Sir John Mitford

Male 1402 - 1457  (55 years)


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Generation: 1

  1. 1.  Sir John Mitford was born 8 Apr 1402, Molesden, Mitford, Northumberland, England (son of William Mitford and Margaret de Lisle); died 6 May 1457.

    John married Constance Ogle ~ 1427, Mitford, Northumberland, England. Constance (daughter of Robert Ogle, III and Maud Grey) was born ~ 1402, Kirkley, Ponteland, Northumberland, England; died Aft 6 Oct 1460. [Group Sheet]

    Children:
    1. Margaret Mitford was born ~ 1438, Molesden, Mitford, Northumberland, England; died 31 Jan 1475, Kent, England.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  William Mitford was born 1369, (Northumberland, England); died 1426.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: William de Mitford

    William — Margaret de Lisle. Margaret (daughter of Robert de Lisle and Maria de Strathbogie) was born (Northumberland, England). [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Margaret de Lisle was born (Northumberland, England) (daughter of Robert de Lisle and Maria de Strathbogie).
    Children:
    1. 1. John Mitford was born 8 Apr 1402, Molesden, Mitford, Northumberland, England; died 6 May 1457.


Generation: 3

  1. 6.  Robert de Lisle was born 1426, Northumberlandshire, England.

    Robert — Maria de Strathbogie. [Group Sheet]


  2. 7.  Maria de Strathbogie (daughter of Aymer de Strathbogie, Knight and Mary Stewart).
    Children:
    1. 3. Margaret de Lisle was born (Northumberland, England).


Generation: 4

  1. 14.  Aymer de Strathbogie, Knight was born Felton, Northumberland, England (son of David Strathbogie, II, 10th Earl of Strathbogie and Joan Comyn); died 13 Apr 1402; was buried Holy Trinity of Saint Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England.

    Notes:

    His second son, Sir Aymer de Strathbogie, Knt., of Felton, Jesmond, Ponteland, and Tarcet (in Thormeburre), was Knight of the Shire for Northumberland (as Adomar de Atholl) in 1381.

    Sir Aymer married Mary, said to be a daughter of Walter Steward.

    They are buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity of St. Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (brass now destroyed) and left issue.

    Buried:
    in the chancel of St Andrew's Church, Newcastle upon Tyne, is a Grade I listed parish church in the Church of England[1] in Newcastle upon Tyne.

    The church dates from the 12th century, but is mainly of 13th and 14th century construction. The porch was re-fronted in 1726. Other restoration work was undertaken in 1866 by Fowler.

    Photo, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Andrew%27s_Church,_Newcastle_upon_Tyne

    Aymer — Mary Stewart. Mary (daughter of Walter Stewart, Lord Brechin, Earl of Atholl and Margaret de Barclay) was born St. Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Northumberland, England; was buried Holy Trinity of Saint Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 15.  Mary Stewart was born St. Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Northumberland, England (daughter of Walter Stewart, Lord Brechin, Earl of Atholl and Margaret de Barclay); was buried Holy Trinity of Saint Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England.
    Children:
    1. Isabel de Atholl was born ~ 1361, Felton, Northumberland, England; died Bef 1387.
    2. 7. Maria de Strathbogie


Generation: 5

  1. 28.  David Strathbogie, II, 10th Earl of Strathbogie was born ~ 1290, Chilham, Kent, England (son of John of Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl and Margaret de Mar); died 28 Dec 1326, Kilbaine Forest, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Gascony, France
    • Also Known As: Earl of Atholl
    • Also Known As: Lord Strathbogie

    Notes:

    David II Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl

    David II Strathbogie (died 28 December 1326) was Earl of Atholl, Constable of Scotland, and Chief Warden of Northumberland.

    The eldest son and heir of John Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl by his wife Marjory (or Margaret) daughter of Donald, 10th Earl of Mar, Sir David was a prisoner in England in 1300. He succeeded his father in 1306 and was restored to his earldom and Scottish estates in 1307 by the surrender of them by Ralph de Monthermer, to whom was paid a large sum of money.

    That year he rebelled against Robert the Bruce who banished him, forfeiting his office, title, and lands, the latter being given to Sir Neil Campbell. Strathbogie received three manors in Norfolk as a compensation for his Scottish possessions. In 1321, he was granted the feudal barony of Chilham, Kent, which had belonged to his father and grandmother. In 1322 he was summoned to the English parliament as Lord Strathbogie.[1] His wife was co-heiress in 1324 to her uncle, Aymer de Valence, knt., Earl of Pembroke, by which she inherited the manor and castle of Mitford, the manor of Ponteland, and lands in Little Eland, Northumberland, and the manor of Foston (in Foston-on-the-Wolds), Yorkshire.

    In 1325 he was commander of the English troops in Gascony.

    Marriage [edit]Strathbogie married Joan, elder daughter of Sir John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, Joint Guardian of Scotland, by his spouse Joan (1292–1326), daughter of Sir William de Valance, Knt., Lord of Pembroke, Valence, Montignac, Bellac, etc., uterine brother of King Henry III of England.

    His claim to the earldom of Atholl was maintained by his eldest son and heir, David III Strathbogie, titular Earl of Atholl, a leading supporter of Edward Balliol.

    His second son, Sir Aymer de Strathbogie, Knt., of Felton, Jesmond, Ponteland, and Tarcet (in Thormeburre), was Knight of the Shire for Northumberland (as Adomar de Atholl) in 1381. Sir Aymer married Mary, said to be a daughter of Walter Steward. They are buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity of St. Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (brass now destroyed) and left issue.

    end of biography

    David — Joan Comyn. Joan (daughter of John "The Red" Comyn, III, Lord of Badenoch and Joan de Valence) was born ~ 1292, (Badenoch, Isle of Skye, Inverness, Scotland); died Bef 1327. [Group Sheet]


  2. 29.  Joan Comyn was born ~ 1292, (Badenoch, Isle of Skye, Inverness, Scotland) (daughter of John "The Red" Comyn, III, Lord of Badenoch and Joan de Valence); died Bef 1327.

    Notes:

    Click here for her lineage... http://histfam.familysearch.org/ahnentafel.php?personID=I5397&tree=EuropeRoyalNobleHous&parentset=0&generations=6

    Children:
    1. 14. Aymer de Strathbogie, Knight was born Felton, Northumberland, England; died 13 Apr 1402; was buried Holy Trinity of Saint Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England.
    2. David Strathbogie, III, Earl of Atholl was born ~ 1309; died 30 Nov 1335, Culblean, Aberdeenshire, Scotland.

  3. 30.  Walter Stewart, Lord Brechin, Earl of Atholl was born Abt 1360, (Scotland) (son of Robert II of Scotland, King of The Scots and Elizabeth Mure); died 26 Mar 1437, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.

    Notes:

    Walter was beheaded in Edinburgh (some sources say Stirling) for his involvement in the murder of his nephew King James I of Scotland.

    Walter married Margaret de Barclay Bef 19 Oct 1378, (Scotland). Margaret was born (Scotland); died BY 1404, (Scotland). [Group Sheet]


  4. 31.  Margaret de Barclay was born (Scotland); died BY 1404, (Scotland).
    Children:
    1. 15. Mary Stewart was born St. Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Northumberland, England; was buried Holy Trinity of Saint Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England.


Generation: 6

  1. 56.  John of Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl was born ~1266, Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland (son of David Strathbogie, I, Earl of Atholl and Isabel de Dover); died 7 Nov 1306, London, Middlesex, England.

    Notes:

    John of Strathbogie (c. 1266 - 7 November 1306)[1] was warden and Justiciary of Scotland.

    Early years and family

    John was born in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland around 1266.[1] He was the son of David I Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl (d. 1270), by his spouse Isabel, daughter of Richard de Dover, Baron of Chilham, Kent. John de Strathbogie first appears on record as his father's son and heir in 1282. He was a great-great-grandson of King John of England.

    Life and military service

    In 1284, he joined with other Scottish noblemen who acknowledged Margaret of Norway as the heir to King Alexander.[2] In 1296, he fought on the Scottish side at the Battle of Dunbar, where he was captured and sent to the Tower of London. After a year's confinement there he was set free on condition that he served King Edward I of England in Flanders.

    He did homage for his manor of Lesnes, Kent, in 1305 but subsequently returned to Scotland, and in 1306 joined Robert the Bruce in his rebellion against English overlordship, and his English possessions were forfeited. He took part in the coronation of The Bruce in that year.

    Execution

    In the subsequent English invasion of Scotland in 1306, he was taken prisoner at the Battle of Methven. John, Earl of Atholl, was hanged in London, Middlesex, England on 7 November 1306, on a gallows 30 feet higher than ordinary. This was to signify his higher status than his fellow prisoners, no earl had been executed in England for 230 years. His body was burnt and his head fixed on London Bridge.[3]

    Marriage and children

    John married Marjory (also known as Margaret),[3] daughter of Donald, 6th Earl of Mar.[3] They had two sons and a daughter:

    David de Strathbogie, 10th Earl of Atholl (d. 28 December 1326)[3]
    Sir John de Strathbogie, Knight.
    Isabel, wife or mistress of Edward de Brus, Earl of Carrick.

    References[edit]

    ^ Jump up to: a b "Ancestors and/or relations of John DE STRATHBOGIE 9th Earl of Atholl". Retrieved 5 November 2011.
    Jump up ^ Foedera, p228
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Lewis, Marlyn. "John of Strathbogie, 9th Earl Atholl". Our Royal, Titled, Noble, and Commoner Ancestors & Cousins. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
    Rymer, Thomas,Foedera Conventiones, Literae et cuiuscunque generis Acta Publica inter Reges Angliae. London. 1745. (Latin) [1]
    Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2004, p. 50, ISBN 0-8063-1750-7

    Died:
    John, Earl of Atholl, was hanged in London, Middlesex, England on 7 November 1306, on a gallows 30 feet higher than ordinary. This was to signify his higher status than his fellow prisoners, no earl had been executed in England for 230 years. His body was burnt and his head fixed on London Bridge.

    John — Margaret de Mar. Margaret (daughter of Donald, 6th Earl of Mar and unnamed spouse) was born (Scotland). [Group Sheet]


  2. 57.  Margaret de Mar was born (Scotland) (daughter of Donald, 6th Earl of Mar and unnamed spouse).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Margory

    Children:
    1. 28. David Strathbogie, II, 10th Earl of Strathbogie was born ~ 1290, Chilham, Kent, England; died 28 Dec 1326, Kilbaine Forest, England.
    2. John de Strathbogie
    3. Isabel de Strathbogie

  3. 58.  John "The Red" Comyn, III, Lord of Badenoch was born Abt 1269, Badenoch, Isle of Skye, Inverness, Scotland (son of John "Black Comyn" Comyn, II, Lord of Badenoch and Eleanor de Balliol); died 10 Feb 1306, Dumfries, Scotland.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Guardian of Scotland
    • Occupation: 1296-1306; Guardian of Scotland

    Notes:

    Red Comyn was the son of John Comyn, ‘the Black Comyn’, one of the claimants for the Scots throne. His mother was Eleanor Balliol so King John Balliol was his uncle. The Comyns sided with the Balliols and became the enemies of the Bruces.

    John Comyn married an English noblewoman, Joan de Valence. Her father was an uncle of King Edward I.

    When Scotland was plunged into war, Robert the Bruce’s father was constable of Carlisle Castle under Edward I. The Black Comyn and the Comyn Earl of Buchan attacked Carlisle Castle in support of the Scots King Balliol.

    Red Comyn was among the Scots captured at the Battle of Dunbar in 1296. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London. After agreeing to fight for Edward in Flanders, Red Comyn deserted and sailed to Scotland. It is said that he led the cavalry at the Battle of Falkirk. The Scots cavalry at Falkirk were vastly outnumbered by English knights and mounted men at arms. They turned and rode away, leaving the Scots foot soldiers to be slaughtered by Edward I’s army.

    Red Comyn was made a guardian of Scotland alongside Robert the Bruce, after the resignation of William Wallace and the death of Andrew Moray. In 1299, at a council in Peebles, a fight broke out between Comyn and Bruce - it was reported that Comyn grabbed Bruce by the throat. Within a year Bruce had resigned the guardianship.

    When his father, the Black Comyn, died, John Comyn became Lord of Badenoch.

    In February 1303, Red Comyn and Sir Simon Fraser defeated three successive English forces at the Battle of Roslin. It is said that Wallace may have fought at the battle. The Scots drove the English knights over the steep sides of Roslin Glen and cut down their English prisoners as a second then a third force arrived. In 1304 Red Comyn was forced to make peace with Edward I.

    On 10 February 1306, Robert the Bruce and the Red Comyn fought by the high altar at Greyfriars Kirk in Dumfries. Comyn was killed and Bruce went on to become king.

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    .

    more...

    Robert the Bruce met John Comyn, his rival for the crown of Scotland, at Greyfriars monastery in Dumfries. A row erupts and Comyn is murdered. Bruce becomes an outlaw.

    Video: A history of Scotland: Bishop Makes King. http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/history/wars_of_independence/bruce_kills_comyn_at_greyfriars_church_dumfries/

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    more...

    Fascinating biography of Red Comyn and his family's influence on Scotland's history... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_III_Comyn,_Lord_of_Badenoch

    More on John... http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/scotlandshistory/warsofindependence/johncomyn/index.asp or
    http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/usbiography/c/johniiicomyn.html

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    John married Joan de Valence Abt 1289, Badenoch, Isle of Skye, Inverness, Scotland. Joan (daughter of William de Valence, Knight, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Joan de Munchensi, Countess of Pembroke) died 0___ 1326. [Group Sheet]


  4. 59.  Joan de Valence (daughter of William de Valence, Knight, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Joan de Munchensi, Countess of Pembroke); died 0___ 1326.
    Children:
    1. 29. Joan Comyn was born ~ 1292, (Badenoch, Isle of Skye, Inverness, Scotland); died Bef 1327.
    2. Elizabeth Comyn was born 1 Nov 1299, Wyke, Axminster, Devon, England; died 20 Nov 1372.

  5. 60.  Robert II of Scotland, King of The Scots was born 2 Mar 1316, Paisley Abbey, Renfrewshire, Scotland (son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and Marjorie Bruce); died 19 Apr 1390, Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire, Scotland; was buried Scone Abbey, Perthshire, Scotland.

    Robert married Elizabeth Mure 0___ 1336. Elizabeth died 0___ 1355. [Group Sheet]


  6. 61.  Elizabeth Mure died 0___ 1355.
    Children:
    1. Robert III of Scotland, King of the Scots was born 14 Aug 1337, Scone Palace, Perthshire, Scotland; died 4 Apr 1406, Rothesay Castle, Scotland.
    2. 30. Walter Stewart, Lord Brechin, Earl of Atholl was born Abt 1360, (Scotland); died 26 Mar 1437, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.


Generation: 7

  1. 112.  David Strathbogie, I, Earl of Atholl died 6 Aug 1270.

    Notes:

    David I Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    David I Strathbogie (died 6 August 1270) was the first of the Strathbogie Earls of Atholl.

    David was the son of John de Strathbogie and Ada, suo jure Countess of Atholl.

    He died at Tunis (or Carthage) in the Eighth Crusade, in the company of Louis IX of France, having married before June 1266, Isabel (d. 1292), daughter of Richard de Dover, feudal baron of Chilham, Kent, by his spouse Maud, suo jure Countess of Angus. In 1266 Isabel was heiress to her brother, Richard de Dover, by which she inherited the barony of Chilham, with the manor of Chingford Earls, Essex. In 1270 they leased the latter to the Knights Templar by licence from the king.

    The 8th Earl of Atholl was succeeded in by their only son, John de Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl, Warden and Justiciar of Scotland.

    References

    Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, 2004, p. 49-50. ISBN 0-8063-1750-7

    Preceded by
    Ada Earl of Atholl
    1264–1269 Succeeded by
    John de Strathbogie

    David — Isabel de Dover. [Group Sheet]


  2. 113.  Isabel de Dover
    Children:
    1. 56. John of Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl was born ~1266, Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland; died 7 Nov 1306, London, Middlesex, England.

  3. 114.  Donald, 6th Earl of Mar

    Donald — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  4. 115.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 57. Margaret de Mar was born (Scotland).

  5. 116.  John "Black Comyn" Comyn, II, Lord of Badenoch (son of John Comyn, I, Lord of Badenoch and Alice de Roos); died 0___ 1302, Lochindorb Castle, Strathspey, Scotland.

    Other Events:

    • Ordained: Guardian of Scotland

    Notes:

    John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch and Lord of Lochaber (died 1302) or John "the Black", also known as Black Comyn, a Scottish nobleman, was a Guardian of Scotland, and one of the six Regents for Margaret, Maid of Norway. His father was John I Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.

    Competitor for the Crown

    In 1284 he joined with other Scottish noblemen who acknowledged Margaret of Norway as the heir of King Alexander.[1] He was a Guardian of the Realm from 1286 to 1292.[2] Comyn submitted to the English king in July 1296 at Montrose.[3]

    As a descendant of King Donald III, Comyn was one of the thirteen Competitors for the Crown of Scotland. He did not aggressively push his claim for fear of jeopardising that of his brother-in-law John de Balliol, King of Scotland.[3]

    Comyn, head of the most powerful noble family in Scotland, was a committed ally of Balliol and assisted him in his struggle against Edward I of England. It has even been suggested that the Comyn family were the driving force behind both the Balliol kingship and the revolt against Edward's demands. John Comyn is credited with the building of several large castles or castle houses in and around Inverness. Parts of Mortlach (Balvenie Castle) and Inverlochy Castle still stand today. John Comyn as his father was before him was entrusted by Alexander III of Scotland with the defense of Scotland's northern territories from invasion by the Vikings and the Danes.

    Family

    Comyn married Eleanor de Balliol, daughter of John I de Balliol of Barnard Castle, sister of King John of Scotland. Together they had several children, which included:

    John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.,[4][5] who married Lady Joan de Valence of Pembroke, daughter of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke, who was the half-brother to Henry III of England, and uncle of Edward I of England.
    One of their daughters, Euphemia, married Sir Andrew Moray of Petty.
    Their other daughter, whose given name is not known, married Sir William Galbraith, Chief of that Ilk. It is commonly accepted that Sir William Galbraith and the unnamed Princess of Badenoch are the common progenitures of the Kincaid Family of Scotland and all of their descendents.

    Death

    John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch died at Lochindorb Castle,[3] in 1302.

    John — Eleanor de Balliol. Eleanor (daughter of John de Balliol, King of Scotland and Dervorguilla of Galloway) was born 0___ 1246. [Group Sheet]


  6. 117.  Eleanor de Balliol was born 0___ 1246 (daughter of John de Balliol, King of Scotland and Dervorguilla of Galloway).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Alianora de Balliol
    • Also Known As: Mary de Balliol

    Children:
    1. 58. John "The Red" Comyn, III, Lord of Badenoch was born Abt 1269, Badenoch, Isle of Skye, Inverness, Scotland; died 10 Feb 1306, Dumfries, Scotland.

  7. 118.  William de Valence, Knight, 1st Earl of PembrokeWilliam de Valence, Knight, 1st Earl of Pembroke was born 1225-1230, Cistercian Abbey, Valence, France (son of Hugh of Lusignan, X, Knight, Count of La Marche and Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England); died 18 May 1296, Bayonne, Gascony, France; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Guillaume de Lusignan

    Notes:

    William de Valence (died 18 May 1296), born Guillaume de Lusignan, was a French nobleman and knight who became important in English politics due to his relationship to Henry III. He was heavily involved in the Second Barons' War, supporting the King and Prince Edward against the rebels led by Simon de Montfort. He took the name de Valence ("of Valence").

    He was the fourth son of Isabella of Angoulăeme, widow of king John of England, and her second husband, Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche, and was thus a half-brother to Henry III of England, and uncle to Edward I. William was born in the Cistercian abbey in Valence, Couhâe-Vâerac, Vienne, Poitou, near Lusignan,[1] sometime in the late 1220s (his elder sister Alice was born in 1224).

    Move to England

    Coat of Arms of William de Valence before he became Earl of Pembroke, showing for difference a label gules of five points each charged with three lions rampant argent
    The French conquest of Poitou in 1246 created great difficulties for William's family, and so he and his brothers, Guy de Lusignan and Aymer, accepted Henry III's invitation to come to England in 1247. The king found important positions for all of them; William was soon married to a great heiress, Joan de Munchensi or Munchensy (c. 1230 – after 20 September 1307), the only surviving child of Warin de Munchensi, lord of Swanscombe, and his first wife Joan Marshal, who was one of the five daughters of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke suo jure. As an eventual co-heiress of the Marshal estates, Joan de Munchensi's portion included the castle and lordship of Pembroke and the lordship erected earldom of Wexford in Ireland. The custody of Joan's property was entrusted to her husband, who apparently assumed the lordships of Pembroke and Wexford between 1250 and 1260.

    The Second Barons' War

    This favouritism to royal relatives was unpopular with many of the English nobility, a discontent which would culminate in the Second Barons' War. It did not take long for William to make enemies in England. From his new lands in South Wales, he tried to regain the palatine rights which had been attached to the Earldom of Pembroke, but his energies were not confined to this. The King heaped lands and honours upon him, and he was soon thoroughly hated as one of the most prominent of the rapacious foreigners. Moreover, some trouble in Wales led to a quarrel between him and Simon de Montfort, who was to become the figurehead for the rebels. He refused to comply with the provisions imposed on the King at Oxford in 1258, and took refuge in Wolvesey Castle at Winchester, where he was besieged and compelled to surrender and leave the country.

    However, in 1259 William and de Montfort were formally reconciled in Paris, and in 1261 Valence was again in England and once more enjoying the royal favour. He fought for Henry at the disastrous Battle of Lewes, and after the defeat again fled to France, while de Montfort ruled England. However, by 1265 he was back, landing in Pembrokeshire, and taking part in the Siege of Gloucester and the final royalist victory at Evesham. After the battle he was restored to his estates and accompanied Prince Edward, afterwards Edward I, to Palestine.

    Welsh wars and death

    From his base in Pembrokeshire he was a mainstay of the English campaigns against Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and later Dafydd ap Gruffudd; in the war of 1282–3 that led to the conquest of Wales he negotiated the surrender of one of Dafydd's last remaining castles, Castell-y-Bere, with its custodian, Cynfrig ap Madog. He also went several times to France on public business and he was one of Edward's representatives in the famous suit over the succession to the crown of Scotland in 1291 and 1292.

    William de Valence died at Bayonne on the 13 June 1296; his body is buried at Westminster Abbey.

    Descendants

    William and Joan de Munchensi (described above) had the following children:

    Isabel de Valence (died 5 October 1305), married before 1280 John Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings (6 May 1262 – 10 February 1313). Their grandson Lawrence later became earl of Pembroke. They had:

    William Hastings (1282–1311)
    John Hastings, 2nd Baron Hastings (29 September 1286 – 20 January 1325), married to Juliane de Leybourne (died 1367)
    Sir Hugh Hastings of Sutton (died 1347)
    Elizabeth Hastings (1294 - 6 March 1353), married Roger Grey, 1st Baron Grey de Ruthyn.

    Joan de Valence, married to John Comyn (the "Red Comyn"), Lord of Badenoch (died 10 February 1306, murdered), and had
    John Comyn (k.1314 at Bannockburn), married to Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell
    Joan Comyn (c.1296-1326), married to David II Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl
    Elizabeth Comyn (1 November 1299 – 20 November 1372), married to Richard Talbot, Lord Talbot

    John de Valence (died January 1277)
    William de Valence (died 16 June 1282, in the Battle of Llandeilo Fawr in Wales), created Seigneur de Montignac and Bellac
    Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke and Wexford in 1296 (c. 1270 – 23 June 1324), married firstly to Beatrice de Clermont and married secondly to Marie de Chatillon
    Margaret de Valence, died young. Buried at Westminster Abbey.
    Agnes de Valence (born c. 1250, date of death unknown), married (1) Maurice FitzGerald, Baron of Offaly, (2) Hugh de Balliol, son of John de Balliol, and brother of John Balliol, King of Scotland, and (3) John of Avesnes, Lord of Beaumont son of Baldwin of Avesnes. Agnes had children from her first and third marriage:[2]
    Gerald FitzMaurice, Baron of Offaly
    John of Avesnes
    Baldwin of Avesnes, Lord of Beaumont.
    Felicite of Avesnes
    Jeanne of Avesnes, Abbess of Flines.

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    Click here for photos, maps & history of the great Westminister Abbey... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Abbey#Burials_and_memorials

    William married Joan de Munchensi, Countess of Pembroke 6 Aug 1247, England. Joan (daughter of Warin de Munchesi, Knight, Lord Swanscombe and Joan Marshal) was born ~ 1230, (Kent, England); died Aft 20 Sep 1307, (England). [Group Sheet]


  8. 119.  Joan de Munchensi, Countess of Pembroke was born ~ 1230, (Kent, England) (daughter of Warin de Munchesi, Knight, Lord Swanscombe and Joan Marshal); died Aft 20 Sep 1307, (England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Joan de Munchensy
    • Also Known As: Lady of Swanscombe

    Notes:

    Joan de Munchensi or Munchensy (or Joanna), Lady of Swanscombe and Countess of Pembroke (c. 1230 - aft. September 20, 1307), was the daughter of Joan Marshal and granddaughter of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke suo jure.

    Family[edit]
    William Marshal was the great Lord Marshal who served five successive Kings of England and died in 1219. William's five sons each in turn became Earl of Pembroke, but all died childless. His inheritance was thus divided among his daughters. Joan Marshal, the fourth daughter, married Warin de Munchensi (or Munchensy), Lord of Swanscombe. They were survived by one daughter, Joan de Munchensi, who (owing to Joan Marshal's death soon after her daughter's birth) was brought up by her stepmother, Warin's second wife, Dionisie de Munchensi.

    Marriage and children

    In 1247 three sons of Hugh X of Lusignan, in difficulties after the French annexation of their territories, accepted Henry III's invitation to come to England. The three were William of Valence, Guy of Lusignan and Aymer. The king found important positions for all of them and William was soon married to Joan. Her portion of the Marshal estates included the castle and lordship of Pembroke and the lordship of Wexford in Ireland. The custody of Joan's property was entrusted to her husband. She also, apparently, transmitted to him the title of Earl of Pembroke; he thus became the first of the de Valence holders of the earldom.

    William of Valence died in 1296. Accounts of the offspring of William and Joan vary, but all say that there were five children, others[citation needed] seven including the last two:

    Isabel de Valence (d. October 5, 1305), married before 1280 John Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings (May 6, 1262 – February 10, 1313). Their grandson Lawrence later became earl of Pembroke. They had:
    William Hastings (1282 – 1311)
    John Hastings, 2nd Baron Hastings (September 29, 1286 – January 20, 1325), married to Juliane de Leybourne (d. 1367)
    Sir Hugh Hastings of Sutton (d. 1347)
    Joan de Valence, married to John Comyn (the "Red Comyn"), Lord of Badenoch (d. murdered, February 10, 1306), and had
    Elizabeth Comyn (November 1, 1299 – November 20, 1372), married to Richard Talbot, Lord Talbot
    John de Valence (d. January, 1277)
    William de Valence (d. in battle in Wales on June 16, 1282), created Seigneur de Montignac and Bellac
    Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke and Wexford in 1296 (c. 1270 – June 23, 1324), married firstly to Beatrice de Clermont and married secondly to Marie de Chăatillon
    Margaret de Valence
    Agnes de Valence (b. about 1250)

    Children:
    1. 59. Joan de Valence died 0___ 1326.
    2. Isabel de Valence was born 0___ 1262; died 5 Oct 1305.

  9. 120.  Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland was born ~ 1296; died 9 Apr 1327, Bathgate Castle, West Lothian, Scotland.

    Walter — Marjorie Bruce. Marjorie (daughter of Robert the Bruce, I, King of Scotland and Isabella of Mar) was born 0___ 1297, (Ayrshire, Scotland); died 2 Mar 1316, Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland; was buried Paisley Abbey, Scotland. [Group Sheet]


  10. 121.  Marjorie Bruce was born 0___ 1297, (Ayrshire, Scotland) (daughter of Robert the Bruce, I, King of Scotland and Isabella of Mar); died 2 Mar 1316, Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland; was buried Paisley Abbey, Scotland.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Marjorie de Brus

    Children:
    1. 60. Robert II of Scotland, King of The Scots was born 2 Mar 1316, Paisley Abbey, Renfrewshire, Scotland; died 19 Apr 1390, Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire, Scotland; was buried Scone Abbey, Perthshire, Scotland.


Generation: 8

  1. 232.  John Comyn, I, Lord of Badenoch was born ~ 1215, Buchan, Aberdeenshire, Scotland (son of Richard Comyn and unnamed spouse); died ~ 1275.

    Notes:

    John Comyn (Cumyn) (c. 1215 – c. 1275) was Lord of Badenoch in Scotland. He was justiciar of Galloway in 1258.[1][2] He held lands in Nithsdale[3] (Dalswinton, a Comyn stronghold,[4][5] and Duncow[6]) and Tynedale.

    Life[edit]
    The Comyn family were in effective power in Scotland from 1249 to 1255, when Alexander III of Scotland was a minor; John was one of those with court influence.[3] The Comyns were ousted, by Alan Durward, but returned to power in 1257-8, before provoking a strong English reaction.[3][7]

    He fought for Henry III of England at the Battle of Lewes (1265), with John Baliol the elder and Robert Bruce the elder,[8] and was captured.[9] In 1267 he was given license to crenellate Tarset Castle in Tynedale (by present-day Lanehead, near Hexham), by Henry III;[10] Tarset had previously been held by Walter Comyn.[11]

    He started castle construction at Blair Castle with a tower built in 1269.[12] The place was soon taken back by David, Earl of Atholl.[13]

    Family

    John was the son of a Richard Comyn and was the grandson (through Richard) of William Comyn, jure uxoris Earl of Buchan.

    According to the 1911 Encyclopµdia Britannica he died in 1274, and was nephew of Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan, Constable of Scotland), and of Walter Comyn, Earl of Mentieth.[14] His date of death is also given as 1277.[15]

    He succeeded his uncle Walter, in 1258, as Lord of Badenoch, and was succeeded by his son John II, the "Black Comyn". John I was known as the "Red Comyn", the nickname more commonly applied to his grandson.[16]

    His second wife is given as Alice de Roos (Ros),[17] or Alice de Lindsay of Lamberton.[15] His first wife was called Eva.

    His children, at least four sons and four daughters, included:

    John II
    a daughter who married Alexander of Argyll[15]
    a daughter who married Sir William Galbraith, 4th Chief of that Ilk, Lord of Kyncaith[18]
    a daughter who married Galfrid de Mowbray[19]
    a daughter who married Sir Andrew Moray[20]

    John married Alice de Roos 0___ 1260. [Group Sheet]


  2. 233.  Alice de Roos

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Alice de Ros

    Children:
    1. 116. John "Black Comyn" Comyn, II, Lord of Badenoch died 0___ 1302, Lochindorb Castle, Strathspey, Scotland.

  3. 234.  John de Balliol, King of Scotland was born Bef 1208, Bernard Castle, Gainford, Durham, England; died 25 Oct 1268, St Waast, Bailleul, Nord, France.

    Notes:

    John de Balliol (died 25 October 1268) was a leading figure of Scottish and Anglo-Norman life of his time. Balliol College, in Oxford, is named after him.

    Life

    John de Balliol was born before 1208 to Hugh de Balliol, Lord of Balliol and of Barnard Castle and Gainford (c. 1177-February 2, 1229) and Cecily de Fontaines, daughter of Alâeaume de Fontaines, chevalier, seigneur of Fontaines and Longprâe-les-Corps-Saints. It is believed that he was educated at Durham School in the city of Durham.

    In 1223, Lord John married Dervorguilla of Galloway, the daughter of Alan, Lord of Galloway and Margaret of Huntingdon. By the mid-thirteenth century, he and his wife had become very wealthy, principally as a result of inheritances from Dervorguilla's family. This wealth allowed Balliol to play a prominent public role, and, on Henry III's instruction, he served as joint protector of the young king of Scots, Alexander III. He was one of Henry III's leading counsellors between 1258 and 1265.[1] and was appointed Sheriff of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire from 1261 to 1262. He was captured at the Battle of Lewes in 1264 but escaped and rejoined King Henry. In 1265 Thomas de Musgrave owed him a debt of 123 marks. About 1266 Baldwin Wake owed him a debt of 100 marks and more.

    Following a dispute with the Bishop of Durham, he agreed to provide funds for scholars studying at Oxford. Support for a house of students began in around 1263; further endowments after his death, supervised by Dervorguilla, resulted in the establishment of Balliol College.

    Issue

    John and Dervorguilla had issue:

    Sir Hugh de Balliol, who died without issue before 10 April 1271. He married Agnes de Valence, daughter of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke.[2]
    Alan de Balliol, who died before 10 April 1271 without issue.[2]
    Sir Alexander de Balliol, who died without issue before 13 November 1278. He married Eleanor de Genoure.[2]
    King John I of Scotland, successful competitor for the Crown in 1292.[2]
    Ada de Balliol, who married in 1266, William Lindsay, of Lambarton, and had a daughter, Christian de Lindsay.[2]
    Margaret de Balliol, who may have married Thomas de Moulton.
    Cecily de Balliol (d. before 1273), who married Sir John de Burgh (d. before 3 March 1280) of Wakerley, Northamptonshire, by whom she had three daughters, Devorguille de Burgh (c.1256 – 1284), who in 1259 married Robert FitzWalter, 1st Baron FitzWalter; Hawise de Burgh (d. before 24 March 1299), who married Sir Robert de Grelle (or Grelley) (d. 15 February 1282) of Manchester; and Margery de Burgh, who became a nun.[3][4][2]
    Mary (or Alianora) de Balliol, who married John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, and had a son, John 'The Red Comyn, Lord of Badenoch (d. 1306).[2]
    Maud (or Matilda) de Balliol, married to Bryan FitzAlan, Lord FitzAlan, and feudal Baron of Bedale. They were parents to Agnes FitzAlan (b. 1298), who married Sir Gilbert Stapleton, Knt., of Bedale [5] (1291-1324). Gilbert is better known for his participation in the assassination of Piers Gaveston, Earl of Cornwall.

    John married Dervorguilla of Galloway ~ 1223. Dervorguilla (daughter of Alan of Galloway and Margaret of Huntingdon, Lady of Galloway) was born ~ 1210, (Galloway, Scotland); died 28 Jan 1290. [Group Sheet]


  4. 235.  Dervorguilla of GallowayDervorguilla of Galloway was born ~ 1210, (Galloway, Scotland) (daughter of Alan of Galloway and Margaret of Huntingdon, Lady of Galloway); died 28 Jan 1290.

    Notes:

    Dervorguilla of Galloway (c. 1210 - 28 January 1290) was a 'lady of substance' in 13th century Scotland, the wife from 1223 of John, 5th Baron de Balliol, and mother of John I, a future king of Scotland.

    The name Dervorguilla or Devorgilla was a Latinization of the Gaelic Dearbhfhorghaill (alternative spellings, Derborgaill or Dearbhorghil).

    Family

    Dervorguilla was one of the three daughters and heiresses of the Gaelic prince Alan, Lord of Galloway. She was born to Alan's second wife Margaret of Huntingdon, who was the eldest daughter of David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon and Matilda (or Maud) of Chester. David in turn was the youngest brother to two Kings of Scotland, Malcolm IV and William the Lion. Thus, through her mother, Dervorguilla was descended from the Kings of Scotland, including David I.

    Dervorguilla's father died in 1234 without a legitimate son (he had an illegitimate son Thomas). According to both Anglo-Norman feudal laws and to ancient Gaelic customs, Dervorguilla was one of his heiresses, her two sisters Helen and Christina being older and therefore senior. This might be considered an unusual practice in England, but it was more common in Scotland and in Western feudal tradition. Because of this, Dervorguilla bequeathed lands in Galloway to her descendants, the Balliol and the Comyns. Dervorguilla's son John of Scotland was briefly a King of Scots too, known as Toom Tabard (Scots: 'puppet king' literally "empty coat").

    Life

    The Balliol family into which Devorguilla married was based at Barnard Castle in County Durham, England. Although the date of her birth is uncertain, her apparent age of 13 was by no means unusually early for betrothal and marriage at the time.

    In 1263, her husband Sir John was required to make penance after a land dispute with Walter Kirkham, Bishop of Durham. Part of this took the very expensive form of founding a College for the poor at the University of Oxford. Sir John's own finances were less substantial than those of his wife, however, and long after his death it fell to Devorguilla to confirm the foundation, with the blessing of the same Bishop as well as the University hierarchy. She established a permanent endowment for the College in 1282, as well as its first formal Statutes. The college still retains the name Balliol College, where the history students' society is called the Devorguilla society and an annual seminar series featuring women in academia is called the Dervorguilla Seminar Series. While a Requiem Mass in Latin was sung at Balliol for the 700th anniversary of her death, it is believed that this was sung as a one-off, rather than having been marked in previous centuries.

    Devorguilla founded a Cistercian Abbey 7 miles south of Dumfries in South West Scotland, in April 1273. It still stands as a picturesque ruin of red sandstone.

    When Sir John died in 1269, his widow, Dervorguilla, had his heart embalmed and kept in a casket of ivory bound with silver. The casket travelled with her for the rest of her life. In 1274–5 John de Folkesworth arraigned an assize of novel disseisin against Devorguilla and others touching a tenement in Stibbington, Northamptonshire. In 1275–6 Robert de Ferrers arraigned an assize of mort d'ancestor against her touching a messuage in Repton, Derbyshire. In 1280 Sir John de Balliol's executors, including his widow, Devorguilla, sued Alan Fitz Count regarding a debt of ą100 claimed by the executors from Alan. In 1280 she was granted letters of attorney to Thomas de Hunsingore and another in England, she staying in Galloway. The same year Devorguilla, Margaret de Ferrers, Countess of Derby, Ellen, widow of Alan la Zouche, and Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan, and Elizabeth his wife sued Roger de Clifford and Isabel his wife and Roger de Leybourne and Idoine his wife regarding the manors of Wyntone, King’s Meaburn, Appleby, and Brough-under-Stainmore, and a moiety of the manor of Kyrkby-Stephan, all in Westmorland. The same year Devorguilla sued John de Veer for a debt of ą24. In 1280–1 Laurence Duket arraigned an assize of novel disseisin again Devorguilla and others touching a hedge destroyed in Cotingham, Middlesex. In 1288 she reached agreement with John, Abbot of Ramsey, regarding a fishery in Ellington.

    In her last years, the main line of the royal House of Scotland was threatened by a lack of male heirs, and Devorguilla, who died just before the young heiress Margaret, the Maid of Norway, might, if she had outlived her, have been one of the claimants to her throne. Devorguilla was buried beside her husband at New Abbey, which was christened 'Sweetheart Abbey', the name which it retains to this day. The depredations suffered by the Abbey in subsequent periods have caused both graves to be lost.

    Successors

    Dervorguilla and John de Balliol had issue:

    Sir Hugh de Balliol, who died without issue before 10 April 1271.[1]
    Alan de Balliol, who died without issue.[1]
    Sir Alexander de Balliol, who died without issue before 13 November 1278.[1][2]
    King John of Scotland, successful competitor for the Crown in 1292.[1]
    Cecily de Balliol, who married John de Burgh, Knt., of Walkern, Hertfordshire.[1]
    Ada de Balliol, who married in 1266, William de Lindsay, of Lamberton.[1][3]
    Margaret (died unmarried)
    Eleanor de Balliol, who married John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.[1][4]
    Maud, who married Sir Bryan FitzAlan, Lord FitzAlan, of Bedale, Knt., (d. 1 June 1306),[5][6][7] who succeeded the Earl of Surrey as Guardian and Keeper of Scotland for Edward I of England.
    Owing to the deaths of her elder three sons, all of whom were childless, Dervorguilla's fourth and youngest surviving son John of Scotland asserted a claim to the crown in 1290 when queen Margaret died. He won in arbitration against the rival Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale in 1292, and subsequently was king of Scotland for four years (1292–96).

    Aunt and niece

    She should not be confused with her father's sister,[8][9][10] Dervorguilla of Galloway, heiress of Whissendine, who married Nicholas II de Stuteville. Her daughter Joan de Stuteville married 1stly Sir Hugh Wake, Lord of Bourne and 2ndly Hugh Bigod (Justiciar). Her other daughter Margaret married William de Mastac but died young.[11]

    *

    Children:
    1. Cecilia de Balliol was born ~ 1240, Bernard Castle, Gainford, Durham, England; died 0___ 1289.
    2. 117. Eleanor de Balliol was born 0___ 1246.
    3. John Balliol, I, King of Scots was born ~ 1249, London, Middlesex, England; died 25 Nov 1314, Picardy, France.
    4. Maud Balliol was buried Church of the Black Friars, York, England.

  5. 236.  Hugh of Lusignan, X, Knight, Count of La MarcheHugh of Lusignan, X, Knight, Count of La Marche was born ~ 1183, Angouleme, France; died 5 Jun 1249, Angouleme, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Hugh I of Angoulăeme
    • Also Known As: Hugh V of La Marche
    • Also Known As: Hugh X de Lusignan
    • Also Known As: Hugues X & V & I de Lusignan

    Notes:

    Hugh X de Lusignan, Hugh V of La Marche or Hugh I of Angoulăeme or Hugues X & V & I de Lusignan (c. 1183 or c. 1195 – c. 5 June 1249, Angoulăeme) succeeded his father Hugh IX as Seigneur de Lusignan and Count of La Marche in November 1219 and was Count of Angoulăeme by marriage.

    His father, Hugh IX de Lusignan was betrothed to marry 12-year-old Isabel of Angoulăeme in 1200,[2] when King John of England took her for his Queen, an action which resulted in the entire de Lusignan family rebelling against the English king. Following John's death, Queen Isabella returned to her native France, where she married Hugh X de Lusignan on 10 May 1220 [3]

    By Hugh's marriage to Isabella, he became Count of Angoulăeme until her death in 1246. Together they founded the abbey of Valence. They had nine children:

    Hugues XI & III & II de Lusignan, seigneur of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulăeme (1221–1250)
    Aymer de Lusignan, Bishop of Winchester c. 1250 (c. 1222 – Paris, 5 December 1260 and buried there)
    Agathe de Lusignan (c. 1223 – aft. 7 April 1269), married Guillaume II de Chauvigny, seigneur of Chăateauroux (1224 – Palermo, 3 January 1271)
    Alice de Lusignan (1224 – 9 February 1256), married 1247 John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey
    Guy de Lusignan (d. 1264), seigneur of Couhe, Cognac, and Archiac in 1249, killed at the Battle of Lewes.[citation needed] (Prestwich states he fled after the Battle of Lewes)[4]
    Geoffroi de Lusignan (d. 1274), seigneur of Jarnac, married in 1259 Jeanne de Chăatellerault, Vicomtess of Chăatellerault (d. 16 May 1315) and had issue:
    Eustachie de Lusignan (d. Carthage, Tunisia, 1270), married 1257 Dreux III de Mello (d. 1310)
    William (or Guillaume) de Valence (d. 1296)
    Marguerite de Lusignan (c. 1226/1228–1288), married (1st) 1240/1241 Raymond VII of Toulouse (1197–1249), married (2nd) c. 1246 Aimery IX de Thouars, Viscount of Thouars (d. 1256), and married (3rd) Geoffrey V de Chateaubriant, seigneur of Chateubriant
    Isabella of Lusignan (1224 – 14 January 1299), lady of Beauvoir-sur-Mer et de Mercillac, married (1st) Maurice IV de Craon (1224/1239 – soon before 27 May 1250/1277) (2nd) Geoffrey de Rancon, seigneur of Taillebourg.
    Hugh X was succeeded by his eldest son, Hugh XI of Lusignan.

    According to explanations in the manuscripts of Gaucelm Faidit's poems, this troubadour was a rival of Hugh X of Lusignan for the love of Marguerite d'Aubusson.

    He was buried at Angoulăeme.

    Hugh married Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England 10 May 1220, (Angouleme) France. Isabelle was born 0___ 1188, Angouleme, France; died 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France; was buried 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France. [Group Sheet]


  6. 237.  Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of EnglandIsabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England was born 0___ 1188, Angouleme, France; died 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France; was buried 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Angouleme
    • Also Known As: Isabella de Taillefer, Queen of England
    • Alt Birth: Abt 1173
    • Alt Death: 14 Oct 1217
    • Alt Death: 4 Jun 1246

    Notes:

    Isabel of Gloucester (c. 1173 - 14 October 1217) was the first wife of John of England . She is known by an exceptionally large number of alternative names: Hadwisa, Hawisia, Hawise, Joan, Eleanor, Avise and Avisa.

    *

    Isabella of Angoulăeme (French: Isabelle d'Angoulăeme, IPA: [izab?l d?~gul?m]; c.1188 – 4 June 1246) was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216. She was also reigning Countess of Angoulăeme from 1202 until 1246.

    She had five children by the king including his heir, later Henry III. In 1220, Isabella married Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche, by whom she had another nine children.

    Some of her contemporaries, as well as later writers, claim that Isabella formed a conspiracy against King Louis IX of France in 1241, after being publicly snubbed by his mother, Blanche of Castile for whom she had a deep-seated hatred.[1] In 1244, after the plot had failed, Isabella was accused of attempting to poison the king. To avoid arrest, she sought refuge in Fontevraud Abbey where she died two years later, but none of this can be confirmed.

    Queen of England

    She was the only daughter and heir of Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angoulăeme, by Alice of Courtenay, who was sister of Peter II of Courtenay, Latin Emperor of Constantinople and granddaughter of King Louis VI of France.

    Isabella became Countess of Angoulăeme in her own right on 16 June 1202, by which time she was already queen of England. Her marriage to King John took place on 24 August 1200, in Angoulăeme,[2] a year after he annulled his first marriage to Isabel of Gloucester. She was crowned queen in an elaborate ceremony on 8 October at Westminster Abbey in London. Isabella was originally betrothed to Hugh IX le Brun, Count of Lusignan,[3] son of the then Count of La Marche. As a result of John's temerity in taking her as his second wife, King Philip II of France confiscated all of their French lands, and armed conflict ensued.

    At the time of her marriage to John, the blonde and blue-eyed 12-year-old Isabella was already renowned by some for her beauty[4] and has sometimes been called the Helen of the Middle Ages by historians.[5] Isabella was much younger than her husband and possessed a volatile temper similar to his own. King John was infatuated with his young, beautiful wife; however, his acquisition of her had as much, if not more to do with spiting his enemies, than romantic love. She was already engaged to Hugh IX le Brun, when she was taken by John. It had been said that he neglected his state affairs to spend time with Isabella, often remaining in bed with her until noon. However, these were rumors, ignited by John's enemies to discredit him as being a weak and grossly irresponsible ruler. Given that at the time they were made John was engaging in a desperate war with King Phillip of France to hold on to the remaining Plantagenet dukedoms. The common people began to term her a "siren" or "Messalina", which spoke volumes as to common opinion .[6] Her mother-in-law, Eleanor of Aquitaine readily accepted her as John's wife.[7]

    On 1 October 1207 at Winchester Castle, Isabella gave birth to a son and heir who was named Henry after the King's father, Henry II. He was quickly followed by another son, Richard, and three daughters, Joan, Isabel, and Eleanor. All five children survived into adulthood, and would make illustrious marriages; all but Joan would produce offspring of their own.

    Second marriage

    When King John died in October 1216, Isabella's first act was to arrange the speedy coronation of her nine-year-old son at the city of Gloucester on 28 October. As the royal crown had recently been lost in The Wash, along with the rest of King John's treasure, she supplied her own golden circlet to be used in lieu of a crown.[8] The following July, less than a year after his crowning as King Henry III of England, she left him in the care of his regent, William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and returned to France to assume control of her inheritance of Angoulăeme.

    In the spring of 1220, she married Hugh X of Lusignan, "le Brun", Seigneur de Luisignan, Count of La Marche, the son of her former fiancâe, Hugh IX, to whom she had been betrothed before her marriage to King John. It had been previously arranged that her eldest daughter Joan should marry Hugh, and the little girl was being brought up at the Lusignan court in preparation for her marriage. Hugh, however, upon seeing Isabella, whose beauty had not diminished,[9] preferred the girl's mother. Princess Joan was provided with another husband, King Alexander II of Scotland, whom she wed in 1221.

    Isabella had married Hugh without waiting to receive the consent of the King's council in England, which was the required procedure for a former Queen of England, as the Council had the power to not only choose the Queen Dowager's second husband, but to decide whether or not she should be allowed to marry at all. Isabella's flouting of this law caused the Council to confiscate her dower lands and stop the payment of her pension.[10] Isabella and her husband retaliated by threatening to keep Princess Joan, who had been promised in marriage to the King of Scotland, in France. The council first responded by sending furious letters, signed in the name of young King Henry, to the Pope, urging him to excommunicate Isabella and her husband, but then decided to come to terms with Isabella, as to avoid conflict with the Scottish king, who was eager to receive his bride. Isabella was granted, in compensation for her dower lands in Normandy, the stannaries in Devon and the revenue of Aylesbury for a period of four years. She also received ą3000 as payment for arrears in her pension.[11]

    By Hugh X, Isabella had nine more children. Their eldest son Hugh XI of Lusignan succeeded his father as Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulăeme in 1249.

    Isabella's children from her past marriage continued their lives in England.

    Rebellion and death[edit]
    Described by some contemporaries as "vain, capricious, and troublesome,"[12] Isabella could not reconcile herself with her less prominent position in France. Though Queen dowager of England, Isabella was now mostly regarded as a mere Countess of La Marche and had to give precedence to other women.[13] In 1241, when Isabella and Hugh were summoned to the French court to swear fealty to King Louis IX of France's brother, Alphonse, who had been invested as Count of Poitou, their mother, the Queen Dowager Blanche openly snubbed her. This so infuriated Isabella, who had a deep-seated hatred of Blanche due to the latter having fervently supported the French invasion of England during the First Barons' War in May 1216, that she began to actively conspire against King Louis. Isabella and her husband, along with other disgruntled nobles, including her son-in-law Raymond VII of Toulouse, sought to create an English-backed confederacy which united the provinces of the south and west against the French king.[14] She encouraged her son Henry in his invasion of Normandy in 1230, but then did not provide him the support she had promised.[15]

    In 1244, after the confederacy had failed and Hugh had made peace with King Louis, two royal cooks were arrested for attempting to poison the King; upon questioning they confessed to having been in Isabella's pay.[16] Before Isabella could be taken into custody, she fled to Fontevraud Abbey, where she died on 4 June 1246.[17]

    By her own prior arrangement, she was first buried in the Abbey's churchyard, as an act of repentance for her many misdeeds. On a visit to Fontevraud, her son King Henry III of England was shocked to find her buried outside the Abbey and ordered her immediately moved inside. She was finally placed beside Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Afterwards, most of her many Lusignan children, having few prospects in France, set sail for England and the court of Henry, their half-brother.

    Issue

    With King John of England: 5 children, all of whom survived into adulthood, including:
    King Henry III of England (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272). Married Eleanor of Provence, by whom he had issue, including his heir, King Edward I of England.
    Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272). Married firstly Isabel Marshal, secondly Sanchia of Provence, and thirdly Beatrice of Falkenburg. Had issue.
    Joan (22 July 1210 – 1238), the wife of King Alexander II of Scotland. Her marriage was childless.
    Isabella (1214–1241), the wife of Emperor Frederick II, by whom she had issue.
    Eleanor (1215–1275), who would marry firstly William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke; and secondly Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, by whom she had issue.

    With Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche: nine children, all of whom survived into adulthood, including:

    Hugh XI of Lusignan (1221–1250), Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulăeme. Married Yolande de Dreux, Countess of Penthiáevre and of Porhoet, by whom he had issue.
    Aymer of Lusignan (1222–1260), Bishop of Winchester
    Agnáes de Lusignan (1223–1269). Married William II de Chauvigny (d. 1270), and had issue.
    Alice of Lusignan (1224 – 9 February 1256). Married John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, by whom she had issue.
    Guy of Lusignan (c. 1225 – 1264), killed at the Battle of Lewes. (Tufton Beamish maintains that he escaped to France after the Battle of Lewes and died there in 1269).
    Geoffrey of Lusignan (c. 1226 – 1274). Married in 1259 Jeanne, Viscountess of Chăatellerault, by whom he had issue.
    Isabella of Lusignan (c.1226/1227 14 January 1299). Married firstly before 1244 Maurice IV, seigneur de Craon (1224–1250),[18] by whom she had issue; she married secondly, Geoffrey de Rancon.[19]
    William of Lusignan (c. 1228 – 1296). 1st Earl of Pembroke. Married Joan de Munchensi, by whom he had issue.
    Marguerite de Lusignan (c. 1229 – 1288). Married firstly in 1243 Raymond VII of Toulouse; secondly c. 1246 Aimery IX de Thouars, Viscount of Thouars and had issue

    Birth:
    Aquitaine, Charente department...

    Children:
    1. 118. William de Valence, Knight, 1st Earl of Pembroke was born 1225-1230, Cistercian Abbey, Valence, France; died 18 May 1296, Bayonne, Gascony, France; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. Alice de Lusignan

  7. 238.  Warin de Munchesi, Knight, Lord Swanscombe was born 0___ 1192, Gooderstone, Norfolk, England (son of William Munchensy and Aveline de Clare); died 0___ 1255.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Warin de Munchensy

    Warin married Joan Marshal (England). Joan (daughter of William Marshal, Templar Knight, 1st Earl Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke) was born 1210, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 1234, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales. [Group Sheet]


  8. 239.  Joan Marshal was born 1210, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales (daughter of William Marshal, Templar Knight, 1st Earl Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke); died 1234, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Birth: 1202

    Children:
    1. 119. Joan de Munchensi, Countess of Pembroke was born ~ 1230, (Kent, England); died Aft 20 Sep 1307, (England).

  9. 242.  Robert the Bruce, I, King of ScotlandRobert the Bruce, I, King of Scotland was born 11 Jul 1274, Turnberry Castle, Kirkoswald, Ayrshire, Scotland (son of Robert the Bruce, Knight, VII, Earl of Carrick and Margery of Carrick); died 7 Jun 1329, Manor of Cardross, Scotland; was buried Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.

    Other Events:

    • Burial: Melrose Abbey
    • Also Known As: Robert I of Scotland

    Notes:

    Robert I (11 July 1274 - 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Medieval Gaelic: Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys, Early Scots: Robert Brus), was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329. Robert was one of the most famous warriors of his generation, and eventually led Scotland during the first of the Wars of Scottish Independence against England. He fought successfully during his reign to regain Scotland's place as an independent nation and is today remembered in Scotland as a national hero.

    Descended from the Anglo-Norman and Gaelic nobilities, his paternal fourth-great grandfather was David I. Robert’s grandfather, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, was one of the claimants to the Scottish throne during the "Great Cause". As Earl of Carrick, Robert the Bruce supported his family’s claim to the throne and took part in William Wallace’s revolt against Edward I of England. In 1298, Bruce became a Guardian of Scotland alongside his great rival for the Scottish throne, John Comyn, and William Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews. Bruce resigned as guardian in 1300 due in part to his quarrels with Comyn but chiefly because the restoration of King John seemed imminent. In 1302, he submitted to Edward I and returned to "the king’s peace". When his father died in 1304, Bruce inherited his family’s claim to the throne. In February 1306, following an argument during a meeting at Greyfriars monastery, Dumfries, Bruce killed Comyn. He was excommunicated by the Pope but absolved by Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow.

    Bruce moved quickly to seize the throne and was crowned king of Scots on 25 March 1306, at Scone. Edward I’s forces defeated Robert in battle, and Bruce was forced to flee into hiding in the Hebrides and Ireland before returning in 1307 to defeat an English army at Loudoun Hill and wage a highly successful guerrilla war against the English. Bruce defeated the Comyns and his other Scots enemies, destroying their strongholds and devastating their lands from Buchan to Galloway. In 1309, he held his first parliament at St Andrews, and a series of military victories between 1310 and 1314 won him control of much of Scotland. At the Battle of Bannockburn in June 1314, Bruce defeated a much larger English army under Edward II, confirming the re-establishment of an independent Scottish monarchy. The battle marked a significant turning point, and, freed from English threats, Scotland's armies could now invade northern England; Bruce launched devastating raids into Lancashire and Yorkshire. He also decided to expand his war against the English and create a second front by sending an army under his younger brother, Edward, to invade Ireland, appealing to the native Irish to rise against Edward II's rule.

    Despite Bannockburn and the capture of the final English stronghold at Berwick in 1318, Edward II refused to give up his claim to the overlordship of Scotland. In 1320, the Scottish magnates and nobles submitted the Declaration of Arbroath to Pope John XXII, declaring Bruce as their rightful monarch and asserting Scotland’s status as an independent kingdom. In 1324, the Pope recognised Bruce as king of an independent Scotland, and in 1326, the Franco-Scottish alliance was renewed in the Treaty of Corbeil. In 1327, the English deposed Edward II in favour of his son, Edward III, and peace was temporarily concluded between Scotland and England with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, by which Edward III renounced all claims to sovereignty over Scotland.

    Robert the Bruce died on 7 June 1329. His body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey, while his heart was interred in Melrose Abbey. Bruce's lieutenant and friend Sir James Douglas agreed to take the late King's embalmed heart on crusade to the Lord's Sepulchre in the Holy Land, but he reached only as far as Moorish Granada. Douglas was killed in battle during the siege of Teba while fulfilling his promise. His body and the casket containing the embalmed heart were found upon the field. They were both conveyed back to Scotland by Sir William Keith of Galston.

    Background and early life

    Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale, the first of the Bruce, or de Brus, line arrived in Scotland with David I in 1124 and was given the lands of Annandale in Dumfries and Galloway.[4] Robert was the first son of Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale, and Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, and claimed the Scottish throne as a fourth great-grandson of David I.[5] His mother was by all accounts a formidable woman who, legend would have it, kept Robert Bruce's father captive until he agreed to marry her. From his mother, he inherited the Earldom of Carrick, and through his father, a royal lineage that would give him a claim to the Scottish throne. The Bruces also held substantial estates in Garioch, Essex, Middlesex, and County Durham.[6]

    Although Robert the Bruce's date of birth is known,[7] his place of birth is less certain, although it is most likely to have been Turnberry Castle in Ayrshire, the head of his mother’s earldom.[1][7][8][9][10] Very little is known of his youth. He was probably brought up in a mixture of the Anglo-Norman culture of northern England and south-eastern Scotland, and the Gaelic culture of south-west Scotland and most of Scotland north of the River Forth. Annandale was thoroughly feudalised and the form of Northern Middle English that would later develop into the Scots language was spoken throughout the region. Carrick was historically an integral part of Galloway, and though the earls of Carrick had achieved some feudalisation, the society of Carrick at the end of the thirteenth century remained emphatically Celtic and Gaelic speaking.[11]

    Robert the Bruce would most probably have become trilingual at an early age. He would have spoken both the Anglo-Norman language of his Scots-Norman peers and his father’s family, and the Gaelic language of his Carrick birthplace and his mother’s family. He would also have spoken the early Scots language.[12][13] The family would have moved between the castles of their lordships — Lochmaben Castle, the main castle of the lordship of Annandale, and Turnberry and Loch Doon Castle, the castles of the earldom of Carrick. Robert had nine siblings, and he and his brother Edward may have been fostered according to Gaelic tradition, spending a substantial part of their youth at the courts of other noblemen (Robert’s foster-brother is referred to by Barbour as sharing Robert’s precarious existence as an outlaw in Carrick in 1307-08).[14] As heir, Robert would have been schooled by tutors in all the requirements of courtly etiquette, and he would have waited as a page at his father’s and grandfather’s tables. This grandfather, known to contemporaries as Robert the Noble, and to history as "Bruce the Competitor" (because he competed with the other claimants to the throne of Scotland in the "Great Cause") seems to have been an immense influence on the future king.[14]

    Robert's first appearance in history is on a witness list of a charter issued by Alexander Og MacDonald, Lord of Islay. His name appears in the company of the Bishop of Argyll, the vicar of Arran, a Kintyre clerk, his father, and a host of Gaelic notaries from Carrick.[15] Robert Bruce, the king to be, was sixteen years of age when Margaret, Maid of Norway died in 1290. It is also around this time that Robert would have been knighted, and he began to appear on the political stage in the Bruce dynastic interest.[16]

    Robert's mother died early in 1292. In November of the same year Edward I of England, on behalf of the Guardians of Scotland and following the "Great Cause", awarded the vacant Crown of Scotland to his grandfather's first cousin once removed, John Balliol.[17] Almost immediately, his grandfather, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, resigned his Lordship of Annandale and his claim to the throne to Robert's father. Days later that son, Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale, resigned the earldom of Carrick he had held in right of his late wife to their son, Robert, the future king.[18]

    Even after John's accession, Edward still continued to assert his authority over Scotland and relations between the two kings soon began to deteriorate. The Bruces sided with King Edward against King John and his Comyn allies. Robert the Bruce and his father both considered John a usurper.[19][20] Against the objections of the Scots, Edward I agreed to hear appeals on cases ruled on by the court of the Guardians that had governed Scotland during the interregnum.[21] A further provocation came in a case brought by Macduff, son of Malcolm, Earl of Fife, in which Edward demanded that John appear in person before the English Parliament to answer the charges.[21] This the Scottish king did, but the final straw was Edward's demand that the Scottish magnates provide military service in England's war against France.[21] This was unacceptable; the Scots instead formed an alliance with France.[22] The Comyn-dominated council acting in the name of King John summoned the Scottish host to meet at Caddonlee on 11 March. The Bruces and the earls of Angus and March refused, and the Bruce family withdrew temporarily from Scotland, while the Comyns seized their estates in Annandale and Carrick, granting them to John Comyn, Earl of Buchan.[20] Edward I thereupon provided a safe refuge for the Bruces, having appointed the Lord of Annandale to the command of Carlisle Castle in October 1295.[23] At some point in early 1296, Robert married his first wife, Isabella of Mar, the daughter of Domhnall I, Earl of Mar and his wife Helen.

    Beginning of the Wars of Independence[edit]

    Drawing of Robert the Bruce and Isabella of Mar, from 1562
    Almost the first blow in the war between Scotland and England was a direct attack on the Bruces. On 26 March 1296, Easter Monday, seven Scottish earls made a surprise attack on the walled city of Carlisle, which was not so much an attack against England as the Comyn Earl of Buchan and their faction attacking their Bruce enemies.[24] Both his father and grandfather were at one time Governors of the Castle, and following the loss of Annandale to Comyn in 1295, it was their principal residence. Robert Bruce would have gained first-hand knowledge of the city’s defences. The next time Carlisle was besieged, in 1315, Robert the Bruce would be leading the attack.[23]

    Edward I responded to King John's alliance with France and the attack on Carlisle by invading Scotland at the end of March 1296 and taking the town of Berwick in a particularly bloody attack upon the flimsy palisades.[25][26] At the Battle of Dunbar, Scottish resistance was effectively crushed.[27] Edward deposed King John, placed him in the Tower of London, and installed Englishmen to govern the country. The campaign had been very successful, but the English triumph would only be temporary.[23][28]

    Although the Bruces were by now back in possession of Annandale and Carrick, in August 1296 Robert Bruce, Lord of Annandale, and his son, Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick and future king, were among the more than 1,500 Scots at Berwick[29] who swore an oath of fealty to King Edward I of England.[30] When the Scottish revolt against Edward I broke out in July 1297, James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland, led into rebellion a group of disaffected Scots, including Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow, MacDuff, the son of the earl of Fife, and the young Robert Bruce.[31] The future king was now twenty-two, and in joining the rebels he seems to have been acting independently of his father, who took no part in the rebellion and appears to have abandoned Annandale once more for the safety of Carlisle. It appears that Robert Bruce had fallen under the influence of his grandfather’s friends, Wishart and Stewart, who had inspired him to resistance.[31] With the outbreak of the revolt, Robert left Carlisle and made his way to Annandale, where he called together the knights of his ancestral lands and, according to the English chronicler Walter of Guisborough, addressed them thus:

    No man holds his own flesh and blood in hatred and I am no exception. I must join my own people and the nation in which I was born. I ask that you please come with me and you will be my councillors and close comrades"[31][32]

    Urgent letters were sent ordering Bruce to support Edward's commander, John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (to whom Bruce was related), in the summer of 1297; but instead of complying, Bruce continued to support the revolt against Edward I. That Bruce was in the forefront of fomenting rebellion is shown in a letter written to Edward by Hugh Cressingham on 23 July 1292, which reports the opinion that "if you had the earl of Carrick, the Steward of Scotland and his brother…you would think your business done".[33] On 7 July, Bruce and his friends made terms with Edward by a treaty called the Capitulation of Irvine. The Scottish lords were not to serve beyond the sea against their will and were pardoned for their recent violence in return for swearing allegiance to King Edward. The Bishop of Glasgow, James the Steward, and Sir Alexander Lindsay became sureties for Bruce until he delivered his infant daughter Marjorie as a hostage, which he never did.[citation needed].

    When King Edward returned to England after his victory at the Battle of Falkirk, the Bruce's possessions were excepted from the Lordships and lands that Edward assigned to his followers. The reason for this is uncertain, though Fordun records Robert fighting for Edward, at Falkirk, under the command of Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham, Annandale and Carrick. This participation is contested as no Bruce appears on the Falkirk roll of nobles present in the English army, and two 19th Century antiquarians: Alexander Murison and George Chalmers have stated Bruce did not participate and in the following month decided to lay waste Annandale and burn Ayr Castle, to prevent it being garrisoned by the English.

    William Wallace resigned as Guardian of Scotland after his defeat at the Battle of Falkirk. He was succeeded by Robert Bruce and John Comyn as joint Guardians, but they could not see past their personal differences. As a nephew and supporter of King John, and as someone with a serious claim to the Scottish throne, Comyn was Bruce's enemy. In 1299, William Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews, was appointed as a third, neutral Guardian to try to maintain order between Bruce and Comyn. The following year, Bruce finally resigned as joint Guardian and was replaced by Sir Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus. In May 1301, Umfraville, Comyn, and Lamberton also resigned as joint Guardians and were replaced by Sir John de Soules as sole Guardian. Soules was appointed largely because he was part of neither the Bruce nor the Comyn camps and was a patriot. He was an active Guardian and made renewed efforts to have King John returned to the Scottish throne.

    In July 1301 King Edward I launched his sixth campaign into Scotland. Though he captured the castles of Bothwell and Turnberry, he did little to damage the Scots' fighting ability, and in January 1302 he agreed to a nine-month truce. It was around this time that Robert the Bruce submitted to Edward, along with other nobles, even though he had been on the side of the Scots until then. There were rumours that John Balliol would return to regain the Scottish throne. Soules, who had probably been appointed by John, supported his return, as did most other nobles. But it was no more than a rumour and nothing came of it.

    In March 1302 Bruce sent a letter to the monks at Melrose Abbey apologising for having called tenants of the monks to service in his army when there had been no national call-up. Bruce pledged that, henceforth, he would "never again" require the monks to serve unless it was to "the common army of the whole realm", for national defence. Bruce also married his second wife that year, Elizabeth de Burgh, the daughter of Richard de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster. By Elizabeth he had four children: David II, John (died in childhood), Matilda (who married Thomas Isaac and died at Aberdeen 20 July 1353), and Margaret (who married William de Moravia, 5th Earl of Sutherland in 1345).

    In 1303, Edward invaded again, reaching Edinburgh before marching to Perth. Edward stayed in Perth until July, then proceeded via Dundee, Brechin, and Montrose to Aberdeen, where he arrived in August. From there he marched through Moray to Badenoch before re-tracing his path back south to Dunfermline. With the country now under submission, all the leading Scots, except for William Wallace, surrendered to Edward in February 1304. John Comyn, who was by now Guardian, submitted to Edward. The laws and liberties of Scotland were to be as they had been in the days of Alexander III, and any that needed alteration would be with the assent of King Edward and the advice of the Scots nobles.

    On 11 June 1304, Bruce and William Lamberton made a pact that bound them, each to the other, in “friendship and alliance against all men.” If one should break the secret pact, he would forfeit to the other the sum of ten thousand pounds. The pact is often interpreted[by whom?] as a sign of their patriotism despite both having already surrendered to the English. Homage was again obtained from the nobles and the burghs, and a parliament was held to elect those who would meet later in the year with the English parliament to establish rules for the governance of Scotland. The Earl of Richmond, Edward's nephew, was to head up the subordinate government of Scotland. While all this took place, William Wallace was finally captured near Glasgow, and he was hanged, drawn, and quartered in London on 23 August 1305.

    In September 1305, Edward ordered Robert Bruce to put his castle at Kildrummy, "in the keeping of such a man as he himself will be willing to answer for," suggesting that King Edward suspected Robert was not entirely trustworthy and may have been plotting behind his back. However, an identical phrase appears in an agreement between Edward and his lieutenant and lifelong friend, Aymer de Valence. A further sign of Edward's distrust occurred on 10 October 1305, when Edward revoked his gift of Sir Gilbert de Umfraville's lands to Bruce that he had made only six months before.[34]

    Robert Bruce as Earl of Carrick, and now 7th Lord of Annandale, held huge estates and property in Scotland and a barony and some minor properties in England, and a strong claim to the Scottish throne.

    Murder of John Comyn; for his biography, go to: http://thehennesseefamily.com/getperson.php?personID=I35738&tree=hennessee

    The killing of Comyn in the Greyfriars church in Dumfries, as imagined by Felix Philippoteaux, a 19th-century illustrator.
    Bruce, like all his family, had a complete belief in his right to the throne. However, his actions of supporting alternately the English and Scottish armies had led to a great deal of distrust towards Bruce among the "Community of the Realm of Scotland". His ambition was further thwarted by John Comyn, who had been much more resolute in his opposition to the English. Comyn was the most powerful noble in Scotland and was related to many more powerful nobles both within Scotland and England, including relatives that held the earldoms of Buchan, Mar, Ross, Fife, Angus, Dunbar, and Strathearn; the Lordships of Kilbride, Kirkintilloch, Lenzie, Bedrule, and Scraesburgh; and sheriffdoms in Banff, Dingwall, Wigtown, and Aberdeen. He also had a powerful claim to the Scottish throne through his descent from Donald III on his father's side and David I on his mother's side. Comyn was the nephew of John Balliol.

    According to Barbour and Fordoun, in the late summer of 1305, in a secret agreement sworn, signed, and sealed, John Comyn agreed to forfeit his claim to the Scottish throne in favour of Robert Bruce upon receipt of the Bruce lands in Scotland should an uprising occur led by Bruce.[35] Whether the details of the agreement with Comyn are correct or not, King Edward moved to arrest Bruce while Bruce was still at the English court. Fortunately for Bruce, his friend, and Edward's son-in-law, Ralph de Monthermer learnt of Edward's intention and warned Bruce by sending him twelve pence and a pair of spurs. Bruce took the hint,[36] and he and a squire fled the English court during the night. They made their way quickly for Scotland.

    According to Barbour, Comyn betrayed his agreement with Bruce to King Edward I, and when Bruce arranged a meeting for 10 February 1306 with Comyn in the Chapel of Greyfriars Monastery in Dumfries and accused him of treachery, they came to blows.[37] Bruce assaulted Comyn in Dumfries before the high altar. The Scotichronicon says that on being told that Comyn had survived the attack and was being treated, two of Bruce's supporters, Roger de Kirkpatrick (uttering the words "I mak siccar" ("I make sure")) and John Lindsay, went back into the church and finished Bruce's work. Barbour, however, tells no such story. Bruce asserted his claim to the Scottish crown and began his campaign by force for the independence of Scotland.

    Bruce and his party then attacked Dumfries Castle where the English garrison surrendered. Bruce hurried from Dumfries to Glasgow, where his friend and supporter Bishop Robert Wishart granted him absolution and subsequently adjured the clergy throughout the land to rally to Bruce.[38] Nonetheless, Bruce was excommunicated for this crime.[39]

    English records still in existence today tell a completely different story. They state that the Comyn murder was planned in an attempt to gain the throne of Scotland. For this reason King Edward of England wrote to the Pope and asked for his excommunication of Robert Bruce. No records have ever been found in England stating that King Edward had any knowledge of treachery by Robert Bruce before his acts against Comyn. They state that King Edward did not hear of the murder of John Comyn until several days after his death[citation needed].

    War of King Robert I

    Bruce crowned King of Scots; modern tableau at Edinburgh Castle
    Six weeks after Comyn was killed in Dumfries, Bruce was crowned King of Scots by Bishop William de Lamberton at Scone, near Perth, on 25 March 1306 with all formality and solemnity. The royal robes and vestments that Robert Wishart had hidden from the English were brought out by the Bishop and set upon King Robert. The bishops of Moray and Glasgow were in attendance as well as the earls of Atholl, Menteith, Lennox, and Mar. The great banner of the kings of Scotland was planted behind his throne.[40]

    Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan and wife of John Comyn, 3rd Earl of Buchan (a cousin of the murdered John Comyn) arrived the next day, too late for the coronation. She claimed the right of her family, the MacDuff Earl of Fife, to crown the Scottish king for her brother, Donnchadh IV, Earl of Fife, who was not yet of age, and in English hands. So a second coronation was held and once more the crown was placed on the brow of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, Lord of Annandale, King of the Scots.

    In June 1306 Bruce was defeated at the Battle of Methven. His wife and daughters and other women of the party were sent to Kildrummy in August 1306 under the protection of Bruce's brother Neil Bruce and the Earl of Atholl and most of his remaining men.[41] Bruce fled with a small following of his most faithful men, including Sir James Douglas and Gilbert Hay, Bruce's brothers Thomas, Alexander, and Edward, as well as Sir Neil Campbell and the Earl of Lennox.[42]

    Edward I marched north again in the spring. On his way, he granted the Scottish estates of Bruce and his adherents to his own followers and had published a bill excommunicating Bruce. Bruce's queen, Elizabeth, his daughter Marjorie, his sisters Christina and Mary, and Isabella MacDuff were captured in a sanctuary at Tain and sent to harsh imprisonment, which included Mary and Isabella being hung in cages at Roxburgh and Berwick castles respectively for about four years, while Bruce's brother Neil was executed by being hanged, drawn, and quartered.[43][44]

    On 7 July, King Edward I died, leaving Bruce opposed by the king's son, Edward II.

    It is still uncertain where Bruce spent the winter of 1306–07. Most likely he spent it in the Hebrides, possibly sheltered by Christina of Garmoran, who was married to Bruce's brother-in-law, Duncan, the brother of Bruce's first wife, Isabella of Mar. Ireland is also a serious possibility, and Orkney (under Norwegian rule at the time) or Norway proper (where his sister Isabel Bruce was queen dowager) although unlikely are not impossible.[45] Bruce and his followers returned to the Scottish mainland in February in two groups. One, led by Bruce and his brother Edward landed at Turnberry Castle and began a guerrilla war in south-west Scotland. The other, led by his brothers Thomas and Alexander, landed slightly further south in Loch Ryan, but they were soon captured and executed. In April, Bruce won a small victory over the English at the Battle of Glen Trool, before defeating Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, at the Battle of Loudoun Hill. At the same time, James Douglas made his first foray for Bruce into south-western Scotland, attacking and burning his own castle in Douglasdale. Leaving his brother Edward in command in Galloway, Bruce travelled north, capturing Inverlochy and Urquhart Castles, burning Inverness Castle and Nairn to the ground, then unsuccessfully threatening Elgin.

    Transferring operations to Aberdeenshire in late 1307, he threatened Banff before falling seriously ill, probably owing to the hardships of the lengthy campaign. Recovering, leaving John Comyn, 3rd Earl of Buchan unsubdued at his rear, Bruce returned west to take Balvenie and Duffus Castles, then Tarradale Castle on the Black Isle. Looping back via the hinterlands of Inverness and a second failed attempt to take Elgin, Bruce finally achieved his landmark defeat of Comyn at the Battle of Inverurie in May 1308; he then overran Buchan and defeated the English garrison at Aberdeen. The Harrying of Buchan in 1308 was ordered by Bruce to make sure all Comyn family support was extinguished. Buchan had a very large population because it was the agricultural capital of northern Scotland, and much of its population was loyal to the Comyn family even after the defeat of the Earl of Buchan. Most of the Comyn castles in Moray, Aberdeen, and Buchan were destroyed and their inhabitants killed. Bruce ordered similar harryings in Argyle and Kintyre, in the territories of Clan MacDougall. With these acts, Bruce had successfully destroyed the power of the Comyns, which had controlled much of northern and southwestern Scotland for over a hundred and fifty years. He then crossed to Argyll and defeated the MacDougalls (allies of the Comyns) at the Battle of Pass of Brander and took Dunstaffnage Castle, the last major stronghold of the Comyns.[46]


    Bruce reviewing troops before the Battle of Bannockburn
    In March 1309, Bruce held his first Parliament at St. Andrews, and by August he controlled all of Scotland north of the River Tay. The following year, the clergy of Scotland recognised Bruce as king at a general council. The support given to him by the church in spite of his excommunication was of great political importance. Over the next three years, one English-held castle or outpost after another was captured and reduced: Linlithgow in 1310, Dumbarton in 1311, and Perth, by Bruce himself, in January 1312. Bruce also made raids into northern England and, landing at Ramsey in the Isle of Man, then laid siege to Castle Rushen in Castletown, capturing it on 21 June 1313 and denying the island's strategic importance to the English. In the spring of 1314, Edward Bruce laid siege to Stirling Castle, whose governor, Philip de Mowbray, agreed to capitulate if not relieved before 24 June 1314. In March 1314, James Douglas captured Roxburgh, and Randolph captured Edinburgh Castle. In May, Bruce again raided England and subdued the Isle of Man.

    The eight years of exhausting but deliberate refusal to meet the English on even ground have caused many to consider Bruce as one of the great guerrilla leaders of any age. This represented a transformation for one raised as a feudal knight.

    Battle of Bannockburn

    Main article: Battle of Bannockburn
    Bruce secured Scottish independence from England militarily – if not diplomatically – at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. An English army led by Edward II in person trying to relieve the siege of Stirling Castle was decisively defeated in an atypical set-piece battle.

    Further confrontation with England then the Irish conflict[edit]
    Main article: Bruce campaign in Ireland
    Freed from English threats, Scotland's armies could now invade northern England. Bruce also drove back a subsequent English expedition north of the border and launched raids into Yorkshire and Lancashire. Buoyed by his military successes, Bruce's forces also invaded Ireland in 1315, purportedly to free the country from English rule (having received a reply to offers of assistance from Donal O'Neil, king of Tyrone), and to open a second front in the continuing wars with England. The Irish even crowned Edward Bruce as High King of Ireland in 1316. Robert later went there with another army to assist his brother.

    In conjunction with the invasion, Bruce popularised an ideological vision of a "Pan-Gaelic Greater Scotia" with his lineage ruling over both Ireland and Scotland. This propaganda campaign was aided by two factors. The first was his marriage alliance from 1302 with the de Burgh family of the Earldom of Ulster in Ireland; second, Bruce himself, on his mother's side of Carrick, was descended from Gaelic royalty in Scotland as well as Ireland. Bruce's Irish ancestors included Eva of Leinster (d.1188), whose ancestors included Brian Boru of Munster and the kings of Leinster. Thus, lineally and geopolitically, Bruce attempted to support his anticipated notion of a pan-Gaelic alliance between Scottish-Irish Gaelic populations, under his kingship. This is revealed by a letter he sent to the Irish chiefs, where he calls the Scots and Irish collectively nostra nacio (our nation), stressing the common language, customs and heritage of the two peoples:

    Whereas we and you and our people and your people, free since ancient times, share the same national ancestry and are urged to come together more eagerly and joyfully in friendship by a common language and by common custom, we have sent you our beloved kinsman, the bearers of this letter, to negotiate with you in our name about permanently strengthening and maintaining inviolate the special friendship between us and you, so that with God's will our nation (nostra nacio) may be able to recover her ancient liberty.

    The diplomacy worked to a certain extent, at least in Ulster, where the Scots had some support. The Irish chief, Donal O'Neil, for instance, later justified his support for the Scots to Pope John XXII by saying "the Kings of Lesser Scotia all trace their blood to our Greater Scotia and retain to some degree our language and customs."[47]

    The Bruce campaign in Ireland was characterised by some initial military success. However, the Scots failed to win over the non-Ulster chiefs or to make any other significant gains in the south of the island, where people couldn't see the difference between English and Scottish occupation. Eventually it was defeated when Edward Bruce was killed at the Battle of Faughart. The Irish Annals of the period described the defeat of the Bruces by the English as one of the greatest things ever done for the Irish nation due to the fact it brought an end to the famine and pillaging wrought upon the Irish by both the Scots and the English.[48]

    Diplomacy

    The reign of Robert Bruce also included some significant diplomatic achievements. The Declaration of Arbroath of 1320 strengthened his position, particularly vis-áa-vis the Papacy, and Pope John XXII eventually lifted Bruce's excommunication. In May 1328 King Edward III of England signed the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, which recognised Scotland as an independent kingdom, and Bruce as its king.

    Death

    King Robert I is buried in Dunfermline Abbey

    Robert I had been suffering from a serious illness from at least 1327. The Lanercost Chronicle and Scalacronica state that the king was said to have contracted and died of leprosy.[49] Jean Le Bel also stated that in 1327 the king was a victim of 'la grosse maladie', which is usually taken to mean leprosy.[49] However, the ignorant use of the term 'leprosy' by fourteenth-century writers meant that almost any major skin disease might be called leprosy. The earliest mention of this illness is to be found in an original letter written by an eye-witness in Ulster at the time the king made a truce with Sir Henry Mandeville on 12 July 1327. The writer of this letter reported that Robert I was so feeble and struck down by illness that he would not live, 'for he can scarcely move anything but his tongue'.[49] Barbour writes of the king's illness that 'it began through a benumbing brought on by his cold lying', during the months of wandering from 1306 to 1309.[50] None of the Scottish accounts of his death hint at leprosy. It has been proposed that, alternatively, he may have suffered from tuberculosis, syphilis, motor neurone disease, or a series of strokes.[51] There does not seem to be any evidence as to what the king himself or his physicians believed his illness to be. Nor is there any evidence of an attempt in his last years to segregate the king in any way from the company of friends, family, courtiers, or foreign diplomats.[50]

    In October 1328 the Pope finally lifted the interdict from Scotland and the excommunication of Robert I.[52] The king’s last journey appears to have been a pilgrimage to the shrine of Saint Ninian at Whithorn; this was possibly in search of a miraculous cure, or to make his peace with God. With Moray by his side, Robert set off from his manor at Cardross for Tarbert on his 'great ship', thence to the Isle of Arran, where he celebrated Christmas of 1328 at the hall of Glenkill near Lamlash. Thence he sailed to the mainland to visit his son and his bride, both mere children, now installed at Turnberry Castle, the head of the earldom of Carrick and once his own main residence.[49][52] He journeyed overland, being carried on a litter, to Inch in Wigtownshire: houses were built there and supplies brought to that place, as though the king's condition had deteriorated. At the end of March 1329 he was staying at Glenluce Abbey and at Monreith, from where St Ninian’s cave was visited.[52] Early in April he arrived at the shrine of St Ninian at Whithorn. He fasted four or five days and prayed to the saint, before returning by sea to Cardross.[49][52]

    Barbour and other sources relate that Robert summoned his prelates and barons to his bedside for a final council at which he made copious gifts to religious houses, dispensed silver to religious foundations of various orders, so that they might pray for his soul, and repented of his failure to fulfil a vow to undertake a crusade to fight the 'Saracens' in the Holy Land.[49][52] Robert's final wish reflected conventional piety, and was perhaps intended to perpetuate his memory. After his death his heart was to be removed from his body and borne by a noble knight on a crusade against the Saracens and carried to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, before being brought back to Scotland:[49][52]

    I will that as soone as I am trespassed out of this worlde that ye take my harte owte of my body, and embawme it, and take of my treasoure as ye shall thynke sufficient for that enterprise, both for your selfe and suche company as ye wyll take with you, and present my hart to the holy Sepulchre where as our Lorde laye, seyng my body can nat come there.[53]

    Robert died on 7 June 1329, at the Manor of Cardross, near Dumbarton.[54] He died utterly fulfilled, in that the goal of his lifetime's struggle – untrammelled recognition of the Bruce right to the crown – had been realised, and confident that he was leaving the kingdom of Scotland safely in the hands of his most trusted lieutenant, Moray, until his infant son reached adulthood.[55] Six days after his death, to complete his triumph still further, papal bulls were issued granting the privilege of unction at the coronation of future Kings of Scots.[55]

    Burial

    The king's body was embalmed and his sternum was sawn to allow extraction of the heart, which Sir James Douglas placed in a silver casket to be worn on a chain around his neck. The body was taken to Dunfermline Abbey, and Robert I was interred in what was then the very centre of the abbey, beneath the high altar, and beside his queen.[55] The king’s tomb was carved in Paris by Thomas of Chartres from alabaster brought from England and was decorated with gold leaf. The tomb was transported to Dunfermline via Bruges and was erected over the king’s grave in the autumn of 1330. Ten alabaster fragments from the tomb are on display in the National Museum of Scotland and traces of gilding still remain on some of them.[49][55]

    When a projected international crusade failed to materialise, Douglas and his company sailed to Spain where Alfonso XI of Castile was mounting a campaign against the Moorish kingdom of Granada. According to tradition, Douglas and his company including Sir William de Keith, Sir William de St. Clair of Rosslyn and the brothers Sir Robert Logan of Restalrig and Sir Walter Logan, were received by Alfonso. In August 1330 they participated in the Battle of Teba. As he was pursuing the Moorish cavalry after having fought back a feigned attack, Sir James Douglas took the silver casket containing the heart of Robert the Bruce from his neck, and threw it before him among the enemy, saying, "Now pass thou onward before us, as thou wert wont, and I will follow thee or die." The Muslim cavalry, realising the small number of their pursuers, turned around and renewed the fight. Douglas was about to retreat when he noticed Sir William de St. Clair of Rosslyn being surrounded by Moorish warriors, and with his remaining men attempted to relieve him. As the knights were hard pressed and outnumbered by the Moors, Sir James Douglas and most of his men were slain, among them Sir Robert Logan and Sir Walter Logan. A few of the surviving companions of Douglas found both his body and the casket on the battlefield and took care that they were sent back home. The Bruce's heart was brought back to Scotland by Sir Symon Locard of Lee (later Lockhart) and Sir William Keith of Galston.[3][56]

    In accordance with Bruce's written request, the heart was buried at Melrose Abbey in Roxburghshire.[57] In 1920, the heart was discovered by archaeologists and was reburied, but the location was not marked.[58] In 1996, a casket was unearthed during construction work.[59] Scientific study by AOC archaeologists in Edinburgh, demonstrated that it did indeed contain human tissue and it was of appropriate age. It was reburied in Melrose Abbey in 1998, pursuant to the dying wishes of the King.[58]

    Discovery of the Bruce's tomb
    Main article: Dunfermline Abbey

    The tower of the rebuilt eastern end of the Abbey bears the sculpted words "King Robert The Bruce"
    On 17 February 1818, workmen breaking ground on the new parish church to be built on the site of the eastern choir of Dunfermline Abbey uncovered a vault before the site of the former abbey high altar.[60][61] The vault was covered by two large, flat stones – one forming a headstone, and a larger stone six feet (182 cm) in length, with six iron rings or handles set in it. When these stones were removed, the vault was found to be seven feet (214 cm) in length, 56 cm wide and 45 cm deep.[62] Within the vault, inside the remnants of a decayed oak coffin, there was a body entirely enclosed in lead, with a decayed shroud of cloth of gold over it. Over the head of the body the lead was formed into the shape of a crown.[63] Fragments of marble and alabaster had been found in the debris around the site of the vault several years earlier, which were linked to Robert the Bruce’s recorded purchase of a marble and alabaster tomb made in Paris.[64] The Barons of Exchequer ordered that the vault was to be secured from all further inspection with new stones and iron bars and guarded by the town constables, and that once the walls of the new church were built up around the site, an investigation of the vault and the remains could take place.[65] Accordingly, on 5 November 1819, the investigation took place. The cloth of gold shroud and the lead covering were found to be in a rapid state of decay since the vault had first been opened 21 months earlier.[62] The body was raised up and placed on a wooden coffin board on the edge of the vault. It was found to be covered in two thin layers of lead, each around 5 mm thick. The lead was removed and the skeleton was inspected by James Gregory and Alexander Monro, Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh. The sternum was found to have been sawn open from top to bottom, permitting removal of the king’s heart after death.[66] A plaster cast was taken of the detached skull by artist William Scoular.[66][67] The bones were measured and drawn, and the king’s skeleton was measured to be 5 feet 11 inches (180 cm). It has been estimated that Bruce may have stood at around 6 feet 1 inch (186 cm) tall as a young man, which by medieval standards was impressive. At this height he would have stood almost as tall as Edward I (6 feet 2 inches; 188 cm).[66]

    The skeleton, lying on the wooden coffin board, was then placed upon the top of a lead coffin and the large crowd of curious people who had assembled outside the church were allowed to file past the vault to view the king’s remains.[68] It was at this point in the proceedings that some small relics – teeth and finger bones – were allegedly removed from the skeleton. The published accounts of eyewitnesses such as Henry Jardine and James Gregory confirm the removal of small objects at this time.[69] Robert the Bruce’s remains were ceremonially re-interred in the vault in Dunfermline Abbey on 5 November 1819. They were placed in a new lead coffin, into which was poured 1,500 lbs of molten pitch to preserve the remains, before the coffin was sealed.[68]

    A number of reconstructions of the face of Robert the Bruce have been produced, including those by Richard Neave from the University of Manchester [70] and Peter Vanezis from the University of Glasgow

    Burial:
    his heart at Melrose Abbey ...

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melrose_Abbey

    Buried:
    his body at Dunfermline Abbey

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunfermline_Abbey

    Robert — Isabella of Mar. Isabella (daughter of Domhnall, I, Earl of Mar and Helen of Wales) was born ~ 1277, Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland; died 12 Dec 1296, Manor of Cardross, Dunbartonshire, Scotland; was buried Paisley Abbey, Scotland. [Group Sheet]


  10. 243.  Isabella of Mar was born ~ 1277, Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland (daughter of Domhnall, I, Earl of Mar and Helen of Wales); died 12 Dec 1296, Manor of Cardross, Dunbartonshire, Scotland; was buried Paisley Abbey, Scotland.

    Notes:

    Isabella of Mar (modern Scottish Gaelic: Iseabail) (c. 1277 – 12 December 1296) was the first wife of Robert the Bruce and the grandmother of Robert II of Scotland, founder of the royal House of Stuart. She died before Robert was crowned King of Scots, and never became the Queen.

    She was the daughter of Domhnall I, Earl of Mar and Helen (or Ellen) of Wales (1246–1295), the illegitimate daughter of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth ("the Great") Prince of Wales; she had previously been the wife of Maol Choluim II, Earl of Fife. Her father was one of the seven guardians of Scotland who believed Robert Bruce to be the rightful King of Scotland. Despite the considerable risks, the Earl of Mar could foresee the advantage of the two families joining in marriage and bearing an heir to the throne, and the marriage of Isabella and Robert was arranged. Mar was the first to sign over the estates of his family to the Bruce.

    Isabella was married to Robert at the age of 18 and legend has it that they were much in love. Shortly after their marriage Isabella became pregnant. She had a healthy pregnancy but she died soon after giving birth to a daughter, Marjorie Bruce in 1296. She is buried at Paisley Abbey, Renfrewshire.[2]

    Robert married his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh, six years later. Isabella's daughter Princess Marjorie (died 1316) married Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland, and their son became Robert II of Scotland. From him descend the monarchs of the House of Stewart and the later royal families of the United Kingdom.

    Children:
    1. 121. Marjorie Bruce was born 0___ 1297, (Ayrshire, Scotland); died 2 Mar 1316, Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland; was buried Paisley Abbey, Scotland.