Eleanor's marriage to Lord Percy are found in the recognizance made in 1300 by Eleanor's father, Richard, Earl of Arundel, for a debt of 2,000 marks which he owed Sir Henry Percy. Eleanor was styled as a "kinswoman" of Edward II on two separate occasions; once in 1318 and again in 1322 presumably by her descent from Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy who was the brother of Edward II's great-grandmother, Beatrice of Savoy. Eleanor's brothers, Edmund and John were also styled as "kinsmen" of the king. Eleanor's identity is further indicated by the presence of the old and new arms of FitzAlan (or Arundel) at her tomb.

    References

    Jump up ^ www.briantimms.net, Charles's Roll
    Jump up ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.833
    Wikisource link to Fitzalan, Richard (1267-1302) (DNB00). Wikisource.
    Weis, Frederick Lewis. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700.
    External links[edit]
    Medieval Lands Project on Richard FitzAlan

    Richard married Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel Bef 1285. Alice (daughter of Thomas of Saluzzo and Luigia de Ceva) was born 0___ 1269, Saluzzo, Italy; died 25 Sep 1292; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  32. 171.  Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel was born 0___ 1269, Saluzzo, Italy (daughter of Thomas of Saluzzo and Luigia de Ceva); died 25 Sep 1292; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Alesia di Saluzzo

    Notes:

    Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel (died 25 September 1292),[1] also known as Alesia di Saluzzo, was an Italian-born noblewoman and an English countess. She was a daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo, and the wife of Richard Fitzalan, 8th Earl of Arundel. Alice was one of the first Italian women to marry into an English noble family. She assumed the title of Countess of Arundel in 1289.

    Family

    Alesia was born on an unknown date in Saluzzo (present-day Province of Cuneo, Piedmont); the second eldest daughter of Thomas I, 4th Margrave of Saluzzo, and Luigia di Ceva (died 22 August 1291/1293), daughter of Giorgio, Marquis of Ceva[2] and Menzia d'Este.[1] Alesia had fifteen siblings. Her father was a very wealthy and cultured nobleman under whose rule Saluzzo achieved a prosperity, freedom, and greatness it had never known previously.[citation needed]

    Marriage and issue

    Sometime before 1285, Alice married Richard Fitzalan, feudal Lord of Clun and Oswestry in the Welsh Marches, the son of John Fitzalan, 7th Earl of Arundel and Isabella Mortimer. Richard would succeed to the title of Earl of Arundel in 1289, thus making Alice the 8th Countess of Arundel. Along with her aunt, Alasia of Saluzzo who married Edmund de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln in 1247, Alice was one of the first Italian women to marry into an English noble family. Her marriage had been arranged by the late King Henry III's widowed Queen consort Eleanor of Provence.

    Richard and Alice's principal residence was Marlborough Castle in Wiltshire, but Richard also held Arundel Castle in Sussex and the castles of Clun and Oswestry in Shropshire. Her husband was knighted by King Edward I in 1289, and fought in the Welsh Wars (1288–1294), and later in the Scottish Wars. The marriage produced four children:[3]

    Edmund Fitzalan, 9th Earl of Arundel (1 May 1285- 17 November 1326 by execution), married Alice de Warenne, by whom he had issue.
    John Fitzalan, a priest
    Alice Fitzalan (died 7 September 1340), married Stephen de Segrave, 3rd Lord Segrave, by whom she had issue.
    Margaret Fitzalan, married William le Botiller, by whom she had issue.
    Eleanor Fitzalan, married Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy, by whom she had issue.
    Alice died on 25 September 1292 and was buried in Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire. Her husband Richard died on 09/03/1301 and was buried alongside Alice. In 1341, provision was made for twelve candles to be burned beside their tombs.[2] The Abbey is now a ruin as the result of a fire during the English Civil War. Her many descendants included the Dukes of Norfolk, the English queen consorts of Henry VIII, Sir Winston Churchill, Diana, Princess of Wales, and the current British Royal Family.

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b Cawley, Charles, Saluzzo, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    ^ Jump up to: a b The Complete Peerage, vol.1, page 241.[full citation needed]
    Jump up ^ Cawley, Charles, Earls of Arundel, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]

    Categories: 13th-century births1292 deathsPeople from SaluzzoWomen of medieval Italy

    Children:
    1. 85. Eleanor FitzAlan was born 0___ 1282; died 0___ 1328; was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England.
    2. 108. Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel was born 1 May 1285, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England; died 17 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England.
    3. Alice FitzAlan was born 0___ 1291, Arundel, Sussex, England; died 7 Feb 1340, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Chacombe Priory, Chacombe, Northamptonshire, England.
    4. Margaret FitzAlan was born (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England).

  33. 172.  Roger de Clifford, II, Knight was born (Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England) (son of Walter de Clifford, Knight, Baron Clifford and Agnes Cundy); died 0___ 1282.

    Roger — Isabella Vipont. Isabella (daughter of Robert de Vieuxpont and Idonea de Builli) died 0___ 1291. [Group Sheet]


  34. 173.  Isabella Vipont (daughter of Robert de Vieuxpont and Idonea de Builli); died 0___ 1291.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isabella Vieuxpont

    Children:
    1. 86. Robert de Clifford, Knight, 1st Baron de Clifford was born ~ 1274, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England; died 24 Jun 1314, Bannockburn, Scotland; was buried Shap Abbey, Cumbria, England.

  35. 174.  Thomas de Clare, Knight, Lord of Thomond was born ~ 1245, Tonbridge, Kent, England (son of Richard de Clare, Knight, 6th Earl of Gloucester and Maud de Lacy); died 29 Aug 1287, Ireland.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Lord of Inchiquin and Youghal

    Notes:

    Thomas de Clare, Lord of Inchiquin and Youghal (c. 1245 - 29 August 1287) was a Hiberno-Norman peer and soldier. He was the second son of Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester and his wife Maud de Lacy, Countess of Gloucester. On 26 January 1276 he was granted the lordship of Thomond by Edward I of England; he spent the next eight years attempting to conquer it from the O'Brien dynasty, kings of Thomond.

    Career

    Thomas was born in about 1245 in Tonbridge, Kent, England, the second eldest son of Richard de Clare and Maud de Lacy.[1] He and his brother Bogo received gifts from King Henry III when they were studying at Oxford from 1257–59.[2]

    Thomas was a close friend and intimate advisor of Prince Edward of England, who would in 1272 accede to the throne as King Edward I. Together they took part in the Ninth Crusade. He held many important posts such as Governor of Colchester Castle (1266) and Governor of The City of London (1273). He was made Commander of the English forces in Munster, Ireland and created Lord of Inchiquin and Youghal. On 26 January 1276, he was granted the entire lordship of Thomond by King Edward.

    That same year, he jointly commanded a Norman army along with Sir Geoffrey de Geneville, Justiciar of Ireland against the Irish clans of County Wicklow. They were joined by a contingent of men from Connacht led by his father-in-law Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly. Thomas and Justiciar de Geneville's forces attacked the Irish at Glenmalure, but they were soundly defeated and suffered severe losses.[3]

    Civil war raged in Thomond between the rival factions of the O'Brien dynasty. In 1276, Brian Ruad, the deposed King of Thomond appealed to Thomas for support to help him regain his kingdom from his great-nephew Toirrdelbach MacTaidg O' Brien, who had usurped the throne. In return for his aid, Brian Ruad promised that Thomas would be allowed to colonise all the land between Athsollus in Quin and Limerick.[4] Together, Thomas and Brian Ruad expelled Toirrdelbach MacTaidg O'Brien and recaptured Clonroad which the latter had taken from Brian Ruad. O'Brien escaped to Galway where he elicited the help of his cousin William de Burgh, and in 1277 together with the assistance from clans, MacNamara and O'Dea they defeated the combined forces of Thomas and Brian Ruad. The latter fled to Bunratty Castle, but Thomas had his former ally hanged and drawn for treason.[5] The civil war continued for the next seven years, with Thomas supporting Brian Ruad's son Donnchad against Toirrdelbach; however, following the drowning death of Donnchad in 1284, Toirrdelbach emerged the victor. Thereafter until his death in 1306, Toirrdelbach MacTaidg O'Brien ruled as undisputed King of Thomond and Thomas had no choice but to accommodate him. O'Brien rented part of Bunratty Manor at ¹121 per annum.[5]

    In 1280, Thomas embarked on a castle-building project at Quin, but was disrupted in his efforts by the O'Briens and MacNamaras. Thomas also reconstructed Bunratty Castle in stone, replacing the earlier wooden building.

    Marriage and children

    In February 1275, he married Juliana FitzGerald, the 12-year-old daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly and Maud de Prendergast.[6]

    Thomas and Juliana had four children:

    Maud de Clare (c. 1276–1326/27), married firstly, Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford, by whom she had issue; and secondly Robert de Welles.
    Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Thomond, (3 February 1281–1308)
    Richard de Clare, Steward of Forest of Essex, 1st Lord Clare, Lord of Thomond (after 1281 – 10 May 1318), married a woman by the name of Joan, by whom he had one son, Thomas. He was killed at the Battle of Dysert O'Dea.
    Margaret de Clare (c. 1 April 1287 – 22 October 1333/3 January 1334), married firstly, Gilbert de Umfraville; and secondly Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, by whom she had issue.
    During their marriage, Thomas and Juliana lived in Ireland and in England. For instance, on 5 May 1284 the King notified his bailiffs and lieges in Ireland of the attorneys who were to act in Ireland on behalf of the couple as they were then in England. This arrangement was to continue for three years, except when Thomas and Juliana went to Ireland.[7]

    Death

    When evidence was taken in 1302 to prove the age of his son Gilbert, it was established that Thomas had died on 29 August 1287.[8] A mid-18th century compilation known as the Dublin Annals of Inisfallen states that Thomas was killed in battle against Turlough son of Teige and others. However, none of the earlier records of his death indicate that Thomas met a violent end. Some of the witnesses to Gilbert's age in 1302 referred to the date of Thomas' death in their calculations but all were silent as to its circumstances. This and much other evidence on the subject has been set out and evaluated by Goddard Henry Orpen of Trinity College, Dublin.[9]

    Thomas was succeeded as Lord of Thomond by his eldest son, Gilbert who was six years old. His widow Juliana, aged 24 years, would go on to marry two more times.

    Thomas married Juliana Fitzgerald, Lady of Thomond 0Feb 1275, (Ireland). Juliana (daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, II, 3rd Lord Offally and Emmeline Longespee) was born 12 Apr 1266, Dublin, Ireland; died 24 Sep 1300. [Group Sheet]


  36. 175.  Juliana Fitzgerald, Lady of Thomond was born 12 Apr 1266, Dublin, Ireland (daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, II, 3rd Lord Offally and Emmeline Longespee); died 24 Sep 1300.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Juliana FitzMaurice
    • Also Known As: Lady of Inchiquin and Youghal
    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1263, Dublin, Ireland

    Notes:

    Juliana FitzMaurice, Lady of Thomond (12 Apr 1266 - 29 Sep 1300) was a Norman-Irish noblewoman, the daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly, and the wife of Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond, a powerful Anglo-Norman baron in Ireland, who was a younger brother of Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford. Juliana was married three times; Thomas being her first. She is sometimes referred to as Juliane FitzMaurice.

    Early life and family

    Juliana FitzMaurice was born 12 Apr 1266 in Dublin, Ireland, the eldest daughter of Maurice FitzGerald II, 3rd Lord of Offaly, Justiciar of Ireland and Emeline Longspee.[1] She had a sister Amabel who married but was childless. Her first cousin was John FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Kildare. Her paternal grandparents were Maurice FitzGerald I, 2nd Lord of Offaly and Juliana, and her maternal grandparents were Sir Gerald de Prendergast of Beauvoir and the unnamed daughter of Richard Mor de Burgh, Lord of Connacht and Egidia de Lacy. Juliana's maternal ancestors included Brian Boru, Dermot McMurrough, and Maud de Braose.

    Juliana's father, Maurice FitzGerald, was married twice, first to Maud de Prendergast and secondly to Emmeline Longespee. It has been some source of contention as to which of his two wives had issue Juliana. However, at her death, Emmeline Longespee did not mention Juliana as her daughter and heir; rather, Emmeline's heir was her neice, Maud la Zouche, wife of Robert la Zouche, 1st Lord Holland. It has been concluded by several reputable researchers that Juliana's mother was Maurice FitzGerald's first wife, Maud de Prendergast. Supporters for Emmeline Longespee being the mother have yet to produce any counter-evidence beyond hearsay.

    Marriages and issue

    In 1278, at the age of 12, Juliana married her first husband, Thomas de Clare, Lord of Inchiquin and Youghal. He was the second eldest son of Richard de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford, 2nd Earl of Gloucester and Maud de Lacy. Thomas was a friend of King Edward I of England, with whom he went on a Crusade. He held many important posts including the Office of Governor of Colchester Castle (1266), Governor of the City of London (1273). He was also the commander of the English forces in Munster, Ireland, and on 26 January 1276, he was granted the lordship of Thomond. He was born in 1245, which made him about eighteen years older than Juliana. Throughout their marriage, the couple lived in both Ireland and England. It is recorded that on 5 May 1284, King Edward notified his lieges and bailiffs in Ireland of the attorneys who were to act on behalf of Thomas and Juliana as they were in England at the time. This arrangement continued for another three years except while they were residing in Ireland.[2]

    Thomas and Juliana had four children:[3]

    Maud de Clare (c. 1276–1326/27), married firstly on 3 November 1295 Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford, by whom she had issue; she married secondly after 1314 Robert de Welle.
    Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Thomond (3 February 1281–1308)
    Richard de Clare, Steward of Forest of Essex, 1st Lord Clare, Lord of Thomond (after 1281 – 10 May 1318 at the Battle of Dysert O'Dea), married a woman by the name of Joan by whom he fathered one son, Thomas.
    Margaret de Clare (c. 1 April 1287 – 22 October 1333), married firstly in 1303 Gilbert de Umfraville; she married secondly before 30 June 1308 Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Lord Badlesmere, by whom she had four daughters and one son.

    The era was marked by unrest and strife as civil war was waged between rival factions of the powerful O'Brien clan. In 1277, Juliana's husband had his former ally Brian Ruad, the deposed King of Thomond, hanged for treason at Bunratty.[4]

    Thomas died on 29 August 1287, leaving Juliana a widow at the age of twenty-four with four small children; the youngest, Margaret was not quite five months old. On an unknown date she married her second husband, Nicholas Avenel. He presumably died before 11 December 1291/16 February 1292, as this is when she married her third husband, Adam de Cretynges.[5][6]

    Death and legacy

    Juliana died on 24 September 1300. Her numerous descendants included Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland who married Lady Joan Beaufort and thus their descendant, the English king Edward IV. By Edward IV's daughter, Elizabeth of York, consort of Henry VII, she was an ancestress to all subsequent monarchs of England and the current British Royal Family. Henry VIII's queens consort Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr also descended from her.

    Ancestors of Juliana FitzMaurice[show)

    Notes

    Jump up ^ The Complete Peerage
    Jump up ^ Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1252-1284, No. 2210
    Jump up ^ Cawley, Charles, Earls of Gloucester (Clare), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    Jump up ^ Joe Power, The Normans in Thomond, retrieved on 28 May 2009
    Jump up ^ Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1281–1292, pp.463, 476
    Jump up ^ "Adam de Cretinge et Juliana uxor ejus (filia Mauritii filii Mauritii defuncti) quondam uxor Thomµ de Clare defuncti." Calendarium Genealogicum Henry III and Edward I, ed. Charles Roberts, 1:431, 448.

    References

    The Complete Peerage, Vol. VII, p. 200
    Cawley, Charles, Medieval Lands, Ireland, Earls of Kildare, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    Cawley, Charles, Medieval Lands, Earls of Gloucester (Clare), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    Power, Joe. "The Normans in Thomond". Retrieved 28 May 2009.

    Children:
    1. 87. Maude de Clare was born 0___ 1276; died 0___ 1327.
    2. Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere was born ~ 1 Apr 1287, Ireland; died 22 Oct 1333, Aldgate, London, Middlesex, England.

  37. 210.  Alan La Zouche, Knight, 1st Baron la Zouche of AshbyAlan La Zouche, Knight, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby was born 9 Oct 1267, North Molton, Devonshire, England (son of Roger La Zouche, Lord of Ashby and Ela Longespee); died 25 Mar 1314, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Brackley, Northamptonshire, England.

    Notes:

    Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby (9 October 1267 - shortly before 25 March 1314)[1] was born at North Molton, Devonshire, the only son of Roger La Zouche and his wife, Ela Longespee, daughter of Stephen Longespee and Emmeline de Ridelsford. He received seisin of his father's lands after paying homage to the king on October 13, 1289. Alan was governor of Rockingham Castle and steward of Rockingham Forest. Alan La Zouche died without any sons shortly before at the age of 46, and his barony fell into abeyance among his daughters.

    Birth

    Alan la Zouche was born in North Molton on St Denis's Day (9 October) 1267 and was baptised in the church there, as was testified by his uncle "Henry la Zuche, clerk" and several local and other gentry and clerics at his proof of age inquisition in 1289 which enabled him to exit royal wardship:[2][3]

    "Alan son and heir of Roger la Zusche alias la Zuch, la Souche. Writ to Peter Heym and Robert de Radington, to enquire whether the said Alan, who is in the king's wardship, is of full age, as he says, or not, The eve of St. Margaret (20 June), 17 Edw. I. The said Alan, who was born at North Molton and baptized in the church there, was 21 on the day of St. Denis, 16 Edw. I. The Abbot of Lyleshull ( Lilleshall Abbey in Shropshire, to which he gave the advowson of North Molton Church in 1313) says the said Alan was born in Devon on the feast of St. Denis, and was 22 at that feast last past, and he knows it because he was keeper of a grange of Alan's father at Assheby four years ago, and knew from his father and mother that he was then 18. The prior of Repindon agrees, and knows it because his predecessor was created prior in the same year and was prior for twelve years, and he himself has now been prior for ten years. The prior of Swaveseye agrees, for he has been prior for twenty years, and saw him (Alan) before his creation when he was 2 years old. The prior of Ulvescroft agrees, for he has enquired from religious men, and especially from the nuns of Gracedieu who dwell near Alan's father's manor of Assheby. Brother William Ysnach of Gerendon agrees, for he sued the pleas of the house for nearly twenty-two (?) years, and Alan was born at the feast of St. Denis preceding. Geoffrey prior of Brackele agrees, for he was always with Alan's ancestors and ... twenty-four years ago, and within two years following Alan was born. Richard le Flemyng, knight, (probably of Bratton Fleming) agrees, and knows it from the wife of William de Raleye (probably of Raleigh, Pilton) who nursed Alan. John Punchardon, knight, (probably of Heanton Punchardon) agrees, for he held his land for such a time. Alfred de Suleny, knight, agrees, for his firstborn son was born on the same day. John de Curteny, knight, (i.e. Courtenay) agrees, for his mother died at Easter before Alan was born. William (?) de Sancto Albino, knight, agrees, for his brother gave him certain land, which he has held for twenty-one years, and one year previously Alan was born. William L'Estrange (Latinised as "Extraneus"), knight, agrees, for his (Alan's ?) father made him a knight sixteen years ago last Christmas, when Alan carried the sword before him, and was then 6 years old, except between Christmas and St. Denis. Robert de Crues, knight, agrees, for he has a daughter of the same age. Henry la Zuche, clerk, agrees, for he is his uncle, and likewise knows it from him who was at that time parson of the church of Hamme. Walter parson of Manecestre agrees, for the church of Karlingford in Ireland was given to him nearly twenty-two years ago, and when the news came to him in Devon Alan's mother lay in childbed. Robert parson of Pakinton agrees, for he was instituted into his vicarage at the Purification last past now twenty-two years ago, and Alan was born at the feast of St. Denis following. [4]

    Military service

    Alan was in Gascony with King Edward I of England in October 1288, when he was one of the hostages given by the king to Alfonso of Aragon for the fulfillment of certain agreements. He was in Scotland in the King's service in June 1291. In April 1294 he had a writ of protection from the King when he travelled overseas with the King's daughter, Eleanor of Bar. He served in Gascony in 1295 and 1296, and was present at the action around Bordeaux on 28 March 1296, when his standard bearer was captured by the French. In 1297 he was summoned for service in the Franco-Flemish War, [5] and attended Councils in Rochester and London in that year.

    War against the Scots

    He was summoned for service against the Scots in 1297-1313. He fought in the Vanguard at the Battle of Falkirk on 22 July 1298. King Edward's army at that battle consisted of 12,000 infantry, including 10,000 Welsh, and 2,000 cavalry. William Wallace, the Scottish leader accepted battle in a withdrawn defensive position. Wallace had few cavalry and few archers; but his solid "schiltrons" (circles) of spearmen were almost invincible. The armoured cavalry of the English vanguard were hurled back with severe losses. Edward brought up his Welsh archers in the intervals between the horsemen of the second line, concentrating their arrows on specific points in the Scottish schiltrons. It was into these gaps that the English knights forced their way, and once the Scottish order was broken the spearmen were quickly massacred.

    Siege of Caerlaverock

    Alan was at the siege of Caerlaverock Castle in July 1300. His presence is recorded in the contemporary "Caerlaverock Poem", being an early roll of arms:

    Aleyn de la Souche tresor Signiioit ke fust brians
    Sa rouge baniere a besans
    Car bienscai ki a dependu Tresor plus ke en burce pendu
    "Sa rouge baniere a bezants" (as re-stated in modern French) "his red banner bezantâee", is the description of the coat of arms he bore at the siege.

    Subsequent career

    He was summoned to Edward II's coronation on 18 January 1307/08. In December of that year he had a protection to go on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. He was the Constable of Rockingham Castle and the Keeper of the forests between the bridges of Oxford and Stamford.

    Marriage and issue

    He married Eleanor de Segrave, daughter of Nicholas de Segrave, 1st Baron Segrave. At his death he left no male progeny and the barony went into abeyance between his three daughters and co-heiresses:

    Ellen la Zouche, married Alan de Charlton; also married Nicholas de St Maur, 1st Baron St Maur (d.1316)[6]
    Maud la Zouche, married Robert de Holland, 1st Baron Holand
    Elizabeth la Zouche, married John Ingham (1320-12 Dec. 1365), son of Oliver de Ingham (1294–1344)

    Alan married Eleanor de Segrave, Baroness of Zouche ~ 1287, Ashby de La Zouch, Leicester, England. Eleanor (daughter of Nicholas de Segrave, Knight, 1st Baron Segrave and Matilda de Lucy) was born ~ 1270, Seagrave, Leicester, England; died 0___ 1314, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  38. 211.  Eleanor de Segrave, Baroness of Zouche was born ~ 1270, Seagrave, Leicester, England (daughter of Nicholas de Segrave, Knight, 1st Baron Segrave and Matilda de Lucy); died 0___ 1314, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England.
    Children:
    1. 105. Maud La Zouche was born 0___ 1290, Ashby Magna, Leicester, England; died 31 May 1349, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Brackley, Northamptonshire, England.

  39. 212.  Edward I, King of EnglandEdward I, King of England was born 17 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was christened 22 Jun 1239, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom (son of Henry III, King of England and Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile); died 7 Jul 1307, Burgh by Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria, England; was buried 28 Oct 1307, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward Longshanks

    Notes:

    More on King Edward I ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England

    Remember Mel Gibson's role as William Wallace in his 1995 movie, "Braveheart", about the 13th c. Scottish Rebellion? Here is the fellow he battled, brilliantly portrayed by Patrick McGoohan... Here's a clip of that movie... http://www.cinemagia.ro/trailer/braveheart-braveheart-inima-neinfricata-1054/

    Edward I, called Longshanks (1239-1307), king of England (1272-1307), Lord of Gascony, of the house of Plantagenet. He was born in Westminster on June 17, 1239, the eldest son of King Henry III, and at 15 married Eleanor of Castile. In the struggles of the barons against the crown for constitutional and ecclesiastical reforms, Edward took a vacillating course. When warfare broke out between the crown and the nobility, Edward fought on the side of the king, winning the decisive battle of Evesham in 1265. Five years later he left England to join the Seventh Crusade.

    Following his father's death in 1272, and while he was still abroad, Edward was recognized as king by the English barons; in 1273, on his return to England, he was crowned.

    The first years of Edward's reign were a period of the consolidation of his power. He suppressed corruption in the administration of justice, restricted the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to church affairs, and eliminated the papacy's overlordship over England. On the refusal of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd (died 1282), ruler of Wales, to submit to the English crown, Edward began the military conflict that resulted, in 1284, in the annexation of Llewelyn's principality to the English crown. In 1290 Edward expelled all Jews from England. War between England and France broke out in 1293 as a result of the efforts of France to curb Edward's power in Gascony. Edward lost Gascony in 1293 and did not again come into possession of the duchy until 1303. About the same year in which he lost Gascony, the Welsh rose in rebellion.
    Greater than either of these problems was the disaffection of the people of Scotland. In agreeing to arbitrate among the claimants to the Scottish throne, Edward, in 1291, had exacted as a prior condition the recognition by all concerned of his overlordship of Scotland. The Scots later repudiated him and made an alliance with France against England. To meet the critical situations in Wales and Scotland, Edward summoned a parliament, called the Model Parliament by historians because it was a representative body and in that respect was the forerunner of all future parliaments. Assured by Parliament of support at home, Edward took the field and suppressed the Welsh insurrection. In 1296, after invading and conquering Scotland, he declared himself king of that realm. In 1298 he again invaded Scotland to suppress the revolt led by Sir William Wallace. In winning the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, Edward achieved the greatest military triumph of his career, but he failed to crush Scottish opposition.

    The conquest of Scotland became the ruling passion of his life. He was, however, compelled by the nobles, clergy, and commons to desist in his attempts to raise by arbitrary taxes the funds he needed for campaigns. In 1299 Edward made peace with France and married Margaret, sister of King Philip III of France. Thus freed of war, he again undertook the conquest of Scotland in 1303. Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. No sooner had Edward established his government in Scotland, however, than a new revolt broke out and culminated in the coronation of Robert Bruce as king of Scotland. In 1307 Edward set out for the third time to subdue the Scots, but he died en route near Carlisle on July 7, 1307. He also had a daughter with Eleanor of Castile that died young.

    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Edward I [37370] Burgh by Sands, Cumbria, England

    is the 22nd great-grandfather of David Hennessee:

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    and also of Sheila Ann Mynatt Hennessee (1945-2016):

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=I27517&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    Died:
    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church, St. Michael's, until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Photos, maps & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgh_by_Sands

    Edward married Margaret of France, Queen Consort of England 10 Sep 1299, Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England. Margaret (daughter of Phillip III, King of France and Maria of Brabant, Queen of France) was born ~ 1279, Paris, France; died 14 Feb 1318, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, Newgate, London, England. [Group Sheet]


  40. 213.  Margaret of France, Queen Consort of England was born ~ 1279, Paris, France (daughter of Phillip III, King of France and Maria of Brabant, Queen of France); died 14 Feb 1318, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, Newgate, London, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Princess Marguerite of France

    Notes:

    Margaret of France (c. 1279[1] - 14 February 1318[1]), a daughter of Philip III of France and Maria of Brabant, was Queen of England as the second wife of King Edward I.

    Early life

    Her father died when she was three years old and she grew up under guidance of her mother and Joan I of Navarre, her half-brother King Philip IV's wife.[2]

    Marriage

    The death of Edward's beloved first wife, Eleanor of Castile, at the age of 49 in 1290, left him reeling in grief. However, it was much to Edward's benefit to make peace with France to free him to pursue his wars in Scotland. Additionally, with only one surviving son, Edward was anxious to protect the English throne with additional heirs. In summer of 1291, the English king had betrothed his son and heir, Edward, to Blanche of France in order to achieve peace with France. However, hearing of her renowned beauty, Edward decided to have his son's bride for his own and sent emissaries to France. Philip agreed to give Blanche to Edward on the following conditions: that a truce would be concluded between the two countries and that Edward would give up the province of Gascony. Edward agreed to the conditions and sent his brother Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, to fetch the new bride. Edward had been deceived, for Blanche was to be married to Rudolph III of Habsburg, the eldest son of King Albert I of Germany. Instead, Philip offered her younger sister Margaret to marry Edward (then 55). Upon hearing this, Edward declared war on France, refusing to marry Margaret. After five years, a truce was agreed upon under the influence of Pope Boniface VIII. A series of treaties in the first half of 1299 provided terms for a double marriage: Edward I would marry Margaret and his son would marry Isabella of France, Philip's youngest surviving child. Additionally, the English monarchy would regain the key city of Guienne and receive ¹15,000 owed to Margaret as well as the return of Eleanor of Castile's lands in Ponthieu and Montreuil as a dower first for Margaret, and then Isabella of France.[3]

    Edward was then 60 years old, at least 40 years older than his bride. The wedding took place at Canterbury on 8 September 1299. Margaret was never crowned, being the first uncrowned queen since the Conquest. This in no way lessened her dignity as the king's wife, however, for she used the royal title in her letters and documents, and appeared publicly wearing a crown even though she had not received one during a formal rite of investiture.[5]

    French Monarchy
    Direct Capetians
    Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg
    Philip III
    Louis of France
    Philip IV
    Charles, Count of Valois
    Louis, Count of âEvreux
    Blanche, Duchess of Austria
    Margaret of France, Queen of England
    v t e
    Edward soon returned to the Scottish border to continue his campaigns and left Margaret in London, but she had become pregnant quickly after the wedding. After several months, bored and lonely, the young queen decided to join her husband. Nothing could have pleased the king more, for Margaret's actions reminded him of his first wife Eleanor, who had had two of her sixteen children abroad.

    In less than a year Margaret gave birth to a son, Thomas of Brotherton who was named after Thomas Becket, since she had prayed to him during her pregnancy. That Margaret was physically fit was demonstrated by the fact that she was still hunting when her labour pains started.[6]

    The next year she gave birth to another son, Edmund.

    It is said[who?] that many who fell under the king's wrath were saved from too stern a punishment by the queen's influence over her husband, and the statement, Pardoned solely on the intercession of our dearest consort, queen Margaret of England, appears. In 1305, the young queen acted as a mediator between her step-son and husband, reconciling the heir to his aging father, and calming her husband's wrath.[7]

    She favored the Franciscan order and was a benefactress of a new foundation at Newgate. Margaret employed the minstrel Guy de Psaltery and both she and her husband liked to play chess.[8] She and her stepson, Edward, Prince of Wales, the future king Edward II (who was two years younger than she), also became fond of each other: he once made her a gift of an expensive ruby and gold ring, and she on one occasion rescued many of the Prince's friends from the wrath of the King.

    The mismatched couple were blissfully happy. When Blanche died in 1305 (her husband never became Emperor), Edward ordered all the court to go into mourning to please his queen. He had realised the wife he had gained was "a pearl of great price" as Margaret was respected for her beauty, virtue, and piety. The same year Margaret gave birth to a girl, Eleanor, named in honour of Edward's first wife, a choice which surprised many, and showed Margaret's unjealous nature.

    When Edward went on summer campaign to Scotland in 1307, Margaret accompanied him, but he died in Burgh by Sands.

    Widowhood

    Arms of Margaret of France as Queen of England.
    Margaret never remarried after Edward's death in 1307, despite being only 26 when widowed. She was alleged to have stated that "when Edward died, all men died for me".

    Margaret was not pleased when Edward II elevated Piers Gaveston to become Earl of Cornwall upon his father's death, since the title had been meant for one of her own sons.[9] She attended the new king's wedding to her half-niece, Isabella of France, and a silver casket was made with both their arms. After Isabella's coronation, Margaret retired to Marlborough Castle (which was by this time a dower house), but she stayed in touch with the new Queen and with her half-brother Philip IV by letter during the confusing times leading up to Gaveston's death in 1312. Margaret, too, was a victim of Gaveston's influence over her step-son. Edward II gave several of her dower lands to the favourite, including Berkhamsted Castle. In May 1308, an anonymous informer reported that Margaret had provided ¹40,000 along with her brother, Philip IV, to support the English barons against Gaveston.[10] Due to this action, Gaveston was briefly exiled and Margaret remained fairly unmolested by the upstart until his death in June 1312.

    She was present at the birth of the future Edward III in November 1312.

    On 14 February 1318 she died in her castle at Marlborough. Dressed in a Franciscan habit, she was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars in London, a church she had generously endowed. Her tomb, beautifully carved, was destroyed during the Reformation.[11]

    Issue

    In all, Margaret gave birth to three children:[12]

    Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1 June 1300 – 4 August 1338)
    Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent (5 August 1301 – 19 March 1330)
    Eleanor of England (1306-1311)[12]

    Notes:

    Married:
    “An interlude in the political wrangling occurred on 10 September 1299, when Edward married Margaret of France at Canterbury, in a ceremony conducted by Archbishop Winchelsey, who was, at least briefly, on relatively good terms with the king.

    The bishops of Durham, Winchester and Chester were present, as were the earls of Lincoln, Warenne, Warwick, Lancaster, Hereford and Norfolk, along with a host of other magnates. After the ceremony, there was a splendid feast, with entertainment provided by a host of minstrels. The festivities took three days in all".

    Children:
    1. Thomas of Brotherton, Knight, 1st Earl of Norfolk was born 1 Jun 1300, Brotherton, Yorkshire, England; died 23 Aug 1338, Framlington Castle, Suffolk, England; was buried Bury St Edmunds Abbey, Suffolk, England.
    2. 106. Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent was born 5 Aug 1301, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England; died 19 Mar 1330, Winchester Castle, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

  41. 214.  John Wake, Knight, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell was born 0___ 1268 (son of Baldwin Wake, Knight, Lord Bourne and Hawise de Quincy); died 10 Apr 1300.

    Notes:

    Baron Wake of Liddell is an abeyant title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1295 for John Wake. It has been in abeyance since 1408.

    John Wake

    John Wake was born in 1268, the son of Balwin Wake and Hawise de Quincy.[1]

    He campaigned in Gascony between 1288 and 1297.[1] He campaigned against the Scots between 1297-1300.[1] To this he was appointed Joint Captain of March of Scotland in Cumberland and Westmoreland in 1297. He fought at the Battle of Falkirk (1298).

    He was married Joan de Fenes by 24 September 1291. She was allegedly daughter of Sir John FitzBernard, of Kingsdown, Kent or William de Fenes/Fiennes, a Spanish Count, and Blanche de Brienne, Dame de La Loupelande.[1] Joan de Fiennes was possibly a relative of Edward I. She died just prior to 26 October 1309.

    John Wake, 1st Lord Wake, was created baron by writ of summons to Parliament on 24 June 1295.[2] He died circa 10 April 1300.[1]

    Through his mother, John Wake, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell was a great-great-grandson of King John of England. He was great-grandfather of Richard II of England.[citation needed]

    The family claimed descent from Hereward the Wake's daughter by his second wife, Alftruda.[3]

    Children of John Wake, 1st Lord Wake and Joan de Fiennes:[1]

    John Wake1 died bt 1320 - 1349
    Thomas Wake, 2nd Lord Wake born c 20 Mar 1297/98, d. fr 30 May 1349 - 31 May 1349
    Margaret Wake, born c 1300, d. 29 September 1349[4]
    Barons Wake of Liddell (1295)[edit]
    John Wake, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell (1268 – c. 4/10/1300).[5]
    Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell (1297–1349)
    Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell (c. 1300–1349)
    John, 4th Baron Wake of Liddell and 3rd Earl of Kent (1330–1352)
    Joan, 5th Baroness Wake of Liddell and Countess of Kent (1328–1385)
    Thomas Holland, 6th Baron Wake of Liddell and 2nd Earl of Kent (1350–1397)
    Thomas Holland, 7th Baron Wake of Liddell, 3rd Earl of Kent, and 1st Duke of Surrey (1374–1400)
    Edmund Holland, 8th Baron Wake of Liddell and 4th Earl of Kent (1384–1408)

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f

    John married Joan de Fiennes BY 24 Sep 1291. Joan (daughter of William de Fiennes, II, Knight, Baron Tingy and Blanche de Brienne, Baroness Tingry) was born ~ 1273; died Bef 26 Oct 1309. [Group Sheet]


  42. 215.  Joan de Fiennes was born ~ 1273 (daughter of William de Fiennes, II, Knight, Baron Tingy and Blanche de Brienne, Baroness Tingry); died Bef 26 Oct 1309.
    Children:
    1. 107. Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell was born ~ 1297, (England); died 29 Sep 1349, (England).

  43. 218.  William de Warenne was born 9 Feb 1256, Lewes Castle, Lewes, East Sussex, England (son of John de Warenne, Knight, 6th Earl of Surrey and Alice de Lusignan); died 15 Dec 1296, Croydon, England.

    Notes:

    William de Warenne (9 February 1256 - 15 December 1286) was the only son of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey and his wife Alice de Lusignan.[1]

    Life

    William married Joan, daughter of Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford. They had the following children:

    John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey (30 June 1286 – June 1347)
    Alice de Warenne (15 June 1287 - 23 May 1338), wife of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel.
    William was killed in a tournament at Croydon in 1286,[1] predeceasing his father. It has been suggested that this was murder, planned in advance by William's enemies.[2][3] On the 5th Earl's death the title went to John, the only son of William. John died without legitimate children, so on his death the title passed to Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, eldest son of Edmund FitzAlan and John' sister Alice.

    William — Joan de Vere. [Group Sheet]


  44. 219.  Joan de Vere (daughter of Robert de Vere, Knight, 5th Earl of Oxford and Alice de Sanford).
    Children:
    1. John de Warenne, Knight, 7th Earl of Surrey was born 30 Jun 1286; died 0Jun 1347.
    2. 109. Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England; died 23 May 1338.

  45. 220.  Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet, Prince of England was born 16 Jan 1245, London, Middlesex, England (son of Henry III, King of England and Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile); died 5 Jun 1296, Bayonne, Pyrennes-Atlantiques, France; was buried 15 Jul 1296, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Earl of Lancaster
    • Also Known As: Earl of Leicester

    Notes:

    More on Sir Edmund ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Crouchback

    Edmund married Blanche de Capet d'Artois, Queen of Navarre, Princess of France Bef 29 Oct 1275-6, Paris, France. Blanche was born 0___ 1245, Arras, Pas-de-Calais, France; died 2 May 1302, Paris, France. [Group Sheet]


  46. 221.  Blanche de Capet d'Artois, Queen of Navarre, Princess of France was born 0___ 1245, Arras, Pas-de-Calais, France; died 2 May 1302, Paris, France.
    Children:
    1. 110. Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester was born 0___ 1281, Grosmont Castle, Monmouth, England; died 22 Sep 1345, Leicester, Leicestershire, England.

  47. 222.  Patrick Chaworth, Knight, Lord of Kidwelly was born ~ 1250, Kempsford, Gloucestershire, England (son of Patrick de Chaworth and Hawise de Londres); died 0___ 1283.

    Patrick married Isabella Beauchamp ~ 1281, Carmarthenshire, Wales. Isabella (daughter of William de Beauchamp, Knight, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud FitzGeoffrey) was born ~ 1263, Warwickshire, England; died Bef 30 May 1306. [Group Sheet]


  48. 223.  Isabella Beauchamp was born ~ 1263, Warwickshire, England (daughter of William de Beauchamp, Knight, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud FitzGeoffrey); died Bef 30 May 1306.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isabel de Beauchamp
    • Also Known As: Lady Despencer
    • Also Known As: Lady Kidwelly

    Notes:

    Isabella de Beauchamp, Lady Kidwelly, Lady Despenser (born c. 1263 - died before 30 May 1306), was an English noblewoman and wealthy heiress.

    Family

    Isabella was born in about 1263 in Warwickshire, England. She was the only daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud FitzJohn who appears to have married; two sisters who were nuns at Shouldham are mentioned in her father's will.[1] She had a brother, Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick who married Alice de Toeni, by whom he had seven children. Her paternal grandparents were William de Beauchamp of Elmley Castle and Isabel Maudit, and her maternal grandparents were Sir John FitzGeoffrey, Lord of Shere, and Isabel Bigod.

    Marriages and issue

    Sometime before 1281, she married firstly Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Lord of Kidwelly in Carmarthenshire, South Wales. The marriage produced one daughter:

    Maud Chaworth (2 February 1282- 1322), married Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, by whom she had seven children.
    Following Patrick's death in 1286, Isabella had in her possession four manors in Wiltshire and two manors in Berkshire, assigned to her until her dowry should be set forth along with the livery of Chedworth in Gloucestershire and the Hampshire manor of Hartley Mauditt which had been granted to her and Sir Patrick in frankmarriage by her father.[2]

    That same year 1286, she married secondly Sir Hugh le Despenser without the King's licence for which Hugh had to pay a fine of 2000 marks.[2] He was created Lord Despenser by writ of summons to Parliament in 1295, thereby making Isabella Lady Despenser.

    Together Hugh and Isabella had four children:

    Hugh le Depenser, Lord Despenser the Younger (1286- executed 24 November 1326), married Eleanor de Clare, by whom he had issue.
    Aline le Despenser (died before 28 November 1353), married Edward Burnell, Lord Burnell
    Isabella le Despenser (died 4/5 December 1334), married firstly as his second wife, John Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, by whom she had three children. Their descendants became the Lords Hastings; she married secondly as his second wife, Sir Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer.[4]
    Phillip le Despenser (died 1313), married as his first wife Margaret de Goushill, by whom he had issue.
    Isabella died sometime before 30 May 1306. Twenty years later, her husband and eldest son, favourites of King Edward II, were both executed by the orders of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Queen Isabella. The couple were by that time the de facto rulers of England, and along with most of the people in the kingdom, they had resented the power both Despensers wielded over the King.

    As her husband had been made Earl of Winchester in 1322, Isabella was never styled as the Countess of Winchester.

    References

    Jump up ^ Testamenta Vestusta by Nicholas Harris Nicolas.
    ^ Jump up to: a b http://www.powernet.co.uk/barfield/chap1.htm.[dead link]
    Jump up ^ Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Winchester
    Jump up ^ Richardson, D. (2011) Magna Carta Ancestry 2nd Edition, pg 325 (via Google)
    Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Warwick
    Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Winchester

    Children:
    1. 111. Maud Chaworth was born 2 Feb 1282, Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales; died 3 Dec 1322, Montisfort, Hampshire, England; was buried Montisfort, Hampshire, England.

  49. 232.  William de Ferrers was born 30 Jan 1272, Yoxall, Staffordshire, England (son of William de Ferrers and Anne le Despenser); died 20 Mar 1325, Groby, Leicestershire, England; was buried St Philip and St James Church, Groby, Leicestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Scotland
    • Residence: Flanders

    Notes:

    Ferrers of Groby, Baron (E, 1299 - forfeited 1554)

    Creation: writ sum. 29 Dec 1299

    Extinct: 23 Feb 1553/4

    Family name: Ferrers later Grey
    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    Arms:
    Gules seven Mascles voided Or
    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    William [de Ferrers], 1st Baron Ferrers of Groby
    only son and heir of Sir William de Ferrers, of Groby, co. Leicester, Newbottle, co. Northampton, Woodham Ferris, Stebbing and Fairsted, co. Essex, and Bolton-le-Moors, co. Lancaster (by his first wife Anne le Despencer, dau. of Sir Hugh le Despencer, of Ryhall, co. Rutland, Loughborough, co. Leicester, Parlington, co. York, etc., Justiciar of England), 2nd son by his second wife of William [de Ferrers], 5th Earl of Derby
    born
    30 Jan 1271/2
    mar.
    Ellen de Segrave (d. after 9 Feb 1316/7), dau. of John [de Segrave], 2nd Baron Segrave, by his wife Christine de Plessy, dau. of Sir Hugh de Plessy, of Hooknorton and Kidlington, co. Oxford
    children
    1. Henry de Ferrers, later 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby
    2. Thomas de Ferrers
    1. Anne de Ferrers, mar. Sir Edward le Despencer, of Buckland, co. Buckingham, Eyworth, co. Bedford, West Winterslow, co. Wiltshire, Essendine, co. Rutland, etc., 2nd son of Hugh [le Despencer], 1st and de jure 2nd Baron le Despencer, by his wife Lady Eleanor de Clare, sister and cohrss. of Gilbert [de Clare], 7th Earl of Gloucester, and 1st dau. of Gilbert [de Clare], 6th Earl of Gloucester, by his second wife the Princess Joan, 2nd surv. dau. by his first wife of King Edward I, and had issue
    died
    20 Mar 1324/5
    created
    by writ of summons 29 Dec 1299 Baron Ferrers of Groby
    suc. by
    son
    note

    Henry [de Ferrers], 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby
    born
    c. 1302
    mar.
    bef. 20 Feb 1330/1 Isabel de Verdun (b. 21 Mar 1316/7; d. 25 Jul 1349), 4th dau. and cohrss. of Theobald [de Verdun], 2nd and 1st Baron Verdun, by his second wife Lady Elizabeth de Burgh (b. 16 Sep 1295; widow of John de Burgh, 2nd but 1st surv. son and heir ap. of Richard [de Burgh], 2nd Earl of Ulster; mar. (3) shortly bef. 3 May 1317 Roger [Damory], 1st Baron Damory; d. 4 Nov 1360), sister and cohrss. of Gilbert [de Clare], 7th Earl of Gloucester, and 3rd dau. of Gilbert [de Clare], 6th Earl of Gloucester, by his second wife the Princess Joan, 2nd surv. dau. by his first wife of King Edward I
    children
    1. William de Ferrers, later 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby
    2. Ralph de Ferrers, mar. Joan Harcourt, widow of Sir William Harcourt, of Bosworth, co. Leicester, and dau. of Richard [Grey], 2nd Baron Grey of Codnor, by his wife Joan FitzPayn, dau. of Robert [FitzPayn], 1st Baron FitzPayn
    1. Philippe de Ferrers (d. bef. 10 Aug 1384), mar. bef. 1353 Sir Guy de Beauchamp (dspm. and vp. 28 Apr 1360), 1st son and heir ap. of Thomas [de Beauchamp], 11th Earl of Warwick, by his wife Lady Catherine de Mortimer, 1st dau. of Roger [de Mortimer], 1st Earl of March, and had issue
    2. Elizabeth de Ferrers (d. 22 or 23 Oct 1375; bur. at Ashford, co. Kent), mar. (1) betw. 24 Sep 1342 and 1361 David [Strabolgi], 12th or 3rd Earl of Athol, and (2) John Malewayn, and had issue by her first husband
    died
    15 Sep 1343 (bur. in Ulverscroft Priory)
    suc. by
    son
    note

    William [de Ferrers], 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby
    born
    28 Feb 1332/3
    mar. (1)
    bef. 25 Apr 1344 Lady Margaret de Ufford, sister and cohrss. in her issue of William [de Ufford], 2nd Earl of Suffolk, and 3rd dau. of Robert [de Ufford], 1st Earl of Suffolk, by his wife Margaret de Norwich, great-aunt and hrss. in her issue of Sir John de Norwich, of Sculthorpe, co. Norfolk, and Bramfield and Mellis, co. Suffolk, and dau. of Sir Walter de Norwich, of Sculthorpe, co. Norfolk, and Bramfield and Mellis, co. Suffolk, Treasurer and Chief Baron of the Exchequer
    children by first wife
    1. Henry de Ferrers, later 4th Baron Ferrers of Groby
    1. Ann de Ferrers, a nun at the Convent of Minoresses-without, Aldgate
    2. Margaret de Ferrers (d. 22 Jan 1406/7), mar. bef. Apr 1381 Thomas [de Beauchamp], 12th Earl of Warwick, and had issue
    mar. (2)
    bef. 25 May 1368 Margaret de Umfraville (widow of Sir Robert de Umfraville, of Pallethorp and Hessle, co. York, and Stallingborough, co. Lincoln, styled Lord Umfraville (dvp. and sp.), 1st son and heir ap. of Gilbert [de Umfraville], 10th Earl of Angus later 3rd Baron Kyme; dsp. 2 Sep 1375; bur. in the Church of the Friars Preacher, Chelmsford, co. Essex), 1st dau. of Henry [de Percy], 2nd Baron Percy, by his wife Idoine de Clifford, only dau. of Robert [de Clifford], 1st Baron Clifford
    died
    8 Jan 1370/1
    suc. by
    son by first wife
    note

    Henry [de Ferrers], 4th Baron Ferrers of Groby
    born
    16 Feb 1355/6
    mar.
    bef. 27 Apr 1371 Joan de Hoo (d. 30 May 1394), dau. of Sir Thomas de Hoo, of Luton Hoo and Stopsley, co. Bedford, by his wife Isabel de St Leger, dau. and hrss. of Sir John de St Leger, of Offley, co. Hertford
    children
    1. William de Ferrers, later 5th Baron Ferrers of Groby
    died
    3 Feb 1387/8
    suc. by
    son
    note

    William [de Ferrers], 5th Baron Ferrers of Groby
    born
    25 Apr 1372
    mar. (1)
    after 10 Oct 1388 Philippa de Clifford (d. after 4 Jul 1405), 3rd dau. of Roger [de Clifford], 5th Baron Clifford, by his wife Lady Maud de Beauchamp, 1st dau. of Thomas [de Beauchamp], 11th Earl of Warwick
    children by first wife
    1. Sir Henry Ferrers, mar. shortly bef. 13 Jul 1416 Lady Isabel de Mowbray (mar. (2) c. 1423 as his second wife James [Berkeley], 1st Baron Berkeley; d. 23 Sep 1452; bur. in the Church of the Grey Friars, Gloucester, co. Gloucester), 2nd dau. and cohrss. in her issue of Thomas [de Mowbray], 1st Duke of Norfolk, by his second wife Lady Elizabeth FitzAlan, sister and cohrss. of Thomas [FitzAlan], 12th or 5th Earl of Arundel, and 1st dau. by his first wife of Richard [FitzAlan], 11th or 4th Earl of Arundel, and had issue:
    1a. Elizabeth Ferrers, suo jure Baroness Ferrers of Groby
    2. Sir Thomas Ferrers, of Tamworth Castle, co. Warwick (d. 6 Jan 1458/9), mar. Elizabeth de Frevile, sister and cohrss. of Sir Baldwin de Frevile, of Tamworth Castle, co. Warwick, and had issue:
    1a. Sir Thomas Ferrers, of Tamworth Castle, co. Warwick (d. 22 Aug 1498), mar. c. 1468 Anne Hastings, sister of William [Hastings], 1st Baron Hastings of Hastings, and 1st dau. of Sir Leonard Hastings, of Kirby, co. Leicester, and Burton Hastings, co. Warwick, by his wife Alice de Camoys, 2nd dau. by his first wife of Thomas [de Camoys], 1st Baron Camoys, and was ancestor of the family of Ferrers of Tamworth Castle, co. Warwick
    2a. Sir Henry Ferrers, mar. Margaret Heckstall, dau. of William Heckstall, of Heckstall, co. Leicester, and had issue:
    1b. Sir Edward Ferrers, of Baddesley Clinton, co. Warwick, Sheriff of Warwickshire (b. bef. 1468; d. 1535), mar. 1497 Constance Brome (d. 30 Sep 1551), only child and hrss. of Nicholas Brome, of Baddesley Clinton, co. Warwick, and was ancestor of the family of Ferrers of Baddesley Clinton, co. Warwick
    2b. Richard Ferrers
    1b. Elizabeth Ferrers, mar. James Clarke, of Fordhall
    3. John Ferrers
    4. Edmund Ferrers, of St Albans
    1. Margaret Ferrers (d. 16 Jan 1451/2), mar. (1) 1427 as his second wife Richard [Grey], 6th Baron Grey of Wilton, and (2) bef. 14 Feb 1445/6 Thomas [Grey], 1st Baron Richemount Grey, and had issue by her first husband
    2. Elizabeth Ferrers (d. 1460), mar. c. 1412 Sir William Colepeper, of Aylesford, co. Kent (d. 20 Jul 1457), and had issue
    mar. (2)
    Lady Margaret de Montagu, 3rd dau. of John [de Montagu], 3rd Earl of Salisbury, by his wife Maud Buxhall, widow of (1) John Aubrey and (2) Sir Alan Buxhall, and dau. of Sir Adam Francis MP, Mayor of London 1352-54
    mar. (3)
    bef. 26 Oct 1416 Elizabeth de Standisshe (widow of (1) John de Wrottesley, of Wrottesley, co. Stafford, and (2) Sir William Botiller, of Warrington and Layton, co. Lancaster, and Cropwell Butler, co. Nottingham; d. Feb 1441/2), dau. of Sir Robert de Standisshe, of Ulnes-Walton, co. Lancaster, by his wife Iseude .....
    died
    18 May 1445
    suc. by
    grand-daughter
    note

    Elizabeth Ferrers later Grey, suo jure Baroness Ferrers of Groby
    born
    c. 1419
    mar. (1)
    Sir Edward Grey, sum. to Parliament jure uxoris 14 Dec 1446 as Baron Ferrers of Groby, suc. his mother as de jure 6th Baron Astley 3 Sep or 12 Nov 1448 (b. c. 1415; d. 18 Dec 1457), eldest son of Reynold [Grey], 3rd Baron Grey of Ruthin, by his second wife Joan Raleigh, de jure suo jure Baroness Astley, widow of Thomas Raleigh, of Farnborough, co. Warwick, and only child and hrss. of William [de Astley], 4th Baron Astley
    children by first husband
    1. Sir John Grey, a supporter of the House of Lancaster, killed at the second Battle of St Alban's (b. c. 1432; dvm. 17 Feb 1460/1), mar. c. 1452 Lady Elizabeth Wydville (b. c. 1437; mar. (2) 1 May 1464 King Edward IV; d. 8 Jun 1492), sister and cohrss. of Richard [Wydville], 3rd Earl Rivers, and 1st dau. of Richard [Wydville], 1st Earl Rivers, by his wife Jacquetta of Luxembourg, widow of John [Plantagenet], 1st Duke of Bedford, and dau. of Peter of Luxembourg, Count of St Pol, and had issue:
    1a. Sir Thomas Grey, later 1st Earl of Huntingdon later 1st Marquess of Dorset later 7th Baron Ferrers of Groby
    2a. Sir Richard Grey (beheaded 1483)
    2. Edward Grey, later 1st Viscount L'Isle
    3. Reynold Grey, killed at the Battle of Wakefield (d. 31 Dec 1460)
    1. Anne Grey, mar. Sir Edward Hungerford
    2. Margaret Grey (dsp.), mar. as his first wife Sir Robert de Greystock (dvp. and spm. 17 Jun 1483), 2nd son of Ralph [de Greystock], 5th Baron Greystock, by his first wife Elizabeth FitzHugh, 1st dau. of William [FitzHugh], 4th Baron FitzHugh
    mar. (2)
    bef. 2 May 1462 Sir John Bourchier (dsp. 1495), 4th son of Henry [Bourchier], 1st Earl of Essex, by his wife and second cousin Lady Isabel Gray, widow of Sir Thomas Grey, of Heton, co. Northumberland, and only dau. of Richard [Plantagenet], 3rd Earl of Cambridge. He mar. (2) bef. 6 Jul 1490 Elizabeth Assheton (widow of (1) John Kerielle, of Stockbury, co. Kent, and (2) Sir Ralph Assheton, of Kingsnorth and Cheriton, co. Kent), dau. of John Chichele, of Wimpole, co. Cambridge, Chamberlain of London, by his wife Margery Knolles, dau. of Thomas Knolles, twice Mayor of London.
    died
    on or just bef. 23 Jan 1482/3
    suc. by
    grandson
    note

    Thomas [Grey], 1st Earl of Huntingdon later 1st Marquess of Dorset, KG
    created
    14 Aug 1471 Earl of Huntingdon (surrendered 1475)
    18 Apr 1475 Marquess of Dorset
    note
    suc. his grandmother as 7th Baron Ferrers of Groby 23 Jan 1482/3

    The Barony of Ferrers of Groby was held by the Marquesses of Dorset from 23 Jan 1482/3 until 23 Feb 1553/4, when Henry [Grey], 1st Duke of Suffolk, 3rd Marquess of Dorset, 9th Baron Ferrers of Groby, etc., was executed on Tower Hill, having been found guilty of treason, attainted, and all his titles forfeited. The Barony of Astley, if such existed, would have followed the course of the Barony of Ferrers of Groby from 3 Sep/12 Nov 1448 and being similarly attainted on 23 Feb 1553/4.

    Last updated 19 Jan 2013
    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    *

    Birth: Jan. 30, 1272
    Yoxall
    Staffordshire, England
    Death: Mar. 20, 1325
    Groby
    Leicestershire, England

    1st Baron de Ferrers, William was an important commander in Edward I's wars in Scotland, and his arms are entered on the Falkirk Roll of 1298.

    He fought in Flanders in 1295 and helped mount the Siege of Carlaverock in 1300.

    He saw further service in Scotland in 1303, 1306, 1308 and 1311.

    He was summoned to many councils (parliaments) for diplomatic negotiations and ceremonial duties such as Edward II's coronation, and performed other such duties that the Barony was duly created for him.

    Both his mother and daugher were married into the le Despenser family whose relationship with the Crown was so intimate.

    Family links:
    Parents:
    William De Ferrers (1240 - 1288)
    Anne Le Despenser De Ferrers (1248 - 1280)

    Spouse:
    Ellen Margret De Segrave De Ferrers (1275 - 1317)*

    Children:
    Henry de Ferrers (1303 - 1343)*

    *Calculated relationship

    Burial:
    St Philip and St James Church
    Groby
    Hinckley and Bosworth Borough
    Leicestershire, England

    Created by: Bill Velde
    Record added: Jun 20, 2011
    Find A Grave Memorial# 71687296

    *

    William married Ellen de Segrave Aft 1316. Ellen (daughter of John Segrave and Christian Deplessetis) was born 0___ 1275, Chacombe, Northamptonshire, England; died 9 Feb 1317, Groby, Leicestershire, England; was buried St Philip and St James Church, Groby, Leicestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  50. 233.  Ellen de Segrave was born 0___ 1275, Chacombe, Northamptonshire, England (daughter of John Segrave and Christian Deplessetis); died 9 Feb 1317, Groby, Leicestershire, England; was buried St Philip and St James Church, Groby, Leicestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Birth: 1275
    Chacombe
    Northamptonshire, England
    Death: Feb. 9, 1317
    Groby
    Leicestershire, England


    Family links:
    Parents:
    John Segrave (1256 - 1325)
    Christian Deplessetis Segrave (1263 - 1331)

    Spouse:
    William De Ferrers (1272 - 1325)

    Children:
    Henry de Ferrers (1303 - 1343)*

    Sibling:
    Ellen Margret De Segrave De Ferrers (1275 - 1317)
    Stephen Segrave (1285 - 1325)*

    *Calculated relationship

    Burial:
    St Philip and St James Church
    Groby
    Hinckley and Bosworth Borough
    Leicestershire, England

    Created by: Bill Velde
    Record added: Jun 20, 2011
    Find A Grave Memorial# 71688054

    *

    Children:
    1. 116. Henry de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby was born ~ 1302, Groby, Leicestershire, England; died 15 Sep 1343; was buried Ulverscroft Priory, Leicestershire, England.
    2. Thomas de Ferrers was born (Groby, Leicestershire, England).
    3. Anne de Ferrers was born (Groby, Leicestershire, England).

  51. 234.  Theobald de Verdun, II, Lord Weoberley was born 8 Sep 1278, Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England (son of Theobald de Verdun and Margaret de Bohun); died 27 Jul 1316.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Justiciar of Ireland
    • Also Known As: 2nd Lord Verdun
    • Also Known As: Baron Alton

    Notes:

    Name: Theobald 2nd Baron de VERDUN , MP, Sir 1 2 3 4
    Sex: M
    ALIA: Theobald de /Verdon/
    Birth: 8 SEP 1278 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England 5 2 4
    Death: 27 JUL 1316 6 2
    Note:
    Sir Theobald de Verdon, Knight, b. 8 Sep 1278, d. Alton 27 July 1316, 2nd Lord Verdun, MP 1299-1314; m. (1) Wigmore 29 July 1302 Maud de Mortimer, d. 17 or 18 Sep 1312, daughter of Sir Edmund de Mortimer (147-4) and Margaret de Fiennes; m. (2) near Boston 4 Feb 1315/6 Elizabeth de Clare, b. Tewkesbury 16 Sep 1295, d. 4 Nov 1360, daughter of Sir Gilbert de Clare (28-4) and Joan Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor of Castile. [Magna Charta Sureties]

    -------------------------------

    Justiciar of Ireland. [Ancestral Roots]

    -------------------------------

    BARONY OF VERDUN (II)

    THEODALD (DE VERDUN), 2nd but 1st surviving son and heir, was born 8 September 1278.

    On the death of his brother John he was ordered by the King, 14 July 1297, to serve overseas in his place; and he was frequently summoned against the Scots till 1316; knighted by the King in Northumberland, 24 June 1298, and fought in the 2nd line at the battle of Falkirk, 22 July following.

    He was summoned v.p. to Parliament from 29 December 1299 to 16 October 1315, by writs directed (till his father's death) Theobaldo de Verdun junior, whereby he also is held to have become LORD VERDUN. He had seisin of his lands, 28 September 1309; and was Justiciar of Ireland, 30 April 1313-January 1314/5.

    He married, 1stly, 29 July 1302, at Wigmore, co. Hereford, Maud, daughter of Edmund (DE MORTIMER), LORD MORTIMER, by Margaret, daughter of Sir William DE FENLES. She died 17 or 18 September 1312 at Alton, after childbirth, and was buried 9 October in Croxden Abbey.

    He married, 2ndly, 4 February 1315/6, near Bristol (against the King's will and without his licence), Elizabeth, widow of John DE BURGH (who died v.p. 18 June 1313; 2nd but 1st surviving son and heir apparent of Richard, 2nd EARL OF ULSTER [IRL],

    3rd and youngest sister of the whole blood and coheir of Gilbert (DE CLARE), 7th EARL OF GLOUCESTER AND HERTFORD, daughter of Gilbert, 6th EARL OF GLOUCESTER AND HERTFORD, by his 2nd wife, Joan, "of Acre," daughter of EDWARD I.

    He died s.p.m. 27 July 1316 at Alton, aged 37, and was buried 19 September in Croxden Abbey. His widow, who had received the Honor of Clare in her purparty of her brother's estates, married, 3rdly, shortly before 3 May 1317, Roger (DAMORY), 1st LORD DAMORY, who died s.p.m. 13 or 14 March 1321/2.

    She, who was born 16 September 1295 at Tewkesbury, died 4 November 1360, aged 65. M.I. to her and her 3rd husband in St. Mary's, Ware.

    Will, desiring burial in the Convent of the Minoresses without Aldgate, London, dated at Clare, 25 September 1355, proved 3 December 1360.

    On Theobald's death the two Baronies of Verdun, supposed to have been created by the writs of 1295 (or 1290 and 1299, fell into abeyance, according to modern doctrine, among his 3 daughters and co-heirs, by his 1st wife, Joan, Elizabeth and Margery, and his posthumous daughter and coheir, by his 2nd wife, Isabel. [Complete Peerage XII/2:250-1, (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)]

    (i) Joan, born 9 or 11 August 1303 at Wootton in Stanton Lacy, Salop, and baptised in the church of Onibury, in that co., married, 1stly, 28 April 1317, in the King's Chapel in Windsor Park, John de Montagu (1st son and heir apparent of William, 2nd Lord Montagu), who died s.p. and v.p., being buried 14 August 1317 in Lincoln Cathedral. She married, 2ndly, 24 February 1317/8, Thomas (de Furnivalle), Lord Furnivalle, who died 5, 7 or 14 October 1339. She died 2 October 1334 at Alton, aged 31, and was buried 7 or 8 January 1334/5 in Croxden Abbey. See FURNIVALLE. Her representatives are (1956) Lord Mowbray, Segrave and Stourton and Baroness Furnivall.

    [ii) Elizabeth, born circa 1306, married, before 11 June 1320, Bartholomew (Burghersh), Lord Burghersh, who died 3 August 1355. She died 1 May 1360. Her senior representative is (1956) Viscount Falmouth, the others being the descendants of Anne, suo jure Countess of Warwick, wife of Richard (Neville), Earl of Salisbury and Warwick, the "Kingmaker."

    (iii) Margery, born and baptised 10 August 1310 at Alton, married, 1stly, before 20 February 1326/7, William (le Blount), Lord Blount, who died s.p. shortly before 3 October 1337. She married, 2ndly, before 18 October 1339, Sir Mark Husee (son and heir apparent of Henry, 2nd Lord Husee), who died v.p. shortly before 10 February 1345/6. She married, 3rdly, before 10 September 1355, as his 1st wife, Sir John de Crophull, of Bonnington, Notts, who died 3 July 1383. She died before him in or before 1377. Her representatives would appear to be those of Thomas Husee, her descendant by her 2nd marriage, living 1478.


    Father: Theobald 1st Baron de VERDUN , Sir b: ABT 1248 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England
    Mother: Margery (Margaret) de BOHUN , Heiress of Bisley b: ABT 1252 in Bisley, Stroud, Gloucestershire, England

    Marriage 1 Maud de MORTIMER b: ABT 1285 in Wigmore, Ludlow, Herefordshire, England
    Married: 29 JUL 1302 in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England 2
    Married: 9 JUL 1302 in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England 7
    Children
    Has Children Joan de VERDUN , Heiress of Alton b: BET 9 AND 11 AUG 1303 in Wootton, Stanton Lacy, Shropshire, England
    Has Children Elizabeth de VERDUN b: ABT 1306 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England
    Has Children Margery de VERDUN , Heiress of Weobley b: 10 AUG 1310 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England

    Marriage 2 Elizabeth de CLARE b: 14 SEP 1295 in Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England
    Married: 4 FEB 1315/16 in 2nd husband, 2nd wife 8
    Children
    Has Children Isabel de VERDUN b: 21 MAR 1316/17 in Amesbury, Wiltshire, England

    *

    Theobald married Elizabeth de Clare 4 Feb 1315. Elizabeth (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre) was born 14 Sep 1295, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  52. 235.  Elizabeth de Clare was born 14 Sep 1295, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre).
    Children:
    1. 117. Isabel de Verdun

  53. 236.  Robert de Ufford, I, 1st Lord Ufford was born 11 Jun 1279, Parham & Wickham, Suffolk, England; died 9 Sep 1316, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Justiciar of Ireland

    Notes:

    Biography

    Father Sir Robert de Ufford, Justiciar of Ireland, Justice of Chester d. c 9 Sep 1298

    Mother Mary d. bt 10 Aug 1280 - 1285


    Sir Robert Ufford, 1st Lord Ufford was born on 11 June 1279 at of Parham & Wickham, Suffolk, England. [1]

    He married Cecily de Valoines, daughter of Sir Robert Valoines, Lord Walsham and Eve de Criketot, before 1298.[2]

    Sir Robert Ufford, 1st Lord Ufford died circa 9 September 1316.[3]


    Family

    Cecily de Valoines b. c 1281, d. 16 Jul 1325

    Children


    Sir Ralph de Ufford, Justiciary of Ireland, Constable of Corfe Castle d. 9 Apr 1346
    Eva de Ufford d. a May 1370
    William de Ufford d. 1382
    Joan de Ufford d. a 8 Oct 1319
    Sir Robert de Ufford, 1st Earl Suffolk, 2nd Lord Ufford b. 9 Aug 1298, d. 4 Nov 1369

    Sources

    ? Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 362.
    ? Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 389.
    ? Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 60
    http://knight-france.com/geneal/names/2421.htm

    Robert married Cecily Valoines Bef 1298. Cecily (daughter of Robert de Valoines, II, Lord of Walsham & Icksworth and Eve de Criketot) was born ~ 1281, Walsham, Suffolkshire, England; died 16 Jul 1325, Thurston, Suffolk, England. [Group Sheet]


  54. 237.  Cecily Valoines was born ~ 1281, Walsham, Suffolkshire, England (daughter of Robert de Valoines, II, Lord of Walsham & Icksworth and Eve de Criketot); died 16 Jul 1325, Thurston, Suffolk, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Cecily Valoines

    Notes:

    Married:
    He married Cecily de Valoines, daughter of Sir Robert Valoines, Lord Walsham and Eve de Criketot, before 1298.

    Children:
    1. Joan Ufford was born 0___ 1290; died 10 Apr 1319.
    2. 118. Robert de Ufford, (II), Knight, 1st Earl of Suffolk was born 9 Aug 1298, Ufford, Suffolk, England; died 4 Nov 1369, (Suffolk, Suffolkshire, England).

  55. 238.  Walter de Norwich, Knight was born ~ 1274, Walsingham, Norfolkshire, England (son of Geoffrey Norwich and Cecily Valoines); died 20 Jan 1329, Wangford, Suffolk, England; was buried Raveningham, Norfolkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Burial: Norwich Cathedral, Norwich, Norfolkshire, England
    • Occupation: Chief Baron of the Exchequer
    • Also Known As: Lord Norwich

    Notes:

    Biography

    Birth: Between 1250-1280

    Died: Between 1326-1329

    Arms: Per pale gules and azure, a lion rampant ermine.

    He was summoned to Parliament as Lord Norwich by Edward II in 1314.

    Residence: Sculthorpe, Norfolk, England

    Burke's A General and Heraldic Dictionary of Peerages p. 402: Walter de Norwich, who in the 5th of Edward II, was made one of the Barons of the Exchequer, and at the same time obtained a charter of free warren in all his demense lands. In some years afterwards he was made treasure of the exchequer, and had a grant of the manors of Dalham and Bradenfield, with the advowson of the church of Dalham, in Suffolk. He was a learned judge, and died in 2 Edward III. He was succeeded by his son, Sir John de Norwick, Knight.

    WALTER DE NORWICH had a protection February 1297, and, as the King's clerk, in December 129 9 licence to inclose a lane adjoining his messuage in Norwich. He was Remembrancer of the Exc hequer, March 1307/8, appointed a Baron, August 1311; Chief Baron, March 1311/2; Treasurer (a fter serving several periods as deputy Treasurer), September 1314 to May 1317. In 1315, for h is good services as Treasurer, he had a grant of 1,000 marks, to maintain his state more hono urably in the King's service. Keeper of the office of the Treasurer, November 1319 to Februar y following, and again in 1321, 1322, and 1324. He was summoned to Councils at York and Linco ln, January and June 1312, and (among the justices) to Parliaments, July 1312 onwards. As far mer of the custody of the lands of Thomas de Cailly, during the minority of the heir, he wa s Keeper of Buckenham Castle, August 1316 till September 1325. In July 1322 he was a member o f the commission to try the Mortimers, and in 1324 was returned by the sheriff of Norfolk a s summoned to attend the Great Council at Westminster. He m. Catherine, da. of Sir John DE HEDERSETE, and widow of Piers BRAUNCHE. He died between 1 2 April 1328 and 20 February 1328/9, and was buried in Norwich Cathedral. His widow had wri t for dower, and died between January 1340/1 and October 1343. [CP 9:762-3]


    Sir Walter Yorwich Yorwich ... [1]


    Sources

    Julia Dickinson, firsthand knowledge. Click the Changes tab for the details of edits by Julia and others.
    ? Entered by Julia Dickinson, Jun 28, 2012

    Biography

    NORWICH, Sir WALTER de (d. 1329), chief baron of the exchequer, was son of Geoffrey de Norwich, and perhaps a descendant of that Geoffrey de Norwich who in 1214 fell under John's displeasure (Matt. Paris, ii. 537). A Geoffrey de Norwich ‘clericus’ represented Norwich in parliament in 1306 (Returns of Members of Parliament, i. 22). The first reference to Walter de Norwich is as holding the manor of Stoke, Norfolk, in 1297. He was in the royal service in the exchequer; on 15 March 1308 he occurs as remembrancer; on 7 Aug. he was placed on a commission of oyer and terminer in Suffolk; and on 24 Nov. as clerk of the exchequer (Cal. Close Rolls, pp. 57, 131). On 29 Aug. 1311 he was appointed a baron of the exchequer, but resigned this position on 23 Oct. in order to act as lieutenant of the treasurer; on 3 March 1312 he was reappointed a baron of the exchequer, and on 8 March was made chief baron. A week later Norwich ceased to act as lieutenant of the treasurer, but on 17 May he was again directed to act in that capacity while retaining his post as chief baron, and thus he continued till 4 Oct. (Parl. Writs). On 30 Sept., when sitting in London, Norwich refused to admit the new sheriffs, as one of them was absent (Chron. Edw. I. and Edw. II. i. 218). In December 1313 he was appointed to supervise the collection of the twentieth and fifteenth in London (Fœdera, ii. 159), and in July 1314 was a justice of oyer and terminer in Norfolk and Suffolk (Parl. Writs, ii. 79). On 26 Sept. he was appointed treasurer, and two days later resigned his office as chief baron. Norwich resigned the treasurership on 27 May 1317 through illness; but before long he resumed his post at the exchequer apparently as chief baron, for he is so styled on 9 June 1320, though on some occasions he is referred to as baron simply. On 22 Dec. 1317 he was employed to inquire into the petitions of certain cardinals (Fœdera, ii. 349). In April 1318 Norwich, as one of the barons of the exchequer, was present at the council or parliament held at Leicester to endeavour to effect a reconciliation between the king and Thomas of Lancaster. In May he was appointed to treat with Robert, count of Flanders, regarding the injury done to English merchants; and in November he was one of the justices for the trial of sheriffs and others for oppression in Norfolk and Suffolk. On 25 Feb. 1319 he sat as one of the barons of the exchequer at the Guildhall, London (Chron. Edw. I. and Edw. II. i. 285). From 6 Nov. 1319 to 18 Feb. 1320 Norwich was once more lieutenant for the treasurer; both in this year and in 1321 he appears as a justice for the counties of Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk. In 1321 he was keeper of the treasury, and in July 1322, after the fall of Thomas of Lancaster, was one of the judges appointed for the trial of the two Roger Mortimers of Chirk and Wigmore. Norwich continued in office during the reign of Edward II; in the next reign he was reappointed chief baron on 2 Feb. 1327, in spite of his share in the condemnation of the Mortimers, the sentence on whom was cancelled on 27 March 1327. He was employed in May 1328 to inquire into the complaints of the weavers of Norwich, and in November to settle the differences between the abbot and townsmen of St. Edmund's (Pat. Rolls, Edw. III, 141, 297, 353). Norwich died in 1329, and was buried in Norwich Cathedral. Dugdale says that Norwich was summoned to parliament as a baron in 1314, but not at any other time. This is an error; for, though Norwich attended parliament in this and in other years as one of the barons of the exchequer, he was never summoned as a baron of parliament. Norwich married between 1295 and 1304 Catherine, daughter of John de Hedersett, and widow of Peter Braunche. She survived her second husband, and was living in 1349. By her Norwich had three sons: John, who is separately noticed; Roger (d. 1372); and Thomas whose daughter, Catherine de Brewse, was in 1375 declared heiress to her cousin John, a great-grandson of Walter de Norwich. Walter de Norwich had also a daughter Margaret, who married, first, Sir Thomas Cailey; and, secondly, Robert Ufford, earl of Suffolk; her descendants by the second marriage were her father's eventual heirs. The Norwich family had large estates in Norfolk, Suffolk, Lincolnshire, and Hertfordshire.


    [Chronicles of Edward I and Edward II (Rolls Ser.); Fœdera, Record ed.; Cal. of Close Rolls Edward II, 1307–18, and Patent Rolls Edward III, 1327–30; Palgrave's Parl. Writs, iv. 1237–9; Madox Hist. of Exchequer, i. 75, ii. 49, 84; Blomefield's Hist. of Norfolk, iii. 76, iv. 39, 164, v. 126, 129, 138, 522, vi. 137, viii. 52–3, 55, ed. 1812; Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 90–1; Foss's Judges of England, iii. 469–71.]

    Sources

    ? Entered by Julia Dickinson, Jun 28, 2012
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p19904.htm
    http://books.google.com/books?id=SfApAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA229&lpg=PA229&dq=Catherine+de+Hedersett&source=bl&ots=4z-ZssVGNd&sig=tI75FAdmMH_rSlfXtDagU1xbNqs&hl=en&ei=WN7XS4z6KpKksgOu7fWyBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CAwQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=Catherine%20de%20Hedersett&f=false ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    *

    bullet Sources, Comments and Notes

    [There is much confusion and differing opinion on Katherine's parentage who married Robert de Scales. If her father was a "Norwich", who was her father's name: John or Walter ?]


    Source :

    "Sir William de la Pole (died 21 June 1366) ...

    Descendants and legacy

    William de la Pole married Katherine, daughter of Sir Walter de Norwich, ..."
    ..........................................
    Robert de Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk, KG (9 August 1298 \endash 4 November 1369) was an English peer. He was created Earl of Suffolk in 1337. ...

    In 1334 he married Margaret Norwich (d. 2 April 1368), daughter of Sir Walter Norwich (d.1329), Treasurer of the Exchequer, and Catherine de Hedersete, by whom he had a large family,
    ________________________
    Source Par Jennifer C. Ward:
    "... Most of the other household accounts which survive were drawn up for widows, and the households range from the widows of knights to those of women of the highest standing. Katherine de Norwich, whose roll of household expenses survives for 1336-7, was the widow of Sir Walter de Norwich, chief baron of the exchequer and acting treasurer at various times under Edward II. ..."
    ________________________
    Source Par Francis Blomefield,Charles Parkin:
    "... After this, I find no mention of it till 1313, when Margery, relict of Roger Cosyn of Norwich, granted it to Sir Walter de Norwich, and Catherine his wife, and their heirs, and by a fine levied in 1316, it appears that Margery had only her life in it, for then Walter de Norwich and Katerine his wife settled it on Tho. de Caily and Margaret his wife and their heirs; for lack of which it was to return to Walter and his heirs; ..."
    _______________________
    Source Par Alfred Suckling:
    "In the reign of Edward I., Sir John de Norwich was lord, and obtained from that monarch, in 1302, a grant of free-warren in Mettingham, Shipmeadow, Redesham, &c In the ninth of Edward II., Walter de Norwich held it, and in the reign of Edward III. it was the manor of Sir John de Norwich, the same who built the castle. He died in 1361, when the manor devolved to his grandson, also named Sir John, who dying at Mettingham Castle, in 1373, appointed his body to be buried at Raveningham, by the side of his father, Sir Walter, ..."

    "... In the thirty-seventh of Henry III. occurs R. de Norwico, Chancellor of Ireland; and in the fifth of Edward II.7 we meet with Walter de Norwich, one of the Barons of the Exchequer, constituted locum tenens of the Treasurer till the King could provide one. On the 25th of October in the same year, he was admitted one of the Privy Council, and in 1314 summoned to Parliament. Two years afterwards he was appointed Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and in the twentieth of the same reign made locum tenens of William de Melton, Archbishop of York, and Treasurer to the King. This distinguished member of the family married Katharine, daughter of John, and sister to Sir Simon de Hetherset, and was father of Sir John de Norwich, his no less distinguished son, who founded Mettingham Castle. ..."
    _______________________
    Source Par Alfred Suckling:
    "Sir John de Norwich, Lord of Mettingham, temp. Edw. I. =
    - Sir Walter de Norwich.= Katharine Hetherset
    - Sir Roger de Norwich.
    - Sir Thomaa de Norwich. =
    - Catharine de Norwich = ___ De Brews
    - Sir John de Norwich, built Mettingham Castle, ob. 1361 = Margaret.
    - Waller tie Norwich, died in his father's lifetime. = Wolirna Stapleton, of Bedale, Yorkshire.
    - Margaret de Norwich = Robert de Ufford, earl of Suffolk. ..."
    ________________________________
    Source Par Thomas Christopher Banks:
    "In the time of king John, Geffery De Norwich was in rebellion against that king. From whom descended, as presumed, Walter De Norwich, one of the barons of the exchequer, and summoned to parliament the 8th Edward II. but no more.
    To whom succeeded Sir John De Norwich, knight, who was in the wars of France and Scotland; and had summons to parliament, the 16th and 34th Edward III. but no more.
    His successor was John, his grandson (viz. son of Walter, who died in his lifetime); which John, the 46th Edward III. making proof of his age, had livery of his lands; and being afterwards a knight, died the 38th Edward III. leaving Catherine de Brews, daughter of Thomas, brother to John, his grandfather, his cousin, and next heir; but she becoming a nun at Dartford, in Kent, William de Ufford, earl of Suffolk, son of Margaret, sister of Thomas de Norwich, father of the said Catherine, was found to be her next heir; and accordingly had livery of the inheritance. ..."


    Walter married Dame Catherine DE HETHERSET, De Norwich [3913]. (Dame Catherine DE HETHERSET, De Norwich [3913] was born in , , England and died after 1337 in , , England.)

    *

    Walter — Catherine de Hadersete. Catherine died Aft 1337, (Norfolkshire) England. [Group Sheet]


  56. 239.  Catherine de Hadersete died Aft 1337, (Norfolkshire) England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Catherine de Hederset
    • Also Known As: Catherine de Hetherset

    Notes:

    Sources, Comments and Notes

    [There is much confusion and differing opinion on Katherine's parentage
    If her father was a "Norwich", who was her father's name: John or Walter ?]

    Source Par Jennifer C. Ward:
    "... Most of the other household accounts which survive were drawn up for widows, and the households range from the widows of knights to those of women of the highest standing. Katherine de Norwich, whose roll of household expenses survives for 1336\emdash 7, was the widow of Sir Walter de Norwich, chief baron of the exchequer and acting treasurer at various times under Edward II. ..."
    ___________________________
    Source Par Alfred Suckling:
    "... In the thirty-seventh of Henry III. occurs R. de Norwico, Chancellor of Ireland; and in the fifth of Edward II.7 we meet with Walter de Norwich, one of the Barons of the Exchequer, constituted locum tenens of the Treasurer till the King could provide one. On the 25th of October in the same year, he was admitted one of the Privy Council, and in 1314 summoned to Parliament. Two years afterwards he was appointed Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and in the twentieth of the same reign made locum tenens of William de Melton, Archbishop of York, and Treasurer to the King. This distinguished member of the family married Katharine, daughter of John, and sister to Sir Simon de Hetherset, and was father of Sir John de Norwich, his no less distinguished son, who founded Mettingham Castle. ..."
    __________________________
    Source :

    "Sir William de la Pole (died 21 June 1366) ...

    Descendants and legacy

    William de la Pole married Katherine, daughter of Sir Walter de Norwich, ..."
    ..........................................

    Robert de Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk, KG (9 August 1298 - 4 November 1369) was an English peer. He was created Earl of Suffolk in 1337. ...

    In 1334 he married Margaret Norwich (d. 2 April 1368), daughter of Sir Walter Norwich (d.1329), Treasurer of the Exchequer, and Catherine de Hedersete, by whom he had a large family, ..."
    ____________________________
    Source publiâe par Carole Rawcliffe, Richard Wilson:
    "... Katherine was the widow of Sir Walter de Norwich (d. 1329), a former treasurer of the exchequer. She had rights of dower in a number of Norfolk and Suffolk manors, the closest to Norwich being Blackworth, about five miles from the city in the parishes of Stoke Holy Cross and Howe. Her household accounts survive from late September 1336. After periods of residence at Mettingham, Suffolk, and Blackworth, she moved to Norwich in January 1337 and remained there until at least the end of April, when the detailed accounts cease. Her stay included the anniversary of Sir Walter's death on 20 January when she held a great dinner costing almost a sixth of the expenditure recorded in the whole seven months. ..."


    Catherine married Sir Walter DE NORWICH, Knt., Chief Baron Of The Exchequer [3912], son of John DE NORWICH [4984] and Unknown. (Sir Walter DE NORWICH, Knt., Chief Baron Of The Exchequer [3912] was born in , , England, died on 20 Jan 1329 in , , England and was buried in Raveningham, Norfolk, England.)

    Children:
    1. 119. Margaret Norwich was born 0___ 1286, Mettingham, Suffolk, England; died 2 Apr 1368.
    2. Katherine de Norwich was born ~ 1306; died 28 Jan 1382.

  57. 240.  Maurice de Berkeley, III, Knight, 2nd Baron Berkeley was born 0Apr 1271, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England (son of Thomas de Berkeley, Knight, 1st Baron Berkeley and Joan de Ferrers); died 31 May 1326, Wallingford Castle, England; was buried Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley (April 1271 – 31 May 1326), The Magnanimous, feudal baron of Berkeley, of Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire, England, was a peer. He rebelled against King Edward II and the Despencers. His epithet, and that of each previous and subsequent head of his family, was coined by John Smyth of Nibley (d.1641), steward of the Berkeley estates, the biographer of the family and author of "Lives of the Berkeleys".

    Origins

    He was born at Berkeley Castle, the eldest son and heir of Thomas de Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley (1245-1321), The Wise, feudal baron of Berkeley, by his wife Joan de Ferrers (1255–1309), a daughter of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby by his wife Margaret de Quincy, a daughter of Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester.

    Career

    He was involved in the Scottish Wars from about 1295 to 1318. He acceded[clarification needed] on 16 August 1308, was Governor of Gloucester 1312, Governor of Berwick-on-Tweed from 1314 which he lost to the Scots under the 1317 Capture of Berwick, Steward of the Duchy of Aquitaine 1319 and Justiciar of South Wales 1316.

    He joined the Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster in his rebellion against his first cousin King Edward II and the Despencers. Also on his side in the rebellion was Roger la Zouch of Lubbesthorp, his first wife's nephew, who in January 1326 sanctioned the assassination of Roger de Beler, Baron of the Exchequer.

    Marriages & progeny

    He married twice:

    Firstly in 1289 to Eva la Zouche, daughter of Eudo La Zouche by his wife Millicent de Cantilupe, one of the two daughters and eventual co-heiresses of William III de Cantilupe (d.1254) jure uxoris Lord of Abergavenny, in right of his wife Eva de Braose, heiress of the de Braose dynasty of Welsh Marcher Lords. By his wife he had progeny including:
    Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley, born c. 1296
    Sir Maurice de Berkeley (1298–1347), of Uley, Gloucester, who in 1337 acquired for his seat the manor of Stoke Gifford in Gloucestershire, and founded there the line of Berkeley of Stoke Gifford. He was killed at the Siege of Calais in 1347.
    Isabel de Berkeley
    Milicent de Berkeley

    Secondly in about 1316 he married Isabella de Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford by his wife Alice de Lusignan.

    Death & succession

    Berkeley was imprisoned by the Despencers in Wallingford Castle in Berkshire (now in Oxfordshire), where he died on 31 May 1326 and was eventually buried in St Augustine's Abbey (now Bristol Cathedral) in Bristol, founded by his ancestor. He was succeeded by his eldest son Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley (born c. 1296).

    References

    Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who came to America before 1700, Frederick Lewis Weis, 1992, seventh edition.
    Ancestral roots of sixty colonists who came to New England 1623-1650. Frederick Lewis Weis (earlier edition).
    Magna Charta Sureties, 1215., Frederick Lewis Weis, Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., William R. Beall, 1999, 5th Ed.
    Magna Charta Sureties, 1215", Frederick Lewis Weis, 4th Ed.
    The Complete Peerage, Cokayne.
    Burke's Peerage, 1938.
    Plantagenet Ancestry of Seventeenth-Century Colonists, David Faris, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1996.
    Royal Genealogy information held at University of Hull.

    *

    Maurice (Berkeley) de Berkeley (married Eve Zouche (08 Jan 1275 - 05 Dec 1314) on 1289) (married Isabel Clare (10 Mar 1263 - 1333) on 1316) is the father of 5 children and the grandfather of 17 grandchildren. Listed below are details on up to five generations of descendants. See Maurice's Family Tree & Genealogy Tools for more views.

    Millicent (Berkeley) Maltravers ancestors descendants (abt 1295 - 1322) m. John Maltravers KB (abt 1290 - 16 Feb 1363).
    John Maltravers VII ancestors descendants (1314 - 22 Jan 1349) m. Gwenthlian Unknown (abt 1322 - 1375) on 1340.
    Eleanor (Maltravers) FitzAlan ancestors descendants (abt 1345 - 10 Jan 1405) m. John FitzAlan (abt 1348 - 15 Dec 1379) on 17 Feb 1358. m. Reynold Cobham (08 Jun 1348 - 06 Jul 1403) on 9 Sep 1384.
    Joan (FitzAlan) Echingham ancestors descendants (1360 - 01 Sep 1404) m. William Bryan (abt 1349 - 20 Mar 1411). m. William Echingham (abt 1370 - abt 20 Mar 1412) on 1401.
    Thomas Echingham ancestors descendants (abt 1400 - 15 Oct 1444)
    John FitzAlan ancestors descendants (30 Nov 1364 - 14 Aug 1390) m. Elizabeth Despenser (abt 1367 - 11 Apr 1408) on 1384.
    John FitzAlan KB ancestors descendants (01 Aug 1385 - 21 Apr 1421)
    Thomas FitzAlan ancestors descendants (abt 1387 - abt 1431)
    Richard (FitzAlan) Arundel ancestors descendants (abt 1366 - 03 Jun 1419) m. Alice Burley (1380 - 30 Aug 1436) on 1407.
    Jane (FitzAlan) Willoughby ancestors descendants (1407 - bef 01 Jul 1439)
    William FitzAlan ancestors (1369 - 01 Aug 1400) m. Agnes Unknown ().
    Margaret (FitzAlan) Roos ancestors descendants (1370 - 03 Jul 1438) m. William Ros KG (1370 - 01 Sep 1414) aft 9 Oct 1394.
    Elizabeth (Ros) Morley ancestors descendants ( - aft 1442)
    Robert (Ros) de Ros ancestors ( - 30 Dec 1448)
    John (Ros) Roos ancestors (abt Aug 1396 - abt 22 Mar 1421)
    Margaret (Ros) Tuchet ancestors descendants (abt 1400 - abt 15 Sep 1423)
    William (Ros) de Ros ancestors (1400)
    Richard (Ros) de Ros ancestors (1401)
    Beatrice (Ros) de Ros ancestors (1402)
    Thomas (Ros) Roos ancestors descendants (abt 26 Sep 1406 - 18 Aug 1430)
    Reynold Cobham ancestors descendants (abt 1381 - aft Aug 1446) m. Eleanor Culpeper (abt 1383 - 1422) abt 1400. m. Anne Bardolf (24 Jun 1389 - 06 Nov 1453) bef 1427.
    Reynold (Cobham) de Cobham ancestors descendants ( - abt 1441)
    Eleanor Cobham ancestors descendants (abt 1400 - 07 Jul 1452)
    Elizabeth (Cobham) Strange ancestors descendants (abt 1404 - 10 Dec 1453)
    Thomas Cobham ancestors descendants (1412 - 26 Apr 1471)
    Elizabeth Maltravers ancestors (1337) m. Roger De Folville (1335 - 1383). m. Geoffrey Folvile (abt 1345).
    Thomas (Berkeley) de Berkeley ancestors descendants (abt 1296 - 27 Oct 1361) m. Margaret Mortimer (1308 - 05 May 1337) on 25 Jul 1320. m. Katharine Clivedon (abt 1320 - 13 Mar 1385) on 30 May 1347.
    Alphonse (Berkeley) de Berkeley ancestors (abt 1327)
    Joan (Berkeley) de Cobham ancestors descendants (abt 1329 - 02 Oct 1369) m. Reynold Cobham (1300 - 05 Oct 1361).
    Joan Cobham ancestors descendants (abt 1340 - aft 1393) m. Henry Grey (1336 - bef 14 Dec 1392).
    Richard Grey KG ancestors descendants (1371 - 01 Aug 1418) m. Elizabeth Bassett (01 Aug 1372 - 06 Aug 1451).
    John Grey ancestors (1396 - 14 Sep 1430)
    William Grey ancestors (abt 1400 - 1478)
    Lucy (Grey) Lenthall ancestors descendants (abt 1403)
    Henry Grey ancestors descendants (abt 1405 - 17 Jul 1444)
    Elizabeth Grey ancestors descendants (abt 1410)
    Reynold (Cobham) de Cobham ancestors descendants (08 Jun 1348 - 06 Jul 1403) m. Elizabeth Stafford (1342 - 07 Aug 1375). m. Eleanor Maltravers (abt 1345 - 10 Jan 1405) on 9 Sep 1384.
    Reynold Cobham ancestors descendants (abt 1381 - aft Aug 1446) m. Eleanor Culpeper (abt 1383 - 1422) abt 1400. m. Anne Bardolf (24 Jun 1389 - 06 Nov 1453) bef 1427.
    Reynold (Cobham) de Cobham ancestors descendants ( - abt 1441)
    Eleanor Cobham ancestors descendants (abt 1400 - 07 Jul 1452)
    Elizabeth (Cobham) Strange ancestors descendants (abt 1404 - 10 Dec 1453)
    Thomas Cobham ancestors descendants (1412 - 26 Apr 1471)
    Maurice Berkeley ancestors descendants (1330 - 08 Jun 1368) m. Elizabeth Despenser (abt 1327 - abt 13 Jul 1389) abt Aug 1338.
    Thomas Berkeley ancestors descendants (05 Jan 1353 - 13 Jul 1417) m. Margaret Lisle (abt 1360 - 20 Mar 1392) on Nov 1367.
    Elizabeth (Berkeley) Beauchamp ancestors descendants (abt Apr 1386 - 28 Dec 1422) m. Richard Beauchamp KG (28 Jan 1382 - 30 Apr 1439) on 5 Oct 1397.
    Margaret (Beauchamp) Talbot ancestors descendants (1404 - 14 Jun 1467)
    Eleanor (Beauchamp) Rokesley ancestors descendants (Sep 1408 - 06 Mar 1467)
    Elizabeth (Beauchamp) Neville ancestors descendants (abt 1410)
    James Berkeley ancestors descendants (abt 1354 - 13 Jun 1405) m. Elizabeth Bluet (1358 - bef 19 Jul 1425) aft Jul 1388.
    Maurice Berkeley ancestors (1383)
    James Berkeley ancestors descendants (1394 - Dec 1463) m. Unknown Stafford (abt 1408 - bef 1423) on 1415. m. Isabel Mowbray (abt 1396 - 29 Sep 1452) abt 1424. m. Joan Talbot ( - Nov 1463) bef 1457.
    Alice (Berkeley) Arthur ancestors (1424)
    James Berkeley ancestors (1425 - 1452)
    William Berkeley ancestors descendants (1426 - 14 Feb 1492)
    Maurice Berkeley ancestors descendants (abt 1435 - abt Sep 1506)
    Thomas (Berkeley) de Berkeley ancestors descendants (1437 - 1484)
    Elizabeth (Berkeley) Burdett ancestors descendants (abt 1442 - abt 1470)
    Isabel (Berkeley) Trye ancestors descendants (abt 1444)
    John Berkeley ancestors (abt 1357 - 1381)
    Maurice (Berkeley) de Berkeley ancestors descendants (abt 1358) m. Joan Unknown (abt 1360).
    Maurice (Berkeley) de Berkeley ancestors (abt 1390)
    Catherine Berkeley ancestors (abt 1360)
    Agnes Berkeley ancestors (1365)
    Elizabeth Berkeley ancestors (1365)
    Roger Berkeley ancestors (1330 - 08 Jun 1368)
    Maurice Berkeley ancestors (27 May 1349)
    Edmund Berkeley ancestors (10 Jul 1350)
    John Berkeley ancestors descendants (21 Jan 1352 - 05 Mar 1427) m. Elizabeth Betteshorne (1353 - 1420) bef 13 Oct 1374.
    John (Berkeley) de Berkeley ancestors (abt 1375 - 1428)
    Alianore (Berkeley) FitzAlan ancestors descendants (abt 1382 - 01 Aug 1455) m. John FitzAlan KB (01 Aug 1385 - 21 Apr 1421) bef 1407. m. Richard Poynings (abt 1400 - 10 Jun 1429) aft 21 Apr 1421. m. Walter Hungerford KG (abt 22 Jun 1378 - 09 Aug 1449) on 8 May 1439.
    John Arundel ancestors (14 Feb 1408 - 12 Jun 1435) m. Constance Cornwall (aft 1401 - abt 1427). m. Maud Lovel ( - 19 May 1436) aft 1427. [no children]
    John Allen ancestors (1410 - 1459) m. Agnes Allen (1411 - 1458) on 1458.
    John Alleyn ancestors descendants (1410 - 1458) m. Eleanor Cobham Alleyn (1410 - 1483) on 1429.
    Thomas Alleyne ancestors descendants (1430 - 1483)
    Richard FitzAlan ancestors (abt 1415 - abt 1437)
    William FitzAlan KG ancestors descendants (23 Nov 1417 - 15 Dec 1487) m. Joan Neville (abt 1423 - bef 09 Sep 1462) aft 17 Aug 1438.
    Thomas FitzAlan KG,KB ancestors descendants (abt 1450 - 25 Oct 1524)
    William (FitzAlan) Arundel ancestors descendants (abt 1452)
    Eleanor Poynings ancestors descendants (25 Jul 1421 - 10 Feb 1484) m. Henry Percy (25 Jul 1421 - 29 Mar 1461) on 25 Jun 1435.
    [uncertain] Anne Percy ancestors ()
    Henry Percy KG ancestors descendants (abt 1449 - 28 Apr 1489)
    Margaret (Percy) Gascoigne ancestors descendants (1450 - abt 1520)
    Eleanor (Percy) West ancestors (1455 - 1479) [no children]
    Elizabeth (Percy) le Scrope ancestors descendants (abt 1455 - aft 20 May 1512)
    [uncertain] Mary Percy ancestors (1460) [no children]
    Maurice Berkeley ancestors descendants (abt 1386 - 05 May 1460) m. Lora FitzHugh (abt 1409 - aft 12 Mar 1461) aft 10 Dec 1427.
    Maurice Berkeley ancestors descendants ( - 1474) m. Anne West (abt 1433 - abt 1480).
    William Berkeley ancestors (abt 1451 - bef 1485)
    Katherine (Berkeley) Brereton ancestors descendants (abt 1454 - 25 Jan 1494)
    Edward Berkeley ancestors descendants (abt 1434 - 1506) m. Christian Holt (1440 - 1468) bef 1462. m. Alice Cox (abt 1434 - aft 29 Oct 1507) bef 1475.
    Lora (Berkeley) Butler ancestors descendants (1454 - 30 Dec 1501)
    Thomas Berkeley Esq. ancestors descendants (abt 1470 - abt 1500)
    William Berkeley Knt ancestors descendants (bef 1500)
    Thomas Berkeley ancestors (bef 1460)
    Elizabeth (Berkeley) Sutton ancestors descendants (abt 1400 - 08 Dec 1478) m. John Sutton KG (25 Dec 1400 - 30 Sep 1487).
    John (Sutton) Dudley ancestors descendants ( - 06 Feb 1501) m. Elizabeth Bramshot ( - 12 Oct 1498) bef 1462.
    Elizabeth (Dudley) Ashburnham ancestors descendants (abt 1460 - aft Jun 1523)
    Edmund Dudley Esq ancestors descendants (abt 1462 - 18 Aug 1510)
    Edmund Sutton ancestors descendants (1425 - bef 1486) m. Joyce Tiptoft (1430 - 1470) on 1450. m. Maud Clifford (abt 1441 - aft 1481) bef 1472.
    Edward Sutton KG, KB ancestors descendants (abt 1460 - 31 Jan 1531)
    John Sutton ancestors descendants (1461 - 1541)
    Thomas Dudley ancestors descendants (abt 1462 - bef 18 Oct 1549)
    Dorothy (Sutton) Wrottesley ancestors descendants (abt 1466 - 1517)
    Richard Dudley ancestors (abt 1470)
    Robert Dudley ancestors (1471 - abt 1538)
    Jane (Sutton) Middleton ancestors descendants (abt 1475 - 1500)
    John Dudley ancestors (abt 1477)
    Oliver Dudley ancestors (abt 1479) [no children]
    Alice (Dudley) Radcliffe ancestors descendants (1483 - 1554)
    Margaret (Dudley) Grey ancestors (abt 1484)
    George (Sutton) Dudley LLD ancestors (abt 1500) [no children]
    Margaret (Sutton) Longueville ancestors (abt 1429)
    Humphrey Dudley ancestors (abt 1431 - bef 01 Dec 1458) m. Eleanor Ros (23 Jun 1432 - 02 Aug 1504) on 8 Dec 1448.
    [uncertain] Agnes (Sutton) de Snede ancestors (abt 1437)
    Oliver Sutton ancestors descendants (1437 - 25 Jul 1469) m. Katherine Neville ().
    Elizabeth Neville ancestors ()
    Eleanor (Sutton) Beaumont ancestors descendants (abt 1439 - 1513) m. Henry Beaumont (abt 1440 - 16 Nov 1471) abt 1460. m. George Stanley Esq (abt 1440 - abt 1509) aft 16 Nov 1471.
    Constance (Beaumont) Mitton ancestors descendants (1467 - 1551)
    Anne (Stanley) Wolseley ancestors descendants (aft 1472 - aft 1532)
    John Stanley Esq ancestors descendants (abt 1476 - 07 Oct 1534)
    Jane (Sutton) Mainwaring ancestors descendants (abt 1441 - abt 1476) m. Thomas Manwaring (abt 1450 - abt 1508) abt 1471.
    Cicely (Mainwaring) Cotton ancestors descendants (abt 1473 - bef 07 May 1550)
    John Mainwaring ancestors descendants (abt 1475 - bef May 1518)
    Edward Berkeley ancestors (1401)
    Maurice (Berkeley) de Berkeley ancestors descendants (abt 1298 - 12 Feb 1346) m. Margery Berkeley () on 29 Dec 1331.
    Thomas (Berkeley) de Berkeley ancestors descendants (abt 1334 - 1361) m. Catherine Botetourt (abt 1347) bef 1350.
    Maurice Berkeley ancestors descendants (01 Jun 1358 - 02 Oct 1400) m. Johanna Dinham (abt 1370 - 22 Aug 1412).
    Maurice Berkeley ancestors descendants (1400 - 26 Nov 1464) m. Eleanor Montford (abt 1410) bef 1427.
    William Berkeley ancestors descendants (abt 1433 - 1501)
    Thomas Berkeley ancestors (abt 1438)
    Maurice Berkeley ancestors (abt 1440)
    Peter Berkeley ancestors (abt 1301 - 1341)
    Isabel (Berkeley) de Clifford ancestors descendants (1307 - 25 Jul 1362) m. Robert Clifford (05 Nov 1305 - 20 May 1344) on Jun 1328. m. Thomas Musgrove (abt 1302 - abt 1385) bef 9 Jun 1345.
    Robert (Clifford) de Clifford ancestors (1328 - bef 07 Nov 1345) m. Euphemia Neville (1327 - Oct 1393) on Apr 1343.
    Roger (Clifford) de Clifford ancestors descendants (10 Jul 1333 - 13 Jul 1389) m. Maud Beauchamp (1335 - abt Feb 1403) bef 20 Mar 1357.
    Margaret (Clifford) Melton ancestors descendants () m. John Melton (abt 1377 - 24 May 1455) bef 1415.
    John Melton ancestors descendants ( - 11 Jun 1510) m. Elizabeth Hilton (1402 - 1455). m. Eleanor St John (abt 1455 - 12 Feb 1519) aft 20 Oct 1501.
    John Melton ancestors descendants (1425 - 23 Apr 1458)
    Thomasine (Melton) Pierrepont ancestors descendants (abt 1424 - aft 1458) m. Henry Pierrepont Esq. (1422 - 21 Jul 1457) abt 1452.
    Henry Pierrepont ancestors (abt 1445 - 1499)
    Francis Pierrepont ancestors descendants (1455 - 09 Nov 1495)
    Thomas (Clifford) de Clifford ancestors descendants (abt 1363 - 18 Aug 1391) m. Elizabeth Ros (abt 1366 - 26 Mar 1424) bef 1379.
    John Clifford KG ancestors descendants (abt 1389 - 13 Mar 1422) m. Elizabeth Percy (abt 1390 - 26 Oct 1436) abt 1404.
    Thomas Clifford ancestors descendants (25 Mar 1414 - 22 May 1455)
    Henry Clifford ancestors (1416 - 1460)
    Mary (Clifford) Wentworth ancestors descendants (1416 - 04 Oct 1478)
    Maud (Clifford) York ancestors (abt 1389 - 26 Aug 1446) m. John Neville (abt 1382 - 10 Dec 1430) bef 24 Jul 1406. m. Richard York (Sep 1376 - 05 Aug 1415) abt 1414.
    Katherine (Clifford) Greystoke ancestors descendants (abt 1369 - 23 Apr 1413) m. Ralph Greystoke (18 Oct 1353 - 06 Apr 1418) bef 1378.
    Ralph Greystoke ancestors (abt 1381 - abt 10 Mar 1500)
    William Greystoke ancestors (1383)
    Thomas Greystoke ancestors (abt 1385)
    John Greystoke ancestors descendants (abt 1389 - 08 Aug 1436) m. Elizabeth Ferrers (abt 1393 - 1434).
    Joan (Greystoke) Darcy ancestors descendants (1408 - 1456)
    Ralph Greystoke ancestors descendants (abt 1408 - abt 01 Jun 1487)
    Anne (Greystoke) Bigod ancestors descendants (1412 - 27 Mar 1477)
    [uncertain] Eleanore (Greystoke) Eure ancestors descendants (1416 - 27 Mar 1477)
    Elizabeth Greystoke ancestors (1428 - 1440)
    Maud (Greystoke) de Welles ancestors descendants (abt 1390 - abt 1416) m. Eudes Welles (abt 1387 - bef 26 Jul 1417).
    Lionel (Welles) de Welles KG ancestors descendants (abt 1406 - 29 Mar 1461)
    William Welles ancestors descendants (abt 1410 - 29 Mar 1461)
    Joan (Greystoke) Bowes ancestors descendants (abt 1394 - abt 1415) m. William Bowes (1397 - 1465) on 1414.
    William Bowes ancestors descendants (abt 1415 - 1466)
    Philippa (Clifford) Ferrers ancestors descendants (1371 - bef 09 Aug 1416) m. William Ferrers (25 Apr 1372 - 18 May 1445) aft 10 Oct 1388.
    Thomas (Ferrers) de Ferrers Esq. ancestors descendants (aft 1392 - 06 Jan 1459) m. Elizabeth Freville (abt 1394 - aft 1450) bef 1418.
    Thomas Ferrers ancestors descendants (abt 1425 - 22 Aug 1498)
    Henry Ferrers ancestors descendants (abt 1435 - 28 Dec 1499)
    Henry Ferrers ancestors descendants (1394 - 1463) m. Isabel Mowbray (abt 1396 - 29 Sep 1452).
    Anne (Ferrers) de Grey ancestors descendants (1410)
    Elizabeth (Ferrers) Bourchier ancestors descendants (1418 - 23 Jan 1483)
    Maurice Ferrers ancestors (abt 1420)
    John Ferrers ancestors (abt 1394)
    Edmond Ferrers ancestors (abt 1398)
    Elizabeth (Ferrers) Culpeper ancestors descendants (abt 1401 - bef 20 Jul 1457) m. William Culpepper (1387 - 1457) on 1412.
    Richard Culpepper Knt. ancestors descendants (abt 1430 - 04 Oct 1484)
    Margaret (Ferrers) Grey ancestors descendants (1406 - 16 Jan 1452) m. Richard Grey (abt 1393 - 20 Aug 1442) abt 1420. m. Sir John Kinge (1415 - 1475) on 1439. m. Thomas Grey (1418 - Dec 1461) on 14 Feb 1445.
    William Kinge ancestors descendants (1440 - 1500)
    Maud (Clifford) Hilton ancestors descendants (abt 1373 - 16 May 1442) m. Robert Hilton (01 Jan 1400 - 11 Aug 1447).
    William (Hilton) Hylton ancestors descendants (bef 1418 - 13 Oct 1457) m. Mary Stapleton (bef 1417 - aft 13 Dec 1472) on 1457.
    Elizabeth Hilton ancestors (1426)
    William Hilton ancestors (1429 - 1457)
    Eleanor Hilton ancestors descendants (abt 1450 - aft 1525)
    Jane Ann (Hilton) Forster ancestors descendants (1453 - 1510)
    Elizabeth Hilton ancestors descendants (1457)
    William Hilton ancestors descendants (1457 - 31 May 1506)
    William Clifford ancestors (abt 1375 - 25 Mar 1418) m. Anne Bardolf (24 Jun 1389 - 06 Nov 1453).
    [uncertain] John (Clifford) de Clifford ancestors (abt 1335 - 1369) [unmarried] [no children]
    Thomas (Clifford) de Clifford ancestors (abt 1337) m. Mrs-Thomas Clifford () abt 1362.
    Eleanor Clifford ancestors descendants (abt 1343) m. John Waterton (abt 1345) abt 1370.
    Eleaonor Waterton ancestors descendants (abt 1365) m. Robert Babthorpe Knt. (abt 1365 - 1431) abt 1389.
    Ralph Babthorpe ancestors descendants (1390 - 22 May 1455) m. Catherine Ashley (abt 1400 - 27 Aug 1461).
    Margaret (Babthorpe) Metham ancestors ()
    Robert Babthorpe ancestors descendants (abt 1423 - 26 Mar 1466)
    Elizabeth (Musgrave) Wharton ancestors descendants (abt 1350) m. Henry Wharton (abt 1346) on 1376.
    Thomas Wharton ancestors descendants (abt 1377 - aft 1432) m. Daughter Lowther (abt 1377) bef 1432.
    Henry Wharton ancestors descendants (abt 1432) m. Alice Conyers (abt 1430) bef 1452.
    Thomas Wharton Esquire ancestors descendants (1452 - 1520)
    Isabella Clifford ancestors (abt 1361)

    Maurice married Eva la Zouche 0___ 1289. [Group Sheet]


  58. 241.  Eva la Zouche (daughter of Eudo la Zouche and Millicent de Cantilupe).
    Children:
    1. 120. Thomas de Berkeley, Knight, 3rd Baron Berkeley was born 1293-1296, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England; died 27 Oct 1361, Gloucestershire, England.
    2. Isabel de Berkeley was born 0___ 1307; died 25 Jul 1362, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England.

  59. 70.  Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March was born 25 Apr 1287, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England (son of Edmund Mortimer, Knight, 2nd Baron Mortimer and Margaret de Fiennes, Baroness Mortimer); died 29 Nov 1330, Tyburn, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
    • Also Known As: Baron Mortimer
    • Military:
    • Military: Despencer War

    Notes:

    Early life

    Mortimer, grandson of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer and Maud de Braose, Baroness Mortimer, was born at Wigmore Castle, Herefordshire, England, the firstborn of Marcher Lord Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer, and Margaret de Fiennes. Edmund Mortimer had been a second son, intended for minor orders and a clerical career, but on the sudden death of his elder brother Ralph, Edmund was recalled from Oxford University and installed as heir. According to his biographer Ian Mortimer, Roger was possibly sent as a boy away from home to be fostered in the household of his formidable uncle, Roger Mortimer de Chirk.[2] It was this uncle who had carried the severed head of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd of Wales to King Edward I in 1282.[3] Like many noble children of his time, Roger was betrothed young, to Joan de Geneville (born 1286), the wealthy daughter of Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim Castle and Ludlow. They were married on 20 September 1301. Their first child was born in 1302.[4]

    Marriage

    Through his marriage with Joan de Geneville, Roger not only acquired increased possessions in the Welsh Marches, including the important Ludlow Castle, which became the chief stronghold of the Mortimers, but also extensive estates and influence in Ireland. However, Joan de Geneville was not an "heiress" at the time of her marriage. Her grandfather Geoffrey de Geneville, at the age of eighty in 1308, conveyed most, but not all, of his Irish lordships to Roger Mortimer, and then retired, notably alive: he finally died in 1314, with Joan succeeding as suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville. During his lifetime Geoffrey also conveyed much of the remainder of his legacy, such as Kenlys, to his younger son Simon de Geneville, who had meanwhile become Baron of Culmullin through marriage to Joanna FitzLeon. Roger Mortimer therefore succeeded to the eastern part of the Lordship of Meath, centred on Trim and its stronghold of Trim Castle. He did not succeed, however, to the Lordship of Fingal.[5]

    Military adventures in Ireland and Wales

    Roger Mortimer's childhood came to an abrupt end when his father was mortally wounded in a skirmish near Builth in July 1304. Since Roger was underage at the death of his father, he was placed by King Edward I under the guardianship of Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall. However, on 22 May 1306, in a lavish ceremony in Westminster Abbey with two hundred and fifty-nine others, he was knighted by Edward and granted livery of his full inheritance.[6]

    His adult life began in earnest in 1308, when he went to Ireland in person to enforce his authority. This brought him into conflict with the de Lacys, who turned for support to Edward Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce, King of Scots. Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland by Edward II on 23 November 1316. Shortly afterwards, at the head of a large army, he drove Bruce to Carrickfergus and the de Lacys into Connaught, wreaking vengeance on their adherents whenever they were to be found. He returned to England and Wales in 1318[7] and was then occupied for some years with baronial disputes on the Welsh border.

    Opposition to Edward II

    Main article: Despenser War
    Mortimer became disaffected with his king and joined the growing opposition to Edward II and the Despensers. After the younger Despenser was granted lands belonging to him, he and the Marchers began conducting devastating raids against Despenser property in Wales. He supported Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, in refusing to obey the king's summons to appear before him in 1321. Mortimer led a march against London, his men wearing the Mortimer uniform which was green with a yellow sleeve.[8] He was prevented from entering the capital, although his forces put it under siege. These acts of insurrection compelled the Lords Ordainers led by Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, to order the king to banish the Despensers in August. When the king led a successful expedition in October against Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere, after she had refused Queen Isabella admittance to Leeds Castle, he used his victory and new popularity among the moderate lords and the people to summon the Despensers back to England. Mortimer, in company with other Marcher Lords, led a rebellion against Edward, which is known as the Despenser War, at the end of the year.[citation needed]

    Forced to surrender to the king at Shrewsbury in January 1322, Mortimer was consigned to the Tower of London, but by drugging the constable, escaped to France in August 1323, pursued by warrants for his capture dead or alive.[9] In the following year Queen Isabella, anxious to escape from her husband, obtained his consent to her going to France to use her influence with her brother, King Charles IV, in favour of peace. At the French court the queen found Roger Mortimer, who became her lover soon afterwards. At his instigation, she refused to return to England so long as the Despensers retained power as the king's favourites.

    Historians have speculated as to the date at which Mortimer and Isabella actually became lovers.[10] The modern view is that it began while both were still in England, and that after a disagreement, Isabella abandoned Roger to his fate in the Tower. His subsequent escape became one of medieval England's most colourful episodes. However almost certainly Isabella risked everything by chancing Mortimer's companionship and emotional support when they first met again at Paris four years later (Christmas 1325). King Charles IV's protection of Isabella at the French court from Despenser's would-be assassins played a large part in developing the relationship.[11] In 1326, Mortimer moved as Prince Edward's guardian to Hainault, but only after a furious dispute with the queen, demanding she remain in France.[12] Isabella retired to raise troops in her County of Ponthieu; Mortimer arranged the invasion fleet supplied by the Hainaulters.

    Invasion of England and defeat of Edward II

    The scandal of Isabella's relations with Mortimer compelled them both to withdraw from the French court to Flanders, where they obtained assistance for an invasion of England from Count William of Hainaut, although Isabella did not arrive from Ponthieu until the fleet was due to sail. Landing in the River Orwell on 24 September 1326, they were accompanied by Prince Edward and Henry, Earl of Lancaster. London rose in support of the queen, and Edward took flight to the west, pursued by Mortimer and Isabella. After wandering helplessly for some weeks in Wales, the king was taken prisoner on 16 November, and was compelled to abdicate in favour of his son. Though the latter was crowned as Edward III of England on 25 January 1327, the country was ruled by Mortimer and Isabella, who were widely believed to have arranged the murder of Edward II the following September at Berkeley Castle.[citation needed]

    Historian and biographer of Roger Mortimer and Edward III, Ian Mortimer, retells the old story that the ex-king was not killed and buried in 1327, but secretly remained alive at Corfe Castle. When Mortimer besieged the castle, Edward II was said to escape to Rome, where he stayed under papal protection.[13]

    Powers won and lost

    Rich estates and offices of profit and power were now heaped on Mortimer. He was made constable of Wallingford Castle and in September 1328 he was created Earl of March. However, although in military terms he was far more competent than the Despensers, his ambition was troubling to all. His own son Geoffrey, the only one to survive into old age, mocked him as "the king of folly." During his short time as ruler of England he took over the lordships of Denbigh, Oswestry, and Clun (the first of which belonged to Despenser, the latter two had been the Earl of Arundel's). He was also granted the marcher lordship of Montgomery by the queen.[citation needed]


    The "Tyburn Tree"

    The jealousy and anger of many nobles were aroused by Mortimer's use of power. Henry, Earl of Lancaster, one of the principals behind Edward II's deposition, tried to overthrow Mortimer, but the action was ineffective as the young king passively stood by. Then, in March 1330, Mortimer ordered the execution of Edmund, Earl of Kent, the half-brother of Edward II. After this execution Henry Lancaster prevailed upon the young king, Edward III, to assert his independence. In October 1330, a Parliament was summoned to Nottingham, just days before Edward's eighteenth birthday, and Mortimer and Isabella were seized by Edward and his companions from inside Nottingham Castle. In spite of Isabella's entreaty to her son, "Fair son, have pity on the gentle Mortimer," Mortimer was conveyed to the Tower. Accused of assuming royal power and of various other high misdemeanours, he was condemned without trial and ignominiously hanged at Tyburn on 29 November 1330, his vast estates forfeited to the crown. His body hung at the gallows for two days and nights in full view of the populace. Mortimer's widow Joan received a pardon in 1336 and survived till 1356. She was buried beside Mortimer at Wigmore, but the site was later destroyed.[14]

    In 2002, the actor John Challis, the current owner of the remaining buildings of Wigmore Abbey, invited the BBC programme House Detectives at Large to investigate his property. During the investigation, a document was discovered in which Mortimer's widow Joan petitioned Edward III for the return of her husband's body so she could bury it at Wigmore Abbey. Mortimer's lover Isabella had buried his body at Greyfriars in Coventry following his hanging. Edward III replied, "Let his body rest in peace." The king later relented, and Mortimer's body was transferred to Wigmore Abbey, where Joan was later buried beside him.[citation needed]

    Children of Roger and Joan

    The marriages of Mortimer's children (three sons and eight daughters) cemented Mortimer's strengths in the West.

    Sir Edmund Mortimer knt (1302-1331), married Elizabeth de Badlesmere; they produced Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, who was restored to his grandfather's title.
    Margaret Mortimer (1304 - 5 May 1337), married Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley
    Maud Mortimer (1307 - aft. 1345), married John de Charlton, Lord of Powys[15]
    Geoffrey Mortimer (1309-1372/6)
    John Mortimer (1310-1328)
    Joan Mortimer (c. 1312-1337/51), married James Audley, 2nd Baron Audley
    Isabella Mortimer (c. 1313 - aft. 1327)
    Katherine Mortimer (c. 1314-1369), married Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick
    Agnes Mortimer (c. 1317-1368), married Laurence Hastings, 1st Earl of Pembroke
    Beatrice Mortimer (d. 16 October 1383), who married firstly, Edward of Norfolk (d. before 9 August 1334), son and heir apparent of Thomas of Brotherton, by whom she had no issue, and secondly, before 13 September 1337, Thomas de Brewes (d. 9 or 16 June 1361), by whom she had three sons and three daughters.[16]
    Blanche Mortimer (c. 1321-1347), married Peter de Grandison, 2nd Baron Grandison

    Royal descendants

    Through his son Sir Edmund Mortimer, he is an ancestor of the last Plantagenet monarchs of England from King Edward IV to Richard III. By Edward IV's daughter, Elizabeth of York, the Earl of March is an ancestor to King Henry VIII and to all subsequent monarchs of England.

    Roger Mortimer, 1st earl of March, (born 1287?—died Nov. 29, 1330, Tyburn, near London, Eng.), lover of the English king Edward II’s queen, Isabella of France, with whom he contrived Edward’s deposition and murder (1327). For three years thereafter he was virtual king of England during the minority of Edward III.

    The descendant of Norman knights who had accompanied William the Conqueror, he inherited wealthy family estates and fortunes, principally in Wales and Ireland, and in 1304 became 8th Baron of Wigmore on the death of his father, the 7th baron. He devoted the early years of his majority to obtaining effective control of his Irish lordships against his wife’s kinsmen, the Lacys, who summoned to their aid Edward Bruce, brother of King Robert I of Scotland, when he was fighting to become king of Ireland. In 1316 Mortimer was defeated at Kells and withdrew to England, but afterward, as King Edward II’s lieutenant in Ireland (November 1316), he was largely instrumental in overcoming Bruce and in driving the Lacys from Meath.

    In 1317 he was associated with the Earl of Pembroke’s “middle party” in English politics; but distrust of the Despensers (see Despenser, Hugh Le and Hugh Le) drove him, in common with other marcher lords, into opposition and violent conflict with the Despensers in South Wales in 1321. But, receiving no help from Edward II’s other enemies, Roger and his uncle Roger Mortimer of Chirk made their submission in January 1322. Imprisoned in the Tower of London, Roger escaped in 1323 and fled to France, where in 1325 he was joined by Queen Isabella, who became his mistress. The exiles invaded England in September 1326; the fall of the Despensers was followed by the deposition of Edward II and his subsequent murder (1327), in which Mortimer was deeply implicated.

    Thereafter, as the queen’s paramour, Mortimer virtually ruled England. He used his position to further his own ends. Created Earl of March in October 1328, he secured for himself the lordships of Denbigh, Oswestry, and Clun, formerly belonging to the Earl of Arundel; the marcher lordships of the Mortimers of Chirk; and Montgomery, granted to him by the queen. His insatiable avarice, his arrogance, and his unpopular policy toward Scotland aroused against Mortimer a general revulsion among his fellow barons, and in October 1330 the young king Edward III, at the instigation of Henry of Lancaster, had him seized at Nottingham and conveyed to the Tower. Condemned for crimes declared to be notorious by his peers in Parliament, he was hanged at Tyburn as a traitor, and his estates were forfeited to the crown.

    One night in August 1323, a captive rebel baron, Sir Roger Mortimer, drugged his guards and escaped from the Tower of London. With the king's men-at-arms in pursuit he fled to the south coast and sailed to France. There he was joined by Isabella, the Queen of England, who threw herself into his arms.

    A year later, as lovers, they returned with an invading army: King Edward II's forces crumbled before them and Mortimer took power. He removed Edward II in the first deposition of a monarch in British history. Then the ex-king was apparently murdered, some said with a red-hot poker, in Berkeley Castle.

    Birth:
    History, map & images of Wigmore Castle ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wigmore_Castle

    Military:
    Military adventures in Ireland and Wales

    Roger Mortimer's childhood came to an abrupt end when his father was mortally wounded in a skirmish near Builth in July 1304. Since Roger was underage at the death of his father, he was placed by King Edward I under the guardianship of Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall. However, on 22 May 1306, in a lavish ceremony in Westminster Abbey with two hundred and fifty-nine others, he was knighted by Edward and granted livery of his full inheritance.[6]

    His adult life began in earnest in 1308, when he went to Ireland in person to enforce his authority. This brought him into conflict with the de Lacys, who turned for support to Edward Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce, King of Scots. Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland by Edward II on 23 November 1316. Shortly afterwards, at the head of a large army, he drove Bruce to Carrickfergus and the de Lacys into Connaught, wreaking vengeance on their adherents whenever they were to be found. He returned to England and Wales in 1318[7] and was then occupied for some years with baronial disputes on the Welsh border.

    Died:
    hanged as a traitor...

    Roger married Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville 20 Sep 1301. Joan (daughter of Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusigman, 2nd Baroness Geneville) was born 2 Feb 1286, Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England; died 19 Oct 1396, King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  60. 71.  Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville was born 2 Feb 1286, Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England (daughter of Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusigman, 2nd Baroness Geneville); died 19 Oct 1396, King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Baroness Mortimer
    • Also Known As: Countess of March
    • Also Known As: Jeanne de Joinville

    Notes:

    Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville, Countess of March, Baroness Mortimer (2 February 1286 – 19 October 1356), also known as Jeanne de Joinville, was the daughter of Sir Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusignan. She inherited the estates of her grandparents, Geoffrey de Geneville, 1st Baron Geneville, and Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville. She was one of the wealthiest heiresses in the Welsh Marches and County Meath, Ireland. She was the wife of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, the de facto ruler of England from 1327 to 1330. She succeeded as suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville on 21 October 1314 upon the death of her grandfather, Geoffrey de Geneville.[1][2]

    As a result of her husband's insurrection against King Edward II of England, she was imprisoned in Skipton Castle for two years. Following the execution of her husband in 1330 for usurping power in England, Joan was once more taken into custody. In 1336, her lands were restored to her after she received a full pardon for her late husband's crimes from Edward II's son and successor, Edward III of England.

    Family and inheritance

    Ludlow Castle in Shropshire, the birthplace of Joan de Geneville
    Joan was born on 2 February 1286 at Ludlow Castle in Shropshire.[3] She was the eldest child of Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim Castle and Ludlow, whose father Sir Geoffrey de Geneville, 1st Baron Geneville, was Justiciar of Ireland. Her mother Jeanne of Lusignan was part of one of the most illustrious French families, daughter of Hugh XII of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and of Angoulãeme, and sister of Yolanda of Lusignan, the suo jure Countess of La Marche. Joan had two younger sisters, Matilda and Beatrice who both became nuns at Aconbury Priory.[4] She also had two half-sisters from her mother's first marriage to Bernard Ezi III, Lord of Albret: Mathe, Dame d'Albret (died 1283), and Isabelle, Dame d'Albret (died 1 December 1294), wife of Bernard VI, Count of Armagnac.

    When her father died in Ireland shortly before June 1292, Joan became one of the wealthiest and most eligible heiresses in the Welsh Marches, with estates that included the town and castle of Ludlow, the lordship of Ewyas Lacy, the manors of Wolferlow, Stanton Lacy, and Mansell Lacy in Shropshire and Herefordshire as well as a sizeable portion of County Meath in Ireland.[5][6] She was due to inherit these upon the death of her grandfather, but in 1308, Baron Geneville conveyed most of the Irish estates which had belonged to his late wife Maud de Lacy to Joan and her husband Roger Mortimer. They both went to Ireland where they took seisin of Meath on 28 October of that same year. The baron died on 21 October 1314 at the House of the Friars Preachers at Trim, and Joan subsequently succeeded him, becoming the suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville.[1][2]

    Marriage

    Joan married Roger Mortimer, eldest son of Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Wigmore, and Margaret de Fiennes on 20 September 1301 at the manor of Pembridge.[7] Marriage to Joan was highly beneficial to Mortimer as it brought him much influence and prestige in addition to the rich estates he gained through their matrimonial alliance.[8][9] Three years later in 1304 he succeeded as Baron Mortimer, making Joan Baroness Mortimer. He was knighted on Whitsunday 22 May 1306 by King Edward I. The knighting ceremony took place in Westminster Abbey and was known as the Feast of the Swan as all those present made their personal vows upon two swans.[10] Two hundred and fifty-nine other young men received knighthoods along with Mortimer including the Prince of Wales who would shortly afterwards succeed his father as Edward II. Following the ceremony was a magnificent banquet held at the Great Hall of Westminster.[11]

    Upon taking seizen of her Irish lands in 1308, Joan and Mortimer travelled back and forth between their estates in Ireland and those in the Welsh Marches. Given that Joan opted to accompany her husband to Ireland rather than remain at home, and that she produced 12 surviving children over a period of just 17 years led Roger Mortimer's biographer Ian Mortimer to suggest they enjoyed a closer and more affectionate relationship than was typical of noble couples in the 14th-century. He described their union as having been " a mutually beneficial secure medieval partnership".[12]

    Issue

    Together Joan and Mortimer had twelve surviving children:[12][13][14]


    Effigies of Joan's daughter, Katherine Mortimer and her husband Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick. St. Mary's Church, Warwick

    Margaret Mortimer (2 May 1304- 5 May 1337), married Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley, by whom she had issue.
    Sir Edmund Mortimer (died 16 December 1331), married Elizabeth de Badlesmere, daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, and Margaret de Clare, by whom he had two sons, Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, and John, who died young.
    Roger Mortimer, married Joan Le Botiller
    Geoffrey Mortimer, Lord of Towyth (died 1372/5 May 1376), married Jeanne de Lezay, by whom he had issue.
    John Mortimer. He was killed in a tournament at Shrewsbury sometime after 1328.
    Katherine Mortimer (1314- 4 August 1369), married Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, by whom she had fifteen children, including Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, and William de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny, who married Lady Joan FitzAlan.
    Joan Mortimer (died between 1337–1351), married James Audley, 2nd Baron Audley, by whom she had issue.
    Agnes Mortimer, married Laurence Hastings, 1st Earl of Pembroke, by whom she had issue
    Isabella Mortimer (died after 1327)
    Beatrice Mortimer (died 16 October 1383), married firstly Edward of Norfolk, and secondly, Thomas de Braose, 1st Baron Braose. She had issue by her second husband.
    Maud Mortimer (died after August 1345), married John de Charlton, Lord of Powys, by whom she had issue.
    Blanche Mortimer (c.1321- 1347), married Peter de Grandison, 2nd Baron Grandison, by whom she had issue.
    Mortimer's affair with Queen Isabella[edit]

    Joan's husband Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, is allegedly depicted in the foreground with Queen Isabella in this 14th-century manuscript illustration
    Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland on 23 November 1316 and left for Ireland with a large force in February 1317.[15] While there, he fought against the Scots Army led by Edward Bruce, the younger brother of Robert the Bruce (who hoped to make Edward king of Ireland), and Bruce's Norman-Irish allies, the de Lacy's. Joan accompanied her husband to Ireland. They returned to England in 1318 after Mortimer had driven the Scots north to Carrickfergus, and dispersed the de Lacys, who were Joan's relatives. For the next few years, Mortimer occupied himself with baronial disputes on the Welsh border; nevertheless, on account of the increasing influence of Hugh Despenser, the Elder, and Hugh Despenser the Younger over King Edward II, Roger Mortimer became strongly disaffected with his monarch, especially after the younger Despenser had been granted lands which rightfully belonged to Mortimer.[16]

    In October 1321 King Edward and his troops besieged Leeds Castle, after the governor's wife, Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere, refused Queen Isabella admittance and subsequently ordered her archers to fire upon Isabella and her escort after the latter attempted to gain entry to the castle. Elizabeth, the third Badlesmere daughter, was married to Joan and Mortimer's eldest son, Edmund. King Edward exploited his new popularity in the wake of his military victory at Leeds to recall to England the Despensers, whom the Lords Ordainers, led by Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, had forced him to banish in August 1321.[17] The Marcher lords, already in a state of insurrection for some time prior to the Despensers' banishment,[n 1] immediately rose up against the King in full force, with Mortimer leading the confederation alongside Ordainer Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.[18] The King quelled the rebellion, which is also known as the Despenser War; Mortimer and his uncle Roger Mortimer de Chirk both surrendered to him at Shrewsbury on 22 January 1322. Mortimer and his uncle were dispatched as prisoners to the Tower of London,[16] where they were kept in damp, unhealthy quarters. This was likely a factor in Roger Mortimer de Chirk's death in 1326. Joan's husband had fared better; by drugging the constable and the Tower guards, he managed to escape to France on 1 August 1323.[19] It was there that he later became the lover of Queen Isabella, who was estranged from the King as a result of the Despensers' absolute control over him. She had been sent to France on a peace mission by Edward but used the occasion to seek help from her brother, Charles IV to oust the Despensers.[20] The scandal of their love affair forced them to leave the French court for Flanders, where they obtained help for an invasion of England.[21]

    Joan's imprisonment

    Skipton Castle, Yorkshire, where Joan was imprisoned from 1324 to 1326

    While the couple were still in France, King Edward had retaliated against Mortimer by taking Joan and all of their children into custody, and "treating them with severity".[22] In April 1324 Joan was removed from Hampshire where she had been confined in a lodging under house arrest and sent to Skipton Castle in Yorkshire; there she was imprisoned in a cell and endured considerable suffering and hardship.[23] Most of her household had been dismissed and she was permitted a small number of attendants to serve her. She was granted just one mark per day for her necessities, and out of this sum she had to feed her servants.[24] She was additionally allowed ten marks per annum at Easter and Michaelmas for new clothes.[25] Her daughters suffered worse privations having been locked up inside various religious houses with even less money at their disposal.[24] Joan was transferred from Skipton to Pontefract Castle in July 1326.[26]

    Countess of March

    Mortimer and Isabella landed in England two months later in September 1326, and they joined forces with Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster. On 16 November, King Edward was taken prisoner and eventually murdered at Berkeley Castle, presumably by Mortimer's hired assassins.[27] From 1327 to 1330, Mortimer and Isabella jointly held the Office of Regent for her son, King Edward III who was duly crowned following his father's death. Mortimer was made constable of Wallingford Castle; in September 1328, Mo