Lady Anne Neville, Queen of England

Lady Anne Neville, Queen of England

Female 1456 - 1485  (28 years)

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  1. 1.  Lady Anne Neville, Queen of EnglandLady Anne Neville, Queen of England was born 11 Jun 1456, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England (daughter of Richard Neville, II, Knight, 16th Earl of Warwick and Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick); died 16 Mar 1485, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Duchess of Glouchester
    • Also Known As: Princess of Wales

    Notes:

    Lady Anne Neville (11 June 1456 – 16 March 1485) was an English queen, the daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (the "Kingmaker"). She became Princess of Wales as the wife of Edward of Westminster and then Queen of England as the wife of King Richard III.

    As a member of the powerful House of Neville, she played a critical part in the Wars of the Roses fought between the House of York and House of Lancaster for the English crown. Her father Warwick betrothed her as a girl to Edward, Prince of Wales, the son of Henry VI.[1] The marriage was to seal an alliance to the House of Lancaster and continue the civil war between the two houses of Lancaster and York.[1]

    After the death of Edward, the Dowager Princess of Wales married Richard, Duke of Gloucester, brother of Edward IV and of George, Duke of Clarence, the husband of Anne Neville's older sister Isabel. Anne Neville became queen when Richard III ascended the throne in June 1483, following the declaration that Edward IV's children by Elizabeth Woodville were illegitimate. Anne Neville predeceased her husband by five months, dying in March 1485. Her only child was Edward of Middleham, who predeceased her.

    Early life

    Anne Neville was born at Warwick Castle, the younger daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, and Anne de Beauchamp. Her father was one of the most powerful noblemen in England and the most important supporter of the House of York. Her grandfather's sister, Cecily Neville, was the wife of Richard, Duke of York, who claimed the crown for the House of York.

    Much of Anne Neville's childhood was spent at Middleham Castle, one of her father's properties, where she and her elder sister, Isabel, met two younger sons of the Duke of York: Richard, Duke of Gloucester (the future Richard III) and George, Duke of Clarence. Richard especially attended his knighthood training at Middleham since mid-1461 until at least the spring of 1465,[2] or possibly since 1465 until late 1468.[3] It is possible that even at this early stage, a match between the Earl's daughters and the young dukes was being considered.[4] The Duke of York was killed on 30 December 1460 but, with Warwick's help, his eldest son became King Edward IV in March 1461. In July 1469, Lady Isabel married Clarence, while in July 1470, after the Earl of Warwick's flight to France and change of allegiance, Anne Neville was betrothed to Edward of Westminster, the Lancastrian heir to the throne of England, and married to him by the end of the same year.[1]

    Princess of Wales

    Middleham Castle came in to the possession of the Neville family in 1270.
    The Earl of Warwick had been at odds with Edward IV for some time, resenting the rise in the king's favour of the new queen's family, the Woodvilles. In 1469, the earl tried to put his son-in-law George on the throne, but met resistance from Parliament. After a second rebellion against King Edward failed in early 1470, he was forced to flee to France, where he allied himself with the ousted House of Lancaster in 1470. With King Henry VI imprisoned in the Tower of London, the de facto Lancastrian leader was his consort, Margaret of Anjou, who was suspicious of Warwick's motives. To quell these suspicions, Anne Neville was formally betrothed to the son of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou, Edward of Westminster, at the Chăateau d'Amboise in France. They were married in Angers Cathedral, probably on 13 December 1470, to make Anne Neville the Princess of Wales.

    Warwick restored Henry VI to the throne in October 1470, however Edward IV returned to the country in March 1471 and quickly captured London and the person of Henry VI. The mentally troubled Henry VI was taken by Edward IV as a prisoner to the Battle of Barnet, where Warwick was killed on 14 April 1471. Edward IV then incarcerated Henry VI in the Tower of London. Following the decisive Yorkist victory at the Battle of Tewkesbury on 4 May, Henry was reported to have died of "pure displeasure and melancholy," although "The Great Chronicle of London" reported that Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was responsible for his death. As Constable of England, he probably delivered King Edward's order to kill Henry to the Constable of the Tower.[2]

    Margaret of Anjou had returned to England with Anne Neville and Prince Edward in April, bringing additional troops. At the Battle of Tewkesbury, Edward IV crushed this last Lancastrian army. Prince Edward was killed in or shortly after the battle, and Anne Neville was taken prisoner. She was taken first to Coventry and then to the house of her brother-in-law the Duke of Clarence in London, while her mother Anne Beauchamp, Warwick's wife, sought sanctuary in Beaulieu Abbey. When the crisis settled down and the Countess wished to be restored to her estates, Edward IV refused her safe conduct to plead her case; she wrote to Queen Elizabeth and several others to no avail.[5]

    Anne, now widowed, became the subject of some dispute between George of Clarence and his brother Richard of Gloucester, who still wanted to marry her. Anne Neville and her sister, the Duchess of Clarence, were heiresses to their parents' vast estates. Clarence, anxious to secure the entire inheritance, treated her as his ward and opposed her getting married, which would strengthen her position to claim a share.

    There are various accounts of what happened subsequently, including the story that Clarence hid her in a London cookshop, disguised as a servant, so that his brother would not know where she was. Gloucester is said to have tracked her down and escorted her to sanctuary at the Church of St Martin le Grand.[6] In order to win the final consent of his brother George to the marriage, Richard of Gloucester renounced most of Warwick’s land and property, including the earldoms of Warwick (which the earl had held in his wife’s right) and Salisbury and surrendered to Clarence the office of Great Chamberlain of England.[2]

    Duchess of Gloucester

    The exact date of the wedding of Anne Neville and Richard, Duke of Gloucester, is not known, although most sources agree that a ceremony took place in the spring of 1472 in the chapel of St Stephen in Westminster Palace.[7][8] The couple made their marital home in the familiar surroundings of Middleham Castle,Yorkshire, after Richard was appointed Governor of the North on the king's behalf. Upon her marriage, Anne was styled Duchess of Gloucester. They had only one child, Edward, born at Middleham allegedly sometime in 1473, but more probably in 1476.[9] Anne's mother, the dowager Countess of Warwick, joined her daughter's household in 1473 after Richard obtained the king's permission to release his mother-in-law from her guarded sanctuary[10]

    In 1478, Anne Neville inherited the Lordship of Glamorgan. The title had been held by her father and on his death had passed to Anne's elder sister Isabel Neville. Females could not exercise the Lordship in their own right, so the title immediately transferred to Isabel's husband, the Duke of Clarence. On his death in February 1478, the title passed to Anne and was henceforth exercised by her husband, Richard of Gloucester until his death, when it passed to the new king, Henry VII.[11]

    Queen of England

    Contemporary illumination (Rous Roll) of Richard III, his queen Anne Neville, and their son Edward, the Prince of Wales.
    On 9 April 1483, Edward IV died and Anne's husband Richard was named Lord Protector for his 12-year-old nephew Edward V. But on 25 June 1483, Edward V and his siblings were declared illegitimate and Richard ascended the throne as King Richard III. Anne Neville was crowned alongside her husband on 6 July 1483 by Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the first joint coronation after 175 years. The queen’s train was borne by Margaret, Countess of Richmond, whose son would become Henry VII after defeating Richard at the Battle of Bosworth. Almost the entire peerage of England was present at what was a magnificent spectacle.[12][13] Richard and Anne's son Edward of Middleham was created Prince of Wales in York Minster on 8 September 1483 following their Royal Progress across England.[14]

    Anne was on good terms with her mother-in-law Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, with whom she discussed religious works, such as the writings of Mechtilde of Hackeborn.[15]

    Edward of Middleham died suddenly in April 1484 at Sheriff Hutton, while his parents were in Nottingham on their way to visit him. Both Richard and Anne were overwhelmed with grief at this news.[16] Anne was particularly heartbroken, and she fell gravely ill only a few months later.


    Stained glass depiction of Richard III and Anne Neville in Cardiff Castle
    After the death of her son, Anne Neville effectively adopted Edward, Earl of Warwick, the mutual nephew of Richard III and Anne Neville. Richard III made the boy his heir presumptive, probably in deference to Anne Neville's wishes. Edward of Warwick was later described as "simple-minded" in Tudor records, and after Anne Neville died, Richard promptly named another nephew, John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, as his heir presumptive.

    Death

    Anne Neville died on 16 March 1485, probably of tuberculosis, at Westminster. The day she died, there was an eclipse,[17] which some took to be an omen of her husband's fall from heavenly grace. She was buried in Westminster Abbey in an unmarked grave to the right of the High Altar, next to the door to the Confessor's Chapel.[18] Richard III is said to have wept at her funeral. Nevertheless, rumours circulated that Richard III had poisoned her in order to marry his niece Elizabeth of York.[19]

    Richard sent Elizabeth away from court to Sheriff Hutton and publicly refuted these rumours on 30 March 1485 during an assembly of Lords he summoned at the Hospital of St. John. Addressing them "in a loud and distinct voice", he "showed his grief and displeasure aforesaid and said it never came into his thought or mind to marry in such manner wise, nor willing nor glad of the death of his queen but as sorry and in heart as heavy as man might be …".[20] There is no reason to doubt that Richard's grief over his wife's death was genuine.[21] Documents later found in the Portuguese royal archives show that after Anne's death, Richard's ambassadors were sent on a formal errand to negotiate a double marriage between Richard and the Portuguese king's sister Joanna, of Lancastrian descent, and Elizabeth of York and Joana's cousin Duke Manuel (the future Manuel I).[22]

    There was no memorial to Queen Anne until 1960, when a bronze tablet was erected on a wall near her grave by the Richard III Society.

    Died:
    probably of tuberculosis

    Anne — Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales. Edward (son of Henry VI, King of England and Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England) was born 13 Oct 1453, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; died 4 May 1471, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ. [Group Sheet]

    Anne married Richard III, King of England SPRING OF 1472, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England. Richard (son of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Duchess of York) was born 2 Oct 1452, Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire, England; died 22 Aug 1485, Bosworth Field, Leicestershire, England; was buried 26 Mar 2015, Leicester Cathedral, St Martins House, 7 Peacock Ln, Leicester LE1 5DE, United Kingdom. [Group Sheet]

    Notes:

    Married:
    in the chapel of Saint Stephen...


Generation: 2

  1. 2.  Richard Neville, II, Knight, 16th Earl of WarwickRichard Neville, II, Knight, 16th Earl of Warwick was born 22 Nov 1428, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England (son of Richard Neville, I, Knight, 5th Earl of Salisbury and Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury); died 14 Apr 1471, Barnet, Hertfordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Earl of Salisbury
    • Also Known As: Warwick, "The Kingmaker"

    Notes:

    NEVILLE, RICHARD, Earl of Salisbury (1428-1471), the ‘Kingmaker,’ the eldest son of Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury [q. v.], by Alice, daughter and heiress of Thomas Montacute, fourth earl of Salisbury [q. v.], was born on 22 Nov. 1428. His brothers, John Neville, marquis of Montagu [q. v.], and George, archbishop of York [q. v.], are separately noticed. At some uncertain date before 1439 Richard was betrothed by his father, who was uniting the Neville and Beauchamp families by a chain of marriages, to Anne Beauchamp, only daughter of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick [q. v.] In 1444 two lives stood between them and the great Beauchamp heritage in the midlands and the Welsh marches, but, by the death of her niece and namesake in June 1449, Richard Neville's wife inherited the bulk of her father's wide lands; and the king on 23 July conferred upon her husband in her right the earldom of Warwick (Dugdale, Baronage, i. 304). As premier earl Richard Neville took precedence of his father, whose lands, too, could not compare in extent with the Beauchamp inheritance, which had absorbed that of the Despensers, and included the castles of Warwick, Elmley, Worcester, Cardiff, Glamorgan, Neath, Abergavenny, and, in the north, Barnard Castle. He was lord of Glamorgan and Morgan, and succeeded in retaining possession of the castle and honour of Bergavenny, which was claimed by his father's youngest brother, who took his title therefrom [see under Edward Neville, Baron of Bergavenny]. But it was not until the sword was bared in the strife of factions in 1455 that Warwick made an independent position for himself, and overshadowed his father. In the meantime he remained with Salisbury, outwardly neutral in the struggle between his uncle Richard, duke of York, and his cousin Edmund Beaufort, duke of Somerset.

    When York took up arms in February 1452, Warwick joined his father in mediating between the parties (Paston Letters, i. cxlviii). But immediately after the old jealousy between the Nevilles and the great rival northern house of the Percies, who sided with the court party, reached an acute stage, and when York, on the king's being seized with madness in July 1453, claimed the regency, Warwick and his father placed themselves on his side (ib.) He was summoned to the privy council (6 Dec.), and associated with his father (20 Dec.) as warden of the west march of Scotland (Ord. Privy Council, vi. 165; Doyle). In January 1454 he rode up to London in York's train with a ‘goodly fellowship,’ and had a thousand men awaiting him in the city (Paston Letters, i. 266). He sat regularly in the privy council while York was protector, and was commissioner with York and his father on 13 April to invest the infant son of Henry VI with the title of Prince of Wales (Doyle; cf. Paston Letters, i. 299; Rot. Parl. v. 240). On the king's recovery, early in 1455, Somerset returned to power, and Salisbury, with other Yorkists, was dismissed from office. Now thoroughly identified with York, Salisbury and Warwick took up arms with him in May (Rot. Parl. v. 280–1). In the first battle of St. Albans, which followed on 22 May, Warwick had the good fortune to decide the day and win somewhat easily a military reputation. York and Salisbury met with a desperate resistance in the side streets, by which they sought to get at the Lancastrians massed in the main street of the town. Warwick, with the Yorkist centre, broke through the intermediate gardens and houses, and, issuing into the main street, blew trumpets and raised his war-cry of ‘A Warwick, a Warwick!’ (Paston Letters, i. 330). The rest was a street fight and massacre. It has been suggested that the great slaughter of nobles, a new feature in mediµval warfare, must be attributed to Warwick (Ramsay, Lancaster and York, ii. 183); but the bitterness of civil strife and the close quarters in which they fought must be taken into account. The policy of slaying the leaders and sparing the commons is certainly attributed to him at Northampton five years later (Chron. ed. Davies, p. 97). Edward IV, however, is represented by Comines (i. 245) as almost claiming this policy as his own. Warwick's energy was undoubtedly the decisive factor in York's success, and the ‘evil day of St. Albans’ was closely associated with his name (Paston Letters, i. 345). His services were rewarded (August) with a grant for seven years of the coveted captaincy of Calais, which had been held by the dead Somerset (ib. p. 334; Rot. Parl. v. 309, 341). The post was a congenial one to a man of his unbridled energy, and York required some one he could trust there to conduct negotiations with Philip, duke of Burgundy, and others who were hostile to Charles VII of France, Queen Margaret's uncle and friend. Messengers were in London in November from John, duke of Alenđcon, who was conspiring against Charles, and urging an English invasion of France. Warwick in their presence put the duke's seal to his lips and swore to accomplish his wishes, even if he had to pledge all his lands (Beaucourt, Hist. of Charles VII, vi. 52). But the lieutenants of the late captain of Calais, Lords Welles and Rivers, refused to hand over their charge to Warwick; and it was not until the garrison had been propitiated by a parliamentary arrangement for the payment of their arrears that he was allowed on 20 April 1456 to take over the command (Ord. Privy Council, vi. 276; Rot. Parl. v. 341; Ramsay, ii. 191). Alenđcon's conspiracy was detected in May, and Warwick seems to have stayed in England until October, when Margaret ousted York and himself from the conduct of the government, and but for the Duke of Buckingham's intervention would have put them under arrest (Paston Letters, i. 386, 392; Rot. Parl. v. 347). Warwick went over to Calais, and presently entered into negotiations with Philip of Burgundy, with whose representatives he held a conference at Oye, near Calais, in the first week of July 1457 (Beaucourt, vi. 124). Though Queen Margaret for the moment had the upper hand in England, Charles VII had good reason to resent the possession of Calais by the Yorkists. In August, accordingly, the French admiral De Brezâe sacked Sandwich, from which Calais was victualled (ib. p. 145; Paston Letters, i. 416–17). But De Brezâe's success only strengthened Warwick's position. The Duke of Exeter, who was captain of the sea, failed to have his fleet ready before the injury was done, and his neglect gave Warwick's friends the opportunity of obtaining the transfer of the post to him for three years, with a lien on the whole of the tonnage and poundage, and 1,000l. a year from the duchy of Lancaster (ib. i. 424; Doyle; Rot. Parl. v. 347).

    In February or March 1458 he came over from Calais, with six hundred men ‘in red jackets with white ragged staves [a Beauchamp cognisance] upon them,’ to take part in the projected reconciliation of parties (Fabyan, p. 633). His share in the fatal battle of St. Albans was to be forgiven on condition that he helped to found a chantry at St. Albans for masses for the souls of the dead, and made over one thousand marks to the relatives of Lord Clifford, who had been slain in the battle (Whethamstede, i. 295–8). In the ‘love-day’ procession to St. Paul's on 25 March Warwick walked with Exeter, who bore him no good will since he had supplanted him as captain of the sea (Paston Letters, i. 424). The harmony of parties was of the hollowest description, and Calais continued to be a centre of Yorkist intrigue. Warwick returned to his post, and seems to have secretly arranged with Duke Philip for common action against France and Queen Margaret. A marriage was suggested between a granddaughter of Philip and one of York's sons, but the duke was not yet prepared to commit himself so openly to the Yorkist cause (Fśdera, xi. 410; Beaucourt, vi. 260).
    Warwick, moreover, did not think it prudent to attack France directly, but did not hesitate to assail a fleet of twenty-eight ‘sail of Spaniards,’ merchantmen, including sixteen ships of forecastle belonging to Charles VII's ally, Henry IV of Castille, which appeared off Calais on 29 May 1458. Warwick had twelve vessels, of which only five were ships of forecastle, and after six hours' fighting withdrew. He had captured six ships, but one at least of these seems to have been recovered. The loss of life on the English side was considerable, and they acknowledged themselves ‘well and truly beat’ (Paston Letters, i. 428). Nevertheless this achievement and the others which followed were hailed in England with unwarrantable enthusiasm. There had not been so great a battle on the sea since Henry V's days, men said (ib.) Warwick, who affected a generous ardour for the national well-being, had already won favour with the people (Wavrin, v. 319). His exploits in the Channel made him the idol of the seafaring population of the southern ports, especially in Kent, which had suffered greatly by the loss of Normandy and the boldness of French pirates and privateers. Bent on confirming the impression he had made, Warwick within a very few weeks sallied forth from Calais, summoned a salt fleet bound for Lčubeck to strike their flags ‘in the king's name of England,’ and on their refusal carried them into Calais (Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, p. 71). This was a flagrant violation of the truce which had been made with Lčubeck only two years before, and gave Queen Margaret an opening of which she did not fail to avail herself. Lord Rivers, Sir Thomas Kyriel, and others were commissioned (31 July) to hold a public inquiry into his conduct (Fśdera, xi. 374, 415). The result is not known, but the queen seems to have called upon Warwick to resign his post to the young Duke of Somerset (Stevenson, Wars in France, i. 368). The earl came over to London in the autumn, and declined to resign it except to parliament, from whom he had received it. After a narrow escape in a broil which broke out at the council between one of his men and a royal servant, on 9 Nov. (Fabyan, p. 634; cf. Whethamstede, i. 340), Warwick returned to Calais, and in the following spring (1459) made a more legitimate addition to his naval reputation by attacking five great carracks of Spain and Genoa (which had been occupied by France in June 1458), and, after two days' hard fighting, brought three of them into Calais (Whethamstede, i. 330; Beaucourt, vi. 239; Ord. Privy Council, vol. v. p. cxxxii). The booty is said to have been worth 10,000l., and to have halved the price of certain commodities in England for that year.

    In the summer, when France and Burgundy were on the verge of war, and Margaret, alarmed by York's evident designs upon the crown, began to arm in the north of England, Warwick was summoned from Calais by his father and uncle, Richard, duke of York, to join them in seizing the king, who was in Warwickshire (Chron. ed. Davies, p. 80). Leaving his wife and daughters at Calais in charge of another uncle, William Neville, lord Fauconberg [q. v.], he landed six hundred picked men of the Calais garrison, under the veteran Sir Andrew Trollope, at Sandwich, and marched rapidly into the midlands. Passing through Coleshill, near Coventry, the same day as Somerset, who was bringing up forces from the west to the queen's assistance, but without meeting him, and finding that Henry had withdrawn to Nottingham, he made his way to York at Ludlow (Gregory, p. 205). Here they were joined by his father, who had cut his way to them by a victory at Blore Heath. They entrenched a position at Ludford, opposite Ludlow, but, as at St. Albans, Lord Clinton was the only peer who had joined them; and when Henry in person appeared at the head of a superior force on 12 Oct., Trollope, who had no mind to fight against the king, went over in the night with the Calais men (ib.; Fabyan, p. 634). The rest of the Yorkist force dispersed, and the leaders fled in various directions. They had been unable to conceal the real character of their movement, and had found little sympathy in the midlands, in spite of the Neville influence. Warwick and the rest were attainted by a parliament at Coventry, and Somerset, who had been appointed captain of Calais three days before the rout of Ludford, set out shortly after for his post. But he found Warwick safely returned, and the gates closed to him. Warwick had fled from Ludford, with his father and the Earl of March, York's eldest son, into Devonshire, where Sir John Dynham provided them with a vessel, in which, after refreshing at Guernsey, they reached Calais on 2 Nov., three weeks after leaving Ludlow (Fabyan, p. 635; Whethamstede, p. 345). Wavrin relates (v. 277) that Warwick himself had to take the helm in the voyage to Guernsey, because the sailors did not know those waters. Somerset established himself at Guisnes, but a storm, or sailors attached to Warwick, brought his ships into Calais harbour; and Warwick, finding on board some of his men who had declined to fight for him against their king at Ludford, had them promptly beheaded (Fabyan, p. 635; Wavrin, v. 281).
    But, in spite of some support from the Duke of Burgundy, Warwick's position at Calais, with Somerset close by and no supplies from England, was one of danger, and his men began to desert to Guisnes (cf. Fabyan, pp. 635, 652). Lord Rivers was stationed at Sandwich to overawe Warwick's Kentish friends and prevent a landing. But in January 1460 Sir John Dynham surprised Rivers and his son, Antony Wydeville, in their beds, and carried them off to Calais, where Warwick and the rest taunted them with their humble birth (Paston Letters, i. 506). In May Warwick went to Ireland, where York had found refuge, and concerted a combined invasion of England for the summer. Returning with his mother, who had been with York, he fell in off the Devonshire coast, about 1 June, with a fleet sent out under the Duke of Exeter to intercept him, but was allowed to proceed unmolested (Worcester, p. 772; Chron. ed. Davies, p. 85). Reaching Calais after less than a month's absence, he prepared, in accordance with the plan arranged with York, for a descent upon Kent, whose attachment to York and himself had been strengthened by the severity shown to their partisans (ib. p. 90). An anonymous ballad posted on the gates of Canterbury implied that the Prince of Wales was a false heir, and prayed for the return of York, the ‘true blood’ of March, Salisbury ‘called Prudence,’
    With that noble knight and flower of manhood,
    Richard, earl of Warwick, shield of our defence
    (ib. p. 93).

    Manifestoes less frank were issued from Calais, repeating the usual charges of oppression and misgovernment, accusing Wiltshire, Shrewsbury, and Beaumont of plotting the death of York and the surrender of Calais, and threatening war if the Coventry attainders were not reversed (ib. p. 88). In the last week in June Dynham and Fauconberg seized Sandwich. Osbert Mundeford [q. v.], who was lying there with a force intended for the relief of Somerset, was sent over to Calais, and beheaded on 25 June—another victim of Warwick's vengeance for the desertions at Ludford (ib. p. 86; Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, p. 73; Worcester, p. 772; Gregory, p. 207). Next day Warwick crossed to Sandwich with March and Salisbury, and forces estimated at from fifteen hundred to two thousand men. They were accompanied by a papal legate, Francesco dei Coppini, bishop of Terni, who, sent by Pius II to mediate between the two parties in England, had been completely won over by Warwick (Worcester, p. 772; Whethamstede, i. 371; State Papers, Venetian, i. 357–8). Joined by Archbishop Bourchier and the men of Kent, under Lord Cobham, Warwick reached Southwark, where his brother, George Neville [q. v.], bishop of Exeter, met them, with forces twenty thousand strong according to one estimate, forty thousand according to others. London was so friendly to them that Lords Hungerford and Scales, who held it for the king, shut themselves up in the Tower, and the Yorkist earls on 2 July entered the city. At nine next morning they attended the session of convocation at St. Paul's, and Warwick explained that they were come to declare their innocence to the king or die on the field, after which they all solemnly swore on the cross of St. Thomas of Canterbury that they meant nothing inconsistent with the allegiance they owed to King Henry (Worcester, p. 772; Chron. ed. Davies, p. 95). Leaving his father to besiege the Tower, Warwick a few days later advanced northwards, with March, to meet the king, who had set forth from Coventry towards London on hearing of his landing. With Warwick, besides the archbishop and the legate, were his brother, the Bishop of Exeter, and three other bishops, seven lay peers, of whom two, Fauconberg and Abergavenny, were his uncles, and a third, Lord Scrope of Bolton, his cousin, and ‘much people out of Kent, Sussex, and Essex,’ greatly overestimated, no doubt, at sixty thousand men (Whethamstede, i. 372; Chron. ed. Davies, p. 96). On the morning of Thursday, 10 July, he came upon the king's army entrenched in the meadows immediately south of Northampton, with the Nen at their back (ib.; Whethamstede, pp. 373–4). The Duke of Buckingham, not unreasonably, declined the proffered mediation of the prelates in Warwick's train, or to admit Warwick himself to the king's presence; and at two in the afternoon the earl gave the signal for the attack, dividing the command with March and Fauconberg. The immediate desertion of Henry by Lord Grey de Ruthin decided the battle, and all was over in half an hour. Warwick and March had issued orders that no quarter should be given to the leaders. Buckingham, the Earl of Shrewsbury, and Lords Beaumont and Egremont were all slain (Chron. ed. Davies, p. 97). Warwick brought the unfortunate king to London (16 July) in time to receive the surrender of the Tower on Wednesday, 18 July, and on the following Wednesday some seven of the followers of his rival, the Duke of Exeter, constable of the Tower, were arraigned at the Guildhall in his presence and executed (Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, p. 75; Worcester, p. 773).

    Placing the great seal, resigned by Bishop Waynflete before the battle, in the hands of his young brother, the Bishop of Exeter, and procuring the confirmation of his captaincy of Calais, with appointment as governor of the Channel Islands, Warwick crossed to Calais about 15 Aug. with a royal order calling upon Somerset to surrender Guisnes to him. He soon came to terms with the duke, and entered into possession (ib. p. 774; Fśdera, ix. 458–9).

    In September he made pilgrimage to Our Lady of Walsingham in Norfolk (Wavrin, v. 309), afterwards met the Duke of York at Shrewsbury, and thence preceded him to London (ib. p. 310). In October the House of Lords, although now generally supporting York, successfully resisted York's proposal to ascend the throne. Wavrin ascribes this conduct to the influence of Warwick, who, he says, had quarrelled with the duke on the subject. Warwick's interposition is not mentioned by any English authority, and Wavrin cannot be implicitly trusted. But Warwick was bound, if not by his recent oath, yet by his engagements to the legate Coppini, and may very well have thought that he would lose some of the power he now wielded in the name of the helpless Henry if the throne were occupied by a real king. The recent Yorkist triumph had been the work of himself and his family without York's assistance, and Warwick's popularity had perhaps a little dimmed his uncle's (cf. Paston Letters, i. 522). The compromise which made York heir-presumptive was completed on 31 Oct., and in the thanksgiving procession to St. Paul's next day Warwick bore the sword before the king, and the people are said to have shouted, ‘Long live King Henry and the Earl of Warwick!’ (Wavrin, v. 318). When, in December, the queen rallied the Lancastrians in Yorkshire, and York and Salisbury went north to meet their death at Wakefield, while March was sent to raise troops on the Welsh border, Warwick was left in charge of London and the king, and kept Christmas with Henry in the Bishop of London's palace by St. Paul's.

    The death of his father finally concentrated the power of the house of Neville in Warwick's hands. The earldom of Salisbury and its lands in the south passed to him, as well as the Neville estates in Yorkshire, with the great family strongholds at Middleham and Sheriff-Hutton. He was in no haste to communicate with Edward, the young Duke of York. Master of the king's person, he doubtless intended to continue to rule in his name. He had himself created knight of the Garter and great chamberlain of England, while his brother John became Lord Montagu and chamberlain of the household (Doyle). A third brother, George, was chancellor. He held the threads of foreign policy in his own hands. He was in correspondence with the Duke of Milan, and was soliciting a cardinal's hat for Coppini from Pope Pius (State Papers, Venetian, i. 363–4). But the fortune of war took the direction of affairs out of his hands. When news came that the queen was marching on London with her undisciplined northern host, Warwick collected his forces, and, taking the king with him, he left London on Thursday, 12 Feb., accompanied by the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the Earl of Arundel, Viscount Bourchier, Lord Bonvile, and his own brother Montagu (Chron. ed. Davies, p. 107). His plan was to intercept the queen at St. Albans, and he seems to have pitched his camp on Barnet Heath, the open high ground at the north end of the town, as if he expected the enemy to come by the Luton road (Whethamstede, i. 391; cf. Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, p. 155). But the queen's forces entered the town before he expected them, on Tuesday, 17 Feb., by the Dunstable road; and after being driven back from the market cross by a few archers, made a circuit, and forced their way into the main street between Warwick and the town. He hastily fell back, with the king and the bulk of his army, towards Sandridge, three miles north-east (Chron. ed. Davies, p. 107). A force, estimated by Whethamstede at four or five thousand men, remained behind, and opposed a stubborn resistance to the enemy; but, unsupported by the main body, and deserted by some of their number, they at last gave way. The main body then broke up, and their leaders, Warwick among them, fled, leaving the king to be recovered by his friends. The engagement is known as the second battle of St. Albans. Warwick, who had shown a signal lack of generalship, hurried westwards with the remnant of his army, and at Chipping Norton, in Oxfordshire, met the young Duke of York, who had dispersed the western Lancastrians on 2 Feb. at Mortimer's Cross (Worcester, p. 777; cf. Gregory, p. 215). The queen having withdrawn into the north without occupying London, Warwick rode, with Edward and his Welshmen and western men, into the capital on Thursday, 26 Feb. (ib.)

    The events of the last few months had removed any reluctance of the Yorkists to deprive King Henry of his crown. Warwick, too, had lost control of him, and he saw that his interests were now bound up with those of the Yorkist dynasty. He consequently joined the handful of peers at Baynard's Castle on 3 March in declaring Edward king. But his influence was for the moment diminished, Edward was at the head of a victorious army, and Warwick was a vanquished general. His brother was confirmed in his office of chancellor. Without waiting for his coronation, Edward determined to follow the retreating Lancastrians into the north. Warwick was sent forward with the vanguard (7 March), troops were despatched after him, and Edward, leaving London, by 16 March overtook him at Leicester (Chron. of White Rose, p. 8). They reached Pontefract on the 27th, and Warwick was sent on with Sir John Ratcliffe, titular Lord Fitzwalter, to secure the passage of the Aire at Ferrybridge, some four miles north, where the great north road crossed the river (Croyland, Cont. p. 532; Gregory, p. 216). Hall says they found the bridge unoccupied, but were surprised in Ferrybridge at daybreak on Saturday, 28 March, by Lord Clifford and a detachment of the Lancastrian army which was encamped at Towton, nine miles north on the road to Tadcaster and the Wharfe (Hall, p. 254; cf. State Papers, Venetian, i. 370). Fitzwalter was slain and Warwick wounded in the leg with an arrow (Gregory, p. 216). But the passage of the river was ultimately effected, and in the course of the day the Yorkist army moved up to Saxton, at the foot of the Towton plateau, on which the battle of Towton was fought next day, Palm Sunday. For the skilful leadership of the inferior Yorkist forces Edward rather than Warwick was responsible. Warwick, accord- ing to Hall, commanded the centre; but the hardest fighting was on the left, where his uncle Fauconberg was in command, and not at the centre, as asserted by Wavrin (p. 341), who, however, ascribes the victory to the ‘grant proesse principalement’ of the king (cf. Monstrelet, iii. 84, ed. 1603).

    By the beginning of May Edward thought it safe to go south for his coronation, leaving Warwick and Fauconberg to keep watch on the Lancastrians. Henry VI and his queen, with Somerset, Exeter, and other lords, were beating up support in Scotland, and their partisans still held the great castles beyond the Tyne, Warkworth, Alnwick, Bamborough, and Dunstanborough. At Middleham, where Warwick entertained the king before he left Yorkshire, Edward confirmed him (7 May) in the offices of great chamberlain and captain of Calais, and bestowed on him the important post of constable of Dover Castle and warden of the Cinque ports, with other distinctions (Doyle). He was made warden of the Scottish marches on 31 July, and a few days later empowered to treat with Scotland, but was able to attend Edward's first parliament, which met on 4 Nov. The attainder of his ancestors, John de Montacute, third earl of Salisbury, and Thomas le Despenser, earl of Gloucester, beheaded in 1400, was reversed for the benefit of Warwick and his mother.

    During the first three years of the reign Warwick was much more prominent than the king. He was the king's first cousin, and might, says Commines (i. 232), almost call himself his father. ‘There was none in England of the half possessions that he had’ (Chron. of White Rose, p. 23). His offices alone, according to Commines, brought him an annual income of eighty thousand crowns. The House of Lords was packed with his kinsmen. He held the keys of the Channel. Edward's energy, moreover, was spasmodic; he preferred pleasure to politics, and left to Warwick, who had the gifts of a diplomatist and sleepless energy, the task of defeating the foreign combinations which the exiled Margaret was attempting. Foreign observers looked on him as the real ruler of England. The Burgundian historian Chastellain (iv. 159) spoke of him as the pillar of Edward's throne, and Bishop Kennedy, one of the Scottish regents, as managing English affairs for the king (Wavrin, iii. 173, ed. Dupont). The letters from the Sforza archives at Milan, printed in the ‘Calendar of Venetian State Papers,’ bear witness to his importance. In Scotland he roused a revolt in the highlands (1461), and detached the queen-mother, Mary of Gueldres, and her party from active support of Margaret (ib.) v. 355, ed. Hardy; J. Duclercq, p. 169; Fśdera, xi. 476–7, 483–7). Margaret's application for aid to her cousin, the new king of France, Louis XI, in the summer of 1461, Warwick met by an offer of Edward's hand to the Duke of Burgundy for his niece, Catherine of Bourbon (Chastellain, iv. 155). But Philip did not care to bind himself so closely to Edward as long as his throne remained insecure, and his heir Charles, count of Charolais, was friendly with the Lancastrians (ib. p. 159). After Margaret's departure for France early in 1462, Warwick met Mary of Gueldres at Dumfries and Carlisle, with a view to depriving the Lancastrians of Scottish support. He even suggested, though probably not very seriously, that Mary should marry Edward IV (Worcester, p. 779). He came to some arrangement with her, which was believed in England to have included a promise to surrender Henry and his followers (Paston Letters, ii. 111).

    His diplomatic labours had obliged him to leave the siege of the Northumbrian castles to his brother Montagu and his brother-in-law Hastings, who, in July, reduced Naworth, Alnwick, and apparently Bamborough (ib.; Worcester, p. 779). Hearing that Margaret was returning to the north with a small force supplied by Louis XI, Warwick, who had come up to London, went back to his post on 30 Oct. with a large army (ib. p. 780; Paston Letters, ii. 120). Edward, who followed him, fell ill with measles at Durham, and Warwick superintended the siege of the three strongholds, Dunstanborough, Bamborough, and Alnwick, the two latter having been recovered by Margaret. Warwick himself fixed his headquarters at Warkworth, whence he rode daily to view the three leaguers, a ride of thirty-four miles (ib. ii. 121). Bamborough and Dunstanborough surrendered on Christmas eve, but Alnwick held out until the sudden arrival on 6 Jan., at early morning, of an army of relief from Scotland under Angus and de Brezâe (Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, p. 176; Worcester, p. 780). As at the second battle of St. Albans, Warwick was entirely taken by surprise, and withdrew from the castle to a position by the river. The bulk of the garrison issued forth and joined their friends, who retreated with them to Scotland. According to Worcester, Warwick had at first thought of fighting, but gave up the idea because he was inferior in numbers (cf. Warkworth, and Hardyng, p. 406, who says the Scots were not more than than eight thousand men). Alnwick capitulating soon after, Warwick went south to attend the parliament which met at Westminster on 29 April (Rot. Parl. v. 496). Contemporary opinion censured the king and the earl for feasting in London while the northern fortresses were falling back into the hands of the Lancastrians (Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, p. 176). It was certainly imprudent of Warwick to leave Bamborough in charge of the Lancastrian deserter Sir Ralph Percy, and to offend the local Sir Ralph Grey of Heton by giving the captaincy of Alnwick to Sir John Ashley. On the news of the loss of these two fortresses Montagu at once went north (1 June), and, being presently joined by Warwick, they relieved Norham (July), which was besieged by Margaret and De Brezâe (Gregory, p. 220). The other fortresses still held out, but Margaret was at the end of her resources, and hastily withdrew to Flanders (ib.) Warwick went south without recovering the castles, perhaps hoping for a peaceful settlement from the truce with Louis XI, which his brother the chancellor negotiated in October. The Scots soon made overtures for peace, and Warwick, Montagu, and the chancellor were commissioned to hold a conference at York with Scottish ambassadors (Fśdera, xi. 514–15). Warwick was detained in London by negotiations with ambassadors from France and Burgundy, and, though he reached York by 5 May, his brother Montagu had the sole honour of giving the quietus to the northern Lancastrians at Hedgeley Moor and Hexham. In June the two brothers reduced the three outstanding strongholds (Warkworth, p. 36; Worcester, p. 782). All England, except an isolated handful of men in Harlech Castle, had now submitted to Edward, and foreign powers had ceased to look askance upon him. For this he had to thank Warwick and the Nevilles.

    But Edward was already drifting away from his chief supporters. His secret marriage with Elizabeth Wydeville, daughter of Lord Rivers, in May, which was probably dictated by infatuated passion, disgusted Warwick. He despised Rivers and his family as upstarts, though curiously enough he had twelve years before interested himself in the suit of a young knight, Sir Hugh Johns, for the hand of this very Elizabeth Wydeville (Strickland, Queens of England, i. 318). They were Lancastrians too, and had not forgotten the imprisonment and ‘rating’ they had received at Warwick's hands in 1460 (Paston Letters, i. 506). But, worst of all, the marriage shattered to pieces his laborious foreign combinations. Warwick had at first thought of a Burgundian match for Edward; but the support which Margaret had found in France, coupled perhaps with a mutual antipathy between him and Charles, the heir of Burgundy, made him welcome the offer which Louis XI, scenting danger from Burgundy and his other great feudatories, made early in this very year of the hand of his sister-in-law, Bona of Savoy (Chastellain, iv. 155, 494; Basin, ii. 94; Ramsay, ii. 307). Warwick was to have met Louis and the proposed bride in July, but the renewed outbreak in the north caused a postponement until October, and before that Edward had publicly announced his marriage. It was unpopular in the country, but Warwick dissembled his irritation, and helped to lead Elizabeth into the chapel of Reading Abbey on her public presentation (29 Sept.) as queen (Worcester, p. 783). George Neville's translation to the archbishopric of York two days before seemed to be a pledge that Edward had no thought of shaking himself free of the Nevilles. But Warwick can hardly have been mistaken in ascribing the shower of honours and rich marriages poured upon the queen's kinsmen as a deliberate attempt to create a court party, and get rid of the oppressive ascendency of the Nevilles. The ‘diabolic marriage’ of his septuagenarian aunt Catherine, duchess dowager of Norfolk, to John Wydeville, who was hardly one-fourth her age, and the bestowal on Lord Herbert of the barony of Dunster, to which Warwick had a claim as representing the Montagus, were galling to him personally, and seemed to point to deliberate intention (ib. pp. 783–5).

    Warwick avoided the signal triumph of the Wydevilles, exemplified at the coronation of the queen in May 1465, by crossing the Channel on a foreign mission (cf. Wavrin, v. 463; RAMSAY, ii. 314). He succeeded in withdrawing Louis's active support from Margaret, by binding England to neutrality between the French king and his rebellious magnates. Returning home in time to meet, at Islington, King Henry, who had been captured in Lancashire, he conducted him in bonds to the Tower (cf. Worcester, p. 786). In February next year he stood godfather for Queen Elizabeth's first child. But new Wydeville marriages and fresh honours for Rivers, who was made an earl, and replaced Warwick's uncle by marriage, Lord Mountjoy, as treasurer, widened the growing breach (ib.) Warwick was still busy with foreign negotiations, but had to carry out a policy which was not his own. He had preferred a French to a Burgundian alliance, because Charolais, who must soon become Duke of Burgundy, seemed more wedded to the Lancastrian cause than Louis (Commines, iii. 201). He continued his opposition even when Charolais changed his front, and in March 1466 sought the hand of Edward's sister, because the change was in part due to the Wydevilles, who had Burgundian connections, and knew how popular the Burgundian alliance was among the English trading classes (Chastellain, v. 311–12). Warwick had, as ambassador, to reject Louis's offers of Burgundian territory, accept the offered alliance, and suggest a further match between Mary of Burgundy, daughter of Charolais, and the Duke of Clarence, whom he had perhaps already designed for his own elder daughter. He did it with a bad grace, and lost no opportunity of putting obstacles in the way (Croyland Cont. p. 551; Wavrin, ed. Hardy, v. 458; Fśdera, xi. 562–6).

    In the autumn, while Warwick was on the Scottish marches, the queen's stepson was married to the heiress of the Duke of Exeter, whom Warwick had intended for his nephew, the son of Montagu, and Edward concluded a private league with the Count of Charolais, in order to forward his match with the king's sister (Fśdera, xi. 573–4; Wavrin, iii. 341, ed. Dupont). To get Warwick out of the way while the marriage was concluded and his ascendency shaken off, he was sent to France in May 1467, commissioned to hold out a prospect of an offensive alliance against Burgundy and the marriage of one of Edward's brothers to a daughter of Louis (State Papers, Venetian, i. 404). Warwick, bent on averting the Burgundian alliance, reached Rouen on 6 June, and found Louis, who was resolved to recover the towns on the Somme from Burgundy, ready to bid heavily for English support. His only hope of averting the threatened Anglo-Burgundian alliance lay in Warwick, whom he therefore entertained at Rouen with honours almost royal for twelve days, holding secret conferences with him, and finally dismissing him with an embassy charged with tempting offers to King Edward (Chron. of White Rose, p. 21; Wavrin, ed. Hardy, v. 543). But Warwick returned to London early in July to find that his opponents had sprung their mine. Two days after his arrival at Rouen the king had, in person, taken the great seal from his brother; Charles's half-brother Antony, the Bastard of Burgundy, had entered England as he himself left it; and had practically settled the Burgundian marriage before he was summoned back by Duke Philip's death on 15 June (Worcester, p. 786). Warwick was coldly received by Edward, who, after giving the French ambassadors a single freezing interview, went off to Windsor on 6 July (Wavrin, v. 545; ib. ed. Dupont, iii. 195). In their presence Warwick hotly denounced the traitors about the king. Charles, the new Duke of Burgundy, confirmed (15 July) the treaty of the previous October, Rivers was made constable of England, and by October Charles's marriage to Margaret was definitely settled (Chastellain, v. 312; Worcester, p. 788). Warwick, who had been further irritated by the pointed omission of some of his grants from the crown from the exceptions to the Resumption Act of the June parliament, saw the French ambassadors off at Sandwich, and, without visiting the king again, betook himself to Middleham.

    His close relations with Clarence, for whose marriage with his daughter Isabel he was seeking a papal dispensation, and the suspicion of some secret arrangement with the French king, were very disquieting to the court. An intercepted envoy of Margaret of Anjou was induced to accuse Warwick of favouring her party. Warwick was summoned to court to answer the charge, but declined to appear, and demanded the dismissal of the Wydevilles and others about the king (Worcester, p. 788). Though a royal representative sent to Middleham reported the charge groundless, Edward took the precaution of surrounding himself with a bodyguard and watching Warwick's movements from Coventry (ib.) There was very real cause for alarm. Warwick's attitude had put new heart into the Lancastrians, and in December Monipenny came into England on a mission from Louis to Warwick only (Wavrin, ed. Dupont, iii. 192). His Kentish friends began to move. In the Cinque ports he was particularly popular, because he always connived at their piracies (Olivier de la Marche, ii. 276). Rivers's Kentish estate was pillaged by the mob on New-year's day 1468 (Wavrin, ed. Dupont, iii. 192). Warwick evaded a second summons to court in the first week of January. The mysterious Robin of Redesdale had taken up arms, with three hundred men, for him in Yorkshire, but Warwick had made them go home for the present (ib.) With the king on his guard and Clarence at court, Warwick felt that it was not yet time to move. Towards the end of January Archbishop Neville persuaded him to meet Rivers at Nottingham, where they were outwardly reconciled (Worcester, p. 789). They then went on to the king at Coventry, where the pacification was completed. Edward was able to announce to parliament, to its great delight, his intention of recovering the English dominions in France, and brought the Burgundian marriage to a conclusion in July. Warwick had accompanied Margaret to the coast, ‘riding before her on her horse’ (18 June), and seemed to be really reconciled. But, taking advantage of the easy, unsuspicious nature of the king, he was plotting in the utmost secrecy. A Lancastrian movement fomented by him was checked by arrests and executions in the autumn and winter of 1468, though his share in it was not suspected. The secret of his plans for his own restoration to power was better kept. He arranged for a northern rising as soon as he should have made sure of Clarence. But so well did he dissemble that Edward in the spring of 1469 allowed him to take up his residence, with his wife and daughters, at Calais, whose captaincy he had for some years discharged by deputy. To further throw dust in the eyes of the king, he paid friendly visits to the Duke and Duchess of Burgundy at St. Omer and Aire (Commines, i. 169; Wavrin, v. 578). Jean de Wavrin the historian, whom he had promised to supply with materials for his history, visited Calais at the beginning of July, but found Warwick too busy to perform his promise. In June the king was drawn northwards by alarming movements in Yorkshire. At first he would not connect them with the Nevilles, for there were two independent risings, which the reports seem to have confused, one of which, that of Robin of Holderness, took up the Percy grievances, and was suppressed by Montagu himself, the de facto Earl of Northumberland.

    But presently, no doubt, Edward heard that the leaders who had raised the standard of Robin of Redesdale were all relatives and connections of Warwick—his nephew, Sir Henry Fitzhugh, son of Lord Fitzhugh of Ravensworth, near Richmond; his cousin, Sir Henry Neville, son of George, lord Latimer of Danby, in Cleveland; and Sir John Conyers of Hornby Castle, near Richmond, who had married a daughter of William Neville, lord Fauconberg [q. v.] The news that Clarence and the archbishop had joined Warwick in Calais (early in July) at last opened the king's eyes, and he summoned them to come to him at once in ‘usual peaceable wise’ (Paston Letters, ii. 353). But two days later (11 July) the marriage of Clarence to Isabel, for which Pope Paul II had now granted a dispensation, was performed by the archbishop at Calais (Wavrin, v. 579; Warkworth, p. 6; Dugdale, i. 307). The three confederates at once put forth a manifesto, announcing that they were coming to present to the king certain ‘reasonable and profitable articles of petition,’ and calling upon all ‘true subjects’ to join them, defensibly arrayed. The articles, which were already in the hands of Robin of Redesdale's followers, and purported to be complaints delivered to the confederates by men ‘of diverse parties,’ repeated with little modification the stock complaints of ‘lack of governance’ and ‘great impositions and inordinate charges’ which Warwick had so often joined in bringing against the Lancastrian regime (Warkworth, pp. 46–51).

    The real grievance that the king had estranged the ‘great lords of his blood’ for the Wydevilles and other ‘seducious persones,’ mentioned by name, pervaded the whole document, which contained a threatening reminder of the fate of Edward II, Richard II, and Henry VI. It breathes the spirit of a Thomas of Lancaster or Richard of Gloucester. The authors of this thoroughly baronial document crossed to Sandwich on Sunday, 16 July, and, gathering forces among the friendly Kentishmen, hastened on to London, and then into the Midlands, to meet Robin of Redesdale and the Yorkshire insurgents who were in full march southwards, and had cut off Edward from the forces which the new Earls of Pembroke and Devon were bringing up from Wales. Warwick did not come up in time to assist the northerners in their battle with Pembroke at Edgecote, six miles north-east of Banbury, on 26 July; but the forces whose unexpected appearance crying ‘A Warwick, a Warwick!’ robbed the Welshmen of a victory may have been Warwick's vanguard (Chron. of White Rose, p. 24; but cf. Hall, pp. 273–4, and Oman, p. 187). Warwick, who met the victors at Northampton, showed no mercy to the men who had ousted him from the king's favour (Wavrin, p. 584). Pembroke and his brother were executed two days after the battle at Northampton [see Herbert, Sir William, d. 1469], and a fortnight later (12 Aug.) Rivers and his son, Sir John Wydeville, who had been taken in South Wales, were beheaded at Kenilworth (Warkworth, p. 7; Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, p. 183). The king was found, deserted by his followers, near Coventry by Archbishop Neville, and taken, first to Coventry, and then to the earl's town of Warwick. But about the third week in August Warwick thought it prudent—perhaps influenced by news that London, at the instance of the Duke of Burgundy, had declared its loyalty to Edward (Wavrin, p. 586)—to remove his prisoner to his own family stronghold at Middleham, in Wensleydale (Ramsay, ii. 343). On 17 Aug. he was made to confer most of the offices Pembroke had held in South Wales upon the earl (Doyle).

    But the Yorkshiremen outside Warwick's own followers had risen to drive the Wydevilles from power, not to make the king captive. When the Lancastrians, eager to turn to their own profit a success they had helped to secure, sprang to arms on the Scottish marches under Sir Humphrey Neville [q. v.] of Brancepeth, a member of the elder branch of the family, Warwick could not raise the forces of Yorkshire until he had released Edward from constraint and accompanied him to York (Croyland Cont. pp. 551–2; Warkworth, p. 7; cf. State Papers, Venetian, i. 421). The king summoned forces with which Warwick suppressed the rising. Humphrey Neville and his brother Charles were beheaded at York on 29 Sept. in the presence of the king. Edward was now free to return to London. Archbishop Neville went with him as far as his house at the Moor in Hertfordshire; but his brother Montagu, who had not been prominent in the late events, was the only Neville who, for the present, was allowed to enter London. ‘The king,’ reported Sir John Paston, ‘hath good language of the Lords of Clarence and Warwick and of my Lord of York, saying they be his best friends; but his household men have other language’ (Paston Letters, ii. 390). Sir John Langstrother, whom Warwick had appointed, in August, as Rivers's successor at the treasury, was replaced by William Gray, bishop of Ely. Warwick and Clarence, however, sought to explain away their late proceedings, and appeared in the November grand council when the king agreed to grant an amnesty. He gave Warwick no reason to suppose that he was harbouring revenge, and apparently did not suspect that the earl and Clarence were at the bottom of the new disturbances which broke out in Lincolnshire in February 1470 (Vitellius MS. in Ramsay, ii. 348). Clarence laid to rest any suspicions his brother may have entertained by a friendly visit to him before he started for Lincolnshire (6 March), followed two days later by a letter received on his march, offering to bring Warwick to his support (Rebellion in Lincolnshire, Camden Miscellany, pp. 6, 7, 8). The unsuspecting king actually authorised the men who were directing the movements of the rebels to raise troops in his name (Fśdera, xi. 652). The use that had been made of King Henry's name no doubt contributed to his deception, but in London some mistrust of Warwick was expressed (Paston Letters, ii. 395). The earl, whose agents had been actively at work in Lincolnshire, on 7 March went down to Warwick, where he was presently joined by Clarence, and instructed Sir Robert Welles, the Lincolnshire leader, to avoid the king, who was marching in the direction of Stamford, and meet him at Leicester on 12 March (Rebellion in Lincolnshire, pp. 9, 10; Excerpta Historica, p. 284). Welles, however, anxious for the safety of his father, who was in Edward's hands, gave battle to the king near Stamford.

    The presence of men in Clarence's livery among the rebels, and the cries of ‘A Warwick!’ and ‘A Clarence!’ began to rouse the king's suspicions, and the day after his victory (13 March) he sent a message to them at Coventry to disband their forces, and to come to him at once (Rebellion in Lincolnshire, pp. 9, 10, 11). This they declined to do, and at once set off for Burton-on-Trent. The king pursued a parallel course to Grantham, where Welles was brought in, and, before execution, made a confession charging Clarence and Warwick with the instigation of the revolt (Excerpta Historica, pp. 283 seq.) Warwick's intention, he said, was to make Clarence king. The trustworthiness of the confession, and of the official account of the rebellion printed in the ‘Camden Miscellany’ and copied by Wavrin, has recently been contested. Mr. Oman (p. 198) suggests the possibility that Edward was tempted by his success at Stamford to revenge himself upon the rebels of the previous year, and fastened upon them the responsibility for an insurrection with which they had nothing to do. The matter is obscure; but it should be noted that Warkworth, who was no friend to Edward, believed the revolt to have been the work of Warwick and Clarence. The two continued to advance northwards, by Burton and Chesterfield, towards Yorkshire, where Lord Scrope was moving in Richmondshire. They sent letters, which reached the king at Newark on 17 March, assuring him of their loyalty, and suggesting a meeting at Retford; but he sent garter king-of-arms to Chesterfield demanding their instant attendance. They refused to come without a safe-conduct and a pardon for all their party. By rapid marches Edward cut them off from Yorkshire, and on the 20th wheeled round against them. But they struck off westwards to Manchester, in the hope of support from Warwick's brother-in-law, Lord Stanley (Rebellion in Lincolnshire, pp. 13–15; Paston Letters, ii. 395–6). They were disappointed, however, and fled southwards into Devonshire. The forces of the southern counties were called out, and on 31 March Warwick and Clarence were proclaimed traitors (Fśdera, xi. 755; Warkworth, notes, p. 56). The king gave them a long start, staying at York until 27 March to settle the north, and when he reached Exeter on 14 April they had already taken ship at Dartmouth (Croyland Cont. p. 553; Warkworth, p. 9). On their way up Channel to Calais they made a dash on a ship of Warwick's lying at Southampton, but were beaten off with loss by Scales, now Earl Rivers (ib.) Presently Warwick appeared before Calais, and demanded admission from his lieutenant, Wenlock, with whom were a number of his personal followers. The Duchess of Clarence was delivered of a daughter as they lay at anchor. But Wenlock, who was not prepared to run risks for Warwick, privately advised him to take refuge in France for the present, the captain and merchants of the town being all for Edward and the Burgundian connection, and fired on him from the castle (Commines, i. 235–237; Wavrin, p. 604; Chastellain, v. 488). Sailing off from Calais, Warwick captured several merchantmen, some of which were Burgundian, and, if Wavrin may be credited, threw their crews into the sea, and on 5 May (6 May, according to Wavrin, v. 604) put into Honfleur. Duke Charles at once protested against Warwick's reception as a breach of the treaty he had made with Louis in the previous October. But Warwick would not relieve Louis from his embarrassment by removal to the Channel Islands, and the king, who could not afford to lose so valuable an ally, decided to brave Charles the Bold's wrath, and sent the Bastard of Bourbon to protect Warwick against the large Burgundian fleet which now entered the Seine (Commines, i. 238; cf. Wavrin, v. 604; Ramsay, ii. 354).

    Louis and Warwick now settled on a plan for driving their common enemy King Edward from his throne and for restoring Henry VI. Foreign observers were staggered by the cynicism of this crowning illustration of the demoralisation of the English nobility in the civil strife (Chastellain, v. 467). Queen Margaret at first indignantly refused to accept the support of the man who had driven her into exile and thrown foul aspersions on her good name, or to marry her son to the daughter of one who had stigmatised him as a bastard (ib. p. 464). Louis took Warwick to Angers to meet her about the middle of July, but it was only on the strongest pressure from Louis and her Angevin advisers, and after Warwick had withdrawn his imputations on his knees, where she kept him, according to one account (ib. p. 468), for a quarter of an hour, that she gave way (Ellis, Letters, 2nd ser. ii. 132). She stipulated that the marriage of her son and Anne Neville should not be completed until Warwick had gone over and conquered most part of England for King Henry. In the church of St. Marie, Warwick, who had broken so many solemn oaths, swore on a piece of the true cross to remain faithful to the Lancastrian dynasty (ib.) In accordance with a promise made on the same occasion, Louis fitted out a small expedition, and Warwick, favoured by a storm which dispersed the Burgundian fleet, safely crossed with it to Dartmouth and Plymouth, landing on 13 Sept. with Clarence, Jasper Tudor, and the Earl of Oxford (Fabyan, p. 658). In the manifesto which he had sent over before him, Warwick had been studiously vague as to his intentions, lest the guidance of the movement should pass out of his hands (Warkworth, p. 60). But once in England, he proclaimed Henry VI, and advanced on London. Edward, who had foolishly allowed himself to be drawn into the north by a rising got up for the purpose by Warwick's brother-in-law, Lord Fitzhugh, was deserted by Montagu, and had to fly to the Netherlands.

    Warwick did not enter London until 6 Oct., three days after Edward had sailed from Lynn. The merchants of the city, being heavy creditors of Edward and trading chiefly with the Low countries, were unfriendly, and Warwick waited until Sir Geoffrey Gate and other followers of his own had stirred up the mob, and even opened the prisons (Fabyan, p. 659). The men of the Cinque ports rose at the call of their old warden, and a mob of Kentishmen pillaged the eastern suburbs of London, attacking Flemings and beerhouses (Green, Town Life in the Fifteenth Century, i. 415). Warwick, who was accompanied by his brother the archbishop, the Earl of Shrewsbury, and Lord Stanley, removed King Henry from the Tower to the Bishop of London's palace, and a week later bore his train in a state procession to Westminster. New ministers were appointed, the archbishop once more becoming chancellor, and Clarence lieutenant of Ireland. As soon as Edward's flight was known at Calais, Wenlock and most of the inhabitants cast off the white rose and mounted the ragged staff (Commines, i. 254; Chastellain, v. 488). Tiptoft, earl of Worcester, who had horrified the people by impaling Warwick's crews whom he captured at Southampton in May, was executed on 18 Oct. The parliament which met on 26 Nov. confirmed the Angers concordat, and appointed Warwick and Clarence joint lieutenants of the realm (Polydore Vergil, p. 521; but cf. Arrivall of Edward IV, p. 1). But Warwick's position was a very anxious one. Clarence was looking backward, and the Lancastrians themselves had naturally no enthusiasm for government by their old enemy in the name of the poor shadow of a king. In February he went down to Dover, eagerly looking for the arrival of the queen and her son, but, wind-bound or waiting on events, they delayed to come (Fabyan, p. 660). When Louis drew the new government into open war with Burgundy and attacked the Somme towns, promising Warwick Holland and Zealand as his share, the English merchants interested in the Flemish trade took alarm (Wavrin, ed. Dupont, iii. 196; ib. ed. Hardy, v. 608, 613). Warwick only maintained his position in London by the support of the masses, and by severe repression of adverse opinion (Fabyan, p. 660; Chastellain, v. 489, 499; Arrivall of Edward IV, p. 2).

    Charles the Bold, too, as soon as he realised that the foreign policy of the new government in England was entirely directed by Louis XI, launched the exiled Edward IV, in March 1471, back upon its shores. Warwick was not caught unprepared, as Edward had been the previous summer. He had provided for the defence of all the coasts, retaining a general superintendence for himself as admiral of England, Ireland, and Aquitaine (Fśdera, pp. 676–80). Edward was thus prevented from landing in Norfolk, and but for the timid, if not treacherous, conduct of Montagu, to whom his brother had entrusted the defence of the north coast, might never have gained a footing in Yorkshire [see under Neville, John, Marquis of Montagu]. The news that Edward had slipped past Montagu greatly angered Warwick, who at once set out northwards, and from Warwick on the 25th sent a summons to Henry Vernon of Haddon Hall to join him at Coventry against ‘the man Edward,’ with an urgent postscript in his own hand, ‘Henry, I praye you ffayle me not now, as ever I may do ffor yow’ (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. App. pt. iv. vol. i. pp. 3, 4). He advanced to Leicester; but on hearing that Oxford's force from the eastern counties had failed to arrest Edward's progress through Nottinghamshire, and that he was moving on Leicester with rapidly increasing numbers, the earl on the 27th fell back upon Coventry, and stood at bay behind its walls, waiting for the forces which Clarence and Somerset were raising in the southern midlands (Arrivall of Edward IV, p. 8; Warkworth, p. 14; Commines, iii. 282). On 29 March Edward appeared before Coventry and invited him to a pitched battle (Arrivall of Edward IV, p. 9; cf. Wavrin, v. 650). The earl declining to come out, Edward went on to Warwick, and, knowing that Clarence was bringing over to him the forces he had raised for Henry VI, had himself proclaimed king. Warwick, who must have suspected Clarence's treason, sought to come to some arrangement with Edward, but was offered a bare promise of his life. He was now joined by Montagu and Oxford, but Clarence had taken over his forces to Edward, and Warwick clearly feared Edward's superiority in the field. After again vainly offering battle, the king set off for London (Arrivall of Edward IV, p. 13), which the earl, who followed, allowed him to reach without molestation at midday on Thursday, 11 April. Warwick is said to have hoped that London would have shut Edward out, or, if not, that he would have kept Easter, and so enabled Warwick to take him by surprise. But Edward's friends had already got the upper hand in the city, and, acting with the decisive rapidity of which he was capable at crises, he marched out to Chipping Barnet on Saturday afternoon, 12 March, and reached it about nightfall. Warwick, who had by this time recognised that a battle was inevitable, had advanced in the course of the day from St. Albans to Gladsmuir Heath, or, as it is now called, Hadley Green, just to the north of Barnet. Here he drew up his forces ‘under a hedge-side,’ about half a mile out of Barnet, along the road to Hatfield, from which the ground slopes down both to west and east. In this position he commanded the narrow entrance to the town, from which he calculated the royal forces must emerge. But again, as at St. Albans, his calculations were at fault. Edward was too wily a strategist to be caught in a trap, and, after driving Warwick's advance-guard out of the town, he moved his army under cover of the darkness to the slope of Enfield Chase, just east of and parallel to Warwick's line. Warwick, discovering the movement, though he could not see the enemy, opened fire on their supposed position; but the two armies were much nearer than either supposed, and the ‘earl's guns overshot the king's host’ (Arrivall of Edward IV, p. 18). At dawn on Easter Sunday, 14 April, the two armies closed with each other in a mist so thick (the superstitious ascribed it to the incantations of Friar Bungay) that Warwick's line outflanked the king's on its right, and was itself outflanked on the left. Edward's left was driven off the field by the Earl of Oxford, while Gloucester turned Warwick's left (ib. p. 19). The centres, from whom the fortunes of the wings were hidden by the mist, fought desperately for three hours, but at last Warwick's men gave way, Montagu was slain, and Warwick leapt on horseback and fled to a neighbouring wood, but he was pursued and slain (Warkworth, p. 16). The bodies of the two Nevilles were carried to London and, by the king's orders, exposed, ‘open and naked,’ for two days in St. Paul's, lest rumour should be spread abroad that his powerful opponent was still alive (Arrivall of Edward IV, p. 21). They were then transferred to Bisham Abbey, in Berkshire, the ancient burial-place of the Montagus, which was destroyed at the dissolution of the monasteries (Gough, Sepulchral Monuments, ii. 223).

    Warwick had some of the qualities that make a great ruler of men. He stands out as a living figure among the shadows who strove and fell in that dreary time of civil strife. But he was neither a great constitutional statesman nor a great general. The military reputation he had won when dash and energy alone were needed he failed to maintain when he was thrown upon his own resources and strategy was called for. His signal mismanagement of the second battle of St. Albans justified Edward IV's contempt for his military abilities, a contempt which led him to treat Warwick as an opponent too lightly. The earl's personal abstention from this battle may have given currency to imputations upon his personal courage which were exaggerated by the unfriendly Burgundian chroniclers Chastellain (v. 486) and Commines (i. 260). They openly accuse him of cowardice, Commines asserting that he always fought on horseback to secure a safe retreat. If he was not a butcher like Tiptoft, earl of Worcester, he rarely spared his enemies when they fell into his hands. Of Worcester's love of learning there is no trace in Warwick, and beyond joining his brother George Neville, then bishop of Exeter, in founding in 1460 St. William's College, opposite the east end of York Minster, we do not hear of his devoting any part of his great wealth to public purposes. Warwick was in no way superior to the prejudices and ambitions of his class, and devoted himself with single aim to the acquisition of power for himself and his family. His popularity did not essentially differ from that enjoyed by other great nobles before him who had made use of the reform cry against weak and unpopular royal ministers to secure control of the crown for themselves. Hume's appellation of ‘last of the barons’ is not wholly inapplicable to the last representative of the class of great nobles in opposition to the crown—a class to which Thomas of Lancaster and Richard of Gloucester had belonged. Warwick enjoyed the advantages of a popular bearing, and of vast wealth spent in lavish hospitality; he had, too, touched the imagination of the nation by some slight successes when the nation's fortunes abroad had sunk to their lowest ebb. These advantages, united with singular energy, knowledge of men, and a genuine diplomatic talent, and favoured by opportunity, enabled him to grasp and utilise a power which was almost royal. The extraordinary impression that such a career made upon his own contemporaries is not surprising, and the dramatic story of his fall has retained a perennial interest. The unwavering support of the Nevilles, and of the Nevilles alone among the great magnates, had placed the Yorkist king on the throne and justified Warwick's title of ‘kingmaker.’ This title does not seem traceable in our authorities further back than the Latin history of Scotland of John Major (1469–1550) [q. v.], who calls Warwick ‘regum creator,’ and it is not used by any of the sixteenth-century English historians (Major, De Gestis Scotorum, p. 330, apud Ramsay, ii. 374; cf. D'Escouchy, ed. Beaucourt, i. 294). But Commines (ii. 280) had already expressed the fact—‘áa la veritâe dire le [Edward] feit roy.’ Edward, however, presently declined to play the part of roy fainâeant to Warwick's mayor of the palace, and, in order to retain his power, the earl did not refrain from plunging his country once more into civil war and joining hands with those he had pursued with inveterate hostility.

    For Warwick's personal appearance there is no authority but Polydore Vergil's vague mention of ‘animi altitudo cum paribus corporis viribus.’ Nothing can be built upon the figure representing Warwick with the Neville bull at his feet in John Rous's ‘Roll of the Earls of Warwick’ (now in the Duke of Manchester's collection), although Rous died as early as 1496. This figure is reproduced in Mr. Oman's ‘Warwick,’ and in the illustrated edition of Green's ‘Short History.’ The portrait given by Rowland, and copied by Swallow, is a work of imagination. Warwick's fine seal, picked up on Barnet field and now in the British Museum, is figured by Swallow (p. 326).
    Among the commemorations of Warwick in literature may be mentioned the well-known portrait in ‘King Henry VI,’ doubtfully ascribed to Shakespeare, and a tragedy by La Harpe, which was the basis of two adaptations published in 1766–7, one by T. Francklin and the other by P. Hifferman.

    Died:
    on the Battlefield, The Battle of Barnet...

    Richard married Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick 0___ 1444, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England. Anne (daughter of Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick and Isabel le Despencer, Countess of Worcester) was born 13 Jul 1426, Caversham Castle, England; died 20 Sep 1492. [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick was born 13 Jul 1426, Caversham Castle, England (daughter of Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick and Isabel le Despencer, Countess of Worcester); died 20 Sep 1492.

    Notes:

    Lady Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick (13 July 1426 – 20 September 1492) was the daughter of Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, and his second wife Isabel le Despenser, a daughter of Thomas le Despenser (22 September 1373 – 13 January 1399/1400) and Constance of York. Anne Beauchamp was the mother of Anne Neville, Queen consort of England as the spouse of King Richard III.[1]

    Inheritance

    Anne de Beauchamp was born at Caversham Castle in Oxfordshire (now Berkshire). She became the wife of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.[2] Following the death of Anne de Beauchamp's father, and subsequently that of her brother, Henry, and her niece Lady Anne, Warwick inherited the title and the considerable estates of the Earl of Warwick through her.

    However, this was contested by her three older half-sisters, children of her father's first marriage to Elizabeth, heir of Berkeley. One of these, Lady Eleanor, was married to Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset (killed at the First Battle of St Albans in 1455). The litigation over the Warwick inheritance only fueled the enmity between this branch of the Nevilles and the Beauforts who were closely related. Anne Beauchamp's husband, Richard, was the grandson of Lady Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, sister of the Duke's late father. Law considered that Anne Beauchamp being a full-blooded aunt of the last countess was more eligible to inherit than her older half-sisters, who were thus not coheirs with her, including the eldest - Lady Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury (d. 1468). Richard Neville succeeded in keeping the Warwick and Despencer estates intact.[3]

    Children's marriages

    Her older daughter, Lady Isabel, married George, Duke of Clarence, the younger brother of King Edward IV of England. Her younger daughter, Lady Anne Neville, was married to Edward of Westminster, the only son of King Henry VI. When Edward of Westminster was killed in the Battle of Tewkesbury, Anne Neville was married to Richard, Duke of Gloucester, later King Richard III of England. Although their mother was still living, the husbands of the two Neville sisters fought over her inheritance. In order to win his brother George’s final consent to the marriage with Anne, Richard renounced most of Warwick’s land and property including the earldoms of Warwick (which the Kingmaker had held in his wife’s right) and Salisbury and surrendered to Clarence the office of Great Chamberlain of England.[4] After George was executed for treason in 1478, his son Edward inherited the title of Earl of Warwick, while Richard's son was styled Earl of Salisbury[5]

    Later life

    Anne died in obscurity, having survived her husband, her daughters and the sons-in-law who had effectively disinherited her. She was in sanctuary at Beaulieu Abbey in 1486 when she petitioned Henry VII for the return of her estate. She recovered a small portion, but only on condition that she broke the entail and remit the bulk of them to Henry VII.[3]"The 'Warwick and Spencer lands', her own patrimony became part of the crown estate."[6]

    Fictional portrayals

    Anne, Countess of Warwick appears prominently in the Philippa Gregory novels The White Queen (2009), The Red Queen (2010), and The Kingmaker's Daughter (2012), and is played by Juliet Aubrey in the 2013 television adaptation of all three novels, The White Queen. She is depicted as a coldly ambitious mother to Isabel and Anne Neville, and her husband's staunchest supporter. A more sympathetic portrayal of the Countess of Warwick is in the novel The Sunne in Splendour by Sharon Kay Penman, and a maternal view of her is observed in The Reluctant Queen by Jean Plaidy. Novelist Sandra Worth represents the Countess as her husband's conscience in her five novels about the Wars of the Roses. The Countess is depicted as being especially close to her grandson Edward of Middleham.[citation needed]

    Children:
    1. 1. Anne Neville, Queen of England was born 11 Jun 1456, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died 16 Mar 1485, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.


Generation: 3

  1. 4.  Richard Neville, I, Knight, 5th Earl of Salisbury was born Abt 1400, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England (son of Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland and Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland); died 30 Dec 1460, Wakefield, St. John, West Riding, Yorkshire, England; was buried 15 Jan 1461.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Salisbury

    Notes:

    Richard Neville, jure uxoris 5th Earl of Salisbury and 7th and 4th Baron Montacute KG PC (1400 – 31 December 1460) was a Yorkist leader during the early parts of the Wars of the Roses.[1]

    Background

    Richard Neville was born in 1400 at Raby Castle in County Durham. Although he was the third son (and tenth child) of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, Richard Neville was the first son to be born to Ralph's second wife, Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland. The Neville lands were primarily in Durham and Yorkshire, but both Richard II and Henry IV found the family useful to counterbalance the strength of the Percys on the Scottish Borders – hence Earl Ralph's title, granted in 1397, and his appointment as Warden of the West March in 1403. Ralph's marriage to Joan Beaufort, at a time when the distinction between royalty and nobility was becoming more important, can be seen as another reward; as a granddaughter of Edward III, she was a member of the royal family.

    The children of Earl Ralph's first wife had made good marriages to local nobility, but his Beaufort children married into even greater families. Three of Richard's sisters married dukes (the youngest Cecily, marrying Richard, Duke of York), and Richard himself married Alice Montacute, daughter and heiress of Thomas Montacute, the Earl of Salisbury.

    The date of Richard and Alice's marriage is not known, but it must have been before February 1421, when as a married couple they appeared at the coronation of Queen Catherine of Valois. At the time of the marriage, the Salisbury inheritance was not guaranteed, as not only was Earl Thomas still alive, but in 1424 he remarried (to Alice Chaucer, granddaughter of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer). However, this second marriage was without issue and when the Earl Thomas Montacute died in 1428, Richard Neville and Alice were confirmed as the Earl and Countess of Salisbury. From this point on, Richard Neville will be referred to as Salisbury.

    Salisbury came into possession of greater estates than, as a younger son, he could reasonably have expected. Strangely, his elder half-brother John apparently agreed to many of the rights to the Neville inheritance being transferred to Joan Beaufort – Salisbury would inherit these on her death in 1440. He also gained possession of the lands and grants made jointly to Ralph and Joan. Ralph's heir (his grandson, also called Ralph) disputed the loss of his inheritance, and although the younger Ralph agreed to a settlement in 1443, it was on unequal terms – Salisbury kept the great Neville possessions of Middleham and Sheriff Hutton, as well as the more recent grant of Penrith. Only Raby Castle returned to the senior branch. The Neville–Neville feud was later to become absorbed into the destructive Percy-Neville feud. Salisbury's marriage gained him his wife's quarter share of the Holland inheritance. Ironically, his Salisbury title came with comparatively little in terms of wealth, though he did gain a more southerly residence at Bisham Manor in Berkshire.

    end of biography

    The Warden of the West March

    The defence of the Scottish Border was carried out by two Wardens– that of the East March (based at Berwick-upon-Tweed) and that of the West March at Carlisle. Both offices had been held by the Percy family in the fourteenth century, and their support of King Henry IV seemed to have paid off in 1399, when Henry Percy was appointed Warden of the West March and his son Hotspur as Warden of the East March. But Hotspur rebelled, and his father was held to be complicit in his treason. After Hotspur was killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury, Ralph Neville was employed by King Henry V to capture the elder Percy. His reward was to succeed the Percys as Warden of both Marches. Under Henry V, the Percys were restored to their lands, and eventually, in 1417, to the East March. The West March, however, was to become an almost hereditary Neville appointment.

    Salisbury became Warden of the West March in 1420. It was one of the most valuable appointments in England, worth ą1,500 in peacetime and four times that if war broke out with Scotland. Although, unlike Calais, it did not require a permanent garrison, the incessant raiding and border skirmishes meant that there would always be a ready supply of trained and experienced soldiers at the Warden's command. Salisbury must have been high in Henry V's estimation, as he was also appointed Justice of the Peace in Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Durham. In 1431 he accompanied the young King Henry VI to France for his coronation, and on his return was made Warden of the East March.

    In 1436 however, he resigned both posts, although this may have originally intended as a means of forcing the crown to make good its arrears of payment. When his resignation was accepted, he accompanied his brother-in-law Richard, Duke of York, to France, taking 1,300 men-at-arms and archers with him. He returned the following year, and in November became a member of the King's Council. He did not resume either of the Wardenships, as the Percy-Neville dispute took up most of his time, but when this was resolved in 1443 he resumed the Wardenship of the West March. Although this was at a reduced fee of just under ą1,000, the money was secured on specific sources of Crown income, not on the frequently uncollectable tallies. This may reflect his experiences of 1436.

    Neville and Percy

    Main article: Percy-Neville feud
    At the end of 1443, from his principal seat at Middleham Castle in Wensleydale, Salisbury could look with some satisfaction at his position. He was a member of the King's Council and Warden of the West March. His brother Robert was the Bishop of Durham, and another of his brothers, William, had the custody of Roxburgh castle. He had seven children, four boys and three girls. In 1436 the two oldest children, Cicely and Richard, made excellent marriages to the son and daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick.

    However, it was becoming apparent that the rise of the Nevilles was coming to an end. The king, who during the late 1430s had started to exercise personal rule, was more concerned to promote the fortunes of his closest relatives – and Salisbury was only related by a junior, illegitimate and female line. In this context, the local rivalry between the Nevilles and the Percys in the north of England was likely to take on greater importance. A strong and capable ruler would be able to control such feuds, or even profit by them. A weak king could find the disputes spreading from local to regional or national conflict.

    The Percys had lands throughout northern England, while the Nevilles northern lands were concentrated in north Yorkshire and in Durham. However, as Warden of the West March, Salisbury was in a position to exert great power in the north-west, in spite of holding only Kendal and Penrith. The Percys resented the fact that their tenants in Cumberland and Westmorland were being recruited by Salisbury, who even with the reduced grant of 1443 still had great spending power in the region. The senior Neville line (now related by marriage to the Percys) still resented the inequitable settlement of their inheritance dispute.

    The fifteenth century could be regarded as the peak of "bastard feudalism" – when every subject needed a "good lord". In return for a commitment by the retained man to provide (usually) military support, the lord would give his retainer a small annual fee, a badge or item of clothing to mark his loyalty (livery) and provide help for him in his disputes with his neighbours (maintenance). Northern England was a long way from Westminster, and rapid legal redress for wrongs was impossible.[2] With his economic power as warden, Salisbury could provide better support for Percy tenants than Northumberland, unpaid for the East March for years, could hope to.

    In 1448, during the renewal of the war with Scotland, Northumberland took his forces through Salisbury's West March – a grave breach of etiquette. Northumberland was defeated at the Battle of Sark, and his son Lord Poynings was captured. The fact that Salisbury lost 2,000 horses trying to respond to this attack, and was then excluded (along with Northumberland) from the subsequent peace negotiations, can only have inflamed relations between the two families. Over time, the ill will might have receded, but Northumberland's second son, Lord Egremont, spent the next few years stirring up trouble in Yorkshire – particularly York, situated between the Percy estates of Spofforth and Healaugh, and Neville's castle at Sheriff Hutton.

    On 24 August 1453, Thomas Percy, Lord Egremont, assembled a force of men-at-arms and archers perhaps as large as 1,000 strong, intending to waylay Salisbury and his family at Heworth Moor, outside York, as he made for Sheriff Hutton. Salisbury had been attending the wedding of his son Thomas in Tatteshall Castle, Lincolnshire, and although his escort would have been smaller, it would have been better armed than Egremont's York craftsmen and tradesmen. Salisbury and his retinue fought them back, arriving unscathed at Sheriff Hutton, but the episode marked the beginning of what was virtually a private war. The bride, Maud Stanhope was the widow of Lord Willoughby of Eresby, his son would become a Yorkist. Another of the Yorkist party, John Neville, was later Lord Montagu. Maud was due to inherit the manors of Wressle and Burwell from her uncle, Lord Cromwell, who had obtained them from the Percys through litigation. Historian John Sadler argues this was the first incident in the Yorkist/Lancastrian affinities lawless squabble leading to civil war.[3]

    Neville and York

    However Salisbury turned to the cause of Richard, Duke of York, who made him Lord Chancellor in 1455. When King Henry tried to assert his independence and dismiss Richard as Protector, Salisbury joined him in fighting at the First Battle of St Albans, claiming that he was acting in self-defence. After the Battle of Blore Heath, in which he was notably successful, Salisbury escaped to Calais, having been specifically excluded from a royal pardon. He was slain on 30 December 1460, the day of the Battle of Wakefield.

    Death and Burial

    After the Yorkist defeat at the Battle of Wakefield, Salisbury himself escaped the battlefield but was captured during the night. Upon discover, the battle worn and now traitor to the realm was taken to the Lancastrian camp. Although the Lancastrian nobles might have been prepared to allow Salisbury to ransom himself, due to his large wealth, he was dragged out of Pontefract Castle and beheaded by local commoners, to whom he had been a harsh overlord.[4]An alabaster effigy is in Burghfield Church in Berkshire. He was buried first at Pontefract, but his sons transferred his body to the family mausoleum at Bisham Priory and erected this effigy. It was brought to Burghfield after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The effigy of a lady alongside him wears a headdress which is not thought to be of the right date to be his wife, but she may be one of the earlier Countesses of Salisbury buried at Bisham.

    Marriage and children

    He and his wife, Alice Montague, had twelve children:

    Cecily Neville (1424–1450), who married Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, had one daughter, Anne Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick. On her death, her title passed to her paternal aunt Lady Anne, wife of her maternal uncle, Richard Neville.[5]
    Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (1428–1471), known as the 'Kingmaker', married Lady Anne Beauchamp and had issue.
    Alice Neville (c.1430–1503), who married Henry FitzHugh, 5th Baron FitzHugh. Their daughter, Elizabeth, married William Parr, 1st Baron Parr of Kendal, thus making them great-grandparents of Catherine Parr, sixth wife of King Henry VIII.
    John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu (?1431–1471), married Isabel Ingaldesthorpe, had issue.
    George Neville (1432–1476), who became Archbishop of York and Chancellor of England
    Joan Neville (1434–1462), who married William FitzAlan, 16th Earl of Arundel, and had issue.
    Katherine Neville (1442–1503), who married first William Bonville, 6th Baron Harington, and second William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, had issue.
    Sir Thomas Neville (bf. 1431–1460),[6] who was knighted in 1449 and died at the Battle of Wakefield. He was the second husband of Maud Stanhope (30 August 1497, who married firstly Robert Willoughby, 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (d. 25 July 1452), and thirdly Sir Gervase Clifton, beheaded 6 May 1471 after the Battle of Tewkesbury.[7]
    Eleanor Neville (1447–<1471),[8] who married Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby, and had issue.
    Margaret Neville (c.1450–1506), who married John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford.
    Ralph Neville
    Robert Neville

    Ancestry

    See:[9]

    [show]Ancestors of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury

    Notes

    Jump up ^ "Neville, Richard (1400-1460)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
    Jump up ^ Robert Crackenthorpe murder case is given as an example of corrupt local justice
    Jump up ^ Sadler, John, "The Red Rose and the White", (Longman 2010), p.1-2.
    Jump up ^ Dockray, Keith. "Richard III.net" (PDF). p. 14. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
    Jump up ^ G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910–1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 428.
    Jump up ^ Hicks, M., Warwick the Kingmaker, (Oxford, 1998), 24.
    Jump up ^ Cokayne 1959, pp. 665–6; Richardson I 2011, pp. 512–13; Richardson IV 2011, p. 335; Harriss 2004; Harris 2002, p. 79.
    Jump up ^ http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/26279?docPos=2
    Jump up ^ see: G. E. Cokayne and Vicary Gibbs The Complete Peerage of Great Britain and Ireland op cit

    References

    Cokayne, G.E. (1959). The Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XII (Part II). St. Catherine Press.
    Harris, Barbara J. (2002). English Aristocratic Women 1450-1550. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195056205.
    Harriss, G.L. (2004). "Willoughby, Robert (III), sixth Baron Willoughby (1385–1452)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/50229. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. I (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. pp. 511–13. ISBN 1449966373.
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. IV (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1460992709.
    External links[edit]
    War of the Roses: Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460)
    Royal Berkshire History: Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460)
    Bibliography[edit]
    Gibson, J.P, 'A Defence of the proscription of the Yorkists in 1459', English Historical Review, XXVI, 512.
    Griffiths, R.A., The Reign of Henry VI (London 1981, 2nd ed. 2000).
    Griffiths, R.A., 'Local Rivalries and National Politics: The Percies, the Nevilles and the Duke of Exeter 1452-1455', Speculum, vol.43 (1968).
    Macfarlane, K.B., 'Bastard Feudalism', Bulletin of Institute of Historical Research, XX (1945), 161.
    Mowat, R.B., The Wars of the Roses (1914).
    Myers, A.R., English in the Later Middle Ages (1953).
    Oxford History of England 1399–1485 (1961; 1988).
    Sadler, D J, War in the North - The Wars of the Roses in the North East of England 1461-1464 (Bristol 2000).
    Storey, R.L, 'The Wardens of the Marches of England towards Scotland 1377-1489', English Historical Review vol.72 (1957)
    Storey, R.L, The End of the House of Lancaster 2nd ed. 1999.

    Richard married Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury Bef Feb 1420-1421, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England. Alice (daughter of Thomas Montacute, Knight, 4th Earl of Salisbury and Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury) was born 18 Oct 1405, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England; died Bef 9 Dec 1462, Bisham, Berkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 5.  Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury was born 18 Oct 1405, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England (daughter of Thomas Montacute, Knight, 4th Earl of Salisbury and Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury); died Bef 9 Dec 1462, Bisham, Berkshire, England.
    Children:
    1. 2. Richard Neville, II, Knight, 16th Earl of Warwick was born 22 Nov 1428, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England; died 14 Apr 1471, Barnet, Hertfordshire, England.
    2. Alice Neville, Baroness FitzHugh of Ravensworth was born ~ 1430, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England; died Aft 22 Nov 1503, Ravensworth, Yorkshire, England.
    3. John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu was born ~ 1431, Middleham Castle, Wensleydale, North Yorkshire, England; died 14 Apr 1471, Battle of Barnet.
    4. Katherine Neville, 2nd Baroness Hastings was born 0___ 1442, (Salisbury, Wiltshire, England); died EARLY 1504, England; was buried Ashby de La Zouch, Leicester, England.

  3. 6.  Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick was born 28 Jan 1381, Salwarpe, Worcestershire, England (son of Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 12th Earl of Warwick and Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick); died 30 Apr 1439, Rouen, Normandy, France; was buried 4 Oct 1439, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Count of Aumale
    • Also Known As: Earl of Albemarle & Worcester
    • Also Known As: Lord Abergavenny
    • Also Known As: Sheriff of Worcestershire
    • Also Known As: Warwick

    Notes:

    Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, Count of Aumale, KG (25 or 28 January 1382[1] – 30 April 1439) was an English medieval nobleman and military commander.

    Early life

    Beauchamp was born at Salwarpe in Worcestershire,[2] the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, and Margaret, a daughter of William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby.[1] His godfather was King Richard II.[2]

    He was knighted at the coronation of King Henry IV and succeeded to the Earldom of Warwick in 1401.[3]

    Welsh Rebellion

    Soon after reaching his majority and taking responsibility for the Earldom, he saw military action in Wales, defending against a Welsh rebellion led by Owain Glyndwr. On 22 July 1403, the day after the Battle of Shrewsbury, he was made a Knight of the Garter.

    In the summer of 1404, he rode into what is today Monmouthshire at the head of a force. Warwick engaged Welsh forces at the Battle of Mynydd Cwmdu, near Tretower Castle a few miles northwest of Crickhowell – nearly capturing Owain Glyndwr himself, taking Owain's banner, forcing the Welsh to flee. They were chased down the valley of the River Usk where they regrouped and turned the tables on the pursuing English force, attempting an ambush. They chased the English in turn to the town walls of Monmouth after a skirmish at Craig-y-Dorth, a conical hill near Mitchel Troy.[4]

    Chivalry and Pilgrimage

    Seal of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick
    Warwick acquired quite a reputation for chivalry, and when in 1408 he went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, he was challenged many times to fight in the sporting combat which was then popular. On the return trip he went through Russia and Eastern Europe, not returning to England until 1410.

    Soldier of the King

    In 1410, he was appointed a member of the royal council and in 1413 was Lord High Steward at the Prince's coronation as Henry V of England. The next year he helped put down the Lollard uprising, and then went to Normandy as Captain of Calais and represented England at the Council of Constance.[5] He spent much of the next decade fighting the French in the Hundred Years' War. In 1419, he was created Count of Aumale, part of the King's policy of giving out Norman titles to his nobles. He was appointed Master of the Horse.

    Responsibilities

    Henry V's will gave Warwick the responsibility for the education of the infant Henry VI of England. This duty required him to travel back and forth between England and Normandy many times. In 1437, the Royal Council deemed his duty complete, and he was appointed lieutenant of France and Normandy. He remained in France for the remaining two years of his life.

    Marriages and children

    Warwick first married Elizabeth de Berkeley (born ca.1386 – 28 December 1422) before 5 October 1397,[6] the daughter of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Lord Berkeley and the Baroness Margaret de Lisle. Together they had 3 daughters:

    Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury (1404–1468), who married John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, and whose great-great-grandson John Dudley was created Earl of Warwick and subsequently Duke of Northumberland;
    Eleanor, Duchess of Somerset, (b 1407) who married Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros and then married Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset;
    Elizabeth, Baroness Latimer of Snape, (b 1417) who married George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer.
    Warwick then married Isabel le Despenser (26 July 1400–1439), the daughter of Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Constance of York. With Isabel, who was also the widow of his cousin Richard Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, his children were:

    Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, (born March 1425) who succeeded his father as Earl of Warwick, and later became Duke of Warwick;
    Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick, (b September 1426) who was theoretically Countess of Warwick in her own right (after the death of her infant niece and namesake), and who married Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.

    Death and Burial

    Effigy of Richard de Beauchamp in the Beauchamp Chapel of St Mary's Church, Warwick. The finest piece of English 15th-century bronze sculpture, modelled and cast by William Austen of London, gilded and engraved by Bartholomew Lambespring, a Dutch goldsmith.[7]

    Richard de Beauchamp's will was made at Caversham Castle in Oxfordshire (now Berkshire), one of his favoured residences, in 1437. Most of his property was entailed, but with a portion of the rest the will established a substantial trust. After his debts were paid the trust endowed the Collegiate Church of St Mary in Warwick, and called for the construction of a new chapel there. It also enlarged the endowment of the chantries at Elmley Castle and Guy's Cliffe, and gave a gift to Tewkesbury Abbey.[8] Beauchamp died in Rouen, Normandy, two years later, on 30 April 1439.[9] After the completion of the chapel, his body was transferred there (in 1475),[8] where his magnificent gilt-bronze monumental effigy may still be seen.

    Buried:
    at St. Mary's...

    Richard married Isabel le Despencer, Countess of Worcester Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England. Isabel (daughter of Thomas le Despenser, Knight, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Constance of York, Princess of York) was born 26 Jul 1400, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England; died 27 Dec 1439, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ. [Group Sheet]


  4. 7.  Isabel le Despencer, Countess of Worcester was born 26 Jul 1400, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England (daughter of Thomas le Despenser, Knight, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Constance of York, Princess of York); died 27 Dec 1439, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ.

    Notes:

    Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Worcester and Warwick (26 July 1400 - 1439) was the posthumous daughter and eventually the sole heiress of Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester (d. 1399) by his wife, Constance of York. She was born six months after her father had been beheaded for plotting against King Henry IV (1399-1413).

    Marriages and progeny

    Arms of first husband Richard de Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester (d. 1422): Gules, a fesse between six crosses crosslet or a crescent for difference. These are the Beauchamp arms differenced by a crescent for a second son, referring to his father who was the second son of the 11th Earl of Warwick [1]

    Isabel married twice, successively to two identically named first-cousins, grandsons of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick (d. 1369):

    Firstly to Richard de Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester (1394–1422) who died at the Siege of Meaux. They had one daughter:
    Elizabeth de Beauchamp, born 1415, who married Edward Neville, 1st Baron Bergavenny (d. 1476), and had progeny.
    Secondly to Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick (1382–1439), her 1st husband's first-cousin from a senior Beauchamp line, by whom she had two children:
    Henry de Beauchamp (1425–1446), who succeeded his father as 14th Earl of Warwick, and later was created 1st Duke of Warwick. He married Cecille Neville, daughter of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and had by her one daughter who died an infant:
    Anne Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick.
    Anne de Beauchamp, who became 16th Countess of Warwick, following the deaths of her brother and his infant daughter. Anne married Richard Neville, the Kingmaker, eldest son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and who became jure uxoris 16th Earl of Warwick. Her husband therefore was the brother of her own brother's wife. They had two daughters who married at the highest level:
    Isabella Neville (1451–1476), married George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence (1449–1478), brother of Kings Edward IV and Richard III, with issue.
    Anne Neville, married firstly Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, without issue, and secondly King Richard III (1483–1485), with issue.

    Birth:
    The castle is supposed to have been built for Robert Despenser in the years following the Norman Conquest. After his death (post 1098) it descended to his heirs, the powerful Beauchamp family.

    It remained their chief seat until William de Beauchamp inherited the earldom and castle of Warwick from his maternal uncle, William Maudit, 8th Earl of Warwick, in 1268.

    Thereafter, Elmley Castle remained a secondary property of the Earls of Warwick until it was surrendered to the Crown in 1487.

    ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elmley_Castle

    Died:
    at Friars Minor...

    Children:
    1. 3. Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick was born 13 Jul 1426, Caversham Castle, England; died 20 Sep 1492.


Generation: 4

  1. 8.  Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of WestmorlandRalph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland was born 0___ 1364, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England (son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby and Maud Percy); died 21 Oct 1425, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; was buried 0Oct 1425, St. Mary's Church, Staindrop, Durham, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 4th Lord Neville of Raby
    • Also Known As: Earl of Westmorland
    • Also Known As: Lord of Richmond

    Notes:

    Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, 4th Baron Neville de Raby,[a] Earl Marshal, KG, PC (c. 1364 – 21 October 1425), was an English nobleman of the House of Neville.

    Family

    Ralph Neville was born about 1364, the son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, and The Hon Maud Percy (d. before 18 February 1379), daughter of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick, Northumberland, by Idoine de Clifford, daughter of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford.[1] Neville had a younger brother, and five sisters:[2]

    Thomas Neville, 5th Baron Furnivall, who married Joan Furnival.
    Lady Alice Neville, who married Sir Thomas Gray.
    Lady Maud Neville
    Lady Idoine Neville
    Lady Eleanor Neville, who married Ralph de Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley.
    Lady Elizabeth Neville, who became a nun.
    Neville's father married secondly, before 9 October 1381, Elizabeth Latimer (d. 5 November 1395), daughter of William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer. By his father's second marriage Neville had a brother and sister of the half blood:[3]

    John Neville, 6th Baron Latimer (c.1382 – 10 December 1430), who married firstly, Maud Clifford (c. 26 August 1446), daughter of Thomas Clifford, 6th Baron Clifford, whom he divorced before 1413-17, and by whom he had no issue. She married secondly, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, beheaded 5 August 1415 for his part in the Southampton Plot.[4]
    Lady Elizabeth Neville, who married Sir Thomas Willoughby.
    Career[edit]
    Neville's first military service was in Brittany under King Richard II's uncle, Thomas of Woodstock, who knighted him at Saint-Omer in July 1380. On 14 November 1381 he and his cousin, Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, were commissioned to preside over a duel between an Englishman and a Scot, and on 1 December 1383 he and his father were commissioned to receive from the Scots 24,000 marks for the ransom of King David. On 26 October 1385 he was appointed joint governor of Carlisle with Sir Thomas Clifford, and on 27 March 1386 was appointed, together with Clifford, joint Warden of the West March.[5]

    Neville inherited the title at the age of 24 after his father's death on 17 October 1388, and was summoned to Parliament from 6 December 1389 to 30 November 1396 by writs directed to Radulpho de Nevyll de Raby. On 25 October 1388 he was appointed, with others, to survey the fortifications on the Scottish border, and on 24 May 1389 was made keeper for life of the royal forests north of the Trent. In 1393 and 1394 he was employed in peace negotiations with Scotland.[6]

    In 1397 Neville supported King Richard's proceedings against Thomas of Woodstock and the Lords Appellant, and by way of reward was created Earl of Westmorland on 29 September of that year. However his loyalty to the King was tested shortly thereafter. His first wife, Margaret Stafford, had died on 9 June 1396, and Neville's second marriage to Joan Beaufort before 29 November 1396 made him the son-in-law of King Richard's uncle, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster. Thus, when King Richard banished John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, on 16 September 1398, and confiscated Bolingbroke's estates after John of Gaunt's death on 3 February 1399, Westmorland was moved to support his brother-in-law. Bolingbroke landed with a small force at Ravenspur in July 1399. Westmorland and the Earl of Northumberland were in the deputation at the Tower which received King Richard's abdication, and Westmorland bore the small sceptre called the 'virge' at Bolingbroke's coronation as King Henry IV on 13 October 1399.[7]

    For his support of the new King, Westmorland was rewarded with a lifetime appointment as Earl Marshal on 30 September 1399 (although he resigned the office in 1412), a lifetime grant of the honour of Richmond on 20 October (although the grant was not accompanied by a grant of the title Earl of Richmond), and several wardships.[8] Before 4 December he was appointed to the King's council. In March 1401, Westmorland was one of the commissioners who conducted negotiations for a marriage between the King's eldest daughter, Blanche of England, and Louis, son of Rupert, King of the Romans, and in 1403 was made a Knight of the Garter, taking the place left vacant by the death of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York.[8]

    According to Tuck, Westmorland had little influence on the Scottish borders in the first years of Henry IV's reign, where the wardenships of the marches were monopolised by the Percys, leading to a growing rivalry between the two families. However in 1403 the Percys, spurred on by various grievances, took up arms against the King, and suffered defeat at the Battle of Shrewsbury on 21 July 1403. Northumberland's son, Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, was slain at Shrewsbury, and Northumberland's brother, the Earl of Worcester, was beheaded two days later. After Shrewsbury, King Henry ordered Westmorland to raise troops and prevent Northumberland's army, which was still in the north, from advancing south. On 6 August 1403,as a reward for his service in driving Northumberland back to Warkworth Castle, Westmorland was granted the wardenship of the West March which Northumberland had held since 1399, the wardenship of the East March, formerly held by Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, being granted to the King's 14-year-old son, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford.[8]

    Two years later Northumberland, joined by Lord Bardolf, again took up arms against the King. It had been Northumberland's plan to capture the earl by surprise at the outset, and in early May 1405, with 400 men, Northumberland made a surprise attack at the castle of Witton-le-Wear, where he had been staying. The attempt failed, as Westmorland had already fled. The earl speedily gathered an army, defeated a force of Percy allies at Topcliffe, and then marched towards York with Henry IV's son, John of Lancaster, to confront a force of some 8000 men gathered on Shipton Moor under the leadership of Archbishop Richard Scrope, Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk, and Scrope's nephew, Sir William Plumpton. Outnumbered by Scrope's forces, Westmorland resorted to trickery,[9] and led Scrope and his allies to believe that their demands would be accepted and their personal safety guaranteed. Once Scrope's army had been disbanded on 29 May, Scrope, Mowbray and Plumpton were arrested, summarily condemned to death for treason, and beheaded outside the walls of York on 8 June 1405. Although Westmorland handed Scrope and his allies over to the King at Pontefract, he played no role in their hasty and irregular trial and execution, having been sent north by the King on 4 June to seize Northumberland's castles. It is unclear whether Northumberland had initially planned to rebel openly in concert with Scrope, but in the event he gave Scrope no support, and fled to Scotland after his failed attempt to capture Westmorland. His estates were subsequently forfeited to the crown, and Ralph, earl of Westmorland, as a reward for his quelling of the 1405 rebellion without significant bloodshed, received a large grant of former Percy lands in Cumberland and Northumberland in June 1405.[10]

    After the death of Henry IV Westmorland was mainly engaged in the defence of the northern border in his capacity as Warden of the West March (1403–1414). In 1415 he decisively defeated an invading Scottish army at the Battle of Yeavering.[1] Westmorland played no part in King Henry V's French campaigns, and Tuck notes that his relationship with Henry V was not close, perhaps partly because of the involvement of Westmorland's son-in-law, Sir Thomas Grey of Heaton, in the Southampton Plot.[11] After Henry V's death, Westmorland was a member of the Council of Regency during the minority of King Henry VI.[12]

    According to Tait, Westmorland was 'no inconsiderable builder', citing his rebuilding of Sheriff Hutton Castle on a scale so magnificent that Leland saw 'no house in the north so like a princely lodging', his doubling of the entrance gateway of Raby Castle and the corresponding tower, and possibly his responsibility for the 'tall and striking tower' of Richmond parish church. On 1 November 1410 Westmorland was granted licence to found a college for a master, six clerks, six 'decayed gentlemen' and others at Staindrop, towards the completion of which he left a bequest in his will.[12] He was probably responsible for the building of Penrith castle in Cumberland c. 1412-13.[13]

    Marriages and issue

    Miniature of the Earl of Westmorland with twelve of his children by Pol de Limbourg. A second miniature (not pictured) features his second wife, Lady Joan, with the rest of his children.

    Effigy of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland and his two wives, Staindrop Church

    Neville married firstly, Margaret Stafford (d. 9 June 1396), the eldest daughter of Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, and Philippa Beauchamp, the daughter of Thomas Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, by Katherine Mortimer, the daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March.[14] They had two sons and six daughters:

    Sir John Neville (c.1387 – before 20 May 1420), who married Elizabeth Holland, fifth daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, and Alice FitzAlan, and by her had three sons, Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland, John Neville, Baron Neville, and Sir Thomas Neville, and a daughter, Margaret Neville.[15]
    Sir Ralph Neville (d. 25 Feb 1458), who married, before 1411, his stepsister, Mary Ferrers, daughter of Robert Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers, and Joan Beaufort.[16]
    Maud Neville (d. October 1438), who married Peter de Mauley, 5th Baron Mauley.[15]
    Alice Neville, who married firstly Sir Thomas Grey, beheaded 2 August 1415 for his part in the Southampton Plot, and secondly Sir Gilbert Lancaster.[17]
    Philippa Neville, who married, before 20 July 1399, Thomas Dacre, 6th Baron Dacre of Gilsland (d. 5 January 1458).[18]
    Elizabeth Neville, who became a nun.
    Anne Neville (b. circa 1384), who married, before 3 February 1413, Sir Gilbert Umfraville, son of Sir Thomas Umfreville (d. 12 February 1391) and Agnes Grey (d. 25 October 1420), daughter of Sir Thomas Grey of Heaton (d. before 22 October 1369). He was slain at the Battle of Baugâe in Anjou on 22 March 1421.[19]
    Margaret Neville (d. 1463/4), who married firstly, before 31 December 1413, Richard Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Bolton, and secondly, William Cressener, esquire.[20]
    Neville married secondly, before 29 November 1396, at Chăateau de Beaufort, Maine-et-Loire, Anjou, Joan Beaufort, the widow of Robert Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers.[21] Joan was the legitimated daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, by his mistress and later third wife, Katherine Swynford.

    They had nine sons and five daughters:[22]

    Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460), married Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury. Their son was Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (1428–1471), 'The Kingmaker'.
    Henry Neville.
    Thomas Neville.
    Cuthbert Neville.
    Robert Neville, Bishop of Salisbury and Durham.
    William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent.
    John Neville.
    George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer.
    Edward Neville, 3rd Baron Bergavenny.
    Joan Neville, who became a nun.
    Katherine Neville, married firstly, on 12 January 1411 to John Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, secondly to Sir Thomas Strangways, thirdly to John Beaumont, 1st Viscount Beaumont, fourthly to Sir John Woodville (d. 12 August 1469).
    Eleanor Neville (1398–1472), married firstly to Richard le Despencer, 4th Baron Burghersh, secondly to Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland.
    Anne Neville (1414–1480), married firstly to Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, secondly to Walter Blount, 1st Baron Mountjoy.
    Cecily Neville (1415–1495), married to Richard, 3rd Duke of York. She was the mother of King Edward IV and King Richard III.
    Death[edit]


    The two wives of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, from his monumental effigy, Staindrop Church. His first wife, left, on his right-hand side
    Westmorland died on 21 October 1425. He was buried in the choir of his collegiate church of St. Mary at Staindrop. The magnificent alabaster tomb with effigies of himself and his two wives there has been termed the finest sepulchral monument in the north of England.[1] Neither of his wives is buried with him. His first wife, Margaret Stafford, was buried at Brancepeth, Durham, while his second wife, Joan Beaufort, was buried with her mother under a carved stone canopy in the sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral.[23]

    Westmorland was predeceased by his eldest son, Sir John Neville, and was succeeded in the title by his grandson, Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland.[24]

    Westmorland is portrayed in Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1, Henry IV, Part 2, and Henry V.

    In the opening scene of Henry IV, Part 1, Westmorland is presented historically as an ally of King Henry IV against the Percys, and in the final scenes of the play as being dispatched to the north of England by the King after the Battle of Shrewsbury to intercept the Earl of Northumberland.[25]

    In Act IV of Henry IV, Part 2, Westmorland is portrayed historically as having been principally responsible for quelling the Percy rebellion in 1405 by Archbishop Scrope almost without bloodshed by successfully parleying with the rebels on 29 May 1405 at Shipton Moor.[25]

    However in Henry V Westmorland is unhistorically alleged to have resisted the arguments made in favour of war with France by Archbishop Chichele in the Parliament which began at Leicester on 30 April 1414. Following Hall and Holinshed, Shakespeare attributes these arguments to Chichele[26] at a time when Chichele was not yet formally Archbishop, although he had been appointed by the King immediately following the death of Archbishop Arundel on 14 February 1414. Moreover, it is said that the Parliamentary rolls do not record Chichele's presence, and according to Tait the question of war with France was not discussed. In addition, Westmorland's speech urging the advantages of war against Scotland rather than France is said to be adapted from a work by the Scottish historian, John Major, who was not born until half a century after the 1414 Parliament.[12]

    The First Folio text of Henry V also unhistorically gives these lines to Westmorland on the eve of Agincourt:

    O that we now had here
    But one ten thousand of those men in England
    That do no work today. (Henry V, IV.iii)

    Westmorland was not with King Henry V on the 1415 campaign in France. On 17 April 1415 he was appointed to the Council of Regency which was to govern England under the King's brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, during the King's absence in France, with special responsibility for the Scottish Marches.[27] In the first quarto text of the play, the foregoing lines are assigned to the Earl of Warwick.[25]

    It has been claimed by Brenda James and Professor William Rubinstein that Neville's great-great-grandson Sir Henry Neville wrote the works of William Shakespeare.

    *

    NEVILLE, RALPH, sixth Baron Neville of Raby and first Earl of Westmorland (1364-1425), was the eldest son of John de Neville, fifth baron Neville of Raby [q. v.], by his first wife, Maud, daughter of Henry, lord Percy (d. 1352) [q. v.], and aunt of the first earl of Northumberland (Swallow, De Nova Villa, p. 34; Dugdale, Baronage, i. 297).

    He first saw service in the French expedition of July 1380 under the king's uncle Thomas of Woodstock, earl of Buckingham, afterwards duke of Gloucester, who knighted him (Froissart, vii. 321, ed. Lettenhove). Doubtless spending the winter with the earl in Brittany, and returning with him in the spring of 1381, Ralph Neville, towards the close of the year, presided with his cousin Henry Percy, the famous Hotspur (whose mother was a Neville), over a duel between a Scot and an Englishman (Fśdera, xi. 334–5). In 1383 or 1384 he was associated with his father in receiving payment of the final instalments of David Bruce's ransom (Dugdale, i. 297). In the autumn of 1385 (26 Oct.), after the king's invasion of Scotland, he was appointed joint governor of Carlisle with the eldest son of his relative, Lord Clifford of Skipton in Craven, and on 27 March 1386 warden of the west march with the same colleague (Doyle, Official Baronage; Fśdera, vii. 538). On the death of his father (who made him one of his executors) at Newcastle, on 17 Oct. 1388, Ralph Neville at the age of twenty-four became Baron Neville of Raby, and was summoned to parliament under that title from 6 Dec. 1389 (Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc. i. 42; Nicolas, Historic Peerage).

    A few days afterwards the new baron was appointed, with others, to survey the border fortifications, and in the spring of the next year his command in the west march was renewed for a further term (Doyle). He was made warden for life of the royal forests north of Trent (24 May 1389), and got leave to empark his woods at Raskelf, close to York and his castle of Sheriff-Hutton. The king also gave him a charter for a weekly market at Middleham, and a yearly fair on the day of St. Alkelda, the patron saint of the church (Dugdale). In July 1389, and again in June 1390, he was employed in negotiations with Scotland (Doyle); Fśdera, vii. 672). In June 1391 he obtained a license, along with Sir Thomas Colville of the Dale and other northern gentlemen, to perform feats of arms with certain Scots (Fśdera, vii. 703). The Duke of Gloucester taking the cross in this year, commissioners, headed by Lord Neville, were appointed (4 Dec.) to perform the duties of constable of England (Doyle)). In the summers of 1393 and 1394 he was once more engaged in negotiations for peace with Scotland, and rather later (20 Richard II, 1396–1397) he got possession of the strong castle of Wark on Tweed by exchange with Sir John de Montacute [q. v.], afterwards third earl of Salisbury.

    Neville's power was great in the North country, where he, as lord of Raby and Brancepeth in the bishopric of Durham, and Middleham and Sheriff-Hutton in Yorkshire, was fully the equal, simple baron though he was, of his cousin the head of the Percies. His support was therefore worth securing by King Richard when, in 1397, he took his revenge upon the Duke of Gloucester and other lords appellant of nine years before. The lord of Raby was already closely connected with the crown and the court party by marriage alliances. He had secured for his eldest son, John, the hand of Elizabeth, daughter of the king's stepbrother, Thomas Holland, earl of Kent, who was deep in Richard's counsels, and he himself had taken for his second wife Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, the king's uncle (Dugdale, i. 297; Doyle). When the Earl of Arundel, one of the leading lords appellant, was put on his trial before parliament on Friday, 21 Sept. 1397, Neville, at the command of his father-in-law Lancaster, who presided as seneschal of England, removed the accused's belt and scarlet hood (Adam of Usk, p. 13; Ann. Ricardi II, p. 214). He was no doubt acting as constable, an office of Gloucester's. The Earl of Warwick was also in his custody (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 307). In the distribution of rewards among the king's supporters on 29 Sept., Neville was made Earl of Westmorland (Rot. Parl. iii. 355). He held no land in that county, but it was the nearest county to his estates not yet titularly appropriated, and the grant of the royal honour of Penrith gave him a footing on its borders (Dugdale). He took an oath before the shrine of Edward the Confessor in Westminster Abbey on Sunday, 30 Sept., to maintain what had been done in this ‘parliamentum ferale’ (Rot. Parl. iii. 355).

    But when Richard drove his brother-in-law Henry, earl of Derby, out of the realm, and refused him possession of the Lancaster estates on John of Gaunt's death, Westmorland took sides against the king, and was one of the first to join Henry when he landed in Yorkshire in July 1399 (Adam of Usk, p. 24). He and his relative Northumberland, who had joined Henry at the same time, represented the superior lords temporal in the parliamentary deputation which on 29 Sept. received in the Tower the unfortunate Richard's renunciation of the crown, and next day he was granted for life the office of marshal of England, which had been held by the banished Duke of Norfolk (Rot. Parl. iii. 416; Fśdera, viii. 89, 115). With Northumberland he conveyed Richard's message to convocation on 7 Oct. (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 289). At Henry IV's coronation (13 Oct.) Westmorland bore the small sceptre called the virge, or rod with the dove, his younger half-brother, John Neville, lord Latimer, who was still a minor, carrying the great sceptre royal (Adam of Usk, p. 33; Taylor, Glory of Regality, p. 66) [see under Neville, John, fifth Baron of Raby]. The grant a week later (20 Oct.) of the great honour and lordship of Richmond, forfeited in the late reign by John, duke of Brittany, united his Teesdale and his Wensleydale lands into a solid block of territory, and gave him besides a vast number of manors and fees scattered over great part of England (Doyle; Rot. Parl. iii. 427). The grant, however, was only made for his life, and clearly did not carry with it the title of Earl of Richmond, which was never borne by him, and was granted during his lifetime (1414) to John, duke of Bedford, with the reversion of the castle and lands on Westmorland's death (Third Report of the Lords on the Dignity of a Peer, pp. 96 et seq.). When the earl was in London he sat in the privy council, but as a great northern magnate he was chiefly employed upon the Scottish border (Ord. Privy Council, i. 100 et seq.; Fśdera, viii. 133). In March 1401, however, he was one of the royal commissioners who concluded with the ambassadors of Rupert, king of the Romans, a marriage between Henry's eldest daughter and Rupert's son Louis (ib. pp. 176, 178), and spent the summer in London (Ord. Privy Council, i. 144, 157). But in September he was employed on another Scottish mission, and in the March following was appointed captain of Roxburgh Castle (ib. p. 168; Fśdera, viii. 251; Doyle).

    The garter vacated by the death of Edmund, duke of York, in August 1402 was bestowed upon him. In July 1403 his relatives, the Percies, revolted, and Westmorland found an opportunity of weakening the great rival house in the north. One of Hotspur's grievances was the transference of his captaincy of Roxburgh Castle to Westmorland in the previous March (Rot. Scot. ii. 161). The day after the battle of Shrewsbury, in which Hotspur was slain, Henry wrote to Westmorland and other Yorkshire magnates charging them to levy troops and intercept the Earl of Northumberland, who was marching southward (Fśdera, viii. 319). Westmorland drove the old earl back to Warkworth, and sent an urgent message to Henry, advising him to come into the north, where reports of his death were being circulated by the Percies (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 371). The king arrived at Pontefract on 3 Aug., and three days later transferred the wardenship of the west marches, which Northumberland had held since 1399, to Westmorland (Doyle). Hotspur was replaced as warden of the east march by the king's second son, John, a lad of fourteen, who must necessarily have been much under the influence of the experienced earl. On his return south, Henry directed Westmorland and his brother Lord Furnival to secure the surrender of the Percy castles (Ord. Privy Council, i. 213). But the order was more easily given than executed, and in the parliament of the following February Northumberland was pardoned by the king and publicly reconciled to Westmorland (Rot. Parl. iii. 525). Westmorland and Somerset were the only earls in the council of twenty-two whom the king was induced by the urgency of the commons to designate in parliament (1 March 1404) as his regular advisers (ib. p. 530).

    Northumberland's reconciliation was a hollow one, and in the spring of 1405 he was again in revolt. Remembering how his plans had been foiled by Westmorland two years before, he began with an attempt to get his redoubtable cousin into his power by surprise. In April or May Westmorland happened to be staying in a castle which Mr. Wylie identifies with that of Witton-le-Wear, belonging to Sir Ralph Eure. It was suddenly beset one night by Northumberland at the head of four hundred men. But Westmorland had received timely warning, and was already flown (Ann. Hen. IV p. 400). Towards the close of May the flame of rebellion had broken out at three distinct points. Northumberland was moving southwards to effect a junction with Sir John Fauconberg, Sir John Colville of the Dale, and other Cleveland connections of the Percies and Mowbrays who were in arms near Thirsk, and with the youthful Thomas Mowbray, earl marshal [q. v.], and Archbishop Scrope, who raised a large force in York and advanced northwards. One of Mowbray's grievances was that the office of marshal of England had been given to Westmorland, leaving him only the barren title. Westmorland therefore had an additional spur to prompt action against this threatening combination. Taking with him the young prince John and the forces of the marches, he threw himself by a rapid march between the two main bodies of rebels, routed the Cleveland force at Topcliffe by Thirsk, capturing their leaders, and intercepted the archbishop and Mowbray at Shipton Moor, little more than five miles north of York (Rot. Parl. iii. 604; Eulogium, iii. 405; Ann. Hen. IV, p. 405). Westmorland, finding himself the weaker in numbers, had recourse to guile. Explanations were exchanged between the two camps, and Westmorland, professing approval of the articles of grievance submitted to him by Scrope, invited the archbishop and the earl marshal to a personal conference (ib. p. 406). They met, with equal retinues, between the two camps. Westmorland again declared their demands most reasonable, and promised to use his influence with the king. They then joyfully shook hands over the understanding, and, at Westmorland's suggestion, ratified it with a friendly cup of wine. The unsuspecting archbishop was now easily induced to send and dismiss his followers with the cheerful news. As soon as they had dispersed Westmorland laid hands upon Scrope and Mowbray, and carried them off to Pontefract Castle, where he handed them over to the king a few days later. Unless the consensus of contemporary writers does injustice to Westmorland, he was guilty of a very ugly piece of treachery (ib. p. 407; Chron. ed. Giles, p. 45; Eulogium, iii. 406). Their account is not indeed free from improbabilities, and Otterbourne (i. 256) maintained that Scrope and Mowbray voluntarily surrendered. Their forces were perhaps not wholly trustworthy, and they might have been discouraged by the fate of the Cleveland knights; but the authority of Otterbourne, who wrote under Henry V, can hardly be allowed to outweigh the agreement of more strictly contemporary writers. Westmorland, at all events, had no hand in the hasty and irregular execution of the two unhappy men, for he was despatched northwards from Pontefract on 4 June to seize Northumberland's castles and lands, and his brother-in-law, Thomas Beaufort, was appointed his deputy as marshal for the trial (Fśdera, viii. 399).

    This crisis over, Westmorland returned to his usual employments as warden of the march (in which his eldest son, John, was presently associated with him), and during the rest of the reign was pretty constantly occupied in negotiations with Scotland, whose sympathy with France and reception of Northumberland were counterbalanced by the capture of the heir to the throne (Fśdera, viii. 418, 514, 520, 678, 686, 737). He had made himself one of the great props of his brother-in-law's throne. Two of his brothers—Lord Furnival, who for a time was war treasurer, and Lord Latimer—were peers, and towards the close of the reign he began to make those fortunate marriages for his numerous family by his second wife which enabled the younger branch of Neville to play so decisive a part in after years. One of the earliest of these marriages was that of his daughter Catherine in 1412 to the young John Mowbray, brother and heir of the unfortunate earl marshal who had been entrusted to his guardianship by the king (Testamenta Eboracensia, iii. 321). Shortly after Henry V's accession Westmorland must have resigned the office of marshal of England into the hands of his son-in-law, in whose family it was hereditary (Fśdera, ix. 300).

    Thanks to Shakespeare, Westmorland is best known as the cautious old statesman who is alleged to have resisted the interested incitements of Archbishop Chichele and the clergy to war with France in the parliament at Leicester in April 1414, and was chidden by Henry for expressing a de- spondent wish the night before Agincourt that they had there

    But one ten thousand of those men in England

    That do no work to-day.

    But neither episode has any good historical warrant. They are first met with in Hall (d. 1547), from whom Shakespeare got them through Holinshed (Hall, Chronicle, p. 50). Chichele was not yet archbishop at the time of the Leicester parliament; the question of war was certainly not discussed there, and the speeches ascribed to Chichele and Westmorland are obviously of later composition. Westmorland, in urging the superior advantages of war upon Scotland, if war there must be, is made to quote from the Scottish historian John Major [q. v.], who was not born until 1469. The famous ejaculation before Agincourt was not made by Westmorland, for he did not go to France with the king. He was left behind to guard the Scottish marches and assist the regent Bedford as a member of his council (Ord. Privy Council, ii. 157). Henry had also appointed him one of the executors of the will which he made (24 July) before leaving England (Fśdera, ix. 289). The author of the ‘Gesta Henrici’ (p. 47), who was with the army in France, tells us that it was Sir Walter Hungerford [q. v.] who was moved by the smallness of their numbers to long openly for ten thousand English archers. The attitude imputed to Westmorland in these anecdotes is, however, sufficiently in keeping with his advancing age and absorption in the relations of England to Scotland, and may just possibly preserve a genuine tradition of opposition on his part to the French war. In any case, he never went to France, devoting himself to his duties on the borders, and leaving the hardships and the glory of foreign service to his sons. He was one of the executors of Henry's last will, and a member of the council of regency appointed to rule in the name of his infant son (Rot. Parl. iv. 175, 399). As late as February 1424 he was engaged in his unending task of negotiating with Scotland (Ord. Privy Council, iii. 139). On 21 Oct. in the following year he died, at what, in those days, was the advanced age of sixty-two, and was buried in the choir of the Church of Staindrop, at the gates of Raby, in which he had founded three chantries in 1343 (Swallow, p. 314). His stately and finely sculptured tomb of alabaster, in spite of the injuries it has received since its removal to the west end to make way for the tombs of the Vanes, remains the finest sepulchral monument in the north of England. It has been figured by Gough in his ‘Sepulchral Monuments’ (1786), by Stothard in his ‘Monumental Effigies’ (1817), and by Surtees in his ‘History of Durham.’ It bears recumbent effigies of Westmorland and his two wives. His features, so far as they are revealed by the full armour in which he is represented, are too youthful and too regular to allow us to regard it as a portrait (Swallow, De Nova Villa, p. 311; Oman, Warwick the Kingmaker, p. 17). The skeleton of the earl, which was discovered during some excavations in the chancel, is said to have been that of a very tall man with a diseased leg ({{sc|Swallow}, p. 315).

    In his will, made at Raby, 18 Oct. 1424, besides bequests to his children and the friars, nuns, and anchorites of the dioceses of York and Durham, he left three hundred marks to complete the college of Staindrop, and a smaller sum towards the erection of bridges over the Ure, near Middleham, and the Tees at Winston, near Raby (Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc., i. 68–74). Westmorland was, in fact, no inconsiderable builder. He rebuilt the castle of Sheriff-Hutton, twelve miles north-east of York, on the ridge between Ouse and Derwent, on a scale so magnificent that Leland saw ‘no house in the north so like a princely lodging,’ and the Neville saltire impaling the arms of England and France for his second wife may still be seen on its crumbling and neglected ruins. The church of Sheriff-Hutton has had inserted some of those curious flat-headed windows which are peculiar to the churches on the Neville manors, and they may very well be Westmorland's additions (Murray, Yorkshire, under Staindrop, Well, and Sheriff-Hutton). At Staindrop he added the chamber for the members of his new college on the north side of the choir, and the last bay of the nave in which his tomb now lies. The license to establish a college for a master or warden, six clerks, six decayed gentlemen, six poor officers, and other poor men, for whose support the advowson of the church was set aside with two messuages and twelve acres of land for their residence, was granted on 1 Nov. 1410 (Monasticon Anglicanum, vi. 1401; cf. {{sc|Swallow}, p. 314). Westmorland doubled the entrance gateway of Raby Castle, and threw forward the south-western tower, now called Joan's tower, to correspond (see Pritchett in the Reports and Journal of the British Archµological Association, 1886, 1887, 1889). He is also said to have been the builder of the tall and striking tower of Richmond parish church.

    Westmorland was twice married: first (before 1370) to Margaret, daughter of Hugh, second earl of Stafford (d. 1386); and, secondly (before 20 Feb. 1397), to Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by Catherine Swynford, and widow of Sir Robert Ferrers. She survived him, dying on 13 Nov. 1440 and being buried in Lincoln Cathedral, though her effigy is also on her husband's tomb at Staindrop. The inscription on her monument is quoted by Swallow (p. 137). Joan had some taste for literature. Thomas Hoccleve [q. v.] dedicated a volume of his works to her, and we hear of her lending the ‘Chronicles of Jerusalem’ and the ‘Voyage of Godfrey Bouillon’ to her nephew, Henry V (Fśdera, x. 317).

    The Nevilles were a prolific race, but Westmorland surpassed them all. He had no less than twenty-three children by his two wives—nine by the first, and fourteen by the second. The children of the first marriage, seven of whom were females, were thrown into the shade by the offspring of his more splendid second alliance which brought royal blood into the family. Westmorland devoted himself indefatigably to found the fortunes of his second family by a series of great matches, and a good half of the old Neville patrimony, the Yorkshire estates, was ultimately diverted to the younger branch.

    Thus the later earls of Westmorland had a landed position inferior to that of their ancestors, who were simple barons, and the real headship of the Neville house passed to the eldest son of the second family. Westmorland's children by his first wife were: (1) John, who fought in France and on the Scottish borders, and died before his father (1423); he married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Holland, earl of Kent, and their son Ralph succeeded his grandfather as second Earl of Westmorland in 1425 (see below). (2) Ralph of Oversley, near Alcester, in Warwickshire, in right of his wife Mary (b. 1393), daughter and coheiress of Robert, baron Ferrers of Wem in Shropshire. (3) Mathilda married Peter, lord Mauley (d. 1414). (4) Philippa married Thomas, lord Dacre of Gillsland (d. 1457). (5) Alice married, first, Sir Thomas Grey of Heton; and, secondly, Sir Gilbert Lancaster. (6) Elizabeth, who became a nun in the Minories. (7) Anne, who married Sir Gilbert Umfreville of Kyme. (8) Margaret, who married, first, Richard, lord le Scrope of Bolton in Wensleydale (d. 1420), and, secondly, William Cressener, dying in 1463; and (9) Anastasia.

    By his second wife Neville had nine sons and five daughters: (1) Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury [q. v.] (2) William, baron Fauconberg [q. v.] (3) George, summoned to parliament as Baron Latimer, 1432-69, his father having transferred to him that barony which he had bought from his childless half-brother John, who inherited it from his mother [see under Neville, John, d. 1388)]. George Neville's male descendants held the barony of Latimer till 1577, when it fell into abeyance [see Neville, John, third Baron Latimer]. (5) Robert [q. v.], bishop successively of Salisbury and Durham. (6) Edward, baron of Bergavenny [q. v.] (7–9) Three sons who died young. (10) Joan, a nun. (11) Catherine, married, first, John Mowbray, second duke of Norfolk [q. v.]; secondly, Thomas Strangways; thirdly, Viscount Beaumont (d. 1460); and, fourthly, John Wydeville, brother-in-law of Edward IV. (12) Anne, married, first, Humphrey, first duke of Buckingham (d. 1460) [q. v.]; and, secondly, Walter Blount, first baron Mountjoy (d. 1474). (13) Eleanor, married, first, Richard, lord le Despenser (d. 1414); and, secondly, Henry Percy, second earl of Northumberland (d. 1455). (14) Cicely, who married Richard Plantagenet, duke of York, and was mother of Edward IV.

    Ralph Neville, second Earl of Westmorland (d. 1484), son of John, the eldest son of the first earl by his first wife, married a daughter of Hotspur, and left active Lancastrian partisanship to his younger brothers. He died in 1484. His only son having perished at the battle of St. Albans in 1455, he was succeeded as third Earl of Westmorland by his nephew, Ralph (1456–1523), son of his brother John. This John Neville was a zealous Lancastrian. He took a prominent part in the struggle with the younger branch of the Nevilles for the Yorkshire lands of the first Earl of Westmorland, was summoned to parliament as Lord Neville after the Yorkist collapse in 1459, and was rewarded for his services at Wakefield in December 1460 with the custody of the Yorkshire castles of his uncle and enemy, Salisbury, who was slain there (see under Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury;Nicolas, Historic Peerage, p. 345; Chron. ed. Davies, p. 106). A Yorkist chronicler accuses him of treacherously getting York's permission to raise troops, which he then used against him (ib.) A few months later he was slain at Towton (30 March 1461). When his son Ralph became third Earl of Westmorland, the barony of Neville merged in the earldom of Westmorland, which came to an end with the attainder of Charles Neville, sixth earl [q. v.], in 1571.

    [Rotuli Parliamentorum; Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas; Rymer's Fśdera, original edition; Lords' Report on the Dignity of a Peer; Adam of Usk. ed. Maunde Thompson; Annales Ricardi II et Hen- rici IV with Trokelowe in Rolls Ser.; Gesta Henrici V, ed. Williams for English Historical Society; Otterbourne's Chronicle, ed. Hearne; Testamenta Eboracensia and Wills and Inventories, published by the Surtees Soc.; Hall's Chronicle, ed. Ellis; Dugdale's Baronage and Monasticon Anglicanum, ed. Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel; Rowland's Account of the Noble Family of Nevill, 1830; Swallow, De Nova Villa, 1885; Nicolas's Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope; Wylie's Hist. of Henry IV; Ramsay's Lancaster and York; other authorities in the text.]

    *

    Westmorland was twice married: first (before 1370) to Margaret, daughter of Hugh, second earl of Stafford (d. 1386); and, secondly (before 20 Feb. 1397), to Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by Catherine Swynford, and widow of Sir Robert Ferrers. She survived him, dying on 13 Nov. 1440 and being buried in Lincoln Cathedral, though her effigy is also on her husband's tomb at Staindrop.

    The inscription on her monument is quoted by Swallow (p. 137). Joan had some taste for literature. Thomas Hoccleve [q. v.] dedicated a volume of his works to her, and we hear of her lending the 'Chronicles of Jerusalem' and the 'Voyage of Godfrey Bouillon' to her nephew, Henry V (Fśdera, x. 317).

    *

    Buried:
    Images of St. Mary's ... https://www.google.com/search?q=staindrop+church&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=815&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjzxuiz6Z_LAhUKPCYKHQf1AA4QsAQIOA

    Died:
    Images and history of Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raby_Castle

    Ralph married Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland Bef 29 Nov 1396, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France. Joan (daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster) was born ~ 1379, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France; died 13 Nov 1440, Howden, Yorkshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 9.  Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland was born ~ 1379, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France (daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster); died 13 Nov 1440, Howden, Yorkshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

    Notes:

    Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland (c. 1379 - 13 November 1440), was the fourth of the four children (and only daughter) of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his mistress, later wife, Katherine Swynford. In her widowhood, she was a powerful landowner in the North of England.

    Early life and marriages

    She was probably born at the Swynford manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire. Her surname probably reflects her father's lordship of Beaufort in Champagne, France, where she might also have been born.[2] In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married at Beaufort-en-Vallâee, Anjou, Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, and they had two daughters before he died in about 1395.

    Legitimation

    Along with her three brothers, Joan had been privately declared legitimate by their cousin Richard II of England in 1390. Her parents were married in Lincoln Cathedral in February 1396.[3] Joan was already an adult when she was legitimized by the marriage of her mother and father with papal approval. The Beauforts were later barred from inheriting the throne by a clause inserted into the legitimation act by their half-brother, Henry IV of England, although it is not clear that Henry IV possessed sufficient authority to alter an existing parliamentary statute by himself, without the further approval of Parliament. Soon after the legitimation, on 3 February 1397, when she was eighteen, Joan married Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, who had also been married once before.

    Inheritance

    When Ralph de Neville died in 1425, his lands and titles should, by law of rights, have passed on to his grandson through his first marriage, another Ralph Neville. Instead, while the title of Earl of Westmorland and several manors were passed to Ralph, the bulk of his rich estate went to his wife, Joan Beaufort. Although this may have been done to ensure that his widow was well provided for, by doing this Ralph essentially split his family into two and the result was years of bitter conflict between Joan and her stepchildren who fiercely contested her acquisition of their father's lands. Joan however, with her royal blood and connections, was far too powerful to be called to account, and the senior branch of the Nevilles received little redress for their grievances. Inevitably, when Joan died, the lands would be inherited by her own children.

    Death

    Joan died on 13 November 1440 at Howden in Yorkshire.[3] Rather than be buried with her husband Ralph (who was not buried with his first wife, though his monument has effigies of himself and his two wives) she was entombed next to her mother in the magnificent sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral. Joan's is the smaller of the two tombs; both were decorated with brass plates – full-length representations of them on the tops, and small shields bearing coats of arms around the sides — but those were damaged or destroyed in 1644 by Roundheads during the English Civil War. A 1640 drawing of them survives, showing what the tombs looked like when they were intact, and side-by-side instead of end-to-end, as they are now.

    Descendants

    Joan Beaufort was mother to Cecily, Duchess of York and thus grandmother of Edward IV of England, and of Richard III of England, whom Henry VII defeated to take the throne. Henry then married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, and their son became Henry VIII of England. Henry VIII's sixth wife, Catherine Parr, was also a descendant through Joan and Ralph's eldest son, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and thus Henry's third cousin. The Earl of Salisbury was father to Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, "the Kingmaker" (father of Queen consort Anne Neville).

    Children of Joan Beaufort and Robert Ferrers

    In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, at Beaufort-en-Vallâee, Anjou. They had 2 children:

    Elizabeth Ferrers, 6th Baroness Boteler of Wem (1393–1474). She is buried at Black Friars Church, York. She married John de Greystoke, 4th Baron Greystoke (1389–1436), on 28 October 1407 in Greystoke Castle, Greystoke, Cumberland, and had issue.
    Margaret (or Mary) Ferrers (1394 – 25 January 1457/1458). She married her stepbrother, Sir Ralph Neville, son of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland, c. 1413 in Oversley, Warwickshire, and had issue

    Children of Joan Beaufort and Ralph Neville

    They had 14 children:

    Lady Katherine Neville, married first on 12 January 1411 John Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk; married second Sir Thomas Strangways; married third John Beaumont, 1st Viscount Beaumont; married fourth Sir John Woodville (d. 12 August 1469).
    Lady Eleanor Neville (d. 1472), married first Richard le Despenser, 4th Baron Burghersh, married second Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland
    Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460), married Alice Montacute, suo jure 5th Countess of Salisbury. Had issue. Their descendants include Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick; queen consort Anne Neville, wife of Richard III; and queen consort Catherine Parr, sixth wife of King Henry VIII (great-grandson of Richard's sister, Cecily).
    Robert Neville (d. 1457), Bishop of Durham
    William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent (c.1410–1463)
    Lady Anne Neville (?1411–20 September 1480), married Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham
    Edward Neville, 3rd Baron Bergavenny (d. 1476)
    Lady Cecily Neville (1415–1495) ("Proud Cis"), married Richard, 3rd Duke of York, and mothered Kings Edward IV of England and Richard III of England
    George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer (d. 1469)
    Joan Neville, became a nun
    John Neville, died young
    Cuthbert Neville, died young
    Thomas Neville, died young
    Henry Neville, died young

    Birth:
    She was probably born at the Swynford manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire. Her surname probably reflects her father's lordship of Beaufort in Champagne, France, where she might also have been born.[2] In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, at Beaufort-en-Vallâee, Anjou. They had two daughters before he died in about 1395.

    Buried:
    St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London. Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604.[1] The present church, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren. Its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London.[2]

    The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, dominated the skyline for 300 years.[3] At 365 feet (111 m) high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1962. The dome is among the highest in the world. St Paul's is the second largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral.

    St Paul's Cathedral occupies a significant place in the national identity.[4] It is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz.[4] Services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Winston Churchill; Jubilee celebrations for Queen Victoria; peace services marking the end of the First and Second World Wars; the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer, the launch of the Festival of Britain and the thanksgiving services for the Golden Jubilee, the 80th Birthday and the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.

    St Paul's Cathedral is a working church with hourly prayer and daily services.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral

    Notes:

    Married:
    by Papal Dispensation...

    Children:
    1. Eleanor Neville, Countess of Northumberland was born 1397-1399, Raby, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 0___ 1472.
    2. 4. Richard Neville, I, Knight, 5th Earl of Salisbury was born Abt 1400, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 30 Dec 1460, Wakefield, St. John, West Riding, Yorkshire, England; was buried 15 Jan 1461.
    3. Katherine Neville was born ~ 1400; died Aft 1483.
    4. Robert Neville was born 0___ 1404, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 8 Jul 1457.
    5. George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer was born 1407-1414, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 30 Dec 1469; was buried 31 Dec 1469.
    6. Edward Neville, 3rd Baron of Abergavenny was born 0___ 1414, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 18 Oct 1476, (Raby-Keverstone Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).
    7. Cecily Neville, Duchess of York was born 3 May 1415, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 31 May 1495, Berkhamsted Castle, Berkhamsted, England; was buried Church of St Mary and All Saints, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire, England.
    8. Ralph Neville
    9. Anne Neville died 0___ 1480.

  3. 10.  Thomas Montacute, Knight, 4th Earl of Salisbury was born 13 Jun 1388, (Salisbury) England (son of John Montacute, Knight, 3rd Earl of Salisbury and Maud Francis, Countess of Salisbury); died 3 Nov 1428, Orleans, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 6th and 3rd Baron Montacute
    • Also Known As: Count of Perche
    • Military: Siege of Harfleur
    • Military: Siege of Orleans

    Notes:

    Origins

    He was the eldest son of John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury (d.1400), who was killed while plotting against King Henry IV in 1400, and his lands forfeited, later partly retrieved by Thomas. His mother was Maud Francis, daughter of Sir Adam Francis (born ca. 1334), Mayor of London.

    Career

    Thomas was summoned to Parliament as Earl of Salisbury in 1409, although he was not formally invested as earl until 1421. In 1414 he was made a Knight of the Garter. In July 1415 he was one of the seven peers who tried Richard, Earl of Cambridge on charges of conspiring against King Henry V. Montacute then joined King Henry V in France, where he fought at the Siege of Harfleur and at the Battle of Agincourt. Montacute fought in various other campaigns in France in the following years. In 1419 he was appointed lieutenant-general of Normandy and created Count of Perche, part of Henry V's policy of creating Norman titles for his followers. He spent most of the rest of his life as a soldier in France, leading troops in the various skirmishes and sieges that were central to that part of the Hundred Years' War. In 1425 he captured the city of Le Mans and fought at the Siege of Orlâeans in 1428 at which he lost his life.

    Marriages & progeny[edit]
    He married twice:

    Firstly to Eleanor Holland, a sister and eventual co-heiress of Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent, and daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent. By Eleanor he had a daughter, his only legitimate child:
    Alice Montacute, who married Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, who succeeded his father-in-law jure uxoris as Earl of Salisbury.

    Secondly to Alice Chaucer, daughter of Thomas Chaucer and grand-daughter of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer.

    Death

    On 27 October 1428 he was wounded during the Siege of Orlâeans, when a cannonball broke a window near to where he stood, and died a few days later.

    Died:
    On 27 October 1428 he was wounded during the Siege of Orlâeans, when a cannonball broke a window near to where he stood, and died a few days later.

    Thomas married Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury 23 May 1399. Eleanor (daughter of Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent and Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent) was born 0___ 1386, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died Aft 1413, Bisham Manor, Bisham, Berkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 11.  Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury was born 0___ 1386, Upholland, Lancashire, England (daughter of Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent and Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent); died Aft 1413, Bisham Manor, Bisham, Berkshire, England.
    Children:
    1. 5. Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury was born 18 Oct 1405, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England; died Bef 9 Dec 1462, Bisham, Berkshire, England.

  5. 12.  Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 12th Earl of Warwick was born 16 Mar 1338, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England (son of Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick); died 10 Apr 1401, (Warwickshire) England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Sheriff of Worcestershire
    • Military: Admiral of the North Fleet

    Notes:

    Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, KG (16 March 1338 - 8 April 1401[1]) was an English medieval nobleman, and one of the primary opponents of Richard II.

    Birth and Marriage

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel; Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester; Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham; Henry, Earl of Derby (later Henry IV); and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, throw down their gauntlets and demand Richard II to let them prove by arms the justice for their rebellion

    He was the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine Mortimer,[2] a daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, and succeeded his father in 1369. He married Margaret Ferrers, daughter of Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Margaret d'Ufford, daughter of Robert d'Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk.

    Royal Service

    Seal of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick
    Knighted around 1355,[2] Beauchamp accompanied John of Gaunt in campaigns in France in 1373, and around that time was made a Knight of the Garter. In the parliaments of 1376 and 1377 he was one of those appointed to supervise reform of King Richard II's government. When these were not as effective as hoped, Beauchamp was made Governor over the King. He brought a large contingent of soldiers and archers to King Richard's Scottish campaign of 1385.

    Conflict with King Richard II

    In 1387 he was one of the Lords Appellant, who endeavored to separate Richard from his favorites. After Richard regained power, Beauchamp retired to his estates, but was charged with high treason in 1397, supposedly as a part of the Earl of Arundel's alleged conspiracy. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London (in what is now known as the "Beauchamp Tower"), pleaded guilty and threw himself on the mercy of the king. He forfeited his estates and titles, and was sentenced to life imprisonment on the Isle of Man. The next year, however, he was moved back to the Tower, until he was released in August 1399 after Henry Bolingbroke's initial victories over King Richard II.

    Restored by Bolingbroke

    After Bolingbroke deposed Richard and became king as Henry IV, Beauchamp was restored to his titles and estates. He was one of those who urged the new King to execute Richard, and accompanied King Henry against the rebellion of 1400.

    Death

    Monumental effigies of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick and his wife
    Beauchamp died in 1401 (sources differ as to whether on 8 April or 8 August).[3]

    Succession

    He was succeeded by his son Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick.

    Died:
    (sources differ as to whether on 8 April or 8 August)

    Thomas — Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick. Margaret (daughter of William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Margaret de Ufford) was born ~ 1347, Groby, Leicestershire, England; died 22 Jan 1407, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried St. Mary's, Warwick, Warwickshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 13.  Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick was born ~ 1347, Groby, Leicestershire, England (daughter of William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Margaret de Ufford); died 22 Jan 1407, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried St. Mary's, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Will: 28 Nov 1406

    Notes:

    About

    history

    Margaret Ferrers1,2,3,4,5,6,7

    F, #15405, b. circa 1361, d. 22 January 1407
    Father Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby2,3,4,8,6,9 b. 28 Feb 1333, d. 8 Jan 1371
    Mother Margaret de Ufford2,3,4,8,6,9 d. b 25 May 1368
    Margaret Ferrers was born circa 1361. She married Sir Thomas Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, Admiral of the North Fleet, Sheriff of Worcestershire, son of Sir Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, Sheriff of Worcestershire, Warwickshire, & Leicestershire, Marshal of England and Katherine de Mortimer, before April 1381; They had 1 son (Richard, Earl of Warwick) and 2 daughters (Katherine; & Margaret).2,4,5,6,7 Margaret Ferrers left a will on 28 November 1406.4,6 She died on 22 January 1407; Buried at south part of the collegiate church at St. Mary's, Warwick.2,4,6

    Family Sir Thomas Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, Admiral of the North Fleet, Sheriff of Worcestershire b. b 16 Mar 1339, d. 8 Apr 1401

    Child

    Sir Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl Warwick, Earl of Albemarle & Worcester, Lord Abergavenny, Sheriff of Worcestershire+2,4,6 b. 25 Jan 1382 or 28 Jan 1382, d. 30 Apr 1439

    Citations

    [S4153] Unknown author, Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles by Gerald Paget, Vol. I, p. 87; Plantagenet Ancestry of 17th Century Colonists, by David Faris, p. 13.
    [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 72.
    [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 208.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 145-146.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 298.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 296-297.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 155.
    [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 297-298.
    [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 154.
    From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p513.htm#i15405
    ___________________

    Margaret Ferrers
    F, #3485, d. 27 January 1407
    Last Edited=21 Aug 2005
    Margaret Ferrers was the daughter of Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Lord Ferrers (of Groby) and Margaret d'Ufford. She married Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick and Katherine Mortimer.1 She died on 27 January 1407. She was also reported to have died on 22 January 1407.1
    She lived at Groby, Leicestershire, England.
    Child of Margaret Ferrers and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick
    Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick+ b. 25 Jan 1381/82, d. 30 Apr 1439
    Citations
    [S125] Richard Glanville-Brown, online , Richard Glanville-Brown (RR 2, Milton, Ontario, Canada), downloaded 17 August 2005.
    From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p349.htm#i3485
    _______________________

    Margaret FERRERS
    Died: 22 Jan 1406
    Buried: St Mary's, Warwick
    Father: William FERRERS (3ş B. Ferrers of Groby)
    Mother: Margaret De UFFORD
    Married: John De BEAUCHAMP / Thomas De BEAUCHAMP (12° E. Warwick) Apr 1434
    Children:
    1. Richard BEAUCHAMP (2ş B. Powis) (b. 1436 - d. ABT 19 Apr 1475 / Jan 1503) (m. Elizabeth Stafford)
    From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/FERRERS.htm#Margaret FERRERS1
    _____________________

    Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, Count of Aumale, KG (25 or 28 January 1382[1] – 30 April 1439) was an English medieval nobleman and military commander.
    Beauchamp was born at Salwarpe in Worcestershire,[2] the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, and Margaret, a daughter of William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby.[1] His godfather was King Richard II.[2]
    He was knighted at the coronation of King Henry IV and succeeded to the Earldom of Warwick in 1401.[3]
    .... etc.
    Warwick first married Elizabeth de Berkeley (born ca.1386 – 28 December 1422) before 5 October 1397,[6] the daughter of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Lord Berkeley and the Baroness Margaret de Lisle. Together they had 3 daughters:
    Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury (1404–1468), who married John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, and whose great-great-grandson John Dudley was created Earl of Warwick and subsequently Duke of Northumberland;
    Eleanor, Duchess of Somerset, (b 1407) who married Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros and then married Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset;
    Elizabeth, Baroness Latimer of Snape, (b 1417) who married George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer.
    Warwick then married Isabel le Despenser (26 July 1400–1439), the daughter of Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Constance of York. With Isabel, who was also the widow of his cousin Richard Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, his children were:
    Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, (born March 1425) who succeeded his father as Earl of Warwick, and later became Duke of Warwick;
    Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick, (b September 1426) who was theoretically Countess of Warwick in her own right (after the death of her infant niece and namesake), and who married Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.
    Richard de Beauchamp's will was made at Caversham Castle in Oxfordshire (now Berkshire), one of his favoured residences, in 1437. Most of his property was entailed, but with a portion of the rest the will established a substantial trust. After his debts were paid the trust endowed the Collegiate Church of St Mary in Warwick, and called for the construction of a new chapel there. It also enlarged the endowment of the chantries at Elmley Castle and Guy's Cliffe, and gave a gift to Tewkesbury Abbey.[8] Beauchamp died in Rouen, Normandy, two years later, on 30 April 1439.[9] After the completion of the chapel, his body was transferred there (in 1475),[8] where his magnificent gilt-bronze monumental effigy may still be seen.
    From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_de_Beauchamp,_13th_Earl_of_Warwick
    __________________

    Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 04
    Beauchamp, Richard de (1382-1439) by James Gairdner
    BEAUCHAMP, RICHARD de, Earl of Warwick (1382–1439), a brave and chivalrous warrior in an age of chivalry, of an ancient family, whose ancestry was traced to the legendary Guy of Warwick, was the son of Thomas, earl of Warwick [see Beauchamp, Thomas de], by Margaret his wife, daughter of William, Lord Ferrers of Groby. He was born at Salwarp, in Worcestershire, on 28 Jan. 1382. His godfathers at baptism were King Richard II and Richard Scrope, afterwards archbishop of York, .... etc.
    The earl was twice married. His first wife was Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Thomas, Lord Berkley, by whom he had three daughters. His second, whom he married by papal dispensation, was Isabella, widow of his cousin, Richard Beauchamp, earl of Worcester, who was slain at Meaux in 1422. It was by this second marriage that he had his son and heir, Henry [see Beauchamp, Henry de].
    [Dugdale's Baronage; Dugdale's Warwickshire, i. 408-11; Cotton MS. Julius, E iv.; Walsingham's Historia Anglicana and Ypodigma Neustriµ; Fabyan; Hall; Gregory, in Gairdner's Historical Collections of a London Citizen; Leland's Itinerary, vi. 89; Paston Letters, No. 18; Rymer, ix.-x.]
    From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Beauchamp,_Richard_de_(1382-1439)_(DNB00)
    https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati04stepuoft#page/29/mode/1up to https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati04stepuoft#page/31/mode/1up
    ___________________

    Margaret Ferrers[1,2]

    - 22 Jan 1406/1407
    Sex Female

    Lived In England

    Complete *

    Died 22 Jan 1406/1407

    Buried St.Mary's, Warwick

    Person ID I00101306 Leo

    Last Modified 15 Jun 2009

    Father William de Ferrers, 3rd Lord Ferrers of Groby, b. est 1333

    Mother Margaret de Ufford

    Family ID F00044073 Group Sheet

    Family Thomas de Beauchamp, 4th Earl of Warwick, b. Bef 16 Mar 1339

    Married Bef Apr 1381

    Children

    1. Richard de Beauchamp, 5th Earl of Warwick, b. Jan 1381, Salwarpe, co Worcester

    2. Katherine de Beauchamp
    3. Margaret de Beauchamp
    4. Katherine de Beauchamp
    5. Elizabeth de Beauchamp
    Last Modified 15 Jun 2009

    Family ID F00044072 Group Sheet

    Sources

    1. [S00010] A Genealogical History of the dormant, abeyant, forfeited and extinct peerages of the British Empire, London, 1866, Burke, Sir Bernard, Reference: 31

    2. [S00058] The Complete Peerage, 1936 , Doubleday, H.A. & Lord Howard de Walden, Reference:

    Children:
    1. 6. Richard Beauchamp, Knight, 13th Earl of Warwick was born 28 Jan 1381, Salwarpe, Worcestershire, England; died 30 Apr 1439, Rouen, Normandy, France; was buried 4 Oct 1439, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

  7. 14.  Thomas le Despenser, Knight, 1st Earl of GloucesterThomas le Despenser, Knight, 1st Earl of Gloucester was born 22 Sep 1373, Essendine, Rutland, England (son of Edward le Despenser, Knight, 1st Baron le Despencer and Elizabeth de Burghersh); died 13 Jan 1400, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ.

    Notes:

    Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester KG (22 September 1373 - 13 January 1400) was the son of Edward le Despenser, 1st Baron le Despencer, whom he succeeded in 1375.

    Royal intrigues

    A supporter of Richard II against Thomas of Woodstock and the Lords Appellant, he was rewarded with an Earldom as Earl of Gloucester in 1397.

    However, he supported Henry Bolingbroke on his return to England to become King Henry IV, only to be attainted (deprived of his Earldom because of a capital crime) for his role in the death of Thomas of Woodstock.

    He then took part in the Epiphany Rising, a rebellion led by a number of Barons aimed at restoring Richard to the throne by assassinating King Henry IV; this quickly failed when the conspirators were betrayed by Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York to Henry. After fleeing to the western counties, a number of the Epiphany Rising conspirators were captured and killed by mobs of townspeople loyal to the king; Despenser was captured by a mob and beheaded at Bristol on 13 January 1400.

    Marriage

    Thomas le Despenser married Constance, daughter of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York. They had issue, of whom:

    Elizabeth le Despenser (died young c. 1398)
    Richard le Despenser, 4th Baron Burghersh (1396–1414)
    Edward le Despenser (b. bef. 1400), died young
    Hugh le Despenser (c. 1400–1401)
    Isabel le Despenser (1400–1439), she married first Richard Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, she married second his cousin Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick

    Thomas married Constance of York, Princess of York ~ 1396, (Conisborough Castle, Conisborough, Yorkshire, England). Constance (daughter of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge and Isabel Perez, Princess of Castile-Leon) was born ~ 1374, Conisborough Castle, Conisborough, Yorkshire, England; died 28 Nov 1416, Reading, Reading, Berkshire, England; was buried Reading Abbey, Reading, Berkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 15.  Constance of York, Princess of York was born ~ 1374, Conisborough Castle, Conisborough, Yorkshire, England (daughter of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge and Isabel Perez, Princess of Castile-Leon); died 28 Nov 1416, Reading, Reading, Berkshire, England; was buried Reading Abbey, Reading, Berkshire, England.

    Notes:

    Constance of York, Countess of Gloucester, (c. 1374 – 28 November 1416) was the only daughter of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York and his wife Isabella of Castile, daughter of King Peter of Castile and his favourite mistress, Marâia de Padilla.

    Family

    Constance was born about 1374, the only daughter of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, and his wife, Isabella of Castile, the youngest daughter of King Peter of Castile and his favourite mistress, Marâia de Padilla.[citation needed]

    Plots against Henry IV

    Shortly before 7 November 1379, Constance married Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester. Despenser was created Earl of Gloucester by King Richard II on 29 September 1397, but after Richard's deposition and the accession of King Henry IV some of his lands were seized and he was degraded from the earldom. In consequence in late December 1399 he and others joined in a plot, known as the Epiphany Rising, to assassinate King Henry and restore King Richard to the throne. According to a French chronicle the plot was betrayed to the King by Constance's brother, Edward; however contemporary English chronicles make no mention of Edward's alleged role. Gloucester escaped immediate capture, but was eventually turned in to the authorities at Bristol, where he was beheaded on 16 January 1400.[1] After her husband's death, Constance was granted a life interest in the greater part of his lands and custody of her son.[2]

    In February 1405, during the rebellion of Owain Glyndwr, Constance herself instigated a plot to abduct the young Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, and his brother, Roger Mortimer, from Windsor Castle, apparently intending to deliver the young Earl, who had the best claim to the throne of any of Henry IV's rivals, to his uncle Sir Edmund Mortimer, who was married to Glyndwr's daughter.[citation needed] The young Edmund Mortimer and his brother were recaptured before entering Wales. Constance implicated her elder brother, Edward, in the plot, as a result of which he was imprisoned for 17 weeks at Pevensey Castle, but was eventually restored to Henry IV's favour. When Constance died in 1416, she was buried at the High Altar in Reading Abbey.[citation needed]

    Marriage and issue

    Shortly before 7 November 1379 Constance married Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester (22 September 1373 – 16 January 1400), third but first surviving son of Edward le Despenser and Elizabeth Burghersh, by whom she had a son and two daughters:[3]

    Richard le Despenser, 4th Baron Burghersh (1396 – 1414). He married Lady Eleanor Neville (c. 1397 - 1472), daughter of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland (d.1425) and Joan Beaufort (d.1440), daughter of John of Gaunt by Katherine Swynford. He died young without issue.
    Elizabeth (died young c. 1398)
    Isabel, born after her father's execution. She married, firstly, Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Worcester (d. 1421/2). A daughter, Elizabeth, Lady Abergavenny (b.1415) was the sole product of this union. Following Worcester's death, she married Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick. They were parents to Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick and Anne de Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick.
    After her husband's death, Constance was either betrothed to or lived as the mistress of Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent (1382-1408), by whom she had an illegitimate daughter, Eleanor Holland (died c. 1459), who married James Tuchet, 5th Baron Audley.

    Shakespeare and Constance of York

    Constance is referred to as 'my sister Despenser' in Shakespeare's Richard II.

    Children:
    1. 7. Isabel le Despencer, Countess of Worcester was born 26 Jul 1400, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England; died 27 Dec 1439, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ.


Generation: 5

  1. 16.  John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de RabyJohn Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby was born 1337-1340, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England (son of Ralph Neville, 4th Baron Neville de Raby and Alice de Audley); died 17 Oct 1388, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: John de Neville

    Notes:

    John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, KG c.1337 - 17 October 1388) was an English peer and soldier.[a]

    John Neville, born at Raby Castle, Durham, between 1337 and 1340, was the eldest son of Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby, and Alice Audley. He had five brothers, including Alexander Neville, Archbishop of York, and four sisters.[1]

    Cokayne notes that Neville's public career was as active as his father's had been. He fought against the Scots at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 as a captain under his father, was knighted about 1360 after a skirmish near Paris while serving under Sir Walter Manny , and fought in Aquitaine in 1366, and again in 1373-4.

    At his father's death on 5 August 1367 he succeeded to the title, and had livery of his lands in England and Scotland in October of that year.

    From 1367 on he had numerous commissions issued to him, and in 1368 served as joint ambassador to France.[2] He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1369.[3]

    In July 1370 he was Admiral of the North, and in November of that year a joint commissioner to treat with Genoa . He was Steward of the King's Household in 1372, and in July of that year was part of an expedition to Brittany . For the next several years he served in Scotland and the Scottish Marches . In 1378 he had licence to fortify Raby Castle, and in June of the same year was in Gascony, where he was appointed Keeper of Fronsac Castle and Seneschal of Gascony .

    He spent several years in Gascony, and was among the forces which raised the siege of Mortaigne in 1381. On his return to England he was again appointed Warden of the Marches. In May 1383 and March 1387 he was a joint commissioner to treat of peace with Scotland, and in July 1385 was to accompany the King to Scotland.[4]

    Neville died at Newcastle upon Tyne on 17 October 1388. In his will he requested burial in Durham Cathedral by his first wife, Maud. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland .[5]

    Marriages and issue

    Neville married, before 1362, firstly, Maud Percy (d. before 18 February 1379), daughter of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick, Northumberland, and Idoine de Clifford, daughter of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford, by whom he had two sons and five daughters:[6]

    Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland.
    Sir Thomas Neville of Brancepeth, who married Maud Stanhope.
    Alice Neville, who married William Deincourt, 3rd Baron Deincourt.
    Maud Nevile.
    Idoine Neville.
    Eleanor Neville, who married Ralph de Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley.
    Elizabeth Neville, who became a nun.
    After his first wife Maud's death in 1379 Neville married secondly, before 9 October 1381, Elizabeth Latimer (d. 5 November 1395), daughter of William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, by whom he had a son and a daughter:[7]

    John Neville, 6th Baron Latimer (c.1382 – 10 December 1430), who married firstly, Maud Clifford (c.26 August 1446), daughter of Thomas de Clifford, 6th Baron de Clifford, whom he divorced before 1413x17, and by whom he had no issue. She married secondly, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge.[8]
    Elizabeth Neville, who married, before 27 May 1396, Sir Thomas Willoughby (died shortly before 20 August 1417) son of Robert Willoughby, 4th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (c.1348-50 – 9 August 1396), by whom she had one child, Sir John Willoughby (c.1400 – 24 February 1437).[9]
    After Neville's death, his widow, Elizabeth, married, as his second wife, Robert Willoughby, 4th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (c.1348-50 – 9 August 1396), by whom she had a daughter, Margaret Willoughby.[10]

    Birth:
    Raby Castle - history & images of this Neville Family Home ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raby_Castle

    John married Maud Percy 0Jul 1357, Alnwick, Northumberland, England. Maud (daughter of Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick and Idonia Clifford) was born Abt 1335, Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; died 18 Feb 1378; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 17.  Maud Percy was born Abt 1335, Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England (daughter of Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick and Idonia Clifford); died 18 Feb 1378; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Maud de Percy

    Notes:

    Maud's ahnentafel: https://histfam.familysearch.org//ahnentafel.php?personID=I1058&tree=EuropeRoyalNobleHous&parentset=0&generations=4

    Children:
    1. 8. Ralph Neville, Knight, 1st Earl of Westmorland was born 0___ 1364, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; died 21 Oct 1425, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; was buried 0Oct 1425, St. Mary's Church, Staindrop, Durham, England.
    2. Eleanor de Neville, Baroness of Lumley was born ~ 1379, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died ~ 1441, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.

  3. 18.  John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of LancasterJohn of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster was born 6 Mar 1340, St. Bavo's Abbey, Ghent, Belgium (son of Edward III, King of England and Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England); died 3 Feb 1399, Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire, England; was buried 15 Mar 1399, St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Middlesex, England..

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Duke of Aquitaine
    • Also Known As: King of Castile

    Notes:

    John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then rendered in English as Gaunt. When he became unpopular later in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury.[2]

    As a younger brother of Edward, Prince of Wales (Edward, the Black Prince), John exercised great influence over the English throne during the minority of Edward's son, who became King Richard II, and the ensuing periods of political strife. Due to some generous land grants, John was one of the richest men in his era. He made an abortive attempt to enforce a claim to the Crown of Castile that came courtesy of his second wife Constance, who was an heir to the Castillian Kingdom, and for a time styled himself as such.

    John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, include Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. His other legitimate descendants include his daughters Queen Philippa of Portugal and Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter (by his first wife Blanche of Lancaster), and Queen Catherine of Castile (by his second wife Constance of Castile). John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The children of Katherine Swynford, surnamed "Beaufort," were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396. Descendants of this marriage include Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, a grandmother of Kings Edward IV and Richard III; John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, a great-grandfather of King Henry VII; and Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots, from whom are descended all subsequent sovereigns of Scotland beginning in 1437 and all sovereigns of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom from 1603 to the present day. The three houses of English sovereigns that succeeded the rule of Richard II in 1399 — the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor — were all descended from John's children Henry IV, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively. In addition, John's daughter Catherine of Lancaster was married to King Henry III of Castile, which made him the grandfather of King John II of Castile and the ancestor of all subsequent monarchs of the Crown of Castile and united Spain. Through John II of Castile's great-granddaughter Joanna the Mad, John of Gaunt is also an ancestor of the Habsburg rulers who would reign in Spain and much of central Europe.

    John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, the son of his first wife Blanche of Lancaster, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398 as resolution to a dispute between Henry and Thomas de Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk.[3] When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown, since King Richard II had named Henry a traitor and changed his sentence to exile for life.[3] Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England (1399–1413), the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England.

    Duke of Lancaster

    Kenilworth Castle, a massive fortress extensively modernised and given a new Great Hall by John of Gaunt after 1350
    John was the fourth son of King Edward III of England. His first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was also his third cousin, both as great-great-grandchildren of King Henry III. They married in 1359 at Reading Abbey as a part of the efforts of Edward III to arrange matches for his sons with wealthy heiresses. Upon the death of his father-in-law, the 1st Duke of Lancaster, in 1361, John received half his lands, the title "Earl of Lancaster", and distinction as the greatest landowner in the north of England as heir of the Palatinate of Lancaster. He also became the 14th Baron of Halton and 11th Lord of Bowland. John inherited the rest of the Lancaster property when Blanche's sister Maud, Countess of Leicester (married to William V, Count of Hainaut), died without issue on 10 April 1362.

    John received the title "Duke of Lancaster" from his father on 13 November 1362. By then well established, he owned at least thirty castles and estates across England and France and maintained a household comparable in scale and organisation to that of a monarch. He owned land in almost every county in England, a patrimony that produced a net income of between ą8,000 and ą10,000 a year.[4]

    After the death in 1376 of his older brother Edward of Woodstock (also known as the "Black Prince"), John of Gaunt contrived to protect the religious reformer John Wycliffe, possibly to counteract the growing secular power of the church.[5] However, John's ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. At a time when English forces encountered setbacks in the Hundred Years' War against France, and Edward III's rule was becoming unpopular due to high taxation and his affair with Alice Perrers, political opinion closely associated the Duke of Lancaster with the failing government of the 1370s. Furthermore, while King Edward and the Prince of Wales were popular heroes due to their successes on the battlefield, John of Gaunt had not won equivalent military renown that could have bolstered his reputation. Although he fought in the Battle of Nâajera (1367), for example, his later military projects proved unsuccessful.

    When Edward III died in 1377 and John's ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, John's influence strengthened. However, mistrust remained, and some[who?] suspected him of wanting to seize the throne himself. John took pains to ensure that he never became associated with the opposition to Richard's kingship. As de facto ruler during Richard's minority, he made unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, when the rebels destroyed his home in London, the Savoy Palace. Unlike some of Richard's unpopular advisors, John was away from London at the time of the uprising and thus avoided the direct wrath of the rebels.

    In 1386 John left England to seek the throne of Castile, claimed in Jure uxoris by right of his second wife, Constance of Castile, whom he had married in 1371. However, crisis ensued almost immediately in his absence, and in 1387 King Richard's misrule brought England to the brink of civil war. Only John, on his return to England in 1389, succeeded in persuading the Lords Appellant and King Richard to compromise to usher in a period of relative stability. During the 1390s, John's reputation of devotion to the well-being of the kingdom was largely restored.

    Sometime after the death of Blanche of Lancaster in 1368 and the birth of their first son, John Beaufort, in 1373, John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford, the daughter of an ordinary knight, entered into an extra-marital love affair that would produce four children for the couple. All of them were born out of wedlock, but legitimized upon their parents' eventual marriage. The adulterous relationship endured until 1381, when it was broken out of political necessity.[6] On 13 January 1396, two years after the death of Constance of Castile, Katherine and John of Gaunt married in Lincoln Cathedral. The children bore the surname "Beaufort" after a former French possession of the duke. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married. A later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne, the phrase excepta regali dignitate ("except royal status"), was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV.

    John died of natural causes on 3 February 1399 at Leicester Castle, with his third wife Katherine by his side.

    Military commander in France

    Because of his rank, John of Gaunt was one of England's principal military commanders in the 1370s and 1380s, though his enterprises were never rewarded with the kind of dazzling success that had made his elder brother Edward the Black Prince such a charismatic war leader.

    On the resumption of war with France in 1369, John was sent to Calais with the Earl of Hereford and a small English army with which he raided into northern France. On 23 August, he was confronted by a much larger French army under Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Exercising his first command, John dared not attack such a superior force and the two armies faced each other across a marsh for several weeks until the English were reinforced by the Earl of Warwick, at which the French withdrew without offering battle. John and Warwick then decided to strike Harfleur, the base of the French fleet on the Seine. Further reinforced by German mercenaries, they marched on Harfleur, but were delayed by French guerilla operations while the town prepared for a siege. John invested the town for four days in October, but he was losing so many men to dysentery and bubonic plague that he decided to abandon the siege and return to Calais. During this retreat, the army had to fight its way across the Somme at the ford of Blanchetaque against a French army led by Hugh de Chăatillon, who was captured and sold to Edward III. By the middle of November, the survivors of the sickly army returned to Calais, where the Earl of Warwick died of plague. Though it seemed an inglorious conclusion to the campaign, John had forced the French king, Charles V, to abandon his plans to invade England that autumn.[7]

    In the summer of 1370, John was sent with a small army to Aquitaine to reinforce his ailing elder brother, the Black Prince, and his younger brother Edmund of Langley, Earl of Cambridge. With them, he participated in the Siege of Limoges (September 1370). He took charge of the siege operations and at one point engaging in hand-to-hand fighting in the undermining tunnels.[8] After this event, the Black Prince surrendered his lordship of Aquitaine and sailed for England, leaving John in charge. Though he attempted to defend the duchy against French encroachment for nearly a year, lack of resources and money meant he could do little but husband what small territory the English still controlled, and he resigned the command in September 1371 and returned to England.[9] Just before leaving Aquitaine, he married the Infanta Constance of Castile on September 1371 at Roquefort, near Bordeaux, Guienne. The following year he took part with his father, Edward III, in an abortive attempt to invade France with a large army, which was frustrated by three months of unfavourable winds.

    Probably John's most notable feat of arms occurred in August–December 1373, when he attempted to relieve Aquitaine by the landward route, leading an army of some 9,000 mounted men from Calais on a great chevauchâee from north-eastern to south-western France on a 900 kilometre raid. This four-month ride through enemy territory, evading French armies on the way, was a bold stroke that impressed contemporaries but achieved virtually nothing. Beset on all sides by French ambushes and plagued by disease and starvation, John of Gaunt and his raiders battled their way through Champagne, east of Paris, into Burgundy, across the Massif Central, and finally down into Dordogne. Unable to attack any strongly fortified forts and cities, the raiders plundered the countryside, which weakened the French infrastructure, but the military value of the damage was only temporary. Marching in winter across the Limousin plateau, with stragglers being picked off by the French, huge numbers of the army, and even larger numbers of horses, died of cold, disease or starvation. The army reached English-occupied Bordeaux on 24 December 1373, severely weakened in numbers with the loss of least one-third of their force in action and another third to disease. Upon arrival in Bordeaux, many more succumbed to the bubonic plague that was raging in the city. Sick, demoralised and mutinous, the army was in no shape to defend Aquitaine, and soldiers began to desert. John had no funds with which to pay them, and despite his entreaties, none were sent from England, so in April 1374, he abandoned the enterprise and sailed for home.[10]

    John's final campaign in France took place in 1378. He planned a 'great expedition' of mounted men in a large armada of ships to land at Brest and take control of Brittany. Not enough ships could be found to transport the horses, and the expedition was tasked with the more limited objective of capturing St. Malo. The English destroyed the shipping in St. Malo harbour and began to assault the town by land on 14 August, but John was soon hampered by the size of his army, which was unable to forage because French armies under Olivier de Clisson and Bertrand du Guesclin occupied the surrounding countryside, harrying the edges of his force. In September, the siege was simply abandoned and the army returned ingloriously to England. John of Gaunt received most of the blame for the debăacle.[11]

    Partly as a result of these failures, and those of other English commanders at this period, John was one of the first important figures in England to conclude that the war with France was unwinnable because of France's greater resources of wealth and manpower. He began to advocate peace negotiations; indeed, as early as 1373, during his great raid through France, he made contact with Guillaume Roger, brother and political adviser of Pope Gregory XI, to let the pope know he would be interested in a diplomatic conference under papal auspices. This approach led indirectly to the Anglo-French Congress of Bruges in 1374–77, which resulted in the short-lived Truce of Bruges between the two sides.[12] John was himself a delegate to the various conferences that eventually resulted in the Truce of Leulinghem in 1389. The fact that he became identified with the attempts to make peace added to his unpopularity at a period when the majority of Englishmen believed victory would be in their grasp if only the French could be defeated decisively as they had been in the 1350s. Another motive was John's conviction that it was only by making peace with France would it be possible to release sufficient manpower to enforce his claim to the throne of Castile.

    Head of government

    On his return from France in 1374, John took a more decisive and persistent role in the direction of English foreign policy. From then until 1377, he was effectively the head of the English government due to the illness of his father and elder brother, who were unable to exercise authority. His vast estates made him the richest man in England, and his great wealth, ostentatious display of it, autocratic manner and attitudes, enormous London mansion (the Savoy Palace on the Strand) and association with the failed peace process at Bruges combined to make him the most visible target of social resentments. His time at the head of government was marked by the so-called Good Parliament of 1376 and the Bad Parliament of 1377. The first, called to grant massive war taxation to the Crown, turned into a parliamentary revolution, with the Commons (supported to some extent by the Lords) venting their grievances at decades of crippling taxation, misgovernment, and suspected endemic corruption among the ruling classes. John was left isolated (even the Black Prince supported the need for reform) and the Commons refused to grant money for the war unless most of the great officers of state were dismissed and the king's mistress Alice Perrers, another focus of popular resentment, was barred from any further association with him. But even after the government acceded to virtually all their demands, the Commons then refused to authorise any funds for the war, losing the sympathy of the Lords as a result.

    The death of the Black Prince on 8 June 1376 and the onset of Edward III's last illness at the closing of Parliament on 10 July left John with all the reins of power. He immediately had the ailing king grant pardons to all the officials impeached by the Parliament; Alice Perrers too was reinstated at the heart of the king's household. John impeached William of Wykeham and other leaders of the reform movement, and secured their conviction on old or trumped-up charges. The parliament of 1377 was John's counter-coup: crucially, the Lords no longer supported the Commons and John was able to have most of the acts of 1376 annulled. He also succeeded in forcing the Commons to agree to the imposition of the first Poll Tax in English history — a viciously regressive measure that bore hardest on the poorest members of society.[13] There was organised opposition to his measures and rioting in London; John of Gaunt's arms were reversed or defaced wherever they were displayed, and protestors pasted up lampoons on his supposedly dubious birth. At one point he was forced to take refuge across the Thames, while his Savoy Palace only just escaped looting.[14] It was rumoured (and believed by many people in England and France) that he intended to seize the throne for himself and supplant the rightful heir, his nephew Richard, the son of the Black Prince, but there seems to have been no truth in this and on the death of Edward III and the accession of the child Richard II, John sought no position of regency for himself and withdrew to his estates.[15]

    John's personal unpopularity persisted, however, and the failure of his expedition to Saint-Malo in 1378 did nothing for his reputation. By this time, too, some of his possessions were taken from him by the Crown. For example, his ship, the Dieulagarde, was seized and bundled with other royal ships to be sold (to pay off the debts of Sir Robert de Crull, who during the latter part of King Edward III's reign had been the Clerk of the King's Ships, and had advanced monies to pay for the king's ships .[16] During the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, John of Gaunt was far from the centre of events, on the March of Scotland, but he was among those named by the rebels as a traitor to be beheaded as soon as he could be found. The Savoy Palace was systematically destroyed by the mob and burned to the ground. Nominally friendly lords and even his own fortresses closed their gates to him, and John was forced to flee into Scotland with a handful of retainers and throw himself on the charity of King Robert II of Scotland until the crisis was over.[17]

    King of Castile

    Upon his marriage to the Infanta Constance of Castile in 1371, John assumed (officially from 29 January 1372) the title of King of Castile and Leâon in right of his wife, and insisted his fellow English nobles henceforth address him as 'my lord of Spain'.[18] He impaled his arms with those of the Spanish kingdom. From 1372, John gathered around himself a small court of refugee Castilian knights and ladies and set up a Castilian chancery that prepared documents in his name according to the style of Peter of Castile, dated by the Castilian era and signed by himself with the Spanish formula 'Yo El Rey' ("I, the King").[19] He hatched several schemes to make good his claim with an army, but for many years these were still-born due to lack of finance or the conflicting claims of war in France or with Scotland. It was only in 1386, after Portugal under its new King John I had entered into full alliance with England, that he was actually able to land with an army in Spain and mount a campaign for the throne of Castile (that ultimately failed). John sailed from England on 9 July 1386 with a huge Anglo-Portuguese fleet carrying an army of about 5,000 men plus an extensive 'royal' household and his wife and daughters. Pausing on the journey to use his army to drive off the French forces who were then besieging Brest, he landed at Corunna in northern Spain on 29 July.


    John of Gaunt dines with John I of Portugal, to discuss a joint Anglo-Portuguese invasion of Castile (from Jean de Wavrin's Chronique d'Angleterre).
    The Castilian king, John of Trastâamara, had expected John would land in Portugal and had concentrated his forces on the Portuguese border. He was wrong-footed by John's decision to invade Galicia, the most distant and disaffected of Castile's kingdoms. From August to October, John of Gaunt set up a rudimentary court and chancery at Ourense and received the submission of the Galician nobility and most of the towns of Galicia, though they made their homage to him conditional on his being recognised as king by the rest of Castile. While John of Gaunt had gambled on an early decisive battle, the Castilians were in no hurry to join battle, and he began to experience difficulties keeping his army together and paying it. In November, he met King John I of Portugal at Ponte do Mouro on the south side of the Minho River and concluded an agreement with him to make a joint Anglo-Portuguese invasion of central Castile early in 1387. The treaty was sealed by the marriage of John's eldest daughter Philippa to the Portuguese king. A large part of John's army had succumbed to sickness, however, and when the invasion was mounted, they were far outnumbered by their Portuguese allies. The campaign of April–June 1387 was an ignominious failure. The Castilians refused to offer battle and the Galician-Anglo-Portuguese troops, apart from time-wasting sieges of fortified towns, were reduced to foraging for food in the arid Spanish landscape. They were harried mainly by French mercenaries of the Castilian king. Many hundreds of English, including close friends and retainers of John of Gaunt, died of disease or exhaustion. Many deserted or abandoned the army to ride north under French safe-conducts. Shortly after the army returned to Portugal, John of Gaunt concluded a secret treaty with John of Trastâamara under which he and his wife renounced all claim to the Castilian throne in return for a large annual payment and the marriage of their daughter Catherine to John of Trastâamara's son Henry.

    Duke of Aquitaine

    John left Portugal for Aquitaine, and he remained in that province until he returned to England in November 1389. This effectively kept him off the scene while England endured the major political crisis of the conflict between Richard II and the Lords Appellant, who were led by John of Gaunt's younger brother Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester. Only four months after his return to England, in March 1390, Richard II formally invested Gaunt with the Duchy of Aquitaine, thus providing him with the overseas territory he had long desired. However he did not immediately return to the province, but remained in England and mainly ruled through seneschals as an absentee duke. His administration of the province was a disappointment, and his appointment as duke was much resented by the Gascons, since Aquitaine had previously always been held directly by the king of England or his heir; it was not felt to be a fief that a king could bestow on a subordinate. In 1394–95, he was forced to spend nearly a year in Gascony to shore up his position in the face of threats of secession by the Gascon nobles. He was one of England's principal negotiators in the diplomatic exchanges with France that led to the Truce of Leulingham in 1396, and he initially agreed to join the French-led Crusade that ended in the disastrous Battle of Nicopolis, but withdrew due to ill-health and the political problems in Gascony and England.[20] For the remainder of his life, John of Gaunt occupied the role of valued counsellor of the king and loyal supporter of the Crown. He did not even protest, it seems, when his younger brother Thomas was murdered at Richard's behest. It may be that he felt he had to maintain this posture of loyalty to protect his son Henry Bolingbroke (the future Henry IV), who had also been one of the Lords Appellant, from Richard's wrath; but in 1398 Richard had Bolingbroke exiled, and on John of Gaunt's death the next year he disinherited Bolingbroke completely, seizing John's vast estates for the Crown.

    Relationship to Chaucer

    John of Gaunt was a patron and close friend of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer, most famously known for his work The Canterbury Tales. Near the end of their lives, Lancaster and Chaucer became brothers-in-law. Chaucer married Philippa (Pan) de Roet in 1366, and Lancaster took his mistress of nearly 30 years, Katherine Swynford (de Roet), who was Philippa Chaucer's sister, as his third wife in 1396. Although Philippa died c. 1387, the men were bound as brothers and Lancaster's children by Katherine – John, Henry, Thomas and Joan Beaufort – were Chaucer's nephews and niece.

    Chaucer's Book of the Duchess, also known as the Deeth of Blaunche the Duchesse,[21] was written in commemoration of Blanche of Lancaster, John of Gaunt's first wife. The poem refers to John and Blanche in allegory as the narrator relates the tale of "A long castel with walles white/Be Seynt Johan, on a ryche hil" (1318–1319) who is mourning grievously after the death of his love, "And goode faire White she het/That was my lady name ryght" (948–949). The phrase "long castel" is a reference to Lancaster (also called "Loncastel" and "Longcastell"), "walles white" is thought to likely be an oblique reference to Blanche, "Seynt Johan" was John of Gaunt's name-saint, and "ryche hil" is a reference to Richmond; these thinly veiled references reveal the identity of the grieving black knight of the poem as John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Earl of Richmond. "White" is the English translation of the French word "blanche", implying that the white lady was Blanche of Lancaster.[22]

    Believed to have been written in the 1390s, Chaucer's short poem Fortune, is also inferred to directly reference Lancaster.[23][24] "Chaucer as narrator" openly defies Fortune, proclaiming he has learned who his enemies are through her tyranny and deceit, and declares "my suffisaunce" (15) and that "over himself hath the maystrye" (14). Fortune, in turn, does not understand Chaucer's harsh words to her for she believes she has been kind to him, claims that he does not know what she has in store for him in the future, but most importantly, "And eek thou hast thy beste frend alyve" (32, 40, 48). Chaucer retorts that "My frend maystow nat reven, blind goddesse" (50) and orders her to take away those who merely pretend to be his friends. Fortune turns her attention to three princes whom she implores to relieve Chaucer of his pain and "Preyeth his beste frend of his noblesse/That to som beter estat he may atteyne" (78–79). The three princes are believed to represent the dukes of Lancaster, York, and Gloucester, and a portion of line 76, "as three of you or tweyne," to refer to the ordinance of 1390 which specified that no royal gift could be authorised without the consent of at least two of the three dukes.[23] Most conspicuous in this short poem is the number of references to Chaucer's "beste frend". Fortune states three times in her response to the plaintiff, "And also, you still have your best friend alive" (32, 40, 48); she also references his "beste frend" in the envoy when appealing to his "noblesse" to help Chaucer to a higher estate. A fifth reference is made by "Chaucer as narrator" who rails at Fortune that she shall not take his friend from him. While the envoy playfully hints to Lancaster that Chaucer would certainly appreciate a boost to his status or income, the poem Fortune distinctively shows his deep appreciation and affection for John of Gaunt.

    Marriages

    Coat of arms of John of Gaunt asserting his kingship over Castile and Leâon, combining the Castilian castle and lion with lilies of France, the lions of England and his heraldic difference

    On 19 May 1359 at Reading Abbey, John married his third cousin, Blanche of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. The wealth she brought to the marriage was the foundation of John's fortune. Blanche died on 12 September 1368 at Tutbury Castle, while her husband was overseas. Their son Henry Bolingbroke became Henry IV of England, after the duchy of Lancaster was taken by Richard II upon John's death while Henry was in exile. Their daughter Philippa became Queen of Portugal by marrying King John I of Portugal in 1387. All subsequent kings of Portugal were thus descended from John of Gaunt.

    In 1371, John married Infanta Constance of Castile, daughter of King Peter of Castile, thus giving him a claim to the Crown of Castile, which he would pursue. Though John was never able to make good his claim, his daughter by Constance, Catherine of Lancaster, became Queen of Castile by marrying Henry III of Castile. Catherine of Aragon is descended from this line.

    During his marriage to Constance, John of Gaunt had fathered four children by a mistress, the widow Katherine Swynford (whose sister Philippa de Roet was married to Chaucer). Prior to her widowhood, Katherine had borne at least two, possibly three, children to Lancastrian knight Sir Hugh Swynford. The known names of these children are Blanche and Thomas. (There may have been a second Swynford daughter.) John of Gaunt was Blanche Swynford's godfather.[25]
    Constance died in 1394.

    John married Katherine in 1396, and their children, the Beauforts, were legitimised by King Richard II and the Church, but barred from inheriting the throne. From the eldest son, John, descended a granddaughter, Margaret Beaufort, whose son, later King Henry VII of England, would nevertheless claim the throne.

    Queen Elizabeth II and her predecessors since Henry IV are descended from John of Gaunt.

    Children

    1640 drawing of tombs of Katherine Swynford and daughter Joan Beaufort

    By Blanche of Lancaster:

    Philippa (1360–1415) married King John I of Portugal (1357–1433).
    John (1362–1365) was the first-born son of John and Blanche of Lancaster and lived possibly at least until after the birth of his brother Edward of Lancaster in 1365 and died before his second brother another short lived boy called John in 1366.[26] He was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester.
    Elizabeth (1364–1426), married (1) in 1380 John Hastings, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1372–1389), annulled 1383; married (2) in 1386 John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter (1350–1400); (3) Sir John Cornwall, 1st Baron Fanhope and Milbroke (d. 1443)
    Edward (1365) died within a year of his birth and was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester.
    John (1366–1367) most likely died after the birth of his younger brother Henry, the future Henry IV of England; he was buried at the Church of St Mary de Castro, Leicester
    Henry IV of England (1367–1413) married (1) Mary de Bohun (1369–1394); (2) Joanna of Navarre (1368–1437)
    Isabel (1368–1368)[27][28]

    By Constance of Castile:

    Catherine (1372–1418), married King Henry III of Castile (1379–1406)
    John (1374–1375)[28][29]

    By Katherine Swynford (nâee de Roet/Roelt), mistress and later wife (children legitimised 1397):

    John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373–1410)—married Margaret Holland.
    Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester and Cardinal (1375–1447)
    Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter (1377–1427), married Margaret Neville, daughter of Sir Thomas de Neville and Joan Furnivall.
    Joan Beaufort (1379–1440)—married first Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem and second Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland.

    By Marie de St. Hilaire of Hainaut, mistress:

    Blanche (1359–1388/89), illegitimate, married Sir Thomas Morieux (1355–1387) in 1381, without issue. Blanche was the daughter of John's mistress, Marie de St. Hilaire of Hainaut (1340-after 1399), who was a lady-in-waiting to his mother, Queen Philippa. The affair apparently took place before John's first marriage to Blanche of Lancaster. John's daughter, Blanche, married Sir Thomas Morieux in 1381. Morieux held several important posts, including Constable of the Tower the year he was married, and Master of Horse to King Richard II two years later. He died in 1387 after six years of marriage.

    Buried:
    St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London. Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604.[1] The present church, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren. Its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London.[2]

    The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, dominated the skyline for 300 years.[3] At 365 feet (111 m) high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1962. The dome is among the highest in the world. St Paul's is the second largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral.

    St Paul's Cathedral occupies a significant place in the national identity.[4] It is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz.[4] Services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Winston Churchill; Jubilee celebrations for Queen Victoria; peace services marking the end of the First and Second World Wars; the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer, the launch of the Festival of Britain and the thanksgiving services for the Golden Jubilee, the 80th Birthday and the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.

    St Paul's Cathedral is a working church with hourly prayer and daily services.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral

    Died:
    Leicester Castle was built over the Roman town walls.

    According to Leicester Museums, the castle was probably built around 1070 (soon after the Norman Conquest in 1066)[2] under the governorship of Hugh de Grantmesnil. The remains now consist of a mound, along with ruins. Originally the mound was 40 ft (12.2 m) high. Kings sometimes stayed at the castle (Edward I in 1300, and Edward II in 1310 and 1311), and John of Gaunt and his second wife Constance of Castile both died here in 1399 and 1394 respectively.

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leicester_Castle

    John married Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster 0___ 1396, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. Katherine (daughter of Paon de Roet, Knight and unnamed spouse) was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France; died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 19.  Katherine de Roet, Duchess of LancasterKatherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France (daughter of Paon de Roet, Knight and unnamed spouse); died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Katherine Swynford

    Notes:

    Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster (also spelled Katharine or Catherine[2]), was the third wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, a son of King Edward III. She had been the Duke's lover for many years before their marriage. The couple's children, born before the marriage, were later legitimated during the reign of the Duke's nephew, Richard II, although with the provision that neither they nor their descendants could ever claim the throne of England.

    Their descendants were members of the Beaufort family, which played a major role in the Wars of the Roses. Henry VII, who became King of England in 1485, derived his claim to the throne from his mother Margaret Beaufort, who was a great-granddaughter of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford. His legal claim to the throne, however, was through a matrilineal and previously illegitimate line and Henry's first action was to declare himself king "by right of conquest" retroactively from 21 August 1485, the day before his army defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth.[3]

    Family

    Katherine was the daughter of Paon de Roet, a herald, and later knight, who was "probably christened as Gilles".[4] She had two sisters, Philippa and Isabel (also called Elizabeth) de Roet, and a brother, Walter. Isabel later became Canoness of the convent of St. Waudru's, Mons, c. 1366. Katherine is generally held to have been his youngest child. However, Alison Weir argues that Philippa was the junior and that both were children of a second marriage.[4] Katherine's sister Philippa, a lady of Queen Philippa's household, married the poet Geoffrey Chaucer.

    Life

    She was probably born in Hainaut in 1349 or 1350. Katherine's birth date may have been 25 November, as that is the feast day of her patron, St. Catherine of Alexandria.[citation needed] The family returned to England in 1351, and it is likely that Katherine stayed there during her father's continued travels.

    In about 1366, at St Clement Danes Church, Westminster, Katherine, aged sixteen or seventeen, contracted an advantageous marriage with "Hugh" Ottes Swynford, a Knight from the manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire, the son of Thomas Swynford by his marriage to Nicole Druel. She had the following children by him: Blanche (born 1 May 1367), Thomas (21 September 1368 – 1432), and possibly Margaret Swynford (born about 1369), later recorded as a nun of the prestigious Barking Abbey nominated by command of King Richard II.

    Katherine became attached to the household of John of Gaunt as governess to his daughters Philippa of Lancaster and Elizabeth of Lancaster. The ailing duchess Blanche had Katherine's daughter Blanche (her namesake) placed within her own daughters' chambers and afforded the same luxuries as her daughters; additionally, John of Gaunt stood as godfather to the child.

    Some time after Blanche's death in 1368 and the birth of their first son in 1373, Katherine and John of Gaunt entered into a love affair that would produce four children for the couple, born out of wedlock but legitimized upon their parents' eventual marriage; the adulterous relationship endured until 1381 when it was truncated out of political necessity[5] and ruined Katherine's reputation. On 13 January 1396, two years after the death of the Duke's second wife, Infanta Constance of Castile, Katherine and John of Gaunt married in Lincoln Cathedral. Records of their marriage kept in the Tower and elsewhere list: 'John of Ghaunt, Duke of Lancaster, married Katharine daughter of Guyon King of Armes in the time of K. Edward the 3, and Geffrey Chaucer her sister'.

    On John of Gaunt's death, Katherine became known as dowager Duchess of Lancaster. She outlived him by four years, dying on 10 May 1403, in her early fifties, an age that most of the women in the 15th century did not reach.

    Tomb

    Katherine Swynford's tomb in 1809
    Katherine's tomb and that of her daughter, Joan Beaufort, are under a carved-stone canopy in the sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral. Joan's is the smaller of the two tombs; both were decorated with brass plates — full-length representations of them on the tops, and small shields bearing coats of arms around the sides and on the top — but those were damaged or destroyed in 1644 during the English Civil War. A hurried drawing by William Dugdale records their appearance.

    Children and descendants

    Katherine's children by Hugh Swynford were:

    Margaret Swynford (born c. 1369), became a nun at the prestigious Barking Abbey in 1377 with help from her future stepfather John of Gaunt, where she lived the religious life with her cousin Elizabeth Chaucer, daughter of the famous Geoffrey Chaucer and Katherine's sister Philippa de Roet.[4]
    Sir Thomas Swynford (1367–1432), born in Lincoln while his father Sir Hugh Swynford was away on a campaign with the Duke of Lancaster in Castile fighting for Peter of Castile.[4][6]
    Blanche Swynford, named after the Duchess of Lancaster and a godchild of John of Gaunt. (If, as suggested, she was born after 1375, this date is too late for her to have been fathered by Hugh Swynford, who died in 1371/2. However, since John of Gaunt obtained a dispensation for his marriage to Katherine for being Blanche Swynford's godchild, this theory can be discarded).[4]
    In 1846 Thomas Stapleton suggested that there was a further daughter named Dorothy Swynford, born c. 1366, who married Thomas Thimelby of Poolham near Horncastle, Lincolnshire, Sheriff of Lincolnshire in 1380, but there is no current evidence to support this claim.[4]

    Katherine's children by John of Gaunt were:

    John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373–1410)
    Henry, Cardinal Beaufort (1375–1447)
    Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter (1377–1426)
    Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland (1379–1440)
    The descendants of Katherine Swynford and John of Gaunt are significant in English and Scottish history. Their four children had been given the surname "Beaufort" and with the approval of King Richard II and the Pope were legitimated as adults by their parents' marriage in 1396. Despite this, the Beauforts were barred from inheriting the throne of England by a clause in the legitimation act inserted by their half-brother, Henry IV, although modern scholarship disputes the authority of a monarch to alter an existing parliamentary statute on his own authority, without the further approval of Parliament. This provision was later revoked by Edward IV, placing Katherine's descendants (including himself) back within the legitimate line of inheritance; the Tudor dynasty was directly descended from John and Katherine's eldest child, John Beaufort, great-grandfather of Henry VII, who based his claim to the throne on his mother's descent from John of Gaunt, a son of Edward III. John Beaufort also had a daughter named Joan Beaufort, who married James I of Scotland and thus was an ancestress of the House of Stuart.[7] John and Katherine's daughter, Joan Beaufort, was grandmother of the English kings Edward IV and Richard III, the latter of whom Henry Tudor (thus becoming by conquest Henry VII) defeated at the Battle of Bosworth Field; Henry's claim was strengthened by marrying Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV. It was also through Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland that the sixth queen of Henry VIII, Catherine Parr, descended.[8] John of Gaunt's son — Katherine's stepson Henry of Bolingbroke — became Henry IV after deposing Richard II (who was imprisoned and died in Pontefract Castle, where Katherine's son, Thomas Swynford, was constable and is said to have starved Richard to death for his step-brother). John of Gaunt's daughter by his first marriage to Blanche of Lancaster, Philippa of Lancaster, was great-great-grandmother to Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII and mother of Mary I of England. John of Gaunt's child by his second wife Constance, Catherine (or Catalina), was great-grandmother of Catherine of Aragon as well.

    In literature

    Katherine Swynford is the subject of Anya Seton's novel Katherine (published in 1954) and of Alison Weir's 2008 biography Katherine Swynford: The Story of John of Gaunt and his Scandalous Duchess (ISBN 0-224-06321-9). Swynford is also the subject of Jeannette Lucraft's historical biography Katherine Swynford: The History of a Medieval Mistress. This book seeks to establish Swynford as a powerful figure in the politics of 14th-century England and an example of a woman's ability to manipulate contemporary social mores for her own interests.

    Coat of arms of Katherine Swynford as Duchess of Lancaster, after her marriage to John of Gaunt : three gold Catherine wheels ("roet" means "little wheel" in Old French) on a red field. The wheel emblem shows Katherine's devotion to her patron saint, Catherine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel.,[4] although there was once extant a copy of her seal's impression, ca. 1377, showing her arms of three Catherine wheels of gold on a field Gules, a molet in fess point empaling the arms of Swynford (Birch's Catalogue of Seals

    Buried:
    Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. Mary's Cathedral) is a cathedral located in Lincoln in England and seat of the Bishop of Lincoln in the Church of England. Building commenced in 1088 and continued in several phases throughout the medieval period. It was reputedly the tallest building in the world for 238 years (1311–1549).[1][2][3] The central spire collapsed in 1549 and was not rebuilt. The cathedral is the third largest in Britain (in floor space) after St Paul's and York Minster, being 484 by 271 feet (148 by 83 m). It is highly regarded by architectural scholars; the eminent Victorian writer John Ruskin declared: "I have always held... that the cathedral of Lincoln is out and out the most precious piece of architecture in the British Isles and roughly speaking worth any two other cathedrals we have."

    more ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln_Cathedral

    Notes:

    Married:
    formerly his mistress...

    Children:
    1. John Beaufort, III, Knight, 1st Earl of Somerset was born 1371-1373, Chateau de Beaufrot, Anjou, France; died 14 Mar 1410, Hospital of St. Katherine's by the Tower, London, England; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    2. Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter was born 0___ 1377; died 0___ 1427.
    3. 9. Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland was born ~ 1379, Chateau Beaufort, Anjou, France; died 13 Nov 1440, Howden, Yorkshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.

  5. 20.  John Montacute, Knight, 3rd Earl of Salisbury was born ~ 1350, (Salisbury) England (son of John Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute and Margaret Monthermer); died 5 Jan 1400, (England); was buried Bisham Priory, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 5th and 2nd Baron Montacute
    • Also Known As: Baron Montacute

    Notes:

    Early life

    He was the son of Sir John de Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute (died in 1390), and Margaret de Monthermer.[3] His father was the younger brother of William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury. His mother was the daughter of Thomas de Monthermer, 2nd Baron de Monthermer (1301 – Battle of Sluys, 1340), and Margaret Teyes (died in 1349), and granddaughter and heiress of Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer, and Joan of Acre.[4] As a young man Montagu or Montacute distinguished himself in the war with France, and then went to fight against the pagans in Prussia, probably on the expedition led by Henry Bolingbroke (the future Henry IV of England). Bolingbroke was to entrust his young son and heir, later Henry V, to the care of Sir John and his wife Maud following the death of his wife Mary de Bohun. Lady Margaret cared for the young boy at a Montacute house in Welsh Bicknor near Monmouth until her death in 1395.

    He was summoned to parliament in 1391 as Baron Montagu. Montagu was a favorite of the King during the early years of the reign of Richard II. He accompanied the King during his expeditions to Ireland in 1394 and 1395, and as a privy councillor was one of the principal advocates of the King's marriage to Isabella of Valois. During the trips to France associated with the marriage, he met and encouraged Christine de Pisan, whose son was educated in the Montacute household. Montacute was a prominent Lollard, and was remonstrated by the King for this.

    With the death of his mother around this time, John inherited the barony of Monthermer and its estates. In 1397, he became Earl of Salisbury on the death of his uncle and inherited Bisham Manor and other estates. He continued as one of the major aristocratic allies of King Richard II, helping to secure the fall of the Duke of Gloucester and the Earl of Warwick. He persuaded the king to spare the life of Warwick. He received a portion of the forfeited Warwick estates, and in 1399 was made a Knight of the Garter.

    Early in 1399, he went to on a successful mission to France to prevent the proposed marriage of Henry Bolingbroke and a daughter of the Duke of Berry. In May, he again accompanied Richard II on an expedition to Ireland. When news reached them of that Bolingbroke had returned to England, Montacute was sent to Wales to raise opposing forces. When these deserted, Montacute advised King Richard to flee to Bordeaux. Instead Richard was imprisoned, Henry took the throne and, in the October, Montacute was arrested along with many of Richard's former councillors, and held in the Tower of London.

    Issue

    By Maud Francis, John had three sons and three daughters:

    Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury (c. 1388–1428), married firstly Lady Eleanor Holland, daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent and Lady Alice FitzAlan by whom he had issue.[3] Their descendants include Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick and Queen consort Catherine Parr, sixth wife of Henry VIII. Thomas married secondly, Alice Chaucer by whom he had no issue.[3][5]
    Robert Montecute, married Mary deDevon
    Richard Montacute (d. after 1400), never married; died d.s.p (decessit sine prole).[3][6][7]
    Anne Montacute (d.1457), who married firstly (as his 2nd wife) Sir Richard II Hankford[3] (c.1397-1431) of Annery, Monkleigh in Devon, feudal baron of Bampton in Devon.[8] Their descendants include Queen consort Anne Boleyn, second wife of Henry VIII. After the death of Sir Richard, Anne married secondly Sir John FitzLewis by whom she had further issue, and thirdly, she married John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter by whom she had no issue.[3][9]
    Margaret Montacute (d. before 1416), married William Ferrers, 5th Baron Ferrers of Groby; no issue.[3][5]
    Elizabeth Montacute (d. about 1448), married Robert Willoughby, 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby;[3] they had one daughter, Joan, who became suo jure 7th Baroness.[10]

    Downfall and death

    Montacute had to answer charges related to the arrest and subsequent death of the Duke of Gloucester in 1397. Eventually he was released, due to the intercession of King Henry's sister Elizabeth, Countess of Huntingdon. Not long after his release, Montacute joined with the Earl of Huntingdon and a group of other barons in the Epiphany Rising, a plot to kill King Henry IV and restore Richard II. After the plot failed, mob violence ensued, and he was caught by a mob of townspeople at Cirencester, held without trial, and executed by beheading on 7 January 1400. His eldest son, Thomas – by Maud Francis daughter of London citizen, Adam Francis – eventually recovered the earldom, though the attainder against John Montacute was not reversed until the accession of Edward IV in 1461.

    Died:
    the Earl of Salisbury was executed for treason by King Henry IV

    John married Maud Francis, Countess of Salisbury (England). Maud (daughter of Adam Francis and Agnes Champnes) was born ~ 1370, London, Middlesex, England; died ~ 1424, (England). [Group Sheet]


  6. 21.  Maud Francis, Countess of Salisbury was born ~ 1370, London, Middlesex, England (daughter of Adam Francis and Agnes Champnes); died ~ 1424, (England).

    Notes:

    Maud Montacute, Countess of Salisbury (c. 1370 – c. 1424) was the foster mother of the future King Henry V of England, after the death of his mother.

    She was born Maud Francis, daughter of Sir Adam Francis, born ca. 1334, Mayor of London, and Alice Champneis, born in 1338, both born in London. She was married and widowed three times. Her first husband was John Aubrey (son of another mayor of London, Andrew Aubrey) and her second Sir Alan Buxhull, KG in 1372.

    Her third husband was John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, and they had five children:

    Richard Montacute
    Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury
    Lady Anne Montacute
    Lady Margaret Montacute
    Lady Elizabeth Montacute
    Following the death of Mary de Bohun, her son, Henry of Monmouth, was given into the care of the Earl and Countess of Salisbury by his father, Henry Bolingbroke, the future King Henry IV of England. They cared for him at the manor of Courtfield in Herefordshire. An effigy in the church at Welsh Bicknor is believed to be that of the countess.

    In 1400, the Earl of Salisbury was executed for treason by King Henry IV. In 1420, Maud petitioned King Henry V to have the earl's remains transferred from Cirencester Abbey to Bisham Priory.

    Children:
    1. Anne Montacute was born (Salisbury) England; died 28 Nov 1457, England.
    2. 10. Thomas Montacute, Knight, 4th Earl of Salisbury was born 13 Jun 1388, (Salisbury) England; died 3 Nov 1428, Orleans, France.
    3. Margaret Montacute was born (Salisbury) England.
    4. Elizabeth Montacute was born (Salisbury) England.

  7. 22.  Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of KentThomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent was born 1350-1354, Upholland, Lancashire, England (son of Thomas Holland, Knight, 1st Earl of Kent and Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent); died 25 Apr 1397, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: La Rioja, Spain
    • Also Known As: Baron Holand
    • Also Known As: Thomas de Holand
    • Military:
    • Military: 3 Apr 1367; Battle of Nâajera

    Notes:

    Thomas Holland (also known as de Holland),[1] 2nd Earl of Kent, 3rd Baron Holand KG (1350/1354 - 25 April 1397) was an English nobleman and a councillor of his half-brother, King Richard II of England.

    Family and early Life

    Thomas Holland (or de Holand)[1] was born in Upholand, Lancashire, in 1350[1][3] or 1354[2][4] (sources differ on his birth year). He was the eldest surviving son of Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent".[5] His mother was a daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, and Margaret Wake. Edmund was in turn a son of Edward I of England and his second Queen consort Marguerite of France, and thus a younger half-brother of Edward II of England.
    His father died in 1360, and later that year, on 28 December, Thomas became Baron Holand.[3] His mother was still Countess of Kent in her own right, and in 1361 she married Edward, the Black Prince, the son of King Edward III.

    Military career

    At sixteen, in 1366, Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine.[6] Over the next decade he fought in various campaigns, including the Battle of Nâajera, under the command of his stepfather Edward, the Black Prince. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1375.[6]

    Richard II became king in 1377, and soon Holland acquired great influence over his younger half-brother, which he used for his own enrichment. In 1381, he succeeded as Earl of Kent.[6]

    Later years and death

    Prior to his death, Holland was appointed Governor of Carisbrooke Castle.[6] Holland died at Arundel Castle, Sussex, England on 25 April 1397.[1]

    Marriage and progeny

    On 10 April 1364 Holland married Lady Alice FitzAlan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel by his wife Eleanor of Lancaster .[1][2] By his wife he had progeny three sons and six daughters. All the sons died without legitimate progeny, whereupon the daughters and their issue became co-heiresses to the House of Holland. The progeny were as follows:

    Sons

    Thomas Holland, 3rd Earl of Kent, 1st Duke of Surrey (1374 – 7 January 1400), eldest son and heir, created Duke of Surrey. Died without progeny.

    Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent (6 January 1384 – 15 September 1408), heir to his elder brother. Died without legitimate progeny, but had an illegitimate child by his mistress Constance of York.

    John Holland, died without progeny

    Daughters

    Through the marriages of his daughters, he became the ancestor of many of the prominent figures in the Wars of the Roses, including Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (father of Kings Edward IV and Richard III), Henry Tudor (later King Henry VII), and Warwick the Kingmaker, father of queen consort Anne Neville. He was also an ancestor of queen consort Catherine Parr, the sixth wife of King Henry VIII. His daughters were as follows:

    Eleanor I Holland (1373 - October 1405), (who bore the same first name as her younger sister, alias Alianore) married twice: Firstly to Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March (1374-1398), heir presumptive to his mother's first cousin King Richard II (1377-1399). Her only child and sole heiress to the Mortimer claim was Anne Mortimer. Following the deposition of Richard II in 1399 by his own first-cousin the Lancastrian Henry Bolingbroke (who ruled as King Henry IV (1399-1413)), Anne Mortimer's claim to the throne of England was pursued by her son Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (1411-1460) which drawn-out struggle formed the basis of the Wars of the Roses. Secondly she married Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton

    Joan Holland (ca. 1380-12 April 1434), married Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York

    Margaret Holland (1385 - 31 December 1439), married first John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and second Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence

    Elizabeth Holland, who married Sir John Neville (c.1387 – before 20 May 1420), eldest son and heir of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, and by him had three sons, Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland, John Neville, Baron Neville, and Sir Thomas Neville, and a daughter, Margaret Neville.[7]

    Eleanor II Holland (1386- after 1413), (who bore the same first name as her eldest sister, alias Alianore) married Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury

    Bridget Holland, who became a nun[1]

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Tompsett, Brian. "de Holland, Thomas, Earl of Kent 2nd". Royal Genealogical Data. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c Lundy, Darryl. "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10292". thePeerage.com. Retrieved 30 October 2011.[unreliable source?]
    ^ Jump up to: a b Rayment, Leigh. "Peers - H - page 4". Leigh Rayment's Peerage Page. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
    Jump up ^ Western, Peter. "Page - pafg22". Maximilian Genealogy Master Database 2000. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
    Jump up ^ Western, Peter. "Page - pafg51". Maximilian Genealogy Master Database 2000. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Lee, Sidney, ed. (1891). "Holland, Thomas (1350-1397)". Dictionary of National Biography 27. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
    Jump up ^ Richardson III 2011, p. 249.
    Dictionary of National Biography, Vol.27, Ed. Sidney Lee, Smith, Elder & Co., 1851.

    Military:
    At sixteen, in 1366, Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine .[6] Over the next decade he fought in various campaigns, including the Battle of Nâajera , under the command of his stepfather Edward, the Black Prince . He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1375.[

    Thomas married Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent 10 Apr 1364, Arundel, West Sussex, England. Alice (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel) was born 1350-1352, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 17 Mar 1415, (Arundel, West Sussex, England). [Group Sheet]


  8. 23.  Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent was born 1350-1352, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel); died 17 Mar 1415, (Arundel, West Sussex, England).

    Notes:

    Alice Holland, Countess of Kent (c. 1350 - 17 March 1416), LG, formerly Lady Alice FitzAlan, was an English noblewoman, a daughter of the 10th Earl of Arundel, and the wife of the 2nd Earl of Kent, the half-brother of King Richard II. As the maternal grandmother of Anne Mortimer, she was an ancestor of King Edward IV and King Richard III, as well as King Henry VII and the Tudor dynasty through her daughter Margaret Holland. She was also the maternal grandmother of Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland.

    She was appointed a Lady of the Garter in 1388.

    Family

    Lady Alice FitzAlan was born circa 1350 at Arundel Castle in Sussex, England,[2] the second daughter of the 10th Earl of Arundel, and Lady Eleanor of Lancaster. She had six siblings who included Richard FitzAlan, later 11th Earl of Arundel, and Lady Joan FitzAlan, later Countess of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton. She also had three half-siblings from her parents' previous marriages.

    Her paternal grandparents were the 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, and her maternal grandparents were the 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth.

    Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland was a granddaughter of Lady Alice FitzAlan

    Marriage and issue

    In 1354, at the age of four, Lady Alice was betrothed to her father's ward Edmund Mortimer who would in 1360 become the 3rd Earl of March. The marriage however did not take place. Alice married instead on 10 April 1364, 2nd Earl of Kent, one of the half-brothers of the future King Richard II by his mother Joan of Kent's first marriage to Thomas Lord Holland. She received from her father a marriage portion of 4000 marks.[3] Upon her marriage, she was styled Lady Holland. She did not, however, become Countess of Kent until 1381, when her husband succeeded his father as Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent.

    Lord Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine in 1366, and in 1375, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Two years later in 1377, his half-brother Richard succeeded to the throne of England, as King Richard II. Alice's husband would become one of the young King's chief counsellors and exert a strong influence over his brother which led to the enrichment of Thomas and Alice. Alice was appointed a Lady of the Garter, an order of chivalry, in 1388.

    Together Thomas and Alice had ten children:[4]

    Alianore Holland (1373- October 1405), married firstly Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, by whom she had issue, including Anne Mortimer and Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March; she married secondly, Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton, by whom she had two daughters.
    Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey (1374- 7 January 1400), married Joan Stafford, but the marriage was childless.
    John Holland (died young)
    Richard Holland (died young)
    Elizabeth Holland (died 4 January 1423), married Sir John Neville, Lord Neville by whom she had issue.
    Joan Holland (1380- 12 April 1434), married firstly as his second wife, Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York; married secondly William de Willoughby, 5th Lord Willoughby de Eresby; married thirdly Henry le Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham, her fourth husband was Henry Bromflete, 1st Lord Vessy. All her marriages were childless.
    Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent (6 January 1384 – 15 September 1408), married Lucia Visconti[5] (1372-14 April 1424), but the marriage was childless. He fathered an illegitimate daughter Eleanor de Holland (born 1406), by his mistress Constance of York.
    Margaret Holland (1385- 30 December 1439), married firstly John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, by whom she had issue including John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset and Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland; she married secondly Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence.
    Eleanor Holland (1386- after 1413), married Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury, by whom she had one daughter, Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury.
    Bridget Holland (died before 1416), a nun at Barking Abbey.
    Later years[edit]
    Alice's husband died on 25 April 1397. In 1399, King Richard was deposed, and the throne was usurped by Henry IV, the son-in-law of her elder sister, Joan. In January 1400, Alice's eldest son Thomas, who had succeeded his father as the 3rd Earl of Kent, was captured at Cirencester and beheaded without a trial by a mob of angry citizens[6] as a consequence of having been one of the chief conspirators in the Epiphany Rising. The rebels had hoped to seize and murder King Henry, and immediately restore King Richard to the throne. Less than three years earlier, her brother Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel and a Lord Appellant had been executed for his opposition to King Richard.

    Alice herself died on 17 March 1416 at the age of sixty-six years.

    Descendants

    Alice had many illustrious descendants which included English kings Edward IV, Richard III (and his consort Queen Anne), Henry VII; from the latter of whom descended the Tudor monarchs. Alice was also an ancestress of Scottish king James II of Scotland and his successors which included Mary, Queen of Scots and James I of England. Her other notable descendants include the last queen consort of Henry VIII, Catherine Parr; Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick known in history as Warwick the Kingmaker; Cecily Bonville; Isabel Ingoldisthorpe, wife of John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu; John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester, and Anne Bourchier, 7th Baroness Bourchier. Living descendants of Alice Fitzalan include the current British Royal Family.

    Birth:
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Children:
    1. Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury was born 13 Oct 1370, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 18 Oct 1405, Bisham, Berkshire, England.
    2. Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent, 5th Baron Holand was born 6 Jan 1384; died 15 Sep 1408.
    3. Margaret Holland, Duchess of Clarence was born 0___ 1385, (England); died 31 Dec 1439; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    4. 11. Eleanor Holland, Countess of Salisbury was born 0___ 1386, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died Aft 1413, Bisham Manor, Bisham, Berkshire, England.
    5. Elizabeth Holland was born 0___ 1388, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 4 Jan 1424.

  9. 24.  Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of WarwickThomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of Warwick was born 14 Feb 1313, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England (son of Guy de Beauchamp, Knight, 10th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Toeni, Countess of Warwick); died 13 Nov 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Thomas de Beauchamp

    Notes:

    Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, KG (c. 14 February 1313 – 13 November 1369) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War. In 1348 he became one of the founders and the third Knight of the Order of the Garter.

    Early life

    Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick depicted in 1347 as one of the 8 mourners attached to the monumental brass of Sir Hugh Hastings (d. 1347) at St Mary's Church, Elsing, Norfolk. He displays the arms of Beauchamp on his tunic
    Thomas de Beauchamp was born at Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England to Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Toeni. He served in Scotland frequently during the 1330s, being captain of the army against the Scots in 1337. He was hereditary High Sheriff of Worcestershire from 1333 until his death (in 1369). In 1344 he was also made High Sheriff of Warwickshire and Leicestershire for life.[citation needed]

    Victor at Crâecy and Poitiers


    Left:Seal (obverse) of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, dated 1344: S(IGILLUM) THO(M)E COMITIS WARRWYCHIE ANNO REGNI REGIS E(DWARDII) TE(RT)II...(continued on counter-seal) ("Seal of Thomas, Count (Earl) of Warwick in the year of the reign of King Edward the Third..."). He displays on his surcoat, shield and horse's caparison the arms of Beauchamp, and carries on his helm as crest a swan's head and neck; right: Counter-seal/reverse: (legend continued from face of seal) ...POST CO(N)QUESTU(M) ANGLIE SEPTI(M)O DECIM(0) ET REGNI SUI FRANCIE QUARTO ("...after the Conquest of England the seventeenth and of his reign of the Kingdom of France the fourth"). This dates the seal to 1344. The arms are those of de Newburgh, the family of the Beaumont Earls of Warwick: Checky azure and or, a chevron ermine. This same display of double arms was used on the seal of his father Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick on his seal affixed to the Barons' Letter, 1301
    Warwick was Marshall of England from 1343/4 until 1369, and was one of the commanders at the great English victories at Crâecy and Poitiers.

    Thomas de Beauchamp fought in all the French wars of King Edward III; he commanded the center at the Battle of Crecy (where many of his relatives were killed including his younger half-brother Alan la Zouche de Mortimer). He was trusted to be guardian of the sixteen-year-old Black Prince. Beauchamp fought at Poitiers in 1356 and at the Siege of Calais (1346).

    He began the rebuilding of the Collegiate Church of Saint Mary in Warwick using money received from the ransom of a French Archbishop. He died of plague in Calais on 13 November 1369 and was entombed in the Beauchamp Chapel. The chapel contains the finest example of the use of brisures for cadency in medieval heraldry -- seven different Beauchamp coats of arms.

    Marriage and children

    He married Katherine Mortimer, daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. They had five sons and ten daughters:[1]

    Thomas b. 16 Mar 1338 d. 8 Aug 1401, who married Margaret Ferrers and had descendants. His son Richard succeeded him as Earl and inherited most of his property.
    Guy (d. 28 April 1360). He had two daughters who by entail were excluded from their grandfather's inheritance: Elizabeth (d. c.1369), and Katherine, who became a nun.
    Reinbrun, (d. 1361); he was named for a character in Guy of Warwick.
    William (c. 1343–1411), who inherited the honour of Abergavenny. Married Joan FitzAlan.
    Roger (d. 1361)
    Maud (d. 1403), who married Roger de Clifford, 5th Baron de Clifford.
    Philippa de Beauchamp who married Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford.
    Alice (d. 1383), who married first John Beauchamp, 3rd Baron Beauchamp and then Sir Matthew Gournay.
    Joan, who married Ralph Basset, 4th Baron Basset de Drayton.
    Isabell (d. 1416) who married first John le Strange, 5th Baron Strange, and then to William de Ufford, 2nd Earl of Suffolk. After the latter's death she became a nun.
    Margaret, who married Guy de Montfort and after his death became a nun.
    Elizabeth, married Thomas de Ufford, KG
    Anne, married Walter de Cokesey
    Juliana
    Katherine, became a nun at Shouldham

    Catherine Montacute, Countess of Salisbury was not his daughter, although she is presented as such in William Painter's Palace of Pleasure and in the Elizabethan play, Edward III that may be by William Shakespeare.

    Thomas married Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick 19 Apr 1319, (Warwickshire) England. Katherine (daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville) was born 0___ 1314, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 4 Aug 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  10. 25.  Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick was born 0___ 1314, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England (daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville); died 4 Aug 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

    Notes:

    Katherine Mortimer, Countess of Warwick (1314 - 4 August 1369) was the wife of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick KG, an English peer, and military commander during the Hundred Years War. She was a daughter and co-heiress of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, Baroness Geneville.

    Sometime before 1355, she became an important figure at the royal court of King Edward III.

    Family and lineage

    Katherine Mortimer was born at Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England, in 1314, one of the twelve children and a co-heiress of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, Baroness Geneville. Her paternal grandparents were Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer and Margaret de Fiennes, and her maternal grandparents were Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim Castle and Ludlow, and Jeanne of Lusignan.

    Her father was de facto ruler of England together with his mistress Isabella of France, Queen consort of King Edward II, until his eventual capture and execution by the orders of King Edward III, eldest son of Isabella and King Edward II. The latter had been deposed in November 1326, and afterwards cruelly murdered by assassins acting under the orders of Mortimer and Queen Isabella. Katherine was sixteen years old when her father was hanged, Tyburn, London on 29 November 1330. Roger Mortimer was NOT Hanged drawn and quartered as stated but only hanged and his body was left until monks from Greyfriars in London took it down.

    Marriage

    On 19 April 1319, when she was about five years old, Katherine married Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, eldest son of Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Toeni.[1] Their marriage required a Papal dispensation as they were related within the prohibited third and fourth degrees. Beauchamp had succeeded to the earldom at the age of two, therefore Katherine was styled Countess of Warwick from the time of her marriage until her death. The marriage had been arranged in July 1318 in order to settle a quarrel between the two families over the lordship of Elfael, which was thus given to Katherine as her marriage portion.[2] For the term of his minority, Beauchamp's custody had been granted to Katherine's father, Roger Mortimer.[3]

    Katherine later became an important personage at the court of King Edward III. As a sign of royal favour she was chosen to stand as one of the godmothers, along with Queen Philippa of Hainault, to the latter's granddaughter, Philippa, Countess of Ulster in 1355. This honour bestowed on Katherine is described by 19th century author Agnes Strickland according to the Friar's Genealogy: "Her [Philippa, Countess of Ulster] godmother also was of Warwick Countess, a lady likewise of great worthiness".[4]

    Issue

    Katherine and Beauchamp together had fifteen children:[5]

    Guy de Beauchamp (died 28 April 1360), married Philippa de Ferrers, daughter of Henry de Ferrers, 2nd Lord Ferrers of Groby and Isabel de Verdun, by whom he had two daughters.[6]
    Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick (16 March 1339- 1401), married Margaret Ferrers, daughter of William Ferrers, 3rd Lord of Groby and Margaret de Ufford, by whom he had issue, including Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick.
    Reinbrun de Beauchamp
    William de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny (c. 1343- 8 May 1411), on 23 July 1392, married Lady Joan FitzAlan, daughter of Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel and Elizabeth de Bohun, by whom he had a son Richard de Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, and a daughter, Joan de Beauchamp, 4th Countess of Ormond. Queen consort Anne Boleyn was a notable descendant of the latter.
    Roger de Beauchamp (died 1361)
    Maud de Beauchamp (died 1403), married Roger de Clifford, 5th Baron Clifford, by whom she had issue, including Thomas de Clifford, 6th Baron Clifford.
    Philippa de Beauchamp, married Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, by whom she had nine children.
    Alice Beauchamp (died 1383), married firstly John Beauchamp, 3rd Baron Beauchamp of Somerset, and secondly Sir William Gournay.[7] She died childless.
    Joan de Beauchamp, married Ralph Basset, 3rd Baron Basset of Drayton. She died childless.
    Isabella de Beauchamp (died 29 September 1416), married firstly John le Strange, 5th Baron Strange, and secondly, William de Ufford, 2nd Earl of Suffolk. Upon the latter's death, she became a nun. She died childless.
    Margaret de Beauchamp, married Guy de Montfort, and after his death, she became a nun. She died childless.
    Elizabeth de Beauchamp, married Thomas de Ufford KG,
    Anne de Beauchamp, married Walter de Cokesey.
    Juliana de Beauchamp
    Katherine de Beauchamp, became a nun at Shouldham Priory.

    Death and effigy

    Katherine Mortimer died on 4 August 1369 at the age of about fifty-five. Two years before her death, in 1367, Katherine was a legatee in the will of her sister Agnes de Hastings, Countess of Pembroke.[8] Katherine was buried in St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire. She lies alongside her husband, who died three months after her of the Black Death. Their tomb with well-preserved, alabaster effigies can be seen in the centre of the quire. Katherine is depicted wearing a frilled veil with a honeycomb pattern and she is holding hands with Beauchamp. The sides of the tomb chest are decorated with figures of mourners, both male and female.

    Children:
    1. Maud Beauchamp was born 0___ 1335, Warwickshire, England; died 0Feb 1403, Brougham Castle, Westmorland, England.
    2. 12. Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 12th Earl of Warwick was born 16 Mar 1338, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died 10 Apr 1401, (Warwickshire) England.
    3. Philippa Beauchamp was born 1334-1344, Elmley, Gloucestershire, England; died 6 Apr 1386.
    4. William de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny was born 1343-1345, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died 8 May 1411, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried Black Friars Churchyard, Hereford, Herefordshire, England.
    5. Guy de Beauchamp

  11. 26.  William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby was born 28 Feb 1333, Groby, Leicestershire, England (son of Henry de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby and Isabel de Verdun); died 8 Jan 1371, Newbold Verdon, Leicestershire, England.

    William married Margaret de Ufford Bef 25 Apr 1344. Margaret (daughter of Robert de Ufford, (II), Knight, 1st Earl of Suffolk and Margaret Norwich) was born ~ 1330, Ufford, Suffolk, England; died Bef 25 May 1368, Eresby, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  12. 27.  Margaret de Ufford was born ~ 1330, Ufford, Suffolk, England (daughter of Robert de Ufford, (II), Knight, 1st Earl of Suffolk and Margaret Norwich); died Bef 25 May 1368, Eresby, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England.

    Notes:

    Married:
    bef. 25 Apr 1344 Lady Margaret de Ufford, sister and cohrss. in her issue of William [de Ufford], 2nd Earl of Suffolk, and 3rd dau. of Robert [de Ufford], 1st Earl of Suffolk, by his wife Margaret de Norwich, great-aunt and hrss. in her issue of Sir John de Norwich, of Sculthorpe, co. Norfolk, and Bramfield and Mellis, co. Suffolk, and dau. of Sir Walter de Norwich, of Sculthorpe, co. Norfolk, and Bramfield and Mellis, co. Suffolk, Treasurer and Chief Baron of the Exchequer

    Children:
    1. 13. Margaret de Ferrers, Countess Warwick was born ~ 1347, Groby, Leicestershire, England; died 22 Jan 1407, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; was buried St. Mary's, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.
    2. Henry de Ferrers, Knight, 4th Baron Ferrers of Groby was born 16 Feb 1356, (Groby, Leicestershire, England); died 3 Feb 1388.

  13. 28.  Edward le Despenser, Knight, 1st Baron le Despencer was born 24 Mar 1336, Essendine, Rutlandshire, England; died 11 Nov 1375, Llanblethian, Glamorganshire, Wales.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 4th Lord le Despenser
    • Also Known As: Lord of Glamorgan and Morganwg

    Notes:

    Biography

    Edward le Despenser, K.G., 4th Lord le Despenser, lord of Glamorgan and Morganwg, Wales..., born at Essendine, Rutland about 24 March 1335/6, was son and heir of Edward le Despenser by his wife Anne Ferrers. Edward married Elizabeth Burghersh before August 2, 1354.[1]

    King Edward I was his great-great-grandfather (through his paternal grandmother, Eleanor de Clare).[2]

    Family

    Parents

    Father: Sir Edward le Despenser[3] (born c 1315, d. 30 Sep 1342), son of Sir Hugh le Despenser, 2nd Lord le Despenser, by his wife Alianore (Eleanor) de Clare
    Mother: Anne de Ferrers[4] (born c 1315, died 8 August 1367), daughter of William de Ferrers and Ellen Margaret Segrave

    Wife

    Edward married Elizabeth Burghersh before 2 August 1354. She was born before July 26, 1347.[5]
    Elizabeth was the daughter and heiress of Sir Bartholomew de Burghersh, 4th Lord Burghersh, Justiciar of Chester, Steward & Constable of Wallingford & St. Valery, by his first wife Cicely de Weyland[6] (Cecily de Weland) of Blaxhall and Cockfield, Suffolk.[5]

    Children

    Edward and Elizabeth had 3 sons and [5[7]] daughters:[8]
    Edward (died at age 12[9]
    Hugh
    Cecily[10]
    Elizabeth (d. 10 Apr 1408), wife of Sir John, 2nd Lord Arundel, & of Sir William, 3rd Lord Zouche
    Anne (d. Oct 1426), wife of Sir Hugh de Hastings, & of Sir Thomas, 4th Lord Morley
    Margaret (b. c 1366, d. 3 Nov 1415), wife of Sir Robert Ferrers
    Philippa (d. after after 4 Jul 1409)[5]
    Thomas (b. 22 Sep 1373, d. 16 Jan 1400), 1st Earl Gloucester, 5th Lord Despenser, Constable of Gloucester & St. Briavel's Castle

    Note: order of children from #Medieval Lands: sons Edward, Hugh, then four daughters, then Philippa; Thomas was last child:

    "The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey names “Cecilia…Elizabeth…Annam…et Margaretam” as the four daughters of “Edwardus…secundus, filius…Edwardi” and his wife, born after their two older brothers"[11]
    "The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey names “Thomam le Despencer et comitem Gloucestriµ” as the last child of “Edwardus…secundus, filius…Edwardi” and his wife"[11]

    Death

    Sir Edward le Despenser died 11 November 1375.[12] at Llanblethian, Glamorganshire, Wales and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey, Gloucestershire.[13]
    (Royal Ancestry) Sir Edward le Despenser. 4th Lord le Despenser, died at Llanblethian, Glamorgan (Wales) 11 Nov. 1375.

    (Wikipedia) The monument (tomb) of Edward Lord Despenser at Tewkesbury Abbey: He was Lord of the Manor of Tewkesbury, and remembered today chiefly for the effigy on his monument, which shows him in full color kneeling on top of the Holy Trinity Chantry Chapel canopy facing toward the high altar. His chantry is an intact stone-cage chapel of St. Mary and Holy Trinity on the south side of the presbytery: 1390/1440. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_le_Despencer,_1st_Baron_le_Despenser https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tewkesbury_Abbey http://www.findagrave.com Sir Edward le Despencer (1136-1375)

    The will of "Edward Lord Despenser Lord of Glamorgan and Morgannock", dated 6 Nov 1375, chose burial "in the abbey of Tewksbury", bequeathed property to "Elizabeth my wife...Ralf de Ferrers my uncle...John d´Odingsells".[11]
    Edward's widow died July 26, 1409.[5]
    The will of "Elizabeth de Burghersh Lady Despenser", dated 4 Jul 1409, chose burial "in the church of Our Lady at Tewksbury betwixt my...husband Edward Lord Despenser and my son Thomas le Despenser", bequeathed property to "the Lady Morley my daughter...the Lady Margaret Ferrers my daughter...Philippa my daughter...Elizabeth daughter to the aforesaid Margaret".[11]

    Sources

    Royal Ancestry 2013 Vol. II p. 451-453
    MCA: Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, Royal Ancestry series, 2nd edition, 4 vols., ed. Kimball G. Everingham, (Salt Lake City, Utah: the author, 2011)
    Vol 2, pp 75-76 #8 Edward le Despenser, K.G., 4th Lord le Despenser, lord of Glamorgan and Morganwg, Wales; #9 Thomas le Despenser, K.G., 5th Lord le Despenser.
    Knights of the Garter (Heraldica list)
    Wikipedia: Edward le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer
    Marlyn Lewis.
    Medieval Lands:
    Medieval Lands: Edward Despencer
    Medieval Lands-son: Thomas le Despencer

    Edward married Elizabeth de Burghersh Bef December 1364. Elizabeth (daughter of Bartholomew de Burghersh, KG, 2nd Baron Burghersh and Cicely de Weyland) was born ~ 1342, Burghersh, Rutlandshire, England; died 0___ 1409; was buried 26 Jul 1409, Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ. [Group Sheet]


  14. 29.  Elizabeth de Burghersh was born ~ 1342, Burghersh, Rutlandshire, England (daughter of Bartholomew de Burghersh, KG, 2nd Baron Burghersh and Cicely de Weyland); died 0___ 1409; was buried 26 Jul 1409, Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ.
    Children:
    1. Anne Despenser was born ~ 1360, Essendine, Rutland, England; died 0Oct 1426.
    2. 14. Thomas le Despenser, Knight, 1st Earl of Gloucester was born 22 Sep 1373, Essendine, Rutland, England; died 13 Jan 1400, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ.
    3. Margaret le Despenser was born ~ 1360; died 3 Nov 1415.

  15. 30.  Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of CambridgeEdmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge was born 5 Jun 1341, King's Langley, Hertford, England; was christened King's Langley, Hertford, England (son of Edward III, King of England and Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England); died 1 Aug 1402, Abbot's Langley, Hertford, England; was buried Dominicans Church, King's Langley, Hertford, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edmund Lancaster

    Notes:

    Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG (5 June 1341 - 1 August 1402) was the fourth surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Like many medieval English princes, Edmund gained his nickname from his birthplace: Kings Langley Palace in Hertfordshire.

    He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, to Anne de Mortimer, great-granddaughter of Edmund's elder brother Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, that the House of York made its claim to the English throne in the Wars of the Roses. The other party in the Wars of the Roses, the incumbent House of Lancaster, was formed from descendants of Edmund's elder brother John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, Edward III's third son.

    Early years

    On the death of his godfather, the Earl of Surrey, Edmund was granted the earl's lands north of the Trent, primarily in Yorkshire. In 1359, he joined his father King Edward III on an unsuccessful military expedition to France and was made a knight of the Garter in 1361. In 1362, at the age of twenty-one, he was created Earl of Cambridge by his father.[1]

    Military career

    Edmund took part in several military expeditions to France in the 1370s. In 1369, he brought a retinue of 400 men-at-arms and 400 archers to serve with John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, on campaigns in Brittany and Angouleme. The following year, he first joined Pembroke again on an expedition to relieve the fortress of Belle Perche and then accompanied his eldest brother Edward, the Black Prince, on a campaign that resulted in the siege and sack of Limoges. In 1375, he sailed with the Earl of March to relieve Brest, but after some initial success, a truce was declared.

    In 1381, Edmund led an abortive expedition to join with the Portuguese in attacking Castile as part of the Fernandine Wars, but after months of indecisiveness, a peace was again declared between Spain and Portugal, and Edmund had to lead his malcontented troops home.

    Edmund was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Warden of the Cinque Ports on 12 June 1376 and held office until 1381. He acted as Keeper of the Realm in 1394/95 when his nephew, King Richard II of England, campaigned in Ireland and presided over Parliament in 1395. He was also keeper of the realm in 1396 during the king's brief visit to France to collect his child-bride Isabella of Valois. The duke was left as Custodian of the Realm in the summer of 1399 when Richard II departed for another extended campaign in Ireland. In late June of that year, the exiled Henry Bolingbroke landed at Bridlington in Yorkshire. He raised an army to resist Bolingbroke, then decided instead to join him, for which he was well rewarded. He thereafter remained loyal to the new Lancastrian regime as Bolingbroke overthrew Richard II to become King Henry IV.

    Later life

    On 6 August 1385, Edmund was elevated to Duke of York.[2]

    In Richard II's will, Edmund was highly emphasised as the king's heir despite the stronger claims of Henry of Bolingbroke and Edmund Mortimer. This was not due to any preference Richard had for Edmund, but rather a desire the king had to set Edmund's son, Edward, on the throne.[3] Towards the end of his life, in 1399, he was appointed Warden of the West March for a short period.[4]

    Edmund of Langley died in his birthplace and was buried there in the church of the mendicant friars. His dukedom passed to his eldest son, Edward.

    Marriage

    Langley's first wife, Isabella, was a daughter of King Peter of Castile and Marâia de Padilla. She was also the sister of the Infanta Constance of Castile, the second wife of Langley's brother John of Gaunt. They had two sons and a daughter:

    Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York (c. 1373 – 25 October 1415), killed in action at the Battle of Agincourt.
    Constance of York (c. 1374 – 28 November 1416), great-grandmother of Queen Anne Neville.
    Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (c. 20 July 1375 – 5 August 1415), executed for treason by Henry V. Ancestor of Kings Edward IV, Edward V, and Richard III of the House of York, and all succeeding monarchs of England beginning with King Henry VIII, whose mother Elizabeth of York was his great-granddaughter.
    After Isabella's death in 1392, Langley married his cousin Joan Holland, whose great-grandfather Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, was the half-brother of Langley's grandfather Edward II; she and Langley were thus both descended from King Edward I. The marriage produced no children.

    Shakespeare's Duke of York

    As a son of the sovereign, Edmund bore the arms of the sovereign, differenced by a label argent, on each point three torteaux.[5]
    Edmund, the 1st Duke of York, is a major character in Shakespeare's Richard II. In the play, Edmund resigns his position as an adviser to his nephew Richard II, but is reluctant to betray the king. He eventually agrees to side with Henry Bolingbroke to help him regain the lands Richard confiscated after the death of Bolingbroke's father, John of Gaunt. After Bolingbroke deposes Richard and is crowned Henry IV, Edmund discovers a plot by his son Aumerle to assassinate the new king. Edmund exposes the plot, but his wife Isabella convinces Henry to pardon her son.

    Edmund married Isabel Perez, Princess of Castile-Leon Aft 1 Jan 1371-1372, Castle, Hertford, Hertfordshire, England. Isabel (daughter of Peter of Castile, King of Castile and Leon and Maria de Padilla) was born 0___ 1353, Morales, Tordesillas, Valladolid, Spain; died 23 Dec 1392, King's Langley, Hertford, England; was buried 14 Jan 1393, Dominicans Church, King's Langley, Hertford, England. [Group Sheet]


  16. 31.  Isabel Perez, Princess of Castile-Leon was born 0___ 1353, Morales, Tordesillas, Valladolid, Spain (daughter of Peter of Castile, King of Castile and Leon and Maria de Padilla); died 23 Dec 1392, King's Langley, Hertford, England; was buried 14 Jan 1393, Dominicans Church, King's Langley, Hertford, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isabella

    Children:
    1. 15. Constance of York, Princess of York was born ~ 1374, Conisborough Castle, Conisborough, Yorkshire, England; died 28 Nov 1416, Reading, Reading, Berkshire, England; was buried Reading Abbey, Reading, Berkshire, England.
    2. Richard of Conisburgh, Knight, 3rd Earl of Cambridge was born Abt 20 Jul 1375, Conisborough Castle, Conisborough, Yorkshire, England; died 5 Aug 1415, Southampton, Hampshire, England; was buried August 1415, Godshouse Chapel, Southampton, Hampshire, England.


Generation: 6

  1. 32.  Ralph Neville, 4th Baron Neville de Raby was born 0___ 1291, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England (son of Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville of Raby and Euphemia Clavering, Baroness of Raby); died 5 Aug 1367, Durhamshire, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: 0___ 1355; Governor of Berwick

    Notes:

    NEVILLE, RALPH, de, fourth Baron Neville of Raby (1291?-1367), was the second son and eventual heir of Ralph Neville, third baron (d. 1331), by his first wife, Euphemia, daughter and heiress of Sir John de Clavering of Warkworth, in Northumberland, and Clavering, in western Essex.

    His grandfather, Robert de Neville, who died during his father's lifetime [see Neville, Robert de, d. 1282], made one of those fortunate marriages which became traditional with this family, acquiring the lordship of Middleham, in Wensleydale, with the side valley of Coverdale, and the patronage of the abbey of Coverham, by his marriage with Mary, the heiress of the FitzRanulphs. His father, who, like his grandfather, bore none the best of reputations, did not die until 18 April 1331. Robert, the elder son, called the ‘Peacock of the North,’ whose monument may still be seen in Brancepeth Church, had been slain in a border fray by the Earl of Douglas in 1318; and his brother Ralph, who now became the heir of the Neville name, was carried off captive, but after a time was ransomed (Swallow, p. 11).

    Before his father's death Neville had served the king both on the Scottish borders and at court, where he was seneschal of the household (Dugdale, i. 292; Fśdera, iv. 256, 448). In June 1329 he had been joined with the chancellor to treat with Philip VI of France for marriages between the two royal houses (ib. iv. 392); and he had entered into an undertaking to serve Henry, lord Percy (d. 1352) [q. v.], for life in peace and war, with twenty men at arms against all men except the king (Dugdale, u.s., who gives the full terms). He tried to induce the prior and convent of Durham, to whom he had to do fealty for his Raby lands, to recognise the curious claim which his father had first made to the monks' hospitality on St. Cuthbert's day (4 Sept.) (cf. Dugdale, Baronage, i. 293; Letters from Northern Registers, p. 394).

    Neville was a man of energy, and King Edward kept him constantly employed. Scottish relations were then very critical, and Neville and Lord Percy, the only magnate of the north country whose power equalled his own, spent most of their time on the northern border. In 1334 they were made joint wardens of the marches, and were frequently entrusted with important negotiations. Neville was also governor of the castle of Bamborough, and warden of all the forests north of the Trent (Dugdale, i. 294; Swallow, p. 14; Fśdera, vols. iv.–v.). The Lanercost chronicler (p. 293) insinuates that he and Percy did less than their duty during the Scottish invasion of 1337. Neville took part in the subsequent siege of Dunbar (ib. p. 295). It was only at rare intervals that he could be spared from the north. Froissart is no doubt in error in bringing him to the siege of Tournay in 1340, but the truce with Scotland at the close of 1342 permitted his services to be used in the peace negotiations with France promoted by Pope Clement VI in the following year (Froissart, iii. 312, ed. Lettenhove; cf. Fśdera, v. 213; Dugdale). When the king was badly in want of money (1338), Neville advanced him wool from his Yorkshire estates, and in return for this and other services was granted various privileges. In October 1333 he was given the custody of the temporalities of the bishopric of Durham during its vacancy, and twelve years later the wardship of two-thirds of the lands of Bishop Kellawe, who had died in 1316 (Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense, iv. 175, 340).

    When David Bruce invaded England in 1346, Ralph and his eldest son, John, joined William de la Zouch, archbishop of York, at Richmond on 14 Oct., and, marching northwards by Barnard Castle and Auckland, shared three days later in the victory at the Red Hills to the west of Durham, near an old cross already, it would seem, known as Neville's Cross. This success saved the city of Durham, and made David Bruce a captive. Neville fought in the van, and the Lanercost writer now praises him as ‘vir verax et validus, audax et astutus et multum metuendus’ (Chron. de Lanercost, pp. 347, 350; Galfrid le Baker, p. 87). A sword is still shown at Brancepeth Castle which is averred to be that used by Ralph at Neville's Cross or Durham, as the battle was at first often called (Swallow, pp. 16–17). With Gilbert Umfreville, earl of Angus, he pursued the flying Scots across the border, took Roxburgh on terms, and harried the southern counties of Scotland (Chron. de Lanercost, p. 352). Tradition represents that he erected Neville's Cross on the Brancepeth road, half a mile out of Durham, in commemoration of the victory. The old cross was soon altered or entirely replaced by a more splendid one, which was destroyed in 1589, after the fall of the elder branch of Neville, and only the stump now remains; but a detailed description of it was printed in 1674 from an old Durham Roll by Davies in his ‘Rites and Monuments’ (Swallow, p. 16). The king rewarded Neville's services with a grant of 100l. and a license to endow two priests in the church of Sheriff-Hutton to pray for the souls of himself and his family (Dugdale). Towards the end of his life (1364) he endowed three priests in the hospital founded by his family at Well, near Bedale, not far from Middleham, for the same object (ib.)

    The imprisonment of David Bruce made the Scots much less dangerous to England; but there was still plenty of work on the borders, and the rest of Neville's life was almost entirely spent there as warden of the marches, peace commissioner, and for a time (1355) governor of Berwick. The protracted negotiations for the liberation of David Bruce also occupied him (ib.) Froissart mentions one or two visits to France, but with the exception of that of 1359, when he accompanied the king into Champagne, these are a little doubtful (ib.; Froissart, v. 365, vi. 221, 224, ed. Lettenhove). He died on 5 Aug. 1367, and, having presented a very rich vestment to St. Cuthbert, was allowed to be buried in the south aisle of Durham Cathedral, being the first layman to whom that favour was granted (Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc., i. 26). The body was ‘brought to the churchyard in a chariot drawn by seven horses, and then carried upon the shoulders of knights into the church.’ His tomb, terribly mutilated by the Scottish prisoners confined in the cathedral in 1650, still stands in the second bay from the transept.

    Neville greatly increased the prestige of his family, and his descendants were very prosperous. He married Alice, daughter of Sir Hugh Audley, who, surviving him, married Ralph, baron of Greystock (d. 1417), in Cumberland, and, dying in 1374, was buried by the side of her first husband. They had five sons: (1) John, fifth baron Neville [q. v.]; (2) Robert, like his elder brother, a distinguished soldier in the French wars (Froissart, ed. Lettenhove, xxii. 289); (3) Ralph, the founder of the family of the Nevilles of Thornton Bridge, on the Swale, near Borough- bridge, called Ralph Neville of Condell (Cundall); (4) Alexander [q. v.], archbishop of York; (5) Sir William (d. 1389?) [q. v.] Their four daughters were: (1) Margaret, married, first (1342), William, who next year became Lord Ros of Hamlake (i.e. Helmsley, in the North Riding), and secondly, he dying in 1352, Henry Percy, first earl of Northumberland [q. v.]; (2) Catherine, married Lord Dacre of Gillsland; (3) Eleanor, who married Geoffrey le Scrope, and afterwards became a nun in the Minories, London (Wills and Inventories, i. 39); (4) Euphemia, who married, first, Reginald de Lucy; secondly, Robert Clifford, lord of Westmorland, who died before 1354; and, thirdly, Sir Walter de Heslarton (near New Malton). She died in 1394 or 1395. Surtees (iv. 159) adds a sixth son, Thomas, ‘bishop-elect of Ely,’ but this seems likely to be an error.

    [Rotuli Parliamentorum; Calendarium Genealogicum, published by the Record Commission; Rymer's Fśdera, original and Record editions; Robert de Avesbury, Adam de Murimuth, Walsingham, Letters from Northern Registers and Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense in the Rolls Ser.; Chronicon de Lanercost, Maitland Club ed.; Galfrid le Baker, ed. Maunde Thompson; Froissart, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove; Surtees's Hist. of Durham, vol. iv.; Longman's Hist. of Edward III; Dugdale's Baronage; Nicolas's Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope; Segar's Baronagium Genealogicum, ed. Edmondson; Selby's Genealogist, iii. 107, &c.; Foster's Yorkshire Pedigrees.]

    end of biography

    Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby (c.1291 – 5 August 1367) was an English aristocrat, son of Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby and Euphemia de Clavering .[1]

    Neville led the English forces to victory against the Scottish king David II of Scotland at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346

    end of comment

    Birth:
    Raby Castle - history & images of this Neville Family Home ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raby_Castle

    Ralph married Alice de Audley 14 Jan 1326, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England. Alice (daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton and Isolde (Isabella) de Mortimer) was born 1302-1304, Hadley, Lambourne, Berkshire, England; died 12 Jan 1374, Greystoke Manor, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 33.  Alice de Audley was born 1302-1304, Hadley, Lambourne, Berkshire, England (daughter of Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton and Isolde (Isabella) de Mortimer); died 12 Jan 1374, Greystoke Manor, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.
    Children:
    1. Margaret Neville, Baroness of Ros was born 12 Feb 1329, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England); died 12 May 1372.
    2. Ralph Neville was born Abt 1332, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England); died Abt 1380.
    3. Alexander Neville was born 0___ 1332, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England); died 16 May 1392, Leuven, Belgium; was buried Carmelite Churchyard, Leuven, Belgium.
    4. Robert Neville was born (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).
    5. 16. John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby was born 1337-1340, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 17 Oct 1388, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.
    6. William Neville was born Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.
    7. Catherine Neville was born (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).
    8. Eleanor Neville was born (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).
    9. Euphemia Neville was born (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England); died 1394-1395, England.

  3. 34.  Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick was born 0___ 1299, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ (son of Henry de Percy, Knight, 1st Baron Percy and Eleanor FitzAlan); died 0___ 1352.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Governor of Pickering Castle
    • Also Known As: 9th Baron Percy
    • Also Known As: Earl Henry III de Percy
    • Military:
    • Alt Birth: 6 Feb 1301, Leckonfield, Yorkshire, England
    • Alt Death: 25 Feb 1353, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ

    Notes:

    Henry de Percy, 9th Baron Percy and 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick (1299-1352) was the son of Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick, and Eleanor Fitzalan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel.

    Henry was sixteen when his father died, so the Barony was placed in the custody of John de Felton.[1]

    In 1316 he was granted the lands of Patrick IV, Earl of March, in Northumberland, by King Edward II of England.[2] In 1322, was made governor of Pickering Castle and of the town and castle of Scarborough and was later knighted at York.[3] Henry joined with other barons to remove the Despensers, who were favorites of Edward II.

    Following a disastrous war with the Scots, Henry was empowered along with William Zouche to negotiate the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton.[4] This was an unpopular treaty and peace between England and Scotland lasted only five years.

    He was appointed to Edward III's Council in 1327 and was given the manor and castle of Skipton. Was granted, by Edward III, the castle and barony of Warkworth in 1328. He was at the siege of Dunbar and the Battle of Halidon Hill and was subsequently appointed constable of Berwick-upon-Tweed.[5] In 1346, Henry commanded the right wing of the English, at the Battle of Neville's Cross.[6]

    Married Idonia, daughter of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford,[7] and had five children;

    Henry, b.1320, succeeded his father as 3rd Baron Percy of Alnwick
    Thomas Percy, Bishop of Norwich
    Roger
    Maud Percy, married John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby
    Eleanor Percy, married John Fitzwalter, 3rd Baron Fitzwalter (c.1315 – 18 October 1361)[8]
    Isabel Percy, married Sir William de Aton, 2nd Lord Aton, and had a daughter, Katherine Aton. Katherine Aton's son, William Eure, married Maud FitzHugh, daughter of Henry FitzHugh, 3rd Baron FitzHugh.[9]
    In 1329, he founded a chantry, to celebrate divine service for his soul.[10]

    Military:
    In 1316 he was granted the lands of Patrick IV, Earl of March, in Northumberland, by King Edward II of England.[2] In 1322, was made governor of Pickering Castle and of the town and castle of Scarborough and was later knighted at York.[3] Henry joined with other barons to remove the Despensers, who were favorites of Edward II.

    Following a disastrous war with the Scots, Henry was empowered along with William Zouche to negotiate the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton.[4] This was an unpopular treaty and peace between England and Scotland lasted only five years.

    He was appointed to Edward III's Council in 1327 and was given the manor and castle of Skipton. Was granted, by Edward III, the castle and barony of Warkworth in 1328. He was at the siege of Dunbar and the Battle of Halidon Hill and was subsequently appointed constable of Berwick-upon-Tweed.[5] In 1346, Henry commanded the right wing of the English, at the Battle of Neville's Cross.

    Henry married Idonia Clifford 0___ 1314, Yorkshire, England. Idonia (daughter of Robert de Clifford, Knight, 1st Baron de Clifford and Maude de Clare) was born ~ 1303, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England; died 24 Aug 1365, (Yorkshire, England); was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 35.  Idonia Clifford was born ~ 1303, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England (daughter of Robert de Clifford, Knight, 1st Baron de Clifford and Maude de Clare); died 24 Aug 1365, (Yorkshire, England); was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Idonia de Clifford

    Notes:

    Buried:
    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beverley_Minster

    Children:
    1. Isabel Percy was born 0___ 1320, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; died Bef 25 May 1368, Alnwick, Northumberland, England.
    2. Henry Percy, IV, 3rd Baron Percy was born 0___ 1322, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ; died 18 May 1368, Berwick Castle, Berwick-upon-Tweed, England; was buried Alnwick, Northumberland, England.
    3. 17. Maud Percy was born Abt 1335, Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; died 18 Feb 1378; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.
    4. Alianore Percy was born ~ 1336, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ; died Bef 1361.

  5. 36.  Edward III, King of EnglandEdward III, King of England was born 13 Nov 1312, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was christened 20 Nov 1312 (son of Edward II, King of England and Isabella of France, Queen of England); died 21 Jun 1377, Richmond Palace, London, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward of Windsor

    Notes:

    Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England from 25 January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His long reign of fifty years also saw vital developments in legislation and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death.

    Edward was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother and her lover Roger Mortimer. At age seventeen he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1337 but his claim was denied due to the Salic law. This started what would become known as the Hundred Years' War.[1] Following some initial setbacks the war went exceptionally well for England; victories at Crâecy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brâetigny. Edward's later years, however, were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.

    Edward III was a temperamental man but capable of unusual clemency. He was in many ways a conventional king whose main interest was warfare. Admired in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by later Whig historians such as William Stubbs. This view has been challenged recently and modern historians credit him with some significant achievements.[2][3]

    Early life

    Edward was born at Windsor Castle on 13 November 1312, and was often referred to as Edward of Windsor in his early years.[4] The reign of his father, Edward II, was a particularly problematic period of English history.[5] One source of contention was the king's inactivity, and repeated failure, in the ongoing war with Scotland.[6] Another controversial issue was the king's exclusive patronage of a small group of royal favourites.[7] The birth of a male heir in 1312 temporarily improved Edward II's position in relation to the baronial opposition.[8] To bolster further the independent prestige of the young prince, the king had him created Earl of Chester at only twelve days of age.[9]

    In 1325, Edward II was faced with a demand from the French king, Charles IV, to perform homage for the English Duchy of Aquitaine.[10] Edward was reluctant to leave the country, as discontent was once again brewing domestically, particularly over his relationship with the favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger.[11] Instead, he had his son Edward created Duke of Aquitaine in his place and sent him to France to perform the homage.[12] The young Edward was accompanied by his mother Isabella, who was the sister of King Charles, and was meant to negotiate a peace treaty with the French.[13] While in France, however, Isabella conspired with the exiled Roger Mortimer to have the king Edward deposed.[14] To build up diplomatic and military support for the venture, Isabella had Prince Edward engaged to the twelve-year-old Philippa of Hainault.[15] An invasion of England was launched and Edward II's forces deserted him completely. The king was forced to relinquish the throne to his son on 25 January 1327. The new king was crowned as Edward III on 1 February 1327.[16]

    It was not long before the new reign also met with other problems caused by the central position at court of Roger Mortimer, who was now the de facto ruler of England. Mortimer used his power to acquire noble estates and titles, and his unpopularity grew with the humiliating defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Stanhope Park and the ensuing Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, signed with the Scots in 1328.[17] Also the young king came into conflict with his guardian. Mortimer knew his position in relation to the king was precarious and subjected Edward to disrespect. The tension increased after Edward and Philippa, who had married on 24 January 1328, had a son on 15 June 1330.[18] Eventually, Edward decided to take direct action against Mortimer. Aided by his close companion William Montagu and a small number of other trusted men, Edward took Mortimer by surprise at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. Mortimer was executed and Edward III's personal reign began.[19]

    Early reign

    Edward III was not content with the peace agreement made in his name, but the renewal of the war with Scotland originated in private, rather than royal initiative. A group of English magnates known as The Disinherited, who had lost land in Scotland by the peace accord, staged an invasion of Scotland and won a great victory at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332.[20] They attempted to install Edward Balliol as king of Scotland in David II's place, but Balliol was soon expelled and was forced to seek the help of Edward III. The English king responded by laying siege to the important border town of Berwick and defeated a large relieving army at the Battle of Halidon Hill.[21] Edward reinstated Balliol on the throne and received a substantial amount of land in southern Scotland.[22] These victories proved hard to sustain, however, as forces loyal to David II gradually regained control of the country. In 1338, Edward was forced to agree to a truce with the Scots.[23]

    To mark his claim to the French crown, Edward's coat of arms showed the three lions of England quartered with the fleurs-de-lys of France. English stained glass, c. 1350–1377[24]
    One reason for the change of strategy towards Scotland was a growing concern for the relationship between England and France. As long as Scotland and France were in an alliance, the English were faced with the prospect of fighting a war on two fronts.[25] The French carried out raids on English coastal towns, leading to rumours in England of a full-scale French invasion.[23] In 1337, Philip VI confiscated the English king's duchy of Aquitaine and the county of Ponthieu. Instead of seeking a peaceful resolution to the conflict by paying homage to the French king, the way his father had done, Edward responded by laying claim to the French crown as the grandson of Philip IV.[26] The French, however, invoked the Salic law of succession and rejected his claim. Instead, they upheld the rights of Philip IV's nephew, King Philip VI (an agnatic descendant of the House of France), thereby setting the stage for the Hundred Years' War (see family tree below).[27] In the early stages of the war, Edward's strategy was to build alliances with other Continental princes. In 1338, Louis IV named Edward vicar-general of the Holy Roman Empire and promised his support.[28] These measures, however, produced few results; the only major military victory in this phase of the war was the English naval victory at Sluys on 24 June 1340, which secured English control of the Channel.[29]

    Meanwhile, the fiscal pressure on the kingdom caused by Edward's expensive alliances led to discontent at home. The regency council at home was frustrated by the mounting national debt, while the king and his commanders on the Continent were angered by the failure of the government in England to provide sufficient funds.[30] To deal with the situation, Edward himself returned to England, arriving in London unannounced on 30 November 1340.[31] Finding the affairs of the realm in disorder, he purged the royal administration of a great number of ministers and judges.[32] These measures did not bring domestic stability, however, and a stand-off ensued between the king and John de Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury, during which Stratford's relatives Robert Stratford Bishop of Chichester and Henry de Stratford were temporarily stripped of title and imprisoned respectively.[33] Stratford claimed that Edward had violated the laws of the land by arresting royal officers.[34] A certain level of conciliation was reached at the parliament of April 1341. Here Edward was forced to accept severe limitations to his financial and administrative freedom, in return for a grant of taxation.[35] Yet in October the same year, the king repudiated this statute and Archbishop Stratford was politically ostracised. The extraordinary circumstances of the April parliament had forced the king into submission, but under normal circumstances the powers of the king in medieval England were virtually unlimited, a fact that Edward was able to exploit.[36]


    Historian Nicholas Rodger called Edward III's claim to be the "Sovereign of the Seas" into question, arguing there was hardly any Royal Navy before the reign of Henry V (1413–22). Although Rodger may have made this claim, the reality was that King John had already developed a royal fleet of galleys and had attempted to establish an administration for these ships and ones which were arrested (privately owned ships pulled into royal/national service). Henry III, his successor, continued this work. Notwithstanding the fact that he, along with his predecessor, had hoped to develop a strong and efficient naval administration, their endeavours produced one that was informal and mostly ad hoc. A formal naval administration emerged during Edward's reign which was composed of lay administrators and headed by William de Clewre, Matthew de Torksey, and John de Haytfield successively with them being titled, Clerk of the King's Ships. Sir Robert de Crull was the last to fill this position during Edward III's reign[37] and would have the longest tenure in this position.[38] It was during his tenure that Edward's naval administration would become a base for what evolved during the reigns of successors such as Henry VIII of England's Council of Marine and Navy Board and Charles I of England's Board of Admiralty. Rodger also argues that for much of the fourteenth century, the French had the upper hand, apart from Sluys in 1340 and, perhaps, off Winchelsea in 1350.[39] Yet, the French never invaded England and France's King John II died in captivity in England. There was a need for an English navy to play a role in this and to handle other matters, such as the insurrection of the Anglo-Irish lords and acts of piracy.[40]

    Fortunes of war

    Map showing 14th-century France in green, with the southwest and parts of the north in pink.
    Map showing the area (in pink) gained by England through the Treaty of Brâetigny.
    By the early 1340s, it was clear that Edward's policy of alliances was too costly, and yielded too few results. The following years saw more direct involvement by English armies, including in the Breton War of Succession, but these interventions also proved fruitless at first.[41] A major change came in July 1346, when Edward staged a major offensive, sailing for Normandy with a force of 15,000 men.[42] His army sacked the city of Caen, and marched across northern France, to meet up with English forces in Flanders. It was not Edward's initial intention to engage the French army, but at Crâecy, just north of the Somme, he found favourable terrain and decided to fight an army led by Philip VI.[43] On 26 August, the English army defeated a far larger French army in the Battle of Crâecy.[44] Shortly after this, on 17 October, an English army defeated and captured King David II of Scotland at the Battle of Neville's Cross.[45] With his northern borders secured, Edward felt free to continue his major offensive against France, laying siege to the town of Calais. The operation was the greatest English venture of the Hundred Years' War, involving an army of 35,000 men.[46] The siege started on 4 September 1346, and lasted until the town surrendered on 3 August 1347.[47]


    Edward III counting the dead on the battlefield of Crâecy
    After the fall of Calais, factors outside of Edward's control forced him to wind down the war effort. In 1348, the Black Death struck England with full force, killing a third or more of the country's population.[48] This loss of manpower led to a shortage of farm labour, and a corresponding rise in wages. The great landowners struggled with the shortage of manpower and the resulting inflation in labour cost.[49] To curb the rise in wages, the king and parliament responded with the Ordinance of Labourers in 1349, followed by the Statute of Labourers in 1351. These attempts to regulate wages could not succeed in the long run, but in the short term they were enforced with great vigour.[50] All in all, the plague did not lead to a full-scale breakdown of government and society, and recovery was remarkably swift.[51] This was to a large extent thanks to the competent leadership of royal administrators such as Treasurer William de Shareshull and Chief Justice William Edington.[52]

    It was not until the mid-1350s that military operations on the Continent were resumed on a large scale.[53] In 1356, Edward's eldest son, Edward, the Black Prince, won an important victory in the Battle of Poitiers. The greatly outnumbered English forces not only routed the French, but captured the French king, John II and his youngest son, Philip.[54] After a succession of victories, the English held great possessions in France, the French king was in English custody, and the French central government had almost totally collapsed.[55] There has been a historical debate as to whether Edward's claim to the French crown originally was genuine, or if it was simply a political ploy meant to put pressure on the French government.[56] Regardless of the original intent, the stated claim now seemed to be within reach. Yet a campaign in 1359, meant to complete the undertaking, was inconclusive.[57] In 1360, therefore, Edward accepted the Treaty of Brâetigny, whereby he renounced his claims to the French throne, but secured his extended French possessions in full sovereignty.[58]

    Later reign

    While Edward's early reign had been energetic and successful, his later years were marked by inertia, military failure and political strife. The day-to-day affairs of the state had less appeal to Edward than military campaigning, so during the 1360s Edward increasingly relied on the help of his subordinates, in particular William Wykeham.[59] A relative upstart, Wykeham was made Keeper of the Privy Seal in 1363 and Chancellor in 1367, though due to political difficulties connected with his inexperience, the Parliament forced him to resign the chancellorship in 1371.[60] Compounding Edward's difficulties were the deaths of his most trusted men, some from the 1361–62 recurrence of the plague. William Montague, Earl of Salisbury, Edward's companion in the 1330 coup, died as early as 1344. William de Clinton, who had also been with the king at Nottingham, died in 1354. One of the earls created in 1337, William de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, died in 1360, and the next year Henry of Grosmont, perhaps the greatest of Edward's captains, succumbed to what was probably plague.[61] Their deaths left the majority of the magnates younger and more naturally aligned to the princes than to the king himself.[62]


    King Edward III grants Aquitaine to his son Edward, the Black Prince. Initial letter "E" of miniature, 1390; British Library, shelfmark: Cotton MS Nero D VI, f.31
    Increasingly, Edward began to rely on his sons for the leadership of military operations. The king's second son, Lionel of Antwerp, attempted to subdue by force the largely autonomous Anglo-Irish lords in Ireland. The venture failed, and the only lasting mark he left were the suppressive Statutes of Kilkenny in 1366.[63] In France, meanwhile, the decade following the Treaty of Brâetigny was one of relative tranquillity, but on 8 April 1364 John II died in captivity in England, after unsuccessfully trying to raise his own ransom at home.[64] He was followed by the vigorous Charles V, who enlisted the help of the capable Constable Bertrand du Guesclin.[65] In 1369, the French war started anew, and Edward's younger son John of Gaunt was given the responsibility of a military campaign. The effort failed, and with the Treaty of Bruges in 1375, the great English possessions in France were reduced to only the coastal towns of Calais, Bordeaux, and Bayonne.[66]

    Military failure abroad, and the associated fiscal pressure of constant campaigns, led to political discontent at home. The problems came to a head in the parliament of 1376, the so-called Good Parliament. The parliament was called to grant taxation, but the House of Commons took the opportunity to address specific grievances. In particular, criticism was directed at some of the king's closest advisors. Chamberlain William Latimer and Steward of the Household John Neville were dismissed from their positions.[67] Edward's mistress, Alice Perrers, who was seen to hold far too much power over the ageing king, was banished from court.[68][69] Yet the real adversary of the Commons, supported by powerful men such as Wykeham and Edmund de Mortimer, Earl of March, was John of Gaunt. Both the king and the Black Prince were by this time incapacitated by illness, leaving Gaunt in virtual control of government.[70] Gaunt was forced to give in to the demands of parliament, but at its next convocation, in 1377, most of the achievements of the Good Parliament were reversed.[71]

    Edward himself, however, did not have much to do with any of this; after around 1375 he played a limited role in the government of the realm. Around 29 September 1376 he fell ill with a large abscess. After a brief period of recovery in February 1377, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June.[72] He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, son of the Black Prince, since the Black Prince himself had died on 8 June 1376.[73]

    Achievements of the reign

    Legislation

    The middle years of Edward's reign were a period of significant legislative activity. Perhaps the best-known piece of legislation was the Statute of Labourers of 1351, which addressed the labour shortage problem caused by the Black Death. The statute fixed wages at their pre-plague level and checked peasant mobility by asserting that lords had first claim on their men's services. In spite of concerted efforts to uphold the statute, it eventually failed due to competition among landowners for labour.[74] The law has been described as an attempt "to legislate against the law of supply and demand", which made it doomed to fail.[75] Nevertheless, the labour shortage had created a community of interest between the smaller landowners of the House of Commons and the greater landowners of the House of Lords. The resulting measures angered the peasants, leading to the Peasants' Revolt of 1381.[76]

    The reign of Edward III coincided with the so-called Babylonian Captivity of the papacy at Avignon. During the wars with France, opposition emerged in England against perceived injustices by a papacy largely controlled by the French crown.[77] Papal taxation of the English Church was suspected to be financing the nation's enemies, while the practice of provisions – the Pope providing benefices for clerics – caused resentment in the English population. The statutes of Provisors and Praemunire, of 1350 and 1353 respectively, aimed to amend this by banning papal benefices, as well as limiting the power of the papal court over English subjects.[78] The statutes did not, however, sever the ties between the king and the Pope, who were equally dependent upon each other.[79]

    Other legislation of importance includes the Treason Act of 1351. It was precisely the harmony of the reign that allowed a consensus on the definition of this controversial crime.[80] Yet the most significant legal reform was probably that concerning the Justices of the Peace. This institution began before the reign of Edward III but, by 1350, the justices had been given the power not only to investigate crimes and make arrests, but also to try cases, including those of felony.[81] With this, an enduring fixture in the administration of local English justice had been created.[82]

    Parliament and taxation

    Half groat with portrait of King Edward III, York mint.
    Parliament as a representative institution was already well established by the time of Edward III, but the reign was nevertheless central to its development.[83] During this period, membership in the English baronage, formerly a somewhat indistinct group, became restricted to those who received a personal summons to parliament.[84] This happened as parliament gradually developed into a bicameral institution, composed of a House of Lords and a House of Commons.[85] Yet it was not in the upper, but in the lower house that the greatest changes took place, with the expanding political role of the Commons. Informative is the Good Parliament, where the Commons for the first time – albeit with noble support – were responsible for precipitating a political crisis.[86] In the process, both the procedure of impeachment and the office of the Speaker were created.[87] Even though the political gains were of only temporary duration, this parliament represented a watershed in English political history.

    The political influence of the Commons originally lay in their right to grant taxes.[88] The financial demands of the Hundred Years' War were enormous, and the king and his ministers tried different methods of covering the expenses. The king had a steady income from crown lands, and could also take up substantial loans from Italian and domestic financiers.[89] To finance warfare on Edward III's scale, however, the king had to resort to taxation of his subjects. Taxation took two primary forms: levy and customs. The levy was a grant of a proportion of all moveable property, normally a tenth for towns and a fifteenth for farmland. This could produce large sums of money, but each such levy had to be approved by parliament, and the king had to prove the necessity.[90] The customs therefore provided a welcome supplement, as a steady and reliable source of income. An "ancient duty" on the export of wool had existed since 1275. Edward I had tried to introduce an additional duty on wool, but this unpopular maltolt, or "unjust exaction", was soon abandoned.[91] Then, from 1336 onwards, a series of schemes aimed at increasing royal revenues from wool export were introduced. After some initial problems and discontent, it was agreed through the Ordinance of the Staple of 1353 that the new customs should be approved by parliament, though in reality they became permanent.[92]

    Through the steady taxation of Edward III's reign, parliament – and in particular the Commons – gained political influence. A consensus emerged that in order for a tax to be just, the king had to prove its necessity, it had to be granted by the community of the realm, and it had to be to the benefit of that community.[93] In addition to imposing taxes, parliament would also present petitions for redress of grievances to the king, most often concerning misgovernment by royal officials.[94] This way the system was beneficial for both parties. Through this process the commons, and the community they represented, became increasingly politically aware, and the foundation was laid for the particular English brand of constitutional monarchy.[95]

    Chivalry and national identity

    Edward III as head of the Order of the Garter, drawing c. 1430–40 in the Bruges Garter Book
    Partly ruined black seal, showing Edward III on horseback, in armour and sword raised.
    The Great Seal of Edward III.
    Central to Edward III's policy was reliance on the higher nobility for purposes of war and administration. While his father had regularly been in conflict with a great portion of his peerage, Edward III successfully created a spirit of camaraderie between himself and his greatest subjects.[96] Both Edward I and Edward II had been limited in their policy towards the nobility, allowing the creation of few new peerages during the sixty years preceding Edward III's reign.[97] The young king reversed this trend when, in 1337, as a preparation for the imminent war, he created six new earls on the same day.[98] At the same time, Edward expanded the ranks of the peerage upwards, by introducing the new title of duke for close relatives of the king.[99] Furthermore, Edward bolstered the sense of community within this group by the creation of the Order of the Garter, probably in 1348. A plan from 1344 to revive the Round Table of King Arthur never came to fruition, but the new order carried connotations from this legend by the circular shape of the garter.[100] Polydore Vergil tells of how the young Joan of Kent, Countess of Salisbury – allegedly the king's favourite at the time – accidentally dropped her garter at a ball at Calais. King Edward responded to the ensuing ridicule of the crowd by tying the garter around his own knee with the words honi soit qui mal y pense – shame on him who thinks ill of it.[101]

    This reinforcement of the aristocracy must be seen in conjunction with the war in France, as must the emerging sense of national identity.[96] Just as the war with Scotland had done, the fear of a French invasion helped strengthen a sense of national unity, and nationalise the aristocracy that had been largely Anglo-French since the Norman conquest. Since the time of Edward I, popular myth suggested that the French planned to extinguish the English language, and as his grandfather had done, Edward III made the most of this scare.[102] As a result, the English language experienced a strong revival; in 1362, a Statute of Pleading ordered the English language to be used in law courts,[103] and the year after, Parliament was for the first time opened in English.[104] At the same time, the vernacular saw a revival as a literary language, through the works of William Langland, John Gower and especially The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer.[105] Yet the extent of this Anglicisation must not be exaggerated. The statute of 1362 was in fact written in the French language and had little immediate effect, and parliament was opened in that language as late as 1377.[106] The Order of the Garter, though a distinctly English institution, included also foreign members such as John V, Duke of Brittany and Sir Robert of Namur.[107][108] Edward III – himself bilingual – viewed himself as legitimate king of both England and France, and could not show preferential treatment for one part of his domains over another.

    Assessment and character

    See also: Cultural depictions of Edward III of England
    Early modern half-figure portrait of Edward III in his royal garb.
    Edward III as he was portrayed in the late 16th century.
    Edward III enjoyed unprecedented popularity in his own lifetime, and even the troubles of his later reign were never blamed directly on the king himself.[109] Edward's contemporary Jean Froissart wrote in his Chronicles that "His like had not been seen since the days of King Arthur".[72] This view persisted for a while but, with time, the image of the king changed. The Whig historians of a later age preferred constitutional reform to foreign conquest and discredited Edward for ignoring his responsibilities to his own nation. In the words of Bishop Stubbs:

    Edward III was not a statesman, though he possessed some qualifications which might have made him a successful one. He was a warrior; ambitious, unscrupulous, selfish, extravagant and ostentatious. His obligations as a king sat very lightly on him. He felt himself bound by no special duty, either to maintain the theory of royal supremacy or to follow a policy which would benefit his people. Like Richard I, he valued England primarily as a source of supplies.
    — William Stubbs, The Constitutional History of England[110]

    Influential as Stubbs was, it was long before this view was challenged. In a 1960 article, titled "Edward III and the Historians", May McKisack pointed out the teleological nature of Stubbs' judgement. A medieval king could not be expected to work towards the future ideal of a parliamentary monarchy; rather his role was a pragmatic one—to maintain order and solve problems as they arose. At this, Edward III excelled.[111] Edward had also been accused of endowing his younger sons too liberally and thereby promoting dynastic strife culminating in the Wars of the Roses. This claim was rejected by K.B. McFarlane, who argued that this was not only the common policy of the age, but also the best.[112] Later biographers of the king such as Mark Ormrod and Ian Mortimer have followed this historiographical trend. However, the older negative view has not completely disappeared; as recently as 2001, Norman Cantor described Edward III as an "avaricious and sadistic thug" and a "destructive and merciless force."[113]

    From what is known of Edward's character, he could be impulsive and temperamental, as was seen by his actions against Stratford and the ministers in 1340/41.[114] At the same time, he was well known for his clemency; Mortimer's grandson was not only absolved, but came to play an important part in the French wars, and was eventually made a Knight of the Garter.[115] Both in his religious views and his interests, Edward was a conventional man. His favourite pursuit was the art of war and, in this, he conformed to the medieval notion of good kingship.[116][117] As a warrior he was so successful that one modern military historian has described him as the greatest general in English history.[118] He seems to have been unusually devoted to his wife, Queen Philippa. Much has been made of Edward's sexual licentiousness, but there is no evidence of any infidelity on the king's part before Alice Perrers became his lover, and by that time the queen was already terminally ill.[119][120] This devotion extended to the rest of the family as well; in contrast to so many of his predecessors, Edward never experienced opposition from any of his five adult sons.[121]

    Birth:
    Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is notable for its long association with the English and later British royal family and for its architecture. The original castle was built in the 11th century after the Norman invasion of England by William the Conqueror. Since the time of Henry I, it has been used by all monarchs, and is the longest-occupied palace in Europe. The castle's lavish early 19th-century State Apartments were described by the art historian Hugh Roberts as "a superb and unrivalled sequence of rooms widely regarded as the finest and most complete expression of later Georgian taste".[1] Inside the castle walls is the 15th-century St George's Chapel, considered by the historian John Martin Robinson to be "one of the supreme achievements of English Perpendicular Gothic" design.

    View map & image ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windsor_Castle (Sheila & I traversed "the Long Walk" by horse & carriage...DAH)

    Buried:
    Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556 the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, however, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the original abbey church.

    According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site (then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island)) in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III.

    Photo & maps ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Abbey

    Died:
    Formerly known as "Sheen Palace" until partially destroyed by fire and rebuilt and renamed by Henry VII...

    Edward married Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England 24 Jan 1327, York Minster, York, East Riding, Yorkshire, England. Phillipa was born 1312-1314, Mons, Hainaut, Belgium, Netherlands; died 15 Aug 1369, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was buried 15 Aug 1368, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. [Group Sheet]


  6. 37.  Phillipa d'Avesnes, Queen of England was born 1312-1314, Mons, Hainaut, Belgium, Netherlands; died 15 Aug 1369, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was buried 15 Aug 1368, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Philippa of Hainault

    Children:
    1. Edward of Woodstock, The Black Prince was born 15 Jun 1330, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England; died 8 Jun 1376, Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    2. Lionel of Antwerp, Knight, 1st Duke of Clarence was born 29 Nov 1338, Antwerp, Belgium; died 17 Oct 1368, Alba, Italy; was buried Clare Priory, Suffolk, England.
    3. 18. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster was born 6 Mar 1340, St. Bavo's Abbey, Ghent, Belgium; died 3 Feb 1399, Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire, England; was buried 15 Mar 1399, St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Middlesex, England..
    4. 30. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge was born 5 Jun 1341, King's Langley, Hertford, England; was christened King's Langley, Hertford, England; died 1 Aug 1402, Abbot's Langley, Hertford, England; was buried Dominicans Church, King's Langley, Hertford, England.
    5. Thomas of Woodstock was born 7 Jan 1355, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England; died 8 Sep 1397, Calais, France.

  7. 38.  Paon de Roet, Knight was born ~ 1310, Roeulx, France; died 0___ 1380, Ghent, Belgium; was buried Old St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Paganus de Rodio
    • Also Known As: Sir Gilles de Roet

    Notes:

    Paon de Roet sometimes Payne Roet of Guienne (c.1310-1380), and also referred to as Sir Gilles de Roet, was a herald and knight from Hainaut who was involved in the early stages of the Hundred Years War. He became attached to the court of King Edward III of England through the king's marriage to Philippa of Hainaut.

    He is most notable for the fact that he became the ancestor of the monarchs of England because his daughter Katherine married John of Gaunt. Her children, given the surname "Beaufort", became the forebears of the Tudor dynasty through Margaret Beaufort. Another of his daughters also made a notable marriage, to the poet Geoffrey Chaucer.

    Early life

    Paon de Roet was "probably christened as Gilles",[1] but seems to have been known as "Paon" or "Payne", Latinised as "Paganus". He is named in a legal document in the form Paganus de Rodio — referring to Rodium, the mediaeval Latin form corresponding to the Roeulx, or Le Rśulx, a town of 3000 inhabitants, 8 miles north-east of Mons, on the highway leading from Mons to Nivelle located in the County of Hainaut.

    Paon de Roet may have been impelled to seek his fortune in England by the recital of the exploits of Fastre de Roet, who accompanied John of Beaumont in 1326, when, with three hundred followers, he went to assist the English against the Scots. Fastre was the younger brother of the last lord of Roeulx, descended from the Counts of Hainault. He and his brother Eustace fell into pecuniary straits, and were obliged to alienate their landed possessions. Fastre died in 1331, and was buried in the abbey church of Roeulx, while his brother Eustace survived till 1336. Paon was, like Fastre, a younger brother — possibly of a collateral line.

    In England

    Paon de Roet may have come to England as part of the retinue of Philippa of Hainaut, accompanying the young queen in her departure from Valenciennes to join her youthful husband Edward III in England at the close of 1327. His name does not appear in the official list of knights who accompanied the queen from Hainaut. However, Froissart says he was one of a number of additional young knights and squires who added to the queen's retinue, referred to as 'pluissier jone esquier', i.e. "plusiers jeunes escuyers" ('other young squires'); Speght (1598)[2]

    Froissart's account of the history of English monarchs includes a genealogical tree, the relevant part of which begins with Paon's name. He is described as "Paganus de Rouet Hannoniensis, aliter dictus Guien Rex Armorum" ("Paon de Rouet of Hainaut, also called Guyenne King of Arms"). The latter part refers to the title of King of Arms granted by Edward III to Roet for the territory of Guyenne (Aquitaine) which was controlled by Edward.

    France and Hainaut

    In 1347, Roet was sent to the Siege of Calais, and was one of two knights deputed by Queen Philippa to conduct out of town the citizens whom she had saved (the so-called Burghers of Calais).[3]

    He had returned to the lands of Hainaut, probably by 1349. He went to serve the queen’s sister, Marguerite, who was the empress of Germany, and his three younger children—Walter, Philippa and Katherine—were left in the care of Queen Philippa.[4] He died in Ghent in 1380.

    Family

    Paon had three daughters, Katherine, Philippa and Isabel (also called Elizabeth) de Roet, and a son, Walter. Isabel was to become Canoness of the convent of St. Waudru at Mons in Hainaut, c. 1366. Philippa married the poet Geoffrey Chaucer in 1366. They met while still children when they were attached to the household of Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster.[5]

    Katherine became governess to the daughters of John of Gaunt. After the death of John's wife Blanche in 1369, Katherine and John began a love affair which would bring forth four children born out of wedlock and would endure as a lifelong relationship. However, John made a dynastic marriage to Constance of Castille, a claimant to the throne of Castile, after which he called himself "King of Castille". When Constance died he married Katherine and legitimised their children.

    Tomb

    Roet's name listed amongst early graves lost noted on the memorial in St Paul's Cathedral
    Paon de Roet's tomb was in Old St Paul's Cathedral, near Sir John Beauchamp's tomb (commonly called "Duke Humphrey's"). The antiquary John Weever had previously recorded that "Once a fair marble stone inlaid all over with brass, nothing but the heads of a few brazen nails are at this day visible, previously engraven with the representation and coat of arms of the party defunct, thus much of a mangled funeral inscription was of late times perspicuous to be read".[6]

    By 1658, viewed without its brass plate and effigies, this tomb was described by William Dugdale. The tomb, along with the tombs of many others, including John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster's, were completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. A modern monument in the crypt lists De Roet amongst the important graves lost.

    The former inscription was as follows:

    " Hic Jacet Paganus Roet Miles Guyenne Rex
    Armorum Pater Catherine Ducisse Lancastrie."
    (Here lies Paon de Roet, knight, Guyenne King of Arms, father of Katherine Duchess of Lancaster)

    Birth:
    Roeulx is a French commune located in the department of North , in region Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy .

    Buried:
    Old St Paul's Cathedral was the medieval cathedral of the City of London that, until 1666, stood on the site of the present St Paul's Cathedral. Built from 1087 to 1314 and dedicated to Saint Paul, the cathedral was the fourth church on the site at Ludgate Hill.

    Paon de Roet's tomb was in Old St Paul's Cathedral, near Sir John Beauchamp's tomb (commonly called "Duke Humphrey's"). The antiquary John Weever had previously recorded that "Once a fair marble stone inlaid all over with brass, nothing but the heads of a few brazen nails are at this day visible, previously engraven with the representation and coat of arms of the party defunct, thus much of a mangled funeral inscription was of late times perspicuous to be read".[6]

    By 1658, viewed without its brass plate and effigies, this tomb was described by William Dugdale. The tomb, along with the tombs of many others, including John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster's, were completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. A modern monument in the crypt lists De Roet amongst the important graves lost.

    The former inscription was as follows:

    " Hic Jacet Paganus Roet Miles Guyenne Rex
    Armorum Pater Catherine Ducisse Lancastrie."
    (Here lies Paon de Roet, knight, Guyenne King of Arms, father of Katherine Duchess of Lancaster)

    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paon_de_Roet

    Paon — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  8. 39.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 19. Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster was born 25 Nov 1350, Picardie, France; died 10 May 1403, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England; was buried Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England.
    2. Phillipa de Roet was born ~ 1346, (Roeulx) France; died ~ 1387, (London, Middlesex, England).

  9. 40.  John Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute was born ~ 1330, (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England) (son of William Montagu, Knight, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury); died ~ 1390.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Lord John Montacute
    • Also Known As: Sir John de Montagu

    Notes:

    John de Montacute (c. 1330 - c. 1390) was a 14th-century English nobleman and loyal servant of King Edward III of England.

    Origins

    He was the son of William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury by his wife Catherine Grandison, and younger brother of William de Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury (1328-1397). He also had several younger sisters.

    Career

    He was summoned to parliament in 1357.[1] Jean Froissart named "Lord John Mountacute" as one of the participants with King Edward III at the Siege of Calais in 1348.[2]

    Marriage & progeny

    He married Margaret de Monthermer, daughter and heiress of Thomas de Monthermer, 2nd Baron de Monthermer by his wife Margaret Teyes. His descendants thenceforth quartered the arms of Monthermer: Or, an eagle displayed vert beaked and membered gules. By his wife he had progeny:

    John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, KG, (c.1350-1400).
    Eleanor Montacute, wife of John III Dinham (1359-1428).[3]
    Thomas Montagu, Dean of Salisbury Cathedral

    John — Margaret Monthermer. [Group Sheet]


  10. 41.  Margaret Monthermer
    Children:
    1. 20. John Montacute, Knight, 3rd Earl of Salisbury was born ~ 1350, (Salisbury) England; died 5 Jan 1400, (England); was buried Bisham Priory, England.
    2. Eleanor Montagu

  11. 42.  Adam Francis

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Mayor of London

    Adam — Agnes Champnes. [Group Sheet]


  12. 43.  Agnes Champnes
    Children:
    1. 21. Maud Francis, Countess of Salisbury was born ~ 1370, London, Middlesex, England; died ~ 1424, (England).

  13. 44.  Thomas Holland, Knight, 1st Earl of KentThomas Holland, Knight, 1st Earl of Kent was born ~ 1314, Upholland, Lancashire, England (son of Robert de Holland, II, Knight, 1st Baron Holand and Maud La Zouche); died 26 Dec 1360.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Member of Parliament
    • Residence: Brittany, France
    • Also Known As: Baron de Holland
    • Military:
    • Military: Knight of the Garter

    Notes:

    Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, 2nd Baron Holand, KG (c. 1314 - 26 December 1360) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War.

    He was from a gentry family in Upholland, Lancashire. He was a son of Robert de Holland, 1st Baron Holand and Maud la Zouche. One of his brothers was Otho Holand, who was also made a Knight of the Garter.

    Military career...

    In his early military career, he fought in Flanders. He was engaged, in 1340, in the English expedition into Flanders and sent, two years later, with Sir John D'Artevelle to Bayonne, to defend the Gascon frontier against the French. In 1343, he was again on service in France. In 1346, he attended King Edward III into Normandy in the immediate retinue of the Earl of Warwick; and, at the taking of Caen, the Count of Eu and Guăines, Constable of France, and the Count De Tancarville surrendered themselves to him as prisoners. At the Battle of Crâecy, he was one of the principal commanders in the vanguard under the Prince of Wales and he, afterwards, served at the Siege of Calais in 1346-7. In 1348 he was invested as one of the founders and 13th Knight of the new Order of the Garter.

    Around the same time as, or before, his first expedition, he secretly married the 12-year-old Joan of Kent, daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake, granddaughter of Edward I and Margaret of France. However, during his absence on foreign service, Joan, under pressure from her family, contracted another marriage with William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury (of whose household Holland had been seneschal). This second marriage was annulled in 1349, when Joan's previous marriage with Holland was proved to the satisfaction of the papal commissioners. Joan was ordered by the Pope to return to her husband and live with him as his lawful wife; this she did, thus producing 4 children by him.

    Between 1353 and 1356 he was summoned to Parliament as Baron de Holland.

    In 1354 Holland was the king's lieutenant in Brittany during the minority of the Duke of Brittany, and in 1359 co-captain-general for all the English continental possessions.

    His brother-in-law John, Earl of Kent, died in 1352, and Holland became Earl of Kent in right of his wife.

    He was succeeded as baron by his son Thomas, the earldom still being held by his wife (though the son later became Earl in his own right). Another son, John became Earl of Huntingdon and Duke of Exeter.

    Children

    Thomas and Joan of Kent had four children:

    Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent
    John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter
    Joan Holland, who married John IV, Duke of Brittany
    Maud Holland, married firstly Hugh Courtenay grandson of Hugh de Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon and secondly, Waleran III of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny

    External links

    His profile in Britannia Biographies
    His entry in Maximilian Genealogy

    Military:
    One of the founders and 13th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348

    Military:
    In his early military career, he fought in Flanders . He was engaged, in 1340, in the English expedition into Flanders and sent, two years later, with Sir John D'Artevelle to Bayonne, to defend the Gascon frontier against the French. In 1343, he was again on service in France . In 1346, he attended King Edward III into Normandy in the immediate retinue of the Earl of Warwick ; and, at the taking of Caen , the Count of Eu and Guăines, Constable of France , and the Count De Tancarville surrendered themselves to him as prisoners. At the Battle of Crâecy , he was one of the principal commanders in the vanguard under the Prince of Wales and he, afterwards, served at the Siege of Calais in 1346-7. In 1348 he was invested as one of the founders and 13th Knight of the new Order of the Garter .

    Thomas — Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent. Joan (daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell) was born 19 Sep 1328, (Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom); died 7 Aug 1385, Wallingford Castle, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Greyfriars, Stamford, Lincolnshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  14. 45.  Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of KentJoan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent was born 19 Sep 1328, (Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom) (daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell); died 7 Aug 1385, Wallingford Castle, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Greyfriars, Stamford, Lincolnshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 5th Baroness Wake of Liddell
    • Also Known As: Countess of Salisbury
    • Also Known As: Fair Maid of Kent
    • Also Known As: Princess of Aquitaine
    • Also Known As: Princess of Wales

    Notes:

    Joan, LG, suo jure 4th Countess of Kent, 5th Baroness Wake of Liddell (19 September 1328 – 7 August 1385), known to history as The Fair Maid of Kent, was the first post-conquest Princess of Wales as wife to Edward, the Black Prince, son and heir of King Edward III. Although the French chronicler Jean Froissart called her "the most beautiful woman in all the realm of England, and the most loving", the appellation "Fair Maid of Kent" does not appear to be contemporary.[1] Joan assumed the title of 4th Countess of Kent and 5th Baroness Wake of Liddell after the death of her brother, John, in 1352.

    Early life

    The Earl's widow, Margaret, was left with four children for whom to care. Joan's first cousin, the new King Edward III, took on the responsibility for the family, and looked after them well. His wife, Queen Philippa, was Joan's second cousin.

    Marriages

    In 1340, at the age of twelve, Joan secretly married Thomas Holland of Upholland, Lancashire, without first gaining the royal consent necessary for couples of their rank.[3] The following winter (1340 or 1341), while Holland was overseas, her family forced her to marry William Montacute, son and heir of the first Earl of Salisbury. Joan later averred that she did not disclose her existing marriage with Thomas Holland because she had been afraid that disclosing it would lead to Thomas's execution for treason upon his return. She may also have become convinced that the earlier marriage was invalid.[4]

    Several years later, Thomas Holland returned from the Crusades, having made his fortune and the full story of his relationship with Joan came out. He appealed to the Pope for the return of his wife and confessed the secret marriage to the king. When the Earl of Salisbury discovered that Joan supported Holland’s case, he kept her a prisoner in her own home.[5] In 1349, Pope Clement VI annulled Joan’s marriage to the Earl and sent her back to Thomas Holland, with whom she lived for the next eleven years. They had five children before Holland died in 1360.[6][7]

    Their children were:

    Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent
    John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter
    Lady Joan Holland (1356–1384), who married John V, Duke of Brittany (1339–1399).
    Lady Maud Holland (1359–1391), who married firstly to Hugh Courtenay and secondly to Waleran III of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny (1355–1415).
    Edmund Holland (c. 1354), who died young. He was buried in the church of Austin Friars, London.[6]
    When the last of Joan's siblings died in 1352, she became the 4th Countess of Kent and 5th Lady Wake of Liddell.

    Descendants of Lady Joan and Thomas Holland include Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby (mother of King Henry VII) and queens consort Anne Neville, Elizabeth of York, and Catherine Parr.[8]

    Marriage into the royal family

    Evidence of the affection of Edward, the Black Prince (who was her first cousin once removed) for Joan may be found in the record of his presenting her with a silver cup, part of the booty from one of his early military campaigns. Edward's parents did not, however, favour a marriage between their son and their former ward. Queen Philippa had made a favourite of Joan at first, but both she and the king seem to have been concerned about Joan's reputation. English law was such that Joan's living ex-husband, Salisbury, might have claimed any children of her subsequent marriages as his own. In addition, Edward and Joan were within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity. The secret marriage they allegedly contracted in 1360[9] would have been invalid because of the consanguinity prohibition. At the King's request, the Pope granted a dispensation allowing the two to be legally married. The official ceremony occurred on 10 October 1361, at Windsor Castle with the King and Queen in attendance. The Archbishop of Canterbury presided.[citation needed]

    In 1362, the Black Prince was invested as Prince of Aquitaine, a region of France which belonged to the English Crown since the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II. He and Joan moved to Bordeaux, the capital of the principality, where they spent the next nine years. Two sons were born in France to the royal couple. The elder son, named Edward (27 January 1365 - 1370) after his father and grandfather, died at the age of six. Around the time of the birth of their younger son, Richard, the Prince was lured into a war on behalf of King Peter of Castile. The ensuing battle was one of the Black Prince’s greatest victories, but King Peter (Spanish: Pedro) was later killed, and there was no money to pay the troops. In the meantime, the Princess was forced to raise another army, because the Prince’s enemies were threatening Aquitaine in his absence.[citation needed]

    Transition to Dowager Princess of Wales

    By 1371, the Black Prince was no longer able to perform his duties as Prince of Aquitaine, and returned to England, where plague was wreaking havoc. In 1372, he forced himself to attempt one final, abortive campaign in the hope of saving his father’s French possessions. His health was now completely shattered. On 7 June 1376, a week before his forty-sixth birthday, he died in his bed at Westminster.

    Joan’s son was next in line to succeed King Edward III. Edward III died on 21 June 1377 and Richard became King. He was crowned Richard II at the age of 10 in the following month. Early in his reign, the young King faced the challenge of the Peasants' Revolt. The Lollards, religious reformers led by John Wyclif, had enjoyed the protection of Joan of Kent, but the violent climax of the popular movement for reform reduced the feisty Joan to a state of terror, while leaving the King with an improved reputation.[citation needed]

    As a power behind the throne, she was well loved for her influence over the young king - for example, on her return to London (via her Wickhambreaux estate) from a pilgrimage to Becket's shrine at Canterbury Cathedral in 1381, she found her way barred by Wat Tyler and his mob of rebels on Blackheath but was not only let through unharmed, but saluted with kisses and provided with an escort for the rest of her journey.

    In 1385, Sir John Holland, an adult son of her first marriage, was campaigning with the King in the Kingdom of Scotland, when a quarrel broke out between him and Ralph Stafford, son of the 2nd Earl of Stafford, a favourite of the new Queen Anne of Bohemia. Stafford was killed, and John Holland sought sanctuary at the shrine of St John of Beverley. On the King’s return, Holland was condemned to death. Joan pleaded with her son for four days to spare his half-brother. On the fifth day (the exact date in August is not known), she died, at Wallingford Castle. Richard relented, and pardoned Holland (though he was then sent on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land).[citation needed]

    Joan was buried, as requested in her will, at the Greyfriars, the site of the present hospital, in Stamford in Lincolnshire, beside her first husband. Her third husband, the Black Prince, had built a chantry for her in the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral (where he was to have been buried), with ceiling bosses of her face. Another boss in the north nave aisle is also said to be of her.[10]

    Children:
    1. 22. Thomas Holland, II, 2nd Earl of Kent was born 1350-1354, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 25 Apr 1397, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England.
    2. John Holland, Knight, 1st Duke of Exeter was born ~ 1352, England; died 16 Jan 1400, England.

  15. 46.  Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of ArundelRichard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel was born 1306-1313, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (son of Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel); died 24 Jan 1376, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Governor of Caernarfon Castle
    • Occupation: High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire
    • Occupation: Justiciar of North Wales
    • Also Known As: 8th Earl of Surrey
    • Military: Commander of the English Army in the North
    • Will: 5 Dec 1375

    Notes:

    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and 8th Earl of Surrey (c. 1306/1313 – 24 January 1376) was an English nobleman and medieval military leader.

    Family and early life

    Richard's birth date was uncertain perhaps 1313 or maybe 1306 in Sussex, England. FitzAlan was the eldest son of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel (8th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots), and his wife Alice de Warenne.[1] His maternal grandparents were William de Warenne and Joan de Vere. William was the only son of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (himself son of Maud Marshal by her second marriage), and his wife Alice de Lusignan (d. 1356), half-sister of Henry III of England.

    Alliance with the Despensers

    Around 1321, FitzAlan's father allied with King Edward II's favorites, Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester and his namesake son, and Richard was married to Isabel le Despenser, daughter of Hugh the Younger. Fortune turned against the Despenser party, and on 17 November 1326, FitzAlan's father was executed, and he did not succeed to his father's estates or titles.

    Gradual restoration

    However, political conditions had changed by 1330, and over the next few years Richard was gradually able to reacquire the Earldom of Arundel as well as the great estates his father had held in Sussex and in the Welsh Marches.

    Beyond this, in 1334 he was made Justiciar of North Wales (later his term in this office was made for life), High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire for life and Governor of Caernarfon Castle. He was one of the most trusted supporters of Edward the Black Prince in Wales.

    Military service in Scotland

    Despite his high offices in Wales, in the following decades Arundel spent much of his time fighting in Scotland (during the Second Wars of Scottish Independence) and France (during the Hundred Years' War). In 1337, Arundel was made Joint Commander of the English army in the north, and the next year he was made the sole Commander.

    Notable victories

    In 1340 he fought at the Battle of Sluys, and then at the siege of Tournai. After a short term as Warden of the Scottish Marches, he returned to the continent, where he fought in a number of campaigns, and was appointed Joint Lieutenant of Aquitaine in 1340.

    Arundel was one of the three principal English commanders at the Battle of Crâecy. He spent much of the following years on various military campaigns and diplomatic missions.

    In a campaign of 1375, at the end of his life, he destroyed the harbour of Roscoff.

    Great wealth

    In 1347, he succeeded to the Earldom of Surrey (or Warenne), which even further increased his great wealth. (He did not however use the additional title until after the death of the Dowager Countess of Surrey in 1361.) He made very large loans to King Edward III but even so on his death left behind a great sum in hard cash.

    Marriages and children

    This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2012)
    He married firstly February 9, 1321 at Havering-atte-Bower, Isabel le Despenser (born 1312). At that time, the future earl was eight (or fifteen) and his bride nine. He later repudiated this bride, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI in December 1344 on the grounds that he had been underaged and unwilling. He had a son Edmund (b. 1327) when he was fourteen (or twenty-one) and his wife fifteen; this son was bastardized by the annulment.

    His second wife, whom he married on 5 April 1345, was a young widow Eleanor of Lancaster, the second youngest daughter and sixth child of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth; by Papal dispensation he was allowed to marry his first wife's first cousin by their common grandmother Isabella de Beauchamp. Eleanor was the widow of John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont. The king, Edward III, himself a kinsman of both wives, attended this second marriage. By now, the Earl of Arundel had rebuilt the family wealth and was apparently a major financier of the Crown, and financial sweeteners may have been used to reconcile both the Church and the Crown.[2] By his first marriage to Isabel le Despenser (living 1356, and may have died circa 1376-7), which marriage he had annulled December 1344 [1], he had one son:

    Sir Edmund de Arundel, knt (b ca 1327; d 1376-1382), bastardized by the annulment. Edmund was nevertheless knighted, married at the age of twenty, in the summer of 1347 [2] Sybil de Montacute, a younger daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison, whose elder sister Elizabeth was married to his maternal uncle (the uncle may have arranged this marriage). Edmund protested his bastardization bitterly in 1347, but was apparently ignored. After his father's death in 1376, Edmund disputed his half-brother Richard's inheritance of the earldom and associated lands and titles in 1376 and apparently tried to claim the six manors allotted to his deceased mother. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1377, and finally freed through the intervention of two of his brothers-in-law (his wife's brother John de Montacute and the second husband of Elizabeth de Montacute, Lady Le Despencer).[3] They had three daughters who were his co-heiresses and who brought a failed suit in 1382 against their half-uncle the Earl:

    Elizabeth de Arundel, who married Sir Leonard Carew and has descendants

    Philippa de Arundel (died 18 May 1452), married (as his 2nd wife) Sir Richard Sergeaux, Knt, of Colquite, Cornwall.[4] A Victorian historical novel ascribes the following five children to her: a) Richard, born December 21, 1376, and died issueless, June 24, 1396; b) Elizabeth, born 1379, wife of Sir William Marny; c) Philippa, born 1381, wife of Robert Passele; d) Alice, born at Kilquyt, September 1, 1384, wife of Guy de Saint Albino [this ; e) Joan, born 1393, died February 21, 1400. "Philippa became a widow, September 30, 1393, and died September 13, 1399." (I.P.M., 17 Ric. II., 53; 21 Ric. II., 50; 1 H. IV., 14, 23, 24.)[5]

    Alice Sergeaux later Countess of Oxford (c. 1386 - 18 May 1452), married 1stly Guy de St Aubyn of St. Erme, Cornwall, and 2ndly about 1406-7 as his 2nd wife, the 11th Earl of Oxford and widower of Alice de Holand (dsp. 1406, niece of Henry IV, and mother of two sons by him
    John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
    Robert de Vere, whose grandson, John, became the 15th Earl of Oxford.[7]

    Mary (died 29 Aug 1396), married John le Strange, 4th Lord Blackmere (from Genealogy of Fitzalans).
    By the second marriage 5 February 1345, by Papal dispensation,[6] to Eleanor of Lancaster, he had 3 sons and 3 surviving daughters:

    Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who succeeded him as 11th Earl of Arundel as his "eldest legitimate" son.
    John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel, 1st Baron Maltravers, who was a Marshall of England, and drowned in 1379.
    Thomas Arundel, who became Archbishop of Canterbury
    Lady Joan FitzAlan (1348 - 7 April 1419) who married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. They were the maternal grandparents of Henry V of England through their daughter Mary de Bohun.
    Lady Alice FitzAlan (1350 - 17 March 1416), who married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, uterine brother of King Richard II. They were ancestors to Queen consorts Anne Neville (wife of King Richard III), Elizabeth of York (wife of King Henry VII), and Catherine Parr (wife of King Henry VIII).
    Lady Eleanor Fitzalan (1356 - before 1366).

    The current Dukes of Norfolk descend from Lady Mary, Duchess of Norfolk, a daughter and co-heiress of Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel; the 19th Earl descended from John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel.

    Death and legacy

    Richard died on 24 January 1376 in Sussex, England. (Another source says he wrote his will on 5 December 1375, and died on 14 January 1376 at Arundel Castle).[3]. In his will, he mentioned his three surviving sons by his second wife, his two surviving daughters Joan, Dowager Countess of Hereford and Alice, Countess of Kent, his grandchildren by his second son John, etc., but left out his bastardized eldest son Edmund.

    The memorial effigies attributed to Richard FitzAlan and his second wife Eleanor of Lancaster in Chichester Cathedral are the subject of the poem "An Arundel Tomb" by Philip Larkin.

    FitzAlan died an incredibly wealthy man, despite his various loans to Edward III

    Birth:
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery on Christmas Day 1067. Roger became the first to hold the earldom of Arundel by the graces of William the Conqueror. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War and then restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    From the 11th century, the castle has served as a home and has been in the ownership of the family of the Duke of Norfolk for over 400 years. It is the principal seat of the Norfolk family. It is a Grade I listed building.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Occupation:
    The Justiciar of North Wales was responsible for the royal administration in these counties as well as the administration of justice. English law was applied to criminal law, but in other matters Welsh law was allowed to continue.

    List of Justiciars

    Otton de Grandson, 1284–1294
    Robert Tibetot, 1295–1301
    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, 1334–1352
    Arundel sold the office to Edward the Black Prince in 1352
    John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp 1385–1388
    Henry Percy (Hotspur) 1399?–1403?

    Occupation:
    Caernarfon Castle (Welsh: Castell Caernarfon) is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, north-west Wales. Click here to view its history, map & picture ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caernarfon_Castle

    Buried:
    Lewes Priory is a ruined medieval Cluniac priory in Southover, East Sussex in the United Kingdom. The ruins have been designated a Grade I listed building.

    The Priory of St Pancras was the first Cluniac house in England and had one of the largest monastic churches in the country. It was set within an extensive walled and gated precinct laid out in a commanding location fronting the tidal shore-line at the head of the Ouse valley to the south of Lewes in the County of Sussex. The Priory had daughter houses, including Castle Acre Priory in Norfolk, and was endowed with churches and extensive holdings throughout England. In Lewes it had hospitiums dedicated to St James and to St Nicholas.

    In 1264, during the Battle of Lewes, King Henry III installed his forces in the Priory precinct which came under attack from those of Simon de Montfort after his victory over Henry in battle. Henry was forced, in the Mise of Lewes, to accept the Council that was the start of Parliamentary government in England.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewes_Priory

    Richard married Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel 5 Feb 1344, Ditton Church, Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, England. Eleanor (daughter of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester and Maud Chaworth) was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales; died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]


  16. 47.  Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales (daughter of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester and Maud Chaworth); died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Eleanor of Lancaster

    Notes:

    On 5 February 1344 at Ditton Church, Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, she married Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel.[4]

    His previous marriage, to Isabel le Despenser, had taken place when they were children. It was annulled by Papal mandate as she, since her father's attainder and execution, had ceased to be of any importance to him. Pope Clement VI obligingly annulled the marriage, bastardized the issue, and provided a dispensation for his second marriage to the woman with whom he had been living in adultery (the dispensation, dated 4 March 1344/1345, was required because his first and second wives were first cousins).

    The children of Eleanor's second marriage were:

    Richard (1346–1397), who succeeded as Earl of Arundel
    John Fitzalan (bef 1349 - 1379)
    Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury (c. 1353 - 19 February 1413)
    Lady Joan FitzAlan (1347/1348 - 7 April 1419), married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford
    Lady Alice FitzAlan (1350 - 17 March 1416), married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (Thomas Holand)
    Lady Mary FitzAlan (died 29 August 1396), married John Le Strange, 4th Lord Strange of Blackmere, by whom she had issue
    Lady Eleanor FitzAlan (1356 - before 1366)

    Notes:

    Married:
    Richard married Isabel's first cousin Eleanor of Lancaster, with whom he had apparently been having an affair.

    Children:
    1. Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 11th Earl of Arundel was born 25 Mar 1346, Arundel, Sussex, England; died 21 Sep 1397, London, Middlesex, England; was buried Augustin Friars, Bread Street, London, England.
    2. John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel was born ~ 1348, Etchingham, Sussex, England; died 16 Dec 1379; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.
    3. 23. Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent was born 1350-1352, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 17 Mar 1415, (Arundel, West Sussex, England).
    4. Joan FitzAlan was born 0___ 1347, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 7 Apr 1419, Saffron Walden, Essex, England; was buried Walden Abbey, Essex, England.

  17. 48.  Guy de Beauchamp, Knight, 10th Earl of Warwick was born 0___ 1262, Elmley Castle, Worcester, England (son of William de Beauchamp and Isabel Mauduit); died 12 Aug 1315, Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England; was buried Bordesley Abbey, Worcester, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1272, Warwickshire, England

    Notes:

    Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick

    Guy had already distinguished himself in the Scottish Wars and was one of the Ordainers, who sought to restrict the powers of the King.

    Guy was one of the chief adversaries of Piers Gaveston, King Edward's favourite, who often referred to Guy as "The Mad Hound", due to the Earl's habit of foaming at the mouth when angry. In 1312, Guy de Beauchamp captured Gaveston and took him to his principal residence, Warwick Castle, where Gaveston was held prisoner and afterwards murdered.

    Guy first married Isabel de Clare, the daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester and Alice de Lusignan of Angoulăeme, but the marriage, which had produced no children, was annulled.

    On 28 February 1310, less than three years after the death of her first husband, Guy married Alice de Toeni, daughter of Ralph VII de Toeni.

    Child of Guy de Beauchamp and unnamed partner (mistress): Maud de Beauchamp (died 1366), married Geoffrey de Say, 2nd Lord Say, by whom she had issue.

    Children of Guy de Beauchamp and Alice de Toeni:

    Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick (14 February 1313/1314 – 13 November 1369), married Katherine Mortimer, by whom he had fifteen children.
    John de Beauchamp, Lord Beauchamp KG (1315 – 2 December 1360), carried the royal standard at the Battle of Crecy
    Elizabeth de Beauchamp (c. 1316–1359), married in 1328, Thomas Astley, 3rd Lord Astley, by whom she had a son William, 4th Lord Astley.
    Isabella de Beauchamp, married John de Clinton.
    Emma de Beauchamp, married Rowland Odingsells.
    Lucia de Beauchamp, married Robert de Napton.

    Following the sudden death of Guy de Beauchamp at Warwick Castle on 28 July 1315, which was rumoured to have been caused by poisoning, Alice married thirdly on 26 October 1316, William la Zouche de Mortimer, 1st Lord Zouche de Mortimer. [1]

    Father of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick; Isabel Beauchamp; Elizabeth de Beauchamp, Baroness Astley; John de Beauchamp; Emma de Beauchamp; Lucia de Beauchamp Maud de Beauchamp

    Brother of Isabella de Beauchamp, Countess Winchester; John de Beauchamp; Roger Beauchamp; Anne de Beauchamp; Margaret de Beauchamp; Amy de Beauchamp; Maud de Beauchamp Robert de BEAUCHAMP

    Half brother of Isabel Blount; Alice Foljambe (Furnival); Thomas FURNIVAL; Eleanor FURNIVAL Christine Furnival

    Burial: Bordesley Abbey, Warwickshire, England

    Foundation for Medieval Genealogy's Medieval Lands Index entry for : Guy.

    Husband: Guy Beauchamp
    Wife: Alice de Toeni
    Child: Maud Beauchamp
    Child: Thomas Beauchamp

    Marriage:

    Date: BEF 28 FEB 1309/10
    Husband: Guy de BEAUCHAMP
    Wife: Alice de TOENI
    Child: John de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Isabel de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Elizabeth de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Emma de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Maud de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Thomas de BEAUCHAMP
    Child: Lucia (Jane) de BEAUCHAMP

    Marriage:

    Date: ABT 1303
    Place: of Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England

    Sources

    Royal Ancestry 2013 Vol. I p. 287-293
    Royal Ancestry by Douglas Richardson Vol. V. p. 178
    Ancestral Roots of Certain American Collonists RJCW 296b
    Marlyn Lewis.
    Royal and Noble Genealogical Data, Author: Brian Tompsett, Copyright 1994-2001, Version March 25, 2001
    Ancestry family trees
    ? Entered by Jean Maunder.

    *

    Guy married Alice de Toeni, Countess of Warwick 28 Feb 1309, England. [Group Sheet]


  18. 49.  Alice de Toeni, Countess of Warwick
    Children:
    1. 24. Thomas de Beauchamp, Knight, 11th Earl of Warwick was born 14 Feb 1313, Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, England; died 13 Nov 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

  19. 50.  Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March was born 25 Apr 1287, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England (son of Edmund Mortimer, Knight, 2nd Baron Mortimer and Margaret de Fiennes, Baroness Mortimer); died 29 Nov 1330, Tyburn, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
    • Also Known As: Baron Mortimer
    • Military:
    • Military: Despencer War

    Notes:

    Early life

    Mortimer, grandson of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer and Maud de Braose, Baroness Mortimer, was born at Wigmore Castle, Herefordshire, England, the firstborn of Marcher Lord Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer, and Margaret de Fiennes. Edmund Mortimer had been a second son, intended for minor orders and a clerical career, but on the sudden death of his elder brother Ralph, Edmund was recalled from Oxford University and installed as heir. According to his biographer Ian Mortimer, Roger was possibly sent as a boy away from home to be fostered in the household of his formidable uncle, Roger Mortimer de Chirk.[2] It was this uncle who had carried the severed head of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd of Wales to King Edward I in 1282.[3] Like many noble children of his time, Roger was betrothed young, to Joan de Geneville (born 1286), the wealthy daughter of Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim Castle and Ludlow. They were married on 20 September 1301. Their first child was born in 1302.[4]

    Marriage

    Through his marriage with Joan de Geneville, Roger not only acquired increased possessions in the Welsh Marches, including the important Ludlow Castle, which became the chief stronghold of the Mortimers, but also extensive estates and influence in Ireland. However, Joan de Geneville was not an "heiress" at the time of her marriage. Her grandfather Geoffrey de Geneville, at the age of eighty in 1308, conveyed most, but not all, of his Irish lordships to Roger Mortimer, and then retired, notably alive: he finally died in 1314, with Joan succeeding as suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville. During his lifetime Geoffrey also conveyed much of the remainder of his legacy, such as Kenlys, to his younger son Simon de Geneville, who had meanwhile become Baron of Culmullin through marriage to Joanna FitzLeon. Roger Mortimer therefore succeeded to the eastern part of the Lordship of Meath, centred on Trim and its stronghold of Trim Castle. He did not succeed, however, to the Lordship of Fingal.[5]

    Military adventures in Ireland and Wales

    Roger Mortimer's childhood came to an abrupt end when his father was mortally wounded in a skirmish near Builth in July 1304. Since Roger was underage at the death of his father, he was placed by King Edward I under the guardianship of Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall. However, on 22 May 1306, in a lavish ceremony in Westminster Abbey with two hundred and fifty-nine others, he was knighted by Edward and granted livery of his full inheritance.[6]

    His adult life began in earnest in 1308, when he went to Ireland in person to enforce his authority. This brought him into conflict with the de Lacys, who turned for support to Edward Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce, King of Scots. Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland by Edward II on 23 November 1316. Shortly afterwards, at the head of a large army, he drove Bruce to Carrickfergus and the de Lacys into Connaught, wreaking vengeance on their adherents whenever they were to be found. He returned to England and Wales in 1318[7] and was then occupied for some years with baronial disputes on the Welsh border.

    Opposition to Edward II

    Main article: Despenser War
    Mortimer became disaffected with his king and joined the growing opposition to Edward II and the Despensers. After the younger Despenser was granted lands belonging to him, he and the Marchers began conducting devastating raids against Despenser property in Wales. He supported Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, in refusing to obey the king's summons to appear before him in 1321. Mortimer led a march against London, his men wearing the Mortimer uniform which was green with a yellow sleeve.[8] He was prevented from entering the capital, although his forces put it under siege. These acts of insurrection compelled the Lords Ordainers led by Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, to order the king to banish the Despensers in August. When the king led a successful expedition in October against Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere, after she had refused Queen Isabella admittance to Leeds Castle, he used his victory and new popularity among the moderate lords and the people to summon the Despensers back to England. Mortimer, in company with other Marcher Lords, led a rebellion against Edward, which is known as the Despenser War, at the end of the year.[citation needed]

    Forced to surrender to the king at Shrewsbury in January 1322, Mortimer was consigned to the Tower of London, but by drugging the constable, escaped to France in August 1323, pursued by warrants for his capture dead or alive.[9] In the following year Queen Isabella, anxious to escape from her husband, obtained his consent to her going to France to use her influence with her brother, King Charles IV, in favour of peace. At the French court the queen found Roger Mortimer, who became her lover soon afterwards. At his instigation, she refused to return to England so long as the Despensers retained power as the king's favourites.

    Historians have speculated as to the date at which Mortimer and Isabella actually became lovers.[10] The modern view is that it began while both were still in England, and that after a disagreement, Isabella abandoned Roger to his fate in the Tower. His subsequent escape became one of medieval England's most colourful episodes. However almost certainly Isabella risked everything by chancing Mortimer's companionship and emotional support when they first met again at Paris four years later (Christmas 1325). King Charles IV's protection of Isabella at the French court from Despenser's would-be assassins played a large part in developing the relationship.[11] In 1326, Mortimer moved as Prince Edward's guardian to Hainault, but only after a furious dispute with the queen, demanding she remain in France.[12] Isabella retired to raise troops in her County of Ponthieu; Mortimer arranged the invasion fleet supplied by the Hainaulters.

    Invasion of England and defeat of Edward II

    The scandal of Isabella's relations with Mortimer compelled them both to withdraw from the French court to Flanders, where they obtained assistance for an invasion of England from Count William of Hainaut, although Isabella did not arrive from Ponthieu until the fleet was due to sail. Landing in the River Orwell on 24 September 1326, they were accompanied by Prince Edward and Henry, Earl of Lancaster. London rose in support of the queen, and Edward took flight to the west, pursued by Mortimer and Isabella. After wandering helplessly for some weeks in Wales, the king was taken prisoner on 16 November, and was compelled to abdicate in favour of his son. Though the latter was crowned as Edward III of England on 25 January 1327, the country was ruled by Mortimer and Isabella, who were widely believed to have arranged the murder of Edward II the following September at Berkeley Castle.[citation needed]

    Historian and biographer of Roger Mortimer and Edward III, Ian Mortimer, retells the old story that the ex-king was not killed and buried in 1327, but secretly remained alive at Corfe Castle. When Mortimer besieged the castle, Edward II was said to escape to Rome, where he stayed under papal protection.[13]

    Powers won and lost

    Rich estates and offices of profit and power were now heaped on Mortimer. He was made constable of Wallingford Castle and in September 1328 he was created Earl of March. However, although in military terms he was far more competent than the Despensers, his ambition was troubling to all. His own son Geoffrey, the only one to survive into old age, mocked him as "the king of folly." During his short time as ruler of England he took over the lordships of Denbigh, Oswestry, and Clun (the first of which belonged to Despenser, the latter two had been the Earl of Arundel's). He was also granted the marcher lordship of Montgomery by the queen.[citation needed]


    The "Tyburn Tree"

    The jealousy and anger of many nobles were aroused by Mortimer's use of power. Henry, Earl of Lancaster, one of the principals behind Edward II's deposition, tried to overthrow Mortimer, but the action was ineffective as the young king passively stood by. Then, in March 1330, Mortimer ordered the execution of Edmund, Earl of Kent, the half-brother of Edward II. After this execution Henry Lancaster prevailed upon the young king, Edward III, to assert his independence. In October 1330, a Parliament was summoned to Nottingham, just days before Edward's eighteenth birthday, and Mortimer and Isabella were seized by Edward and his companions from inside Nottingham Castle. In spite of Isabella's entreaty to her son, "Fair son, have pity on the gentle Mortimer," Mortimer was conveyed to the Tower. Accused of assuming royal power and of various other high misdemeanours, he was condemned without trial and ignominiously hanged at Tyburn on 29 November 1330, his vast estates forfeited to the crown. His body hung at the gallows for two days and nights in full view of the populace. Mortimer's widow Joan received a pardon in 1336 and survived till 1356. She was buried beside Mortimer at Wigmore, but the site was later destroyed.[14]

    In 2002, the actor John Challis, the current owner of the remaining buildings of Wigmore Abbey, invited the BBC programme House Detectives at Large to investigate his property. During the investigation, a document was discovered in which Mortimer's widow Joan petitioned Edward III for the return of her husband's body so she could bury it at Wigmore Abbey. Mortimer's lover Isabella had buried his body at Greyfriars in Coventry following his hanging. Edward III replied, "Let his body rest in peace." The king later relented, and Mortimer's body was transferred to Wigmore Abbey, where Joan was later buried beside him.[citation needed]

    Children of Roger and Joan

    The marriages of Mortimer's children (three sons and eight daughters) cemented Mortimer's strengths in the West.

    Sir Edmund Mortimer knt (1302-1331), married Elizabeth de Badlesmere; they produced Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, who was restored to his grandfather's title.
    Margaret Mortimer (1304 - 5 May 1337), married Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley
    Maud Mortimer (1307 - aft. 1345), married John de Charlton, Lord of Powys[15]
    Geoffrey Mortimer (1309-1372/6)
    John Mortimer (1310-1328)
    Joan Mortimer (c. 1312-1337/51), married James Audley, 2nd Baron Audley
    Isabella Mortimer (c. 1313 - aft. 1327)
    Katherine Mortimer (c. 1314-1369), married Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick
    Agnes Mortimer (c. 1317-1368), married Laurence Hastings, 1st Earl of Pembroke
    Beatrice Mortimer (d. 16 October 1383), who married firstly, Edward of Norfolk (d. before 9 August 1334), son and heir apparent of Thomas of Brotherton, by whom she had no issue, and secondly, before 13 September 1337, Thomas de Brewes (d. 9 or 16 June 1361), by whom she had three sons and three daughters.[16]
    Blanche Mortimer (c. 1321-1347), married Peter de Grandison, 2nd Baron Grandison

    Royal descendants

    Through his son Sir Edmund Mortimer, he is an ancestor of the last Plantagenet monarchs of England from King Edward IV to Richard III. By Edward IV's daughter, Elizabeth of York, the Earl of March is an ancestor to King Henry VIII and to all subsequent monarchs of England.

    Roger Mortimer, 1st earl of March, (born 1287?—died Nov. 29, 1330, Tyburn, near London, Eng.), lover of the English king Edward II’s queen, Isabella of France, with whom he contrived Edward’s deposition and murder (1327). For three years thereafter he was virtual king of England during the minority of Edward III.

    The descendant of Norman knights who had accompanied William the Conqueror, he inherited wealthy family estates and fortunes, principally in Wales and Ireland, and in 1304 became 8th Baron of Wigmore on the death of his father, the 7th baron. He devoted the early years of his majority to obtaining effective control of his Irish lordships against his wife’s kinsmen, the Lacys, who summoned to their aid Edward Bruce, brother of King Robert I of Scotland, when he was fighting to become king of Ireland. In 1316 Mortimer was defeated at Kells and withdrew to England, but afterward, as King Edward II’s lieutenant in Ireland (November 1316), he was largely instrumental in overcoming Bruce and in driving the Lacys from Meath.

    In 1317 he was associated with the Earl of Pembroke’s “middle party” in English politics; but distrust of the Despensers (see Despenser, Hugh Le and Hugh Le) drove him, in common with other marcher lords, into opposition and violent conflict with the Despensers in South Wales in 1321. But, receiving no help from Edward II’s other enemies, Roger and his uncle Roger Mortimer of Chirk made their submission in January 1322. Imprisoned in the Tower of London, Roger escaped in 1323 and fled to France, where in 1325 he was joined by Queen Isabella, who became his mistress. The exiles invaded England in September 1326; the fall of the Despensers was followed by the deposition of Edward II and his subsequent murder (1327), in which Mortimer was deeply implicated.

    Thereafter, as the queen’s paramour, Mortimer virtually ruled England. He used his position to further his own ends. Created Earl of March in October 1328, he secured for himself the lordships of Denbigh, Oswestry, and Clun, formerly belonging to the Earl of Arundel; the marcher lordships of the Mortimers of Chirk; and Montgomery, granted to him by the queen. His insatiable avarice, his arrogance, and his unpopular policy toward Scotland aroused against Mortimer a general revulsion among his fellow barons, and in October 1330 the young king Edward III, at the instigation of Henry of Lancaster, had him seized at Nottingham and conveyed to the Tower. Condemned for crimes declared to be notorious by his peers in Parliament, he was hanged at Tyburn as a traitor, and his estates were forfeited to the crown.

    One night in August 1323, a captive rebel baron, Sir Roger Mortimer, drugged his guards and escaped from the Tower of London. With the king's men-at-arms in pursuit he fled to the south coast and sailed to France. There he was joined by Isabella, the Queen of England, who threw herself into his arms.

    A year later, as lovers, they returned with an invading army: King Edward II's forces crumbled before them and Mortimer took power. He removed Edward II in the first deposition of a monarch in British history. Then the ex-king was apparently murdered, some said with a red-hot poker, in Berkeley Castle.

    Birth:
    History, map & images of Wigmore Castle ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wigmore_Castle

    Military:
    Military adventures in Ireland and Wales

    Roger Mortimer's childhood came to an abrupt end when his father was mortally wounded in a skirmish near Builth in July 1304. Since Roger was underage at the death of his father, he was placed by King Edward I under the guardianship of Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall. However, on 22 May 1306, in a lavish ceremony in Westminster Abbey with two hundred and fifty-nine others, he was knighted by Edward and granted livery of his full inheritance.[6]

    His adult life began in earnest in 1308, when he went to Ireland in person to enforce his authority. This brought him into conflict with the de Lacys, who turned for support to Edward Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce, King of Scots. Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland by Edward II on 23 November 1316. Shortly afterwards, at the head of a large army, he drove Bruce to Carrickfergus and the de Lacys into Connaught, wreaking vengeance on their adherents whenever they were to be found. He returned to England and Wales in 1318[7] and was then occupied for some years with baronial disputes on the Welsh border.

    Died:
    hanged as a traitor...

    Roger married Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville 20 Sep 1301. Joan (daughter of Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusigman, 2nd Baroness Geneville) was born 2 Feb 1286, Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England; died 19 Oct 1396, King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  20. 51.  Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville was born 2 Feb 1286, Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England (daughter of Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusigman, 2nd Baroness Geneville); died 19 Oct 1396, King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Baroness Mortimer
    • Also Known As: Countess of March
    • Also Known As: Jeanne de Joinville

    Notes:

    Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville, Countess of March, Baroness Mortimer (2 February 1286 – 19 October 1356), also known as Jeanne de Joinville, was the daughter of Sir Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusignan. She inherited the estates of her grandparents, Geoffrey de Geneville, 1st Baron Geneville, and Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville. She was one of the wealthiest heiresses in the Welsh Marches and County Meath, Ireland. She was the wife of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, the de facto ruler of England from 1327 to 1330. She succeeded as suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville on 21 October 1314 upon the death of her grandfather, Geoffrey de Geneville.[1][2]

    As a result of her husband's insurrection against King Edward II of England, she was imprisoned in Skipton Castle for two years. Following the execution of her husband in 1330 for usurping power in England, Joan was once more taken into custody. In 1336, her lands were restored to her after she received a full pardon for her late husband's crimes from Edward II's son and successor, Edward III of England.

    Family and inheritance

    Ludlow Castle in Shropshire, the birthplace of Joan de Geneville
    Joan was born on 2 February 1286 at Ludlow Castle in Shropshire.[3] She was the eldest child of Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim Castle and Ludlow, whose father Sir Geoffrey de Geneville, 1st Baron Geneville, was Justiciar of Ireland. Her mother Jeanne of Lusignan was part of one of the most illustrious French families, daughter of Hugh XII of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and of Angoulăeme, and sister of Yolanda of Lusignan, the suo jure Countess of La Marche. Joan had two younger sisters, Matilda and Beatrice who both became nuns at Aconbury Priory.[4] She also had two half-sisters from her mother's first marriage to Bernard Ezi III, Lord of Albret: Mathe, Dame d'Albret (died 1283), and Isabelle, Dame d'Albret (died 1 December 1294), wife of Bernard VI, Count of Armagnac.

    When her father died in Ireland shortly before June 1292, Joan became one of the wealthiest and most eligible heiresses in the Welsh Marches, with estates that included the town and castle of Ludlow, the lordship of Ewyas Lacy, the manors of Wolferlow, Stanton Lacy, and Mansell Lacy in Shropshire and Herefordshire as well as a sizeable portion of County Meath in Ireland.[5][6] She was due to inherit these upon the death of her grandfather, but in 1308, Baron Geneville conveyed most of the Irish estates which had belonged to his late wife Maud de Lacy to Joan and her husband Roger Mortimer. They both went to Ireland where they took seisin of Meath on 28 October of that same year. The baron died on 21 October 1314 at the House of the Friars Preachers at Trim, and Joan subsequently succeeded him, becoming the suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville.[1][2]

    Marriage

    Joan married Roger Mortimer, eldest son of Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Wigmore, and Margaret de Fiennes on 20 September 1301 at the manor of Pembridge.[7] Marriage to Joan was highly beneficial to Mortimer as it brought him much influence and prestige in addition to the rich estates he gained through their matrimonial alliance.[8][9] Three years later in 1304 he succeeded as Baron Mortimer, making Joan Baroness Mortimer. He was knighted on Whitsunday 22 May 1306 by King Edward I. The knighting ceremony took place in Westminster Abbey and was known as the Feast of the Swan as all those present made their personal vows upon two swans.[10] Two hundred and fifty-nine other young men received knighthoods along with Mortimer including the Prince of Wales who would shortly afterwards succeed his father as Edward II. Following the ceremony was a magnificent banquet held at the Great Hall of Westminster.[11]

    Upon taking seizen of her Irish lands in 1308, Joan and Mortimer travelled back and forth between their estates in Ireland and those in the Welsh Marches. Given that Joan opted to accompany her husband to Ireland rather than remain at home, and that she produced 12 surviving children over a period of just 17 years led Roger Mortimer's biographer Ian Mortimer to suggest they enjoyed a closer and more affectionate relationship than was typical of noble couples in the 14th-century. He described their union as having been " a mutually beneficial secure medieval partnership".[12]

    Issue

    Together Joan and Mortimer had twelve surviving children:[12][13][14]


    Effigies of Joan's daughter, Katherine Mortimer and her husband Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick. St. Mary's Church, Warwick

    Margaret Mortimer (2 May 1304- 5 May 1337), married Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley, by whom she had issue.
    Sir Edmund Mortimer (died 16 December 1331), married Elizabeth de Badlesmere, daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, and Margaret de Clare, by whom he had two sons, Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, and John, who died young.
    Roger Mortimer, married Joan Le Botiller
    Geoffrey Mortimer, Lord of Towyth (died 1372/5 May 1376), married Jeanne de Lezay, by whom he had issue.
    John Mortimer. He was killed in a tournament at Shrewsbury sometime after 1328.
    Katherine Mortimer (1314- 4 August 1369), married Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, by whom she had fifteen children, including Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, and William de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny, who married Lady Joan FitzAlan.
    Joan Mortimer (died between 1337–1351), married James Audley, 2nd Baron Audley, by whom she had issue.
    Agnes Mortimer, married Laurence Hastings, 1st Earl of Pembroke, by whom she had issue
    Isabella Mortimer (died after 1327)
    Beatrice Mortimer (died 16 October 1383), married firstly Edward of Norfolk, and secondly, Thomas de Braose, 1st Baron Braose. She had issue by her second husband.
    Maud Mortimer (died after August 1345), married John de Charlton, Lord of Powys, by whom she had issue.
    Blanche Mortimer (c.1321- 1347), married Peter de Grandison, 2nd Baron Grandison, by whom she had issue.
    Mortimer's affair with Queen Isabella[edit]

    Joan's husband Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, is allegedly depicted in the foreground with Queen Isabella in this 14th-century manuscript illustration
    Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland on 23 November 1316 and left for Ireland with a large force in February 1317.[15] While there, he fought against the Scots Army led by Edward Bruce, the younger brother of Robert the Bruce (who hoped to make Edward king of Ireland), and Bruce's Norman-Irish allies, the de Lacy's. Joan accompanied her husband to Ireland. They returned to England in 1318 after Mortimer had driven the Scots north to Carrickfergus, and dispersed the de Lacys, who were Joan's relatives. For the next few years, Mortimer occupied himself with baronial disputes on the Welsh border; nevertheless, on account of the increasing influence of Hugh Despenser, the Elder, and Hugh Despenser the Younger over King Edward II, Roger Mortimer became strongly disaffected with his monarch, especially after the younger Despenser had been granted lands which rightfully belonged to Mortimer.[16]

    In October 1321 King Edward and his troops besieged Leeds Castle, after the governor's wife, Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere, refused Queen Isabella admittance and subsequently ordered her archers to fire upon Isabella and her escort after the latter attempted to gain entry to the castle. Elizabeth, the third Badlesmere daughter, was married to Joan and Mortimer's eldest son, Edmund. King Edward exploited his new popularity in the wake of his military victory at Leeds to recall to England the Despensers, whom the Lords Ordainers, led by Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, had forced him to banish in August 1321.[17] The Marcher lords, already in a state of insurrection for some time prior to the Despensers' banishment,[n 1] immediately rose up against the King in full force, with Mortimer leading the confederation alongside Ordainer Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.[18] The King quelled the rebellion, which is also known as the Despenser War; Mortimer and his uncle Roger Mortimer de Chirk both surrendered to him at Shrewsbury on 22 January 1322. Mortimer and his uncle were dispatched as prisoners to the Tower of London,[16] where they were kept in damp, unhealthy quarters. This was likely a factor in Roger Mortimer de Chirk's death in 1326. Joan's husband had fared better; by drugging the constable and the Tower guards, he managed to escape to France on 1 August 1323.[19] It was there that he later became the lover of Queen Isabella, who was estranged from the King as a result of the Despensers' absolute control over him. She had been sent to France on a peace mission by Edward but used the occasion to seek help from her brother, Charles IV to oust the Despensers.[20] The scandal of their love affair forced them to leave the French court for Flanders, where they obtained help for an invasion of England.[21]

    Joan's imprisonment

    Skipton Castle, Yorkshire, where Joan was imprisoned from 1324 to 1326

    While the couple were still in France, King Edward had retaliated against Mortimer by taking Joan and all of their children into custody, and "treating them with severity".[22] In April 1324 Joan was removed from Hampshire where she had been confined in a lodging under house arrest and sent to Skipton Castle in Yorkshire; there she was imprisoned in a cell and endured considerable suffering and hardship.[23] Most of her household had been dismissed and she was permitted a small number of attendants to serve her. She was granted just one mark per day for her necessities, and out of this sum she had to feed her servants.[24] She was additionally allowed ten marks per annum at Easter and Michaelmas for new clothes.[25] Her daughters suffered worse privations having been locked up inside various religious houses with even less money at their disposal.[24] Joan was transferred from Skipton to Pontefract Castle in July 1326.[26]

    Countess of March

    Mortimer and Isabella landed in England two months later in September 1326, and they joined forces with Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster. On 16 November, King Edward was taken prisoner and eventually murdered at Berkeley Castle, presumably by Mortimer's hired assassins.[27] From 1327 to 1330, Mortimer and Isabella jointly held the Office of Regent for her son, King Edward III who was duly crowned following his father's death. Mortimer was made constable of Wallingford Castle; in September 1328, Mortimer was created Earl of March. This made Joan henceforth, the Countess of March; although it is not known what she thought about her husband's illegal assumption of power and flagrant affair with the Queen. What has been established is that Joan was never an active participant in her husband's insurrection against King Edward.[28]

    Mortimer and Queen Isabella were the de facto rulers of England. Hostility against the power Mortimer wielded over the kingdom and the young King Edward III, increased; his former friend Henry of Lancaster encouraged the King to assert his authority to oust Mortimer. When Mortimer ordered the execution of Edmund, Earl of Kent, half-brother of the late King Edward, anger and outrage engulfed the country. The King deposed his mother and her lover; Roger Mortimer was seized, arrested, and on 29 November 1330, hanged at Tyburn, London.[29]

    Following her husband's execution, Joan – as the wife of a traitor – was imprisoned again, this time in Hampshire where years before she had been placed under house arrest; her children were also taken into custody. In 1331, she was given an allowance for household expenses; however, her lands were only restored to her in 1336 after King Edward III granted her a full pardon for her late husband's crimes. In 1347 she received back the Liberty of Trim.[30]

    Death

    Joan de Geneville, Baroness Geneville, the widowed Countess of March, died on 19 October 1356 at the age of seventy. She was buried in Wigmore Abbey beside her husband, whose body had been returned to her by Edward III as she had requested. Her tomb no longer exists as the abbey was destroyed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries and only the ruins remain to this day.

    Lady Geneville's numerous direct descendants include the current British Royal Family, Sir Winston Churchill, and the 1st American President George Washington.

    Birth:
    Click this link to view images, history & map of the massive Ludlow Castle in Shropshire ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludlow_Castle

    Children:
    1. Edmund Mortimer was born ~ 1304, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 16 Dec 1331, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.
    2. Margaret Mortimer, Baroness Berkeley was born 2 May 1304, (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England); died 5 May 1337; was buried St. Augustine's Abbey, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.
    3. Joan de Mortimer, 2nd Baroness Geneville was born 2 Feb 1286, Ludlow Castle, Ludlow, Shropshire, England; died 19 Oct 1356.
    4. 25. Katherine de Mortimer, Countess of Warwick was born 0___ 1314, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 4 Aug 1369, (Warwickshire) England; was buried St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

  21. 52.  Henry de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby was born ~ 1302, Groby, Leicestershire, England (son of William de Ferrers and Ellen de Segrave); died 15 Sep 1343; was buried Ulverscroft Priory, Leicestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Buried:
    Image, map & history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulverscroft_Priory

    Henry married Isabel de Verdun Bef Feb 1330. [Group Sheet]


  22. 53.  Isabel de Verdun (daughter of Theobald de Verdun, II, Lord Weoberley and Elizabeth de Clare).
    Children:
    1. 26. William de Ferrers, Knight, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby was born 28 Feb 1333, Groby, Leicestershire, England; died 8 Jan 1371, Newbold Verdon, Leicestershire, England.
    2. Phillippe de Ferrers

  23. 54.  Robert de Ufford, (II), Knight, 1st Earl of Suffolk was born 9 Aug 1298, Ufford, Suffolk, England (son of Robert de Ufford, I, 1st Lord Ufford and Cecily Valoines); died 4 Nov 1369, (Suffolk, Suffolkshire, England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Robert Ufford
    • Also Known As: Suffolk

    Notes:

    Robert de Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk, KG (9 August 1298 - 4 November 1369) was an English peer. He was created Earl of Suffolk in 1337.

    Early life

    Born 9 August 1298, Robert de Ufford was the second but eldest surviving son of Robert de Ufford (1279–1316), Lord Ufford of Ufford, Suffolk, and Cecily de Valoignes (d.1325), daughter and coheir of Sir Robert de Valoignes (d.1289) and Eve de La Pecche. He had a younger brother, Sir Ralph Ufford (d.1346).[1][2]

    On 19 May 1318 he had livery of his father's Suffolk lands. He was knighted and received some official employments, being occupied, for example, in 1326 in levying ships for the royal use in Suffolk, and serving in November 1327 on a commission of the peace in the eastern counties under the statute of Winchester. In May and June 1329 he attended the young Edward III on his journey to Amiens.[3]

    He was employed on state affairs down to the end of the rule of Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, and on 1 May 1330 received a grant for life of Orford Castle in Suffolk, which had been previously held by his father; he also obtained grants of other lands. On 28 July he was appointed to array and command the levies of Norfolk and Suffolk summoned to fight "against the king's rebels". Nevertheless, in October he associated himself with William de Montacute in the attack on Mortimer at Nottingham. He took part in the capture of Mortimer in Nottingham Castle, and was implicated in the deaths of Sir Hugh de Turplington and Richard de Monmouth that occurred during the scuffle; that on 12 February 1331 he received a special pardon for the homicide. He was rewarded by the grant of the manors of Cawston and Fakenham in Norfolk, and also of some houses in Cripplegate that had belonged to Mortimer's associate, John Maltravers, succeeding Maltravers in some posts. He was summoned as a baron to parliament on 27 January 1332. From that time he was one of the most trusted warriors, counsellors, and diplomats in Edward III's service.[3]

    Earl of Suffolk

    On 1 November 1335 Ufford was appointed a member of an embassy empowered to treat with the Scots. He then served in a campaign against them, and was made warden of Bothwell Castle. On 14 January 1337 he was made admiral of the king's northern fleet jointly with Sir John Ros; Ufford ceased to hold this office later in the year. In March he was created Earl of Suffolk, and was granted lands. During his absence in parliament the Scots retook Bothwell Castle.[3]

    Hundred Years' War

    In opening moves of the Edwardian War, Suffolk was sent on 3 October 1337, with Henry Burghersh, the Earl of Northampton, and Sir John Darcy, to treat for peace or a truce with the French. Further powers were given them to deal with Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and other allies, and on 7 October they were also commissioned to treat with David Bruce, then staying in France, and were accredited to the two cardinals sent by the pope to make an Anglo-French reconciliation. Next year, on 1 July, Suffolk was associated with John de Stratford and others on an embassy to France, and left England along with the two cardinals sent to treat for peace. He attended the king in Brabant, serving in September 1339 in the expedition that besieged Cambrai, and in the army that prepared to fight a major battle at Buironfosse that came to nothing, where he and the Earl of Derby held a joint command. On 15 November of the same year he was appointed joint ambassador to Louis I, Count of Flanders and the Flemish estates, to treat for an alliance.[3]

    After Edward's return to England, Suffolk stayed behind with Salisbury, in garrison at Ypres. During Lent 1340 they attacked the French near Lille, pursued the enemy into the town, were made prisoners and were sent to Paris. Philip VI of France, it was said, wished to kill them, and they were spared only through the intervention of John of Bohemia. The truce of 25 September 1340 provided for the release of all prisoners, but it was only after a heavy ransom, to which Edward III contributed, that Suffolk was freed. He took part in a tournament at Dunstable in the spring of 1342 and at great jousts in London. He was one of the members of Edward's Round Table at Windsor, which assembled in February 1344, and fought in a tournament at Hertford in September 1344. he was one of the early members of Order of the Garter.[3]

    Suffolk served through the English intervention in the Breton War of Succession during July 1342, and at the siege of Rennes. In July 1343 he was joint ambassador to Pope Clement VI at Avignon. On 8 May 1344 he was appointed captain and admiral of the northern fleet, and on 3 July accompanied Edward on a short expedition to Flanders. He continued admiral in person or deputy until March 1347, when he was succeeded by Sir John Howard. On 11 July 1346 Suffolk sailed with the king from Portsmouth on the invasion of France which resulted in the battle of Crâecy. On the retreat northwards, a day after the passage of the River Seine, Suffolk and Sir Hugh le Despenser defeated a French force. Suffolk was one of those who advised Edward to select the field of Crâecy as his battle-ground; in the English victory he fought in on the left wing. Next morning, 27 August, he took part in the Earl of Northampton's reconnaissance that resulted in a sharp fight with the unbroken remnant of the French army.[3]

    Suffolk's diplomatic activity went on. He was one of the commissioners appointed to treat with France on 25 September 1348, and with Flanders on 11 October. The negotiations were conducted at Calais. On 10 March 1349, and again on 15 May 1350, he had similar commissions. On 29 August 1350 he fought in the naval victory, the Battle of Winchelsea. In May 1351 and in June 1352 he was chief commissioner of array in Norfolk and Suffolk.[3]

    In south-west France

    In September 1355 Suffolk sailed with The Black Prince, to Aquitaine. Between October and December he was on the prince's raid through Languedoc to Narbonne, where he commanded the rear-guard, William de Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, serving with him. After his return he was quartered at Saint-Emilion, his followers being stationed round Libourne. In January 1356 he led another foray, towards Rocamadour. Suffolk also shared in the Black Prince's northern foray of 1356, and in the battle of Poitiers which resulted from it, where he commanded, with Salisbury, the third "battle" or the rearward. The Prince's attempted retreat over the Miausson, threw the brunt of the first fighting on Suffolk and Salisbury. On the march back to Bordeaux he led the vanguard. Now 58 years old, he took part in the expedition into the County of Champagne in 1359. After that he was employed only in embassies, the last of those on which he served being that commissioned on 8 February 1362 to negotiate the proposed marriage of Edmund of Langley to the daughter of the Count of Flanders.[3]

    Last years

    In his declining years Suffolk devoted himself to the removal of Leiston Abbey, near Saxmundham, to a new site somewhat further inland. In 1363 it was transferred to its new home, where some ruins remain.[3]

    Suffolk died on 4 November 1369.[3]

    Marriage and issue

    In 1334 he married Margaret Norwich (d. 2 April 1368), daughter of Sir Walter Norwich (d.1329), Treasurer of the Exchequer, and Catherine de Hedersete, by whom he had a large family, including:[2]

    Robert Ufford, who predeceased his father without issue.[2]
    William de Ufford, 2nd Earl of Suffolk (d. 15 February 1382), second son, who married Joan Montagu (2 February 1349 - before 27 June 1376), daughter of Edward Montagu, 1st Baron Montagu (d. 3 July 1461) and Alice of Norfolk, by whom he had four sons and a daughter.[4]
    Walter Ufford (born 3 October 1343), third son, who married, before February 1359, Elizabeth de Montagu (c.1344 - before July 1361), daughter of Edward Montagu, 1st Baron Montagu (d. 3 July 1461) and Alice of Norfolk, by whom he had no issue.[4]
    Joan Ufford, eldest daughter, who was contracted to marry her father's ward, John de St Philibert; however the marriage did not take place.[2]
    Catharine Ufford (born c.1317, date of death unknown)[citation needed] married Robert de Scales, 3rd Baron Scales.[2][5]
    Cecily Ufford (born c. 1327 – died before 29 March 1372),[citation needed] who married William, Lord Willoughby of Eresby.[2]
    Margaret Ufford (born c. 1330 – died before 25 May 1368),[citation needed] who married Sir William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby.[2]
    Maud Ufford, who became a nun at the Augustinian priory in Campsea Ashe, Suffolk.[2]

    Robert married Margaret Norwich 0___ 1334. Margaret (daughter of Walter de Norwich, Knight and Catherine de Hadersete) was born 0___ 1286, Mettingham, Suffolk, England; died 2 Apr 1368. [Group Sheet]


  24. 55.  Margaret Norwich was born 0___ 1286, Mettingham, Suffolk, England (daughter of Walter de Norwich, Knight and Catherine de Hadersete); died 2 Apr 1368.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Margaret de Norwich
    • Alt Death: 3 Sep 1375, Thurston, Suffolk, England

    Notes:

    Birth:
    daughter of Sir Walter de Norwich, Knight, Lord High Treasurer

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Orford Castle is a castle in the village of Orford, Suffolk, England, located 12 miles (20 km) northeast of Ipswich, with views over the Orford Ness. It was built between 1165 and 1173 by Henry II of England to consolidate royal power in the region. The well-preserved keep, described by historian R. Allen Brown as "one of the most remarkable keeps in England", is of a unique design and probably based on Byzantine architecture. The keep still stands among the earth-covered remains of the outer fortifications.

    Photos, map, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orford_Castle

    Children:
    1. 27. Margaret de Ufford was born ~ 1330, Ufford, Suffolk, England; died Bef 25 May 1368, Eresby, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England.
    2. Cecily Ufford was born 29 Mar 1372, Eresby, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England.

  25. 58.  Bartholomew de Burghersh, KG, 2nd Baron BurghershBartholomew de Burghersh, KG, 2nd Baron Burghersh was born 0___ 1329, Somerset, England (son of Bartholomew de Burghersh, Knight, 1st Baron Burghersh and Elizabeth de Verdun); died 5 Apr 1369, Walsingham, Norfolkshire, England; was buried Walsingham Abbey, Walsingham, Norfolkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Soldier

    Notes:

    Bartholomew de Burghersh, 2nd Baron Burghersh KG (bef. 1329 – 5 April 1369) was an English nobleman and soldier.

    Life

    He was the son of Bartholomew Burghersh the elder, adopted his father's profession of arms and rivalled him in military distinction. [1]

    His recorded career begins in 1339, when he accompanied Edward III in his expedition to Flanders and took part in the first invasion of French territory. We find his name also as attending the king on his third inglorious and unprofitable campaign in Brittany in 1342-3. In 1346, he was one of the retinue of Edward the Black Prince, then in his fifteenth year, in the Battle of Crâecy, and in the following year was present at the siege of Calais, being rewarded for his distinguished services there by a rich wardship. In 1349, he was in the campaign in Gascony. [1]

    On the institution of the Order of the Garter in 1350, he was chosen to be one of the first knights companions. In 1354, he fulfilled a religious vow by taking a journey to the Holy Land. [1]

    On his return home he joined the Black Prince in the expedition, in 1355. He was one of the most eminent of the commanders of the invading army, and had aleading share in the events of the campaign, especially in the battle of Poitiers, 19 September 1356. A daring exploit of Burghersh is recorded by Froissart shortly before the battle. In company with Sir John Chandos and Sir James Audley, and attended by only four-and-twenty horsemen, he made an excursion from the main body of the army, and, falling on the rear of the French army, took thirty-two knights and gentlemen prisoners. His prowess and skill were again tried about the same time, when, on his return with a small foraging party at Romorantin near Berry, he was attacked from an ambuscade by a much more formidable force, which, however, he managed to keep at bay till relieved by the Black Prince. During this campaign his father, Lord Burghersh, died, and he received livery of his lands as his heir. [1]

    In 1359, he again accompanied Edward III on his last and most formidable invasion of France, ending in the decisive treaty of Bretigny, 8 May 1360. He was deputed to aid in the negotiation of this treaty between ‘the firstborn sons of the kings of England and France’ at Chartres, for which letters of protection were given him. He and his brother commissioners were taken prisoners in violation of the bond, and Edward had to interpose to obtain their liberation. During this campaign Knighton records his successful siege of the castle of Sourmussy in Gascony, in which he appears to have evidenced no common skill. [1]

    In 1362, he was appointed one of the commissioners on the state of Ireland. When, in 1364, King John II of France, to make atonement for the Louis I, Duke of Anjou’s breach of faith, determined to yield himself back to captivity, to die three months alter his Landing at the Savoy Palace, Burghersh was one of the nobles deputed to receive him at Dover and conduct him by Canterbury to Edward‘s presence at Eltham. In 1366 he was one of the commissioners sent to Urban V, who had rashly demanded the payment of the arrears of the tribute granted by King John. [1]

    His death took place in 1369. By his desire he was buried in the lady chapel of Walsingham Abbey. [1]

    Family

    He married before 10 May 1335 Cecily de Weyland, by whom he had one daughter:

    Elizabeth Burghersh (c. 1342–1409), suo jure Baroness Burghersh, she married Edward le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer before December 1364.
    After the death of Cecily, he married Margaret Gisors, by whom he had no children.

    Buried:
    Image & History ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walsingham_Priory

    Bartholomew married Cicely de Weyland Bef 1335. Cicely (daughter of Richard Weyland and Joan Ufford) was born 0___ 1319, Blaxhall, Suffolk, England; died 0Aug 1354, Sussex, England. [Group Sheet]


  26. 59.  Cicely de Weyland was born 0___ 1319, Blaxhall, Suffolk, England (daughter of Richard Weyland and Joan Ufford); died 0Aug 1354, Sussex, England.
    Children:
    1. 29. Elizabeth de Burghersh was born ~ 1342, Burghersh, Rutlandshire, England; died 0___ 1409; was buried 26 Jul 1409, Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ.

  27. 62.  Peter of Castile, King of Castile and LeonPeter of Castile, King of Castile and Leon was born 30 Aug 1334, Monasterio de Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas, Burgos, Spain (son of Alfonso XI, King of Castile, Leâon and Galicia and Maria of Portugal); died 23 Mar 1369, Montiel, Toledo, Spain; was buried Cathedral of Seville, Seville, Spain.

    Notes:

    Peter the Cruel (Spanish: Pedro; 30 August 1334 - 23 March 1369), also known as the Just, was the king of Castile and Leâon from 1350 to 1369. He was the son of Alfonso XI of Castile and Maria of Portugal, daughter of Afonso IV of Portugal. Peter was the last ruler of the main branch of the House of Ivrea.

    Early life

    Peter was born in the defensive tower of the Monasterio de Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos, Spain.

    According to chancellor and chronicler Pero Lâopez de Ayala, he had a pale complexion, blue eyes and very light blonde hair; he was tall (1.83 m) and muscular. He was accustomed to long, strenuous hours of work, lisped a little and "loved women greatly". He was well read and a patron of the arts, and in his formative years he enjoyed entertainment, music and poetry.

    Peter began his reign when almost sixteen years old[3] and subjected to the control of his mother and her favourites. He was to be married to Joan, daughter of Edward III of England; on her way to Castile, however, she travelled through cities infested with the Black Death, ignoring townspeople who had warned her not to enter their settlements. Joan soon contracted the disease and died.[4]

    Peter of Castile

    Though at first controlled by his mother, Peter emancipated himself with the encouragement of the minister Alburquerque.[5] Becoming attached to Marâia de Padilla, he married her in secret in 1353. Marâia turned him against Alburquerque, who fled to Portugal.[6]

    In the summer of 1353, the young king was practically coerced by his mother and the nobles into marrying Blanche of Bourbon; he deserted her at once. This marriage necessitated Peter's denying that he had married Marâia, but his relationship with her continued and she bore him four children. He also apparently went through the form of marriage with Juana de Castro, widow of Don Diego de Haro, convincing her that his previous marriage to Queen Blanche was a nullity. The bishops of Avila and Salamanca were asked to concur, and were afraid to say otherwise.[6] Peter and Juana were married in Cuellar, and Jane was proclaimed Queen of Castile.[3] After two nights he then deserted her. (She bore him a son who died young, after Peter's death.) A period of turmoil followed in which the king was for a time overpowered and in effect imprisoned. The dissension within the party striving to coerce him enabled him to escape from Toro, where he was under observation, to Segovia.[5]

    In 1361, Queen Blanche died at Medina Sidonia. Legend claims that Peter murdered her: one version of the story says she was poisoned, another that she was shot with a crossbow.[7] Also that year Maria de Padilla died in Seville, possibly of the plague.[6]

    Death[edit]

    Henry II kills his predecessor Peter, in an early illustration to Froissart's Chronicles
    In the summer of 1366, Peter took refuge with Edward, the Black Prince, who restored him to his throne in the following year after the Battle of Nâajera. But he disgusted his ally with his faithlessness and ferocity,[5] as well as his failure to repay the costs of the campaign, as he had promised to do. The health of the Black Prince broke down, and he left the Iberian Peninsula.[5]

    Meanwhile, Henry of Trastâamara returned to Castile in September, 1368. The cortes of the city of Burgos recognized him as King of Castile. Others followed, including Câordoba, Palencia, Valladolid, and Jaâen. Galicia and Asturias, on the other hand, continued to support Peter. As Henry made his way toward Toledo, Peter, who had retreated to Andalusia, chose to confront him in battle. On 14 March 1369, the forces of Peter and Henry met at Montiel, a fortress then controlled by the Order of Santiago. Henry prevailed with the assistance of Bertrand du Guesclin. Peter took refuge in the fortress, which, being controlled by a military order of Galician origin, remained faithful to him. Negotiations were opened between Peter and his besieger, Henry. Peter met with du Guesclin, who was acting as Henry's envoy. Peter appealed to du Guesclin's well-known treacherous side. He offered du Guesclin 200,000 gold coins and several towns, including Soria, Almazan, and Atienza to betray Henry. Ever opportunistic, du Guesclin informed Henry of the offer and immediately bargained for greater compensation from Henry to betray Peter.

    Having made a deal with Henry, Du Guesclin returned to Peter. Under the guise of accepting his deal, du Guesclin led Peter to his tent on the night of 23 March 1369. Henry was waiting. The historian Lopez de Ayala described the encounter as follows:

    Upon entering du Guesclin's tent, Henry "saw King Peter. He did not recognize him because they had not seen each other for a long time. One of Bertrand's men said 'This is your enemy.' But King Henry asked if it was he and ... King Peter said twice, 'I am he, I am he.' Then King Henry recognized him and hit him in the face with a knife and they ... fell to the ground. King Henry struck him again and again."

    Having dispatched his half-brother, Henry left Peter's body unburied for three days, during which time it was subjected to ridicule and abuse.

    Legacy and reputation[edit]
    From The Monk's Tale
    O noble, O worthy PETRO, glorie OF SPAYNE, Whom Fortune heeld so hye in magestee,
    Wel oughten men thy pitous death complayne!
    Out of thy land thy brother made thee flee,
    And after, at a seege, by subtiltee,
    Thou were bitraysed and lad unto his tente,
    Where as he with his owene hand slow thee,
    Succedynge in thy regne and in thy rente.

    Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales
    Popular memory generally views Peter as a vicious monster. Much but not all of Peter's reputation comes from the works of the chronicler Pero Lâopez de Ayala, who after his father's change of allegiance had little choice but to serve Peter's usurper. After time passed, there was a reaction in Peter's favour and an alternative name was found for him. It became a fashion to speak of him as El Justiciero, the executor of justice (the Lawful).[10] Apologists were found to say that he had killed only men who would not submit themselves to the law or respect the rights of others.[5] Peter did have his supporters. Even Ayala confessed that the king's fall was regretted by many, among them the peasants and burghers subjected to the nobles by late feudal gifts and by the merchants, who enjoyed security under his rule.

    The English, who backed Peter, also remembered the king positively. Geoffrey Chaucer visited Castile during Peter's reign and lamented the monarch's death in The Monk's Tale, part of The Canterbury Tales. (Chaucer's patron, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, had fought on Peter's side in his struggle to reclaim the throne.)

    Peter had many qualities of those later monarchs educated in the centralization style. He built a strong Royal administrative force ahead of his times. He failed to counter or check all the feudal powers that supported his rivals, however illegitimate and opposite to the principles of aristocracy they represented themselves. But his moral superiority was reduced too by the violent means, including fratricides, by which he sought to suppress opposition; he at times was extremely despotic and unpredictable, even by the standards of his age. In this he was preceded by his father Alfonso XI, who since the crisis at the death of Alfonso X had faced multiple rebellions against royal authority.

    The death of King Peter ended the traditional alliance of Castile and Navarre with England, which had been started by the Plantagenets to keep France in check. The alliance was later renewed by the Trastâamaras and Tudors.

    Children

    Peter's beheading, from a 14th-century French manuscript.
    Peter's children by Marâia de Padilla were:

    Beatrice (1353–1369), nun at the Abbey of Santa Clara at Tordesillas
    Constance (1354–1394), married John of Gaunt[11]
    Isabella (1355–1392), married Edmund of Langley[12]
    Alfonso (1359–1362), Crown Prince of Castile and Leâon (Tordesillas, 1359 – 19 October 1362). Peter forced the Cortes to recognize Alfonso as his legitimate heir on 29 April 1362. However, Alfonso, a very sickly child, died at the age of three, months from his recognition as Crown Prince.
    Peter had one son with Juana de Castro, daughter of Pedro Fernâandez de Castro:

    John (1355–1405), married doäna Elvira de Eril, had issue
    Peter had a daughter with Teresa de Ayala, a niece of Pero Lopez de Ayala:

    Maria de Ayala, who with her mother had long careers at the Dominican convent of Santo Domingo el Real in Toledo and maintained a friendly correspondence with the Trastamaras[13]
    Sources[edit]
    The great original but hostile authority for the life of Peter the Cruel is the Chronicle of the Chancellor Pedro Lâopez de Ayala (1332–1407).[5] To put that in perspective are a biography by Prosper Mâerimâee, Histoire de Don Pedro I, roi de Castille (1848) and a modern history setting Peter in the social and economic context of his time by Clara Estow (Pedro the Cruel of Castile (1350–1369), 1995).

    Strictly speaking, Peter was not defeated by Henry but by the opposing aristocracy; the nobles accomplished their objective of enthroning a weaker dynasty (the House of Trastâamara), much more amenable to their interests. Most of the bad stories about Peter are likely to be colored by Black Legend, coined by his enemies, who finally succeeded in their rebellion. The Chancellor Lâopez de Ayala, the main source for Peter's reign, was the official chronicler of the Trastâamara, a servant of the new rulers and of Peter's aristocratic adversaries.

    The change of dynasty can be considered as the epilogue of the first act of a long struggle between the Castilian monarchy and the aristocracy; this struggle was to continue for more than three centuries and come to an end only under Charles I of Spain, the grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile) and Isabella I of Castile (The Catholic Monarchs), in the first quarter of the 16th century.

    Peter married Maria de Padilla 0___ 1353. Maria was born ~ 1334, (Seville, Spain); died 0Aug 1361, Seville, Spain; was buried Cathedral of Seville, Seville, Spain. [Group Sheet]


  28. 63.  Maria de PadillaMaria de Padilla was born ~ 1334, (Seville, Spain); died 0Aug 1361, Seville, Spain; was buried Cathedral of Seville, Seville, Spain.

    Notes:

    Marâia de Padilla (c. 1334 - Seville, July 1361) was the mistress of King Peter of Castile.


    Family

    She was a Castilian noblewoman, daughter of Juan Garcâia de Padilla (died between 1348 and 1351) and his wife Marâia Gonzâalez de Henestrosa[2] (died after September 1356). Her maternal uncle was Juan Fernâandez de Henestrosa, the King's favorite between 1354 and 1359[3] after Juan Alfonso de Alburquerque fell out of favor, and the mediator in an apparent pardon for Fadrique Alfonso, King Peter's half-brother. She was also the sister of Diego Garcâia de Padilla, Grand Master of the Order of Calatrava.[3] Marâia’s family, members of the regional nobility,[4] originally came from the area of Padilla de Abajo, near Castrojeriz in the province of Burgos.

    She is described in the chronicles of her time as very beautiful, intelligent, and small of body.[5]


    Real Monasterio de Santa Clara en Astudillo (Palencia) founded by Marâia de Padilla

    Relationship with King Peter of Castile

    King Peter met Marâia in the summer of 1352 during an expedition to Asturias to battle his rebellious half-brother Henry. It was probably her maternal uncle, Juan Fernâandez de Henestrosa, who introduced them, as mentioned in the chronicle of King Peter’s reign written by Pero Lâopez de Ayala.[6] At that time, Marâia was being raised at the house of Isabel de Meneses, wife of Juan Alfonso de Alburquerque, a powerful nobleman. They became lovers and their relationship lasted until her death despite the King’s other marriages and affairs. The Padillas were raised to various offices and dignities. Her uncle, Henestrosa, became Alcalde de los fidalgos.[7]

    In the summer of 1353, under coercion from family and the main court favorite, Juan Alfonso de Alburquerque, Peter wed Blanche of Bourbon, the first cousin of King John II of France. Peter abandoned Blanche within three days when he learned that she had an affair with his bastard brother Fadrique Alfonso en route to Spain, and that the dowry was not coming.

    Children

    Marâia and Peter had three daughters: Beatrice (born 1354), Constance (1354–1394), and Isabella (1355–1394), and a son, Alfonso, crown-prince of Castile (1359 - October 19, 1362).

    Two of their daughters were married to sons of Edward III, King of England. Isabella married Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, while the elder, Constance, married John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, leading him to claim the crown of Castile on behalf of his wife. Constance's daughter, Catherine of Lancaster, married Henry III of Castile in order to reunify any claim to succession that may have passed via Constance.

    Death and burial

    Marâia de Padilla died in July 1361, possibly a victim of the plague, although Pero Lâopez de Ayala does not specify the cause in his chronicle of the King's reign.


    Royal Chapel in the Cathedral of Seville
    She was buried in the Real Monasterio de Santa Clara de Astudillo which she had founded in 1353. Shortly afterwards, however, her remains were taken, following the orders of King Peter, to the Cathedral of Seville where she received burial in the Royal Chapel with other members of the royal house.[8]

    Depictions in fiction

    Gaetano Donizetti composed Maria Padilla (1841), an opera about her relationship with King Peter.
    Rudolf Gottschall wrote Maria de Padilla (18??), a drama about her life.
    References[edit]
    Jump up ^ Her place of birth is not documented. The places suggested by various authors are Seville, Vallejera, Cordovilla, or Astudillo, the last two in Palencia.
    Jump up ^ Also spelled "Hinestrosa" or "Ynestrosa".
    ^ Jump up to: a b Estepa Dâiez 2003, p. 404, Vol. I.
    Jump up ^ Estepa Dâiez 2003, pp. 402-404, Vol. I.
    Jump up ^ …muy fermosa, e de buen entendimiento e pequeäna de cuerpo.
    Jump up ^ En este tiempo, yendo el rey a Gijâon, tomo a doäna Marâia de Padilla que era una doncella muy fermosa e andaba en casa de doäna Isabel de Meneses, muger de don Juan Alfonso de Alburquerque que la criaba, e trâaxogela a Sant Fagund Juan Ferrandez de Henestrosa, su tâio, hermano de doäna Marâia Gonzâalez, su madre.
    Jump up ^ Storer, Edward. Peter the Cruel, John Lane, London
    Jump up ^ Arco 1954, pp. 295-296.

    Notes:

    Married:
    in secret...

    Children:
    1. 31. Isabel Perez, Princess of Castile-Leon was born 0___ 1353, Morales, Tordesillas, Valladolid, Spain; died 23 Dec 1392, King's Langley, Hertford, England; was buried 14 Jan 1393, Dominicans Church, King's Langley, Hertford, England.


Generation: 7

  1. 64.  Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville of RabyRalph Neville, 1st Baron Neville of Raby was born 18 Oct 1262, Raby, Durham, England (son of Robert Neville and Mary FitzRanulph, Heiress of Middleham); died 18 Apr 1331, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 3rd Baron Neville of Raby
    • Also Known As: Sir Ranulf de Neville

    Notes:

    Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby (18 October 1262 / 1270 – 18 April 1331) was a Norman nobleman and member of the powerful Neville family, son of Robert de Neville and Mary fitz Ranulf.[a]

    Neville married first Euphemia de Clavering daughter of Robert de Clavering (5th Baron of Warkworth & Clavering) and Margaret La Zouche, sister of Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby. Ralph and Euphemia had fourteen children.[1] His second marriage was to Margery de Thwenge, daughter of John De Thwenge and Joan De Mauley[1]

    Children

    Ralph had the following children with Euphemia de Clavering:

    Joan de Neville (c.1283) m. John of Willington (1281–1388) son of Ralph de Willington and Juliana Lomene.
    Anastasia de Neville (c.1285), married Sir Walter de Fauconberg (1264 - 24 June 1314 Battle of Bannockburn).
    Sir Robert de Neville of Middleham (c. 1287 – June 1319)
    Ida de Neville (c.1289)
    Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby (c. 1291 – 5 August 1367), married Alice de Audley and had children
    Eupheme de Neville (c. 1291)
    Alice de Neville (c. 1293)
    Sir Alexander de Neville (c. 1297 - 15 March 1367)
    John Neville (1299 - 19 July 1333 Battle of Halidon Hill)
    Mary de Neville (c. 1301)
    William de Neville (c. 1303)
    Margaret de Neville (c. 1305)
    Thomas de Neville (c. 1306 - before June 1349)
    Avelina de Neville (c. 1307), married Norville Norton and had children

    Notes
    Jump up ^ The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography uses a different numbering system and numbers him the 3rd Baron Neville and his father the 2nd etc. (Tuck 2008).
    ^ Jump up to: a b Neville family.

    References
    "Neville family". tudorplace.com. Retrieved October 2010.[unreliable source?][better source needed]
    Tuck, Anthony (January 2008) [2004]. "Neville, Ralph, fourth Lord Neville (c.1291–1367)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19950. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) The first edition of this text is available as an article on Wikisource: Lee, Sidney, ed. (1894). "Neville, Ralph de (DNB00)". Dictionary of National Biography 40. London: Smith, Elder & Co.

    Ralph married Euphemia Clavering, Baroness of Raby ~ 1286, Raby, Durham, England. Euphemia (daughter of Robert FitzRoger Clavering, 5th Baron Warkworth, 1st Baron Clavering and Margery Mary de la Zouche) was born 0___ 1267, Clavering, Essex, England; died 0___ 1320, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England). [Group Sheet]


  2. 65.  Euphemia Clavering, Baroness of Raby was born 0___ 1267, Clavering, Essex, England (daughter of Robert FitzRoger Clavering, 5th Baron Warkworth, 1st Baron Clavering and Margery Mary de la Zouche); died 0___ 1320, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Euphemia de Clavering
    • Alt Death: 0___ 1329

    Notes:

    Born: Abt 1267, Clavering, Essex, England
    Marriage: Sir Ranulf DE NEVILLE, 1st Baron Neville De Raby [1414] about 1286 in Raby, Durham, England 1
    Died: 1320, , , England about age 53
    Sources, Comments and Notes
    Source :
    "Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby (18 October 1262 / 1270 - 18 April 1331) was an English aristocrat and member of the powerful Neville family, son of Roger de Neville and Mary Tailboys. He married first Euphemia de Clavering daughter of Robert de Clavering (5th Baron of Warkworth & Clavering) and Margaret La Zouche, with whom he had fourteen children. His second marriage was to Margery de Thwenge daughter of John De Thwenge and Joan De Mauley.

    Ralph had the following children with Euphemia de Clavering:
    Joan de Neville (c.1283)
    Anastasia de Neville (c.1285), married Sir Walter de Fauconberg
    Sir Robert de Neville of Middleham (c.1287 - June 1319)
    Ida de Neville (c.1289)
    Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby (c.1291 - 5 August 1367), married Alice de Audley and had issue
    Eupheme de Neville (c.1291)
    Alice de Neville (c.1293)
    Sir Alexander de Neville (c.1297 - 15 March 1366/7)
    John Neville (1299 - 19 July 1333)
    Mary de Neville (c.1301)
    William de Neville (c.1303)
    Margaret de Neville (c.1305)
    Thomas de Neville (c.1306 - bef June 1349)
    Avelina de Neville (c.1307), married Norville Norton and had issue"
    ___________________________
    Source Par Charles H. Browning:
    "..., the son of Sir John, third Baron de Nevill, of Raby, K.G., constituted admiral of the king's fleet, d. October 17, 1385, the son of Ralph de Nevill, second Baron, d. 1367, son of Ralph, Baron de Nevill, of Raby, and his first wife, Lady Euphemia, sister of John de Clavering, and daughter of Robert Fitz-Roger, son of Roger Fitz-John, the son of Robert Fitz-Robert, one of the Sureties for the Magna Charta."
    __________________________
    Source :
    "Ranulf (Randolph) de Neville, 1st Lord of Raby (1262 - 1331)
    ...
    He married, firstly, Eupheme FitzRobert, daughter of Robert FitzRoger, 1st Lord FitzRoger and Margaret de la Zouche. He married, secondly, Margery de Thweng, daughter of John de Thweng, before 1331.1 He died circa 1337 at Raby Castle, Durham, County Durham, England.
    ..."
    __________________________
    Source Par Charles Robert Young:
    "THE NEVILLE FAMILY (extract):
    ...
    8. Ranulph de Neville, Lord of Raby d.1331 = Eupheme
    9. Ralph de Neville, Lord of Raby d.1367 = Alice
    ..."
    Euphemia married Sir Ranulf DE NEVILLE, 1st Baron Neville De Raby [1414], son of Robert DE NEVILLE, Jr, Baron De Raby [1418] and Mary FITZ RALPH [1543], about 1286 in Raby, Durham, England.1 (Sir Ranulf DE NEVILLE, 1st Baron Neville De Raby [1414] was born on 18 Oct 1262 in Raby, Durham, England 1 2 and died on 18 Apr 1331 in Raby Castle, Durham, England.)

    Children:
    1. Joan de Neville was born ~ 1283, (Raby, Durham, England).
    2. Anastasia de Neville was born ~ 1285, (Raby, Durham, England).
    3. Robert de Neville, of Middleham was born 0___ 1287, (Raby, Durham, England); died 0Jun 1319.
    4. 32. Ralph Neville, 4th Baron Neville de Raby was born 0___ 1291, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England; died 5 Aug 1367, Durhamshire, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.
    5. Alexander de Neville was born ~ 1297, (Raby, Durham, England); died 15 Mar 1367.
    6. John Neville was born 0___ 1299, (Raby, Durham, England); died 19 Jul 1333.
    7. Thomas de Neville was born ~ 1306, (Raby, Durham, England); died Bef June 1349.

  3. 66.  Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of StrattonHugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton was born 0___ 1267, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England (son of James de Audley, Knight and Ela Longespee); died Bef 1326; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Member of Parliament
    • Residence: London, Middlesex, England
    • Also Known As: Sir Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester

    Notes:

    Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton, was the son of James de Aldithley and Ela Longespâee, the daughter of William II Longespâee and Idoina de Camville.

    He married Isolde de Mortimer about 1290.

    They were the parents of at least three children

    Sir Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester, who married Margaret de Clare, the daughter of Gilbert de Clare and Joan of Acre.
    Alice de Audley, who married Ralph de Neville, 2nd Baron Neville of Raby, the son of Ralph de Neville and Euphemia de Clavering
    James de Audley.

    Hugh de Alditheley or Audley, brother of Nicholas, Lord Audley of Heleigh, was summoned to parliament as "Hugh de Audley, Seniori" on 15 May, 1321, 14th Edward II. His lordship had been engaged during the reign of Edward I in the king's service and was called "Senior" to distinguish him from his son. Being concerned in the insurrection of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, 15th Edward II [1322], the baron was committed a close prisoner to Wallingford Castle but making his peace with the king he obtained his release and suffered nothing further. He sat in the parliament on the 11th [1318] and 14th [1321] of Edward II.

    Buried:
    Plot: Inside Church

    Died:
    As a prisoner in Wallingford Castle, Berkshire, England...

    Hugh married Isolde (Isabella) de Mortimer ~ 1290. Isolde was born 0___ 1270, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 0___ 1338, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 67.  Isolde (Isabella) de MortimerIsolde (Isabella) de Mortimer was born 0___ 1270, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 0___ 1338, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isoldt de Mortimer
    • Also Known As: Lady of the Manor of Eastingdon, Gloucestershire, Thornbury, and Herefordshire

    Notes:

    Isolde married Walter de Balun, (it is said that he died after an accident at a tournament on his wedding day while at Southampton waiting to go to the Holy Land with Henry lll). No children from this marriage.

    Isolde also married Hugh I de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton, about 1290.

    They had at least three children

    Hugh II de Audley, 1st and last Earl of Gloucester, who married Margaret de Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare and Joan of Acre
    Alice de Audley, who married Ralph de Neville, 2nd Baron Neville of Raby, the son of Ralph de Neville and Euphemia de Clavering
    Sir James de Audley

    Isolde's parentage is in conflict at this time. Some genealogies have her as the daughter of Hugh de Mortimer and Agatha de Ferriáeres or Edmund de Mortimer and Margaret de Fiennes. I have also seen her as the daughter of Hugh de Mortimer and unknown mistress.

    Buried:
    Note: According to Effigies and Brasses her effigy is in the Church...

    Children:
    1. Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley was born ~ 1289, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; died 10 Nov 1347, Kent, England; was buried Tonbridge Priory, Kent, England.
    2. 33. Alice de Audley was born 1302-1304, Hadley, Lambourne, Berkshire, England; died 12 Jan 1374, Greystoke Manor, Northumberland, England; was buried Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durhamshire, England.

  5. 68.  Henry de Percy, Knight, 1st Baron Percy was born 25 Mar 1273, Petworth, Sussex, England (son of Henry de Percy, Knight, 7th Feudal Baron of Topcliffe and Eleanor de Warenne); died 0Oct 1314, Alnwick, Northumberland, England.

    Notes:

    Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick (1273-1314)[3] was a medieval English magnate.

    He fought under King Edward I of England in Wales and Scotland and was granted extensive estates in Scotland, which were later retaken by the Scots under King Robert I of Scotland. He added Alnwick to the family estates in England, founding a dynasty of northern warlords. He rebelled against King Edward II over the issue of Piers Gaveston and was imprisoned for a few months. After his release, he declined to fight under Edward II at the Battle of Bannockburn, remaining at Alnwick, where he died a few months later, aged 41.

    Origins

    Henry was born at Petworth in Sussex on 25 March 1273, seven months after his father's death, saving the family line from extinction, as two older brothers had died in infancy, and all six uncles had died without leaving any legitimate heir. He was fortunate in having the powerful John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey as his maternal grandfather. Henry was the son of Henry de Percy (d.1272), 7th feudal baron of Topcliffe, Yorkshire,[4] by his wife, Eleanor de Warenne, daughter of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey by Alice de Lusignan, Countess of Surrey, half sister of King Henry III.[5] His great-great-grandfather was Jocelin de Louvain (d.1180) who had married Agnes de Percy (d.1203), one of the two daughters and co-heiresses of William II de Percy (d.1174/5), 3rd feudal baron of Topcliffe, whose descendants had adopted the surname "de Percy".[4]

    Drawing made in 1611 of seal of Henry de Percy attached to the Barons' Letter, 1301, showing his use of the arms of Brabant (Percy (modern):[2] Or, a lion rampant azure.
    In 1293 Henry came into his inheritance of estates in Sussex and Yorkshire, including Topcliffe Castle, the ancient family seat. In 1294 he married Eleanor, daughter of the Earl of Arundel. He then proceeded to change the family coat of arms from Azure, five fusils in fess or[7] ("Percy ancient") to Or, a lion rampant azure ("Percy modern")(a blue lion rampant on a gold background). Blue and gold were the Earl Warenne's colours and a gold lion rampant had been the Arundel's arms. Alternatively the arms are said to be the arms of Brabant.[2] This emphasised his royal and noble connections and marked his ambition. This was also the year he went to war for the first time, summoned to fight in France, but then diverted to Wales to join Edward I in suppressing a Welsh rebellion. There he learned the grim business of medieval warfare, and command and supply of armies in the field.

    Marriage and progeny

    Henry de Percy married Eleanor FitzAlan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel,[8] and had two sons:

    Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy (b.1299), who succeeded his father.
    William de Percy (c.1303-1355).
    Knighthood and war in Scotland[edit]

    The view from Stirling Castle with the present Stirling Bridge in the foreground and the Wallace Monument in the middle distance
    By the summer of 1295 Henry was in the north with his grandfather Earl Warenne. Edward I's deliberately humiliating treatment of King John I of Scotland and his nobles was making war inevitable. Warenne was King John's father in law, used as an intermediary by Edward. In 1294 Philip IV of France had taken back Aquitaine from the English crown and now negotiated a treaty with the Scots to wage war on Edward on two fronts. During March 1296 Edward I's army surrounded Berwick on Tweed, then the largest town in Scotland and an important seaport. It was here on 30 March that Henry Percy was knighted by the King.[9] Later on the same day the town was taken and the ruthless king, apparently provoked by the inhabitants previously baring their buttocks at him, ordered the city put to the sword "whatever the age or sex" and according to the Scotichronicon 7,500 were executed.[10]

    Percy, under Warenne's command, was sent north to Dunbar where the castle was held by the Earls of Mar, Menteith and Ross, together with many lesser nobles. After they had beaten a Scottish force outside the castle the king joined them, and the castle soon surrendered. The rest of Scotland was occupied in the space of a few weeks and English administrators installed. King John Balliol was forced to abdicate and Warenne appointed to govern Scotland as a province. Having proved his ability Henry Percy was given the task of governing Ayr, Galloway and Cumberland, based at Carlisle Castle. With King Edward now turning his attention to affairs in France there was only a year or so of peace before the situation in Scotland began to unravel. In the summer of 1297 William Wallace murdered the English sheriff of Lanark and was joined by Robert Bruce, Bishop Lockhart, James Stewart and Sir William Douglas in the Scottish lowlands while Andrew Murray started a Highland uprising.

    Working closely with Robert Clifford from Westmorland, Percy confronted the other rebels at Irvine while Wallace was in central Scotland, and negotiated their submission, subduing southern Scotland for a while. Warenne then began an expedition to hunt down Wallace and Murray, finding them waiting north of the River Forth near Stirling Castle. The ensuing Battle of Stirling Bridge was a disaster for the English army. Percy and his fellow commanders could only watch helplessly from the castle as their infantry, caught on the far side of the one narrow bridge were slaughtered. Murray was however killed in the battle. The English were temporarily expelled from Scotland and on the defensive, with the Scots raiding northern England. In the following spring of 1298 King Edward returned from France and assembled a large army, including many Welsh longbow archers, to begin a new and determined assault on Scotland. They caught up with Wallace at Falkirk on 22 July where Henry Percy was part of the fourth reserve division of experienced and highly mobile cavalry.[11]

    Baron and Scottish landowner

    Early in 1299 the King granted the estates of Ingram Balliol, who had been involved in the Scottish rebellions, to Henry Percy, including land in England and south west Scotland. This not only gave him greater income and status, but also a vested interest in the continuing conquest of Scotland. The king also summoned Percy to attend parliament as a peer of the realm, making him a baron by writ. His family had previously had the courtesy title of baron because of their land holdings. Percy had proved himself an able soldier and administrator and found royal favour. The rest of the year was spent skirmishing with Scottish guerilla groups, and the following summer campaigning with the king although little was achieved other than the capture of Caerlaverock Castle after a long siege, at which he was present with his elderly grandfather Earl Warenne. The Caerlaverock Poem or Roll of Arms made at the siege by the heralds records the armorials of Warenne and Percy in a single verse, translated from Norman French into modern English thus:[12]


    Arms of Warenne: Chequy or and azure
    "John the good Earl of Warenne
    Of the other squadron held the reins
    To regulate and govern,
    As he who well knew how to lead,
    Noble and honourable men.
    His banner with gold and azure
    Was nobly chequered.
    And he had in his company
    Henry de Percy, his nephew (son nevou) (sic)
    Who seemed to have made a vow
    To rout the Scots.
    A blue lion rampant on yellow
    Was his banner very conspicuous"

    Correspondence in late 1301 shows Percy at his estate at Leconfield in Yorkshire, where his wife probably lived, at a safe distance from Scottish raiding parties. In February 1303 Percy was sent north in a cavalry force led by Johannes de Seagrave which was defeated at Roslin. He then joined King Edward's summer offensive, reaching Dunfermline in early November. Robert Bruce had already changed sides to support Edward and in February 1304 most of the Scots negotiated a settlement with the English king. Henry Percy is known to have played a prominent role in the negotiations.[13] Only Stirling Castle now remained to be subdued, and was battered by catapults during the spring of 1304, while King Edward's militant queen, Marguerite of France, watched from a specially built wooden shelter.

    The siege culminated in the commissioning of Warwolf, a giant trebuchet which flattened the curtain walls. The defenders had tried to surrender four days earlier, but had been made to wait by the king while he tried out his new toy. In September 1305 the first joint English and Scottish parliament met at Westminster to agree a constitution for the unified state, with Percy playing a leading role in the negotiations, but Robert Bruce, a leading representative of the Scots, was already conspiring to rebel. On 25 March 1306 Robert Bruce was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Abbey, upon which Edward confiscated his lands and gave them to Henry Percy. The King now appointed Percy to command northwest England and southwest Scotland, with orders to suppress the rebellion without mercy. Bruce's army was soon defeated in battle, but Bruce escaped to wage a guerilla campaign against the English from the wild countryside of Galloway. For several years afterwards the English Barons held the castles of southern and central Scotland, but were ambushed and harried in the countryside.

    A new monarch

    Edward I, on his way to launch a new campaign against the Scots, died on 7 July 1307 before crossing the border. The dying Edward I, asked his assembled barons to give the succession to his only surviving son Edward. He also asked them to maintain the banishment Piers Gaveston from England. Henry Percy was not present, being left in charge of southern Scotland. The death of Edward I, with the conquest of Scotland incomplete, was a personal disaster for Percy. After years of hard fighting he now had extensive land holdings in southern Scotland, but this was of less interest to Edward II who promptly recalled Gaveston and made him Earl of Cornwall, an office of great wealth. Gaveston, a formidable tournament fighter in the melee, openly despised and insulted the old king's stalwart warriors.

    Edward II left Scotland in August 1307 after replacing his father's loyal and experienced commanders, Clifford, Valence and Percy who were sent home, only to be recalled to Scotland in October. By then, however, Robert Bruce had escaped from Galloway to the Highlands, and had raised new forces and taken eastern Scotland by the end of the year. In August 1308 Bruce captured Argyll, previously loyal to King Edward and then raided Northumberland. Percy and Clifford were again summoned to defend Galloway, at their own expense, against an onslaught by Robert Bruce's surviving brother Edward. They were able to hold the castles, but not the countryside. Percy had travelled south to Westminster in February that year for the king's coronation, where he would have seen Gaveston's arrogance.

    The ceremony was delayed for a week while the French delegation, alarmed that the king preferred Gaveston's company to that of Isabella, his 12-year-old French bride, threatened to boycott the coronation. In the event Gaveston was given precedence over the other Earls. At the following feast Gaveston dressed in an outfit of royal purple and pearls, and called the king over to sit with him, instead of Queen Isabella. The French delegation walked out and one earl drew his sword and had to be restrained from attacking Gaveston. During the spring of 1308 the barons in parliament pressed the king to exile Gaveston, developing the Doctrine of Capacities, distinguishing between loyalty to the king and loyalty to the crown. On 16 June 1308, Gaveston was appointed Lieutenant of Ireland, to get him out of the country, with Henry de Percy as a witness.

    Founding a dynasty in Northumberland

    Alnwick Castle by Canaletto
    In 1309 Henry was able to buy Alnwick Castle from Anthony Bek, the Prince Bishop of Durham, giving him a base near to the action in Scotland and a substantial annual income of about ą475 from the associated lands. To make the purchase price of ą4666 he borrowed ą2666 from Italian merchant bankers, the Lombard Society.[14] When William Vesci had died in 1297 without a legitimate heir, Bek had been entrusted with the estates of the Vesci family on behalf of his son, the illegitimate William Vesci of Kildare. Vesci of Kildare did receive the other family lands in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire and it is unclear whether he was defrauded by the greedy bishop over the sale of Alnwick. In the same year of 1297 Henry obtained a royal licence to fortify his mansion at Petworth and two mansions in Yorkshire.[15]

    The return of Gaveston

    By the summer of 1309 Edward II had managed to cajole most of his earls into allowing Piers Gaveston to return to England, although the most powerful earl, Lancaster, was implacably opposed. On 27 June 1309 Gaveston, restored to the Earldom of Cornwall, returned to England and soon proved as obnoxious as before, calling Lancaster "Churl" and Warwick "Black Cur".[16] Henry Percy would have been preoccupied with the purchase of Alnwick at that time and generally tried to stay out of the trouble with Gaveston.

    At the parliament of February and March 1310 the King was forced to accept the election of twenty one Lords Ordainers to govern the country. In June the king began a campaign in Scotland in which Percy fought, although many barons senior to Percy declined to take part. Robert Bruce continued to fight a guerilla war, refusing to give battle, so little was achieved, while relations between the king and his earls further deteriorated. In May 1311 Gaveston ordered Percy to hold Perth for the summer with two hundred knights and no infantry, a dangerous task at a time when the king's army was withdrawing to England. Surviving this Percy was back in London in October.[17]

    The barons now forced the king to send Gaveston into exile in Flanders, but he was soon recalled and was in York with his heavily pregnant wife in January 1312, with his lands restored. Percy was ordered out of Scarborough Castle and Gaveston took it over. Violence was now inevitable. In April the king and Gaveston were chased out of Newcastle by the sudden arrival of an army under Lancaster, Percy and Clifford, fleeing to Scarborough. In their haste they left behind Gaveston's wife and baby daughter and a great hoard of treasure, which it took Lancaster, Percy and Clifford four days to catalogue. Lancaster held onto this for future bargaining with the king.[18] Gaveston was soon besieged at Scarborough Castle by Percy, Clifford, and the earls of Warenne and Pembroke, surrendering after a month. Percy remained in York when Gaveston was taken south to Warwick and then executed.

    Imprisonment

    The king, seeking revenge for the death of his friend, stopped short of civil war with the rebel earls but made an example of the less powerful Baron Percy by confiscating his lands on 28 July 1312, and having him imprisoned by the Sheriff of Yorkshire. The earls made Percy's release a priority in their difficult negotiations with the king and he was freed in January 1313.[19] and was formally pardoned in October. Gaveston's treasure was returned to the king soon after.

    The final year

    King Edward now prepared for a campaign in Scotland in 1314, culminating in his total defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn. Percy, along with five of the earls and many other nobles refused summonses to this campaign because it had not been sanctioned by parliament, as required by the Ordinances. There are no contemporary records of Percy being at Bannockburn[20] and it seems that he remained at Alnwick, defending his land against Scottish raiders. His friend and comrade Robert Clifford did go, and was killed in the battle. Within days of the battle Percy was summoned to Newcastle to prepare an emergency defence of northern England against an invasion. Instead of an all-out invasion, Robert Bruce sent raiding parties to extort money from the northern counties. Only a few months later in the first half of October 1314 Henry Percy died, aged forty one, of unknown causes.

    Henry — Eleanor FitzAlan. Eleanor (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel) was born 0___ 1282; died 0___ 1328; was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  6. 69.  Eleanor FitzAlan was born 0___ 1282 (daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel); died 0___ 1328; was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Lady Percy

    Notes:

    Buried:
    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beverley_Minster

    Children:
    1. 34. Henry Percy, Knight, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick was born 0___ 1299, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England NE66 1NQ; died 0___ 1352.

  7. 70.  Robert de Clifford, Knight, 1st Baron de Clifford was born ~ 1274, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England (son of Roger de Clifford, II, Knight and Isabella Vipont); died 24 Jun 1314, Bannockburn, Scotland; was buried Shap Abbey, Cumbria, England.

    Other Events:

    • Military: Battle of Falkirk

    Notes:

    Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford (c. 1274–1314), of Appleby Castle, Westmorland, feudal baron of Appleby and feudal baron of Skipton in Yorkshire, was an English soldier who became 1st Lord Warden of the Marches, responsible for defending the English border with Scotland.

    Origins[edit]
    He was born in Clifford Castle,[citation needed] Herefordshire, a son of Roger II de Clifford (d.1282) (a grandson of Walter II de Clifford (d.1221), feudal baron of Clifford[1]) by his wife Isabella de Vipont (d.1291), one of the two daughters and co-heiresses of Robert II de Vipont (d.1264), feudal baron of Appleby, grandson of Robert I de Vieuxpont (d.1227/8). Thenceforth the Clifford family quartered the arms of Vipont: Gules, six annulets or.

    The ancient Norman family which later took the name de Clifford arrived in England during the Norman Conquest of 1066, and became feudal barons of Clifford, first seated in England at Clifford Castle in Herefordshire. The de Clifford family was directly descended in the male line from Duke Richard I of Normandy (933-996), great-grandfather of William the Conqueror:[2] the father of Walter de Clifford, 1st feudal baron of Clifford (d.1190) was Richard FitzPontz (d. circa 1138), the son of Pontz, the son of William Count of Eu, a son of Richard I of Normandy (933-996) by his wife Gunnor.[3]

    Inheritances

    As his father had predeceased his own father, in 1286 Robert inherited the estates of his grandfather, Roger I de Clifford (d.1286). Following the death of his mother Isabella de Vipont in 1291 he inherited a one-half moiety of the extensive Vipont feudal baron of Appleby in Westmorland. In 1308 he was granted the remaining moiety by his childless aunt Idonea de Vipont (d.1333)[4] and thus became one of the most powerful barons in England.

    Career

    During the reigns of Kings Edward I and Edward II, Clifford was a prominent soldier. In 1296 he was sent with Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy to quell the Scots who asked for terms of surrender at Irvine. He was appointed Governor of Carlisle. During the reign of Edward I he was styled Warden of the Marches and during the reign of Edward II, as Lord Warden of the Marches, being the first holder of this office.[5] In 1298 he fought for King Edward I at the Battle of Falkirk in which William Wallace was defeated, for which he was rewarded with Governorship of Nottingham Castle. He was summoned to Parliament by writ as a baron in 1299. He won great renown at the Siege of Caerlaverock Castle in 1300, during which his armorials (Chequy or and azure, a fesse gules) were recorded by the heralds on the famous Caerlaverock Roll or Poem, thus (translated from French):[6]

    "Strength from wisdom drawing, Robert Lord de Clifford's mind is bent on his enemies' subjection. Through his mother his descent comes from that renowned Earl Marshal at Constantinople said to have battled with a unicorn and struck the monster dead. All the merits of his grandsire, Roger, still in Robert spring. Of no praise is he unworthy; wiser none was with the King. Honoured was his banner, checky gold and blue, a scarlet fess. Were I maiden, heart and body I would yield to such noblesse!"
    He was one of many who sealed the 1301 Barons' Letter to the Pope, in the Latin text of which he is described as Robertus de Clifford, Castellanus de Appelby ("Constable of Appleby Castle").[7] After the death of King Edward I in 1307, he was appointed counsellor to Edward II, together with the Earl of Lincoln, Earl of Warwick and Earl of Pembroke. In the same year of 1307 the new king Edward II appointed him Marshal of England, and in this capacity he probably organised Edward II's coronation on 25 February 1308. On 12 March 1308 he was relieved of the marshalcy, the custodianship of Nottingham Castle and of his Forest justiceship, but on 20 August 1308 he was appointed captain and chief guardian of Scotland.[8] In 1310 Edward II also granted him Skipton Castle and the Honour of Skipton in Yorkshire, held until that date by Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln (1251-1311).[9] Henry de Lacy had married Margaret Longespâee, Robert de Clifford's cousin and heiress of the feudal barony of Clifford, which had descended in a female line from Robert de Clifford's great-great uncle, Walter II de Clifford (d.1263), Margaret Longespâee's maternal grandfather.[3]

    In 1312 together with the Earl of Lancaster he took part in the movement against Piers Gaveston Edward II's favourite, whom he besieged in Scarborough Castle.

    Marriage & progeny

    In 1295 in Clifford Castle he married Maud de Clare, eldest daughter of Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond by his wife Juliana FitzGerald. By Maud he had three children:[10]

    Roger de Clifford, 2nd Baron de Clifford.
    Robert de Clifford, 3rd Baron de Clifford.
    Idonia de Clifford, wife of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy.
    Death & burial[edit]
    Clifford was killed on 24 June 1314 fighting at the Battle of Bannockburn[5] and was buried at Shap Abbey in Westmoreland.

    References

    Jump up ^ Sanders, pp.35-6, Clifford; Vivian, p.194, Pedigree of Clifford
    Jump up ^ Vivian, Lt.Col. J.L., (Ed.) The Visitations of the County of Devon: Comprising the Heralds' Visitations of 1531, 1564 & 1620, Exeter, 1895, p.194
    ^ Jump up to: a b Vivian, p.194
    Jump up ^ Sanders, I.J. English Baronies: A Study of their Origin and Descent 1086-1327, Oxford, 1960, p.104, Appleby
    ^ Jump up to: a b Notes and Queries, Oxford University Press, 15 March 1862, p. 220
    Jump up ^ http://www.theheraldrysociety.com/articles/early_history_of_heraldry/siege_of_caerlaverock.htm
    Jump up ^ Howard de Walden, Lord, Some Feudal Lords and their Seals 1301, published 1903 reprinted 1984, image of seal p.31
    Jump up ^ Henry Summerson, Robert Clifford, first Lord Clifford, Oxford Online Dictionary of National Biography, 2004
    Jump up ^ Sanders, I.J. English Baronies: A Study of their Origin and Descent 1086-1327, Oxford, 1960, p.143
    Jump up ^ "Clifford, Robert de". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.

    Military:
    In 1298 he fought for King Edward I at the Battle of Falkirk in which William Wallace was defeated, for which he was rewarded with Governorship of Nottingham Castle.

    Buried:
    Photos, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shap_Abbey

    Died:
    during the Battle of Bannockburn ... was a significant Scottish victory in the First War of Scottish Independence, and a landmark in Scottish history.

    History ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn

    Robert married Maude de Clare 0___ 1295, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England. Maude (daughter of Thomas de Clare, Knight, Lord of Thomond and Juliana Fitzgerald, Lady of Thomond) was born 0___ 1276; died 0___ 1327. [Group Sheet]


  8. 71.  Maude de Clare was born 0___ 1276 (daughter of Thomas de Clare, Knight, Lord of Thomond and Juliana Fitzgerald, Lady of Thomond); died 0___ 1327.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Baroness of Clifford
    • Also Known As: Maud de Clare

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Images, History & Source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appleby_Castle

    Children:
    1. 35. Idonia Clifford was born ~ 1303, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England; died 24 Aug 1365, (Yorkshire, England); was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England.
    2. Robert de Clifford, Knight, 3rd Baron de Clifford was born 5 Nov 1305, (Skipton, North Yorkshire, England); died 20 May 1344.

  9. 72.  Edward II, King of EnglandEdward II, King of England was born 25 Apr 1284, Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales (son of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England); died 21 Sep 1327, Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward of Caernarfon

    Notes:

    Edward II who reigned as King of England from 1307-1327 was widely held as a weak and ineffective king, losing disastrously to the Scots at Bannockburn in 1314. His tendency to ignore his nobility, in favour of low-born favourites, led to constant political unrest and eventually to his deposition. His father, a notable military leader, made a point of training young Edward in warfare and statecraft starting in his childhood. Edward preferred less noble pursuits and although impressive physically, he was a bit of a wimp. Edward I attributed his son’s problems to Piers Gaveston, a Gascon Knight who some believe to have been the prince's lover.

    Edward II is today perhaps best remembered for a story about his alleged murder with a red-hot poker plunged anally into his entrails, which has been seen by some as evidence of his homosexuality. Although pictured in the film Braveheart as highly effeminate, this portrayal is inaccurate as Edward II's robust physical appearance was similar to his father's, right down to the drooping eyelid.

    The King was captured and condemned by Parliament in 1327 as 'incorrigible and without hope of amendment'. He was forced to abdicate in favour of his teenage son Edward III, and he died in Berkeley Castle later that year.

    Braveheart's ridiculous depiction of William Wallace being Edward III's father is impossible. Wallace was executed in 1305, seven years before Edward III was born.

    During Richard II's reign, the Peasants Revolt of 1381 was sparked off by the Poll Tax of one shilling a head on the whole population, regardless of the individual's means to pay it. A large part of society consisted of villeins, men and women tied to the land on which they were born and worked. The sum, small enough to the better-off, represented an unacceptable impost upon their slender resources, and when they refused to pay, or were unable to do so, they were pursued with the full rigour of the law. They retaliated by murdering the Royal Officials who attempted to collect the tax, and this invited further retribution from the Government.

    *

    Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir to the throne following the death of his older brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland, and in 1306 he was knighted in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Edward succeeded to the throne in 1307, following his father's death. In 1308, he married Isabella of France, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV, as part of a long-running effort to resolve the tensions between the English and French crowns.

    Edward had a close and controversial relationship with Piers Gaveston, who had joined his household in 1300. The precise nature of Edward and Gaveston's relationship is uncertain; they may have been friends, lovers or sworn brothers. Gaveston's arrogance and power as Edward's favourite provoked discontent both among the barons and the French royal family, and Edward was forced to exile him. On Gaveston's return, the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms called the Ordinances of 1311. The newly empowered barons banished Gaveston, to which Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite. Led by Edward's cousin, the Earl of Lancaster, a group of the barons seized and executed Gaveston in 1312, beginning several years of armed confrontation. English forces were pushed back in Scotland, where Edward was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Widespread famine followed, and criticism of the King's reign mounted.

    The Despenser family, in particular Hugh Despenser the Younger, became close friends and advisers to Edward, but in 1321 Lancaster and many of the barons seized the Despensers' lands and forced the King to exile them. In response, Edward led a short military campaign, capturing and executing Lancaster. Edward and the Despensers strengthened their grip on power, revoking the 1311 reforms, executing their enemies and confiscating estates. Unable to make progress in Scotland, Edward finally signed a truce with Robert. Opposition to the regime grew, and when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty in 1325, she turned against Edward and refused to return. Isabella allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and invaded England with a small army in 1326. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, where he was captured in November. Edward was forced to relinquish his crown in January 1327 in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III, and he died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September, probably murdered on the orders of the new regime.

    Edward's relationship with Gaveston inspired Christopher Marlowe's 1592 play Edward II, along with other plays, films, novels and media. Many of these have focused on the possible sexual relationship between the two men. Edward's contemporaries criticised his performance as a king, noting his failures in Scotland and the oppressive regime of his later years, although 19th-century academics later argued that the growth of parliamentary institutions during his reign was a positive development for England over the longer term. Debate has continued into the 21st century as to whether Edward was a lazy and incompetent king, or simply a reluctant and ultimately unsuccessful ruler.

    Birth:
    Iimages of Caenaron Castle ... http://bit.ly/1xgRUAj

    Died:
    One night in August 1323, a captive rebel baron, Sir Roger Mortimer, drugged his guards and escaped from the Tower of London. With the king's men-at-arms in pursuit he fled to the south coast and sailed to France. There he was joined by Isabella, the Queen of England, who threw herself into his arms. A year later, as lovers, they returned with an invading army: King Edward II's forces crumbled before them and Mortimer took power. He removed Edward II in the first deposition of a monarch in British history. Then the ex-king was apparently murdered, some said with a red-hot poker, in Berkeley Castle.

    Images of Berkeley Castle ... http://bit.ly/1yHywy3

    Edward married Isabella of France, Queen of England 0___ 1308. Isabella (daughter of Philip of France, IV, King of France and Joan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of Champagne) was born Abt 1279, Paris, France; died 22 Aug 1358, Castle Rising, Norfolk, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, London, Middlesex, England. [Group Sheet]


  10. 73.  Isabella of France, Queen of EnglandIsabella of France, Queen of England was born Abt 1279, Paris, France (daughter of Philip of France, IV, King of France and Joan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of Champagne); died 22 Aug 1358, Castle Rising, Norfolk, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, London, Middlesex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isabella Capet

    Notes:

    Click here for Queen Isabella's biography ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_of_France

    Isabella of France (1295 – 22 August 1358), sometimes described as the She-wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife of Edward II. She was the youngest surviving child and only surviving daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. Queen Isabella was notable at the time for her beauty, diplomatic skills, and intelligence.

    Isabella arrived in England at the age of 12 [2] during a period of growing conflict between the king and the powerful baronial factions. Her new husband was notorious for the patronage he lavished on his favourite, Piers Gaveston, but the queen supported Edward during these early years, forming a working relationship with Piers and using her relationship with the French monarchy to bolster her own authority and power. After the death of Gaveston at the hands of the barons in 1312, however, Edward later turned to a new favourite, Hugh Despenser the younger, and attempted to take revenge on the barons, resulting in the Despenser War and a period of internal repression across England. Isabella could not tolerate Hugh Despenser and by 1325 her marriage to Edward was at a breaking point.

    Travelling to France under the guise of a diplomatic mission, Isabella began an affair with Roger Mortimer, and the two agreed to depose Edward and oust the Despenser family. The Queen returned to England with a small mercenary army in 1326, moving rapidly across England. The King's forces deserted him. Isabella deposed Edward, becoming regent on behalf of her son, Edward III. Many have believed that Isabella then arranged the murder of Edward II. Isabella and Mortimer’s regime began to crumble, partly because of her lavish spending, but also because the Queen successfully, but unpopularly, resolved long-running problems such as the wars with Scotland.

    In 1330, Isabella’s son Edward III deposed Mortimer in turn, taking back his authority and executing Isabella’s lover. The Queen was not punished, however, and lived for many years in considerable style—although not at Edward III’s court—until her death in 1358. Isabella became a popular "femme fatale" figure in plays and literature over the years, usually portrayed as a beautiful but cruel, manipulative figure.

    Film

    In Derek Jarman's film Edward II (1991), based on Marlowe's play, Isabella is portrayed (by actress Tilda Swinton) as a "femme fatale" whose thwarted love for Edward causes her to turn against him and steal his throne. In contrast to the negative depictions, Mel Gibson's film Braveheart (1995) portrays Isabella (played by the French actress Sophie Marceau) more sympathetically. In the film, an adult Isabella is fictionally depicted as having a romantic affair with the Scottish hero William Wallace. However, in reality, she was 9-years-old at the time of Wallace's death.[153] Additionally, Wallace is incorrectly suggested to be the father of her son, Edward III, despite Wallace's death many years before Edward's birth.[154]

    *

    Buried:
    Christ Church Greyfriars, also known as Christ Church Newgate Street,[1] was a church in Newgate Street, opposite St Paul's Cathedral in the City of London. Established as a monastic church in the thirteenth century, it became a parish church after the dissolution of the monastery.

    Following its destruction in the Great Fire of London of 1666, it was rebuilt to the designs of Sir Christopher Wren. Except for the tower, the church was largely destroyed by bombing during the Second World War. The ruins are now a public garden.

    Died:
    Castle Rising is a ruined medieval fortification in the village of Castle Rising, Norfolk, England. It was built soon after 1138 by William d'Aubigny II, who had risen through the ranks of the Anglo-Norman nobility to become the Earl of Arundel.

    Map, image, history & source for Castle Rising ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castle_Rising_(castle)

    Children:
    1. 36. Edward III, King of England was born 13 Nov 1312, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was christened 20 Nov 1312; died 21 Jun 1377, Richmond Palace, London, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. Joan of the Tower, Queen of Scotland was born 5 Jul 1321, Tower Hill, London, Middlesex, England; died 7 Sep 1362, Hertford, Hertfordshire, England; was buried Grey Friars Church, London, Middlesex, England.

  11. 80.  William Montagu, Knight, 1st Earl of SalisburyWilliam Montagu, Knight, 1st Earl of Salisbury was born 0___ 1301, Cassington, Oxfordshire, England; died 30 Jan 1344, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was buried Bisham Abbey, Berkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Baron Montacute
    • Also Known As: King of Mann
    • Also Known As: Salisbury
    • Also Known As: William Montacute

    Notes:

    William Montagu, alias de Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury, 3rd Baron Montagu, King of Mann (1301 – 30 January 1344) was an English nobleman and loyal servant of King Edward III.

    The son of William Montagu, 2nd Baron Montagu, he entered the royal household at an early age and became a close companion of the young Prince Edward. The relationship continued after Edward was crowned king following the deposition of Edward II in 1327. In 1330, Montagu was one of Edward's main accomplices in the coup against Roger Mortimer, who up until then had been acting as the king's protector.

    In the following years Montagu served the king in various capacities, primarily in the Scottish Wars. He was richly rewarded, and among other things received the lordship of the Isle of Man. In 1337, he was created Earl of Salisbury, and given an annual income of 1000 marks to go with the title. He served on the Continent in the early years of the Hundred Years' War, but in 1340 he was captured by the French, and in return for his freedom had to promise never to fight in France again. Salisbury died of wounds suffered at a tournament early in 1344.

    Legend has it that Montagu's wife Catherine was raped by Edward III, but this story is almost certainly French propaganda. William and Catherine had six children, most of whom married into the nobility. Modern historians have called William Montague Edward's "most intimate personal friend"[3] and "the chief influence behind the throne from Mortimer's downfall in 1330 until his own death in 1344."[4]

    Family background

    William Montagu, born at Cassington, Oxfordshire in 1301, was the second but eldest surviving son of William Montagu, 2nd Baron Montagu, and Elizabeth de Montfort, daughter of Sir Peter Montfort of Beaudesert, Warwickshire.[5] by Matilda/Maud de la Mare daughter and heiress of Henry de la Mare of Ashtead, Surrey, Royal Justice, Seneschal of William Longspree II Earl of Salisbury.[6] The Montagu family, a West Country family with roots going back to the Conquest, held extensive lands in Somerset, Dorset and Devon.[7] The father, William Montagu, distinguished himself in the Scottish Wars during the reign of Edward I, and served as steward of Edward II's household. Some members of the nobility, including Thomas of Lancaster, viewed Montagu with suspicion, as a member of a court party with undue influence on the king.[8] For this reason he was sent to Aquitaine, to serve as seneschal. Here he died on 18 October 1319.[8] Even though he sat in parliament as a baron, the second lord Montagu never rose above a level of purely regional importance.[9]

    Early service

    The younger William was still a minor at the time of his father's death, and entered the royal household as a ward of the king in 1320.[10] On 21 February 1323 he was granted his father's lands and title.[5] His service to Edward II took him abroad to the Continent in both 1320 and 1325.[5] In 1326 he was knighted.[9] After the deposition of Edward II in 1327, Montagu continued in the service of Edward's son Edward III. He helped the new king in repelling the Scottish invasion of 1327, and was created knight banneret in 1328.[5]

    Montagu enjoyed a close relationship with Edward III, and accompanied him abroad on a diplomatic mission in 1329. That same year he was sent on an embassy to negotiate a marriage alliance with King Philip VI of France.[5] His most important task, however, came in connection with a mission to the Papacy in Avignon. The young king—along with his government—was under the dominance of his mother Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer, who had been responsible for the deposition of the king's father.[11] Montagu explained the king's situation, and Pope John XXII asked for a special signal that assure him that he was dealing with the king in person. After Montagu's return, Richard Bury, Keeper of the Privy Seal, wrote to inform the pope that only letters containing the words pater sancte (holy father), in Edward's own handwriting, were indeed from the king. Only Edward, Bury and Montagu were party to the scheme.[12]

    Coup against Mortimer

    When Mortimer discovered the conspiracy against him, Montagu was brought in for interrogation – along with the king – but gave nothing away.[10] Afterward he supposedly advised Edward to move against his protector, because "It was better that they should eat the dog than that the dog should eat them".[5] On 19 October 1330, while Mortimer and Isabella were entrenched in Nottingham Castle, the constable of the castle showed Montagu a secret entrance through an underground tunnel.[13] Along with Edward de Bohun, Robert Ufford, and John Neville and others, he entered the castle, where he met up with the king.[5] A short brawl followed before Mortimer was captured. The queen stormed into the chamber shouting "Good son, have pity on noble Mortimer".[14] Edward did not obey his mother's wishes, and a few weeks later Mortimer was executed for treason in London.[15] As a reward for his part in the coup, Montagu was given lands worth ą1000, including the Welsh lordship of Denbigh that had belonged to Mortimer.[16] His family also benefited; his brother Simon Montacute became Bishop of Worcester and later of Ely.[17] Another brother, Edward Montagu, 1st Baron Montagu, married Alice of Norfolk, a co-heir of Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk.[18]

    Service under Edward III

    Edward III founded the Order of the Garter in 1348, and included Salisbury's son among the founding members.
    In the years to come, Montagu acted as Edward's closest companion.[3] In April 1331, the two went on a secret expedition to France, disguised as merchants so they would not be recognised. In September of the same year, Montagu held a tournament at Cheapside, where he and the king were costumed as Tartars.[5] From 1333 onwards, Montagu was deeply engaged in the Scottish Wars, and distinguished himself at the Siege of Berwick and the Battle of Halidon Hill. It was after this event that his lordship over the Isle of Man was recognised, a right he held from his grandfather.[5] The lordship was at the moment of a purely theoretical nature, however, since the island was still under Scottish control.

    In February 1334 Montagu was sent on a commission to Edinburgh, to demand Edward Balliol's homage to Edward. In the great summer campaign of 1335, it was Montagu who provided the largest English contingent, with 180 men-at-arms and 136 archers.[5] He was well rewarded for his contributions: after the Scots had been forced to cede the Lowlands, Montagu was granted the county of Peeblesshire. He was also allowed to buy the wardship of Roger Mortimer's son Roger for 1000 marks, a deal that turned out to be very lucrative for Montagu.[19] At this point, however, the fortunes were turning for the English in Scotland. Montagu campaigned in the north again in 1337, but the siege of Dunbar met with failure.[20] Following the abortive attempt in Scotland, Edward III turned his attention to the continent.

    The Hundred Years' War

    Montagu was created Earl of Salisbury on 16 March 1337. This was one of six comital promotions Edward III made that day, in preparation for what was to become the Hundred Years' War.[21] To allow Montagu to support his new status, the king granted him land and rent of a value of 1000 marks a year. The money was provided from the royal stannaries of Cornwall.[22] A contemporary poem tells of a vow made by the earl on the eve of the wars – he would not open one of his eyes while fighting in France. The story is probably a satire; the truth was that Montagu had already lost the use of one of his eyes in a tournament.[23]

    In April 1337, Montagu was appointed to a diplomatic commission to Valenciennes, to establish alliances with Flanders and the German princes.[24] In July 1338, he accompanied the king on another mission to the continent, again providing the greatest number of soldiers, with 123 men-at-arms and 50 archers.[5] In September of that year he was made Marshal of England. After the death of Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, this office had come into the hands of Norfolk's daughter Margaret. The king did not trust the office with her husband, so he decided instead to bestow it on his trusted companion, Montagu.[25] Edward's policy of building alliances put him in great debt, and when he left the Low Countries to return to England late in 1338, Salisbury had to stay behind as surety to the king's debtors, along with the king's family and the Earl of Derby.[26] The earl had earlier voiced concerns about the costly alliances, but he nevertheless remained loyal to the king's strategy.[27]

    While Edward was away, Salisbury was captured by the French at Lille in April 1340, and imprisoned in Paris.[5] Reportedly, King Philip VI of France wanted to execute Salisbury and Robert Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, who was captured with him. Philip was, however, dissuaded by John of Bohemia, who argued that the earls could come in handy in an exchange, should any French noblemen be captured.[28] Though released on parole in September, it was not until May 1342 that he reached a final settlement with the French. Salisbury was freed in a prisoner exchange, but only on the condition that he never fight in France again.[5]

    Final years

    Salisbury's residence of Bisham Manor in Berkshire.
    Salisbury had long been frustrated by the failure of the government in England to provide sufficient funds for the war effort.[29] On his return, however, he played little part in the conflict of 1341 between King Edward and Chancellor John Stratford. In May that year he was appointed to a committee to hear the king's charges against Stratford, but little came from this.[30] In 1342–43 he fought with Robert of Artois in the Breton War of Succession, and in 1343 helped negotiate the Truce of Malestroit.[5] It was probably sometime after this he made good his claim on the Isle of Man, by conquering the island which was until then held by the Scots.[5]

    His final international commission took place late in 1343, when he accompanied Henry of Grosmont, Earl of Derby, on a diplomatic mission to Castile.[5] Early in 1344 he was back in England, where he took part in a great tournament at Windsor. It was during this tournament, according to the chronicler Adam Murimuth, that he received wounds that would prove fatal.[5] Salisbury died on 30 January 1344. He was buried at Bisham Priory in Berkshire, adjoining his home, Bisham Manor. He had founded the priory himself in 1337, on his elevation to the earldom.[31] King Edward's financial obligations were never paid in full during the earl's lifetime, and at Salisbury' death the king owed him ą11,720. Of this, some ą6374 were written off by his executors in 1346.

    Family

    In or before 1327 Salisbury married Catherine, daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison. Two anecdotal stories revolve around Catherine Montagu; in one she is identified as the "Countess of Salisbury" from whose dropped garter Edward III named the Order of the Garter.[5] In the other, Edward III falls in love with the countess, and arranges to be alone with her so he can rape her. Neither story is supported by contemporary evidence, and the latter almost certainly is a product of French propaganda.[32]

    William and Catherine had six children, most of whom made highly fortunate matches with other members of the nobility.[18] The first Earl of Salisbury made enormous additions to the family fortune; at the time of his father's death, the lands had been valued at just over ą300. In 1344, only the annual income of the lands has been estimated to more than ą2,300,[18] equivalent to about ą1.82 million in present day terms.[33] Edward was also free with granting franchises to Salisbury, including the return of writs, which gave the earl authority in his lands normally held by the royally appointed sheriff.[34] Salisbury's oldest son William succeeded his father in July 1349, while still a minor, as William Montagu, 2nd Earl of Salisbury.[35] The younger William was one of the founding members of the Order of the Garter, but he never enjoyed the same favour with the king as his father had.[9]

    The children of William and Catherine were as follows:[36]

    Name Birth Death Notes
    Elizabeth Montagu — 1359 Married Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer before 27 April 1341
    Married Guy de Brian, 4th Baron Brian, after 1349

    William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury 1328 1397 Succeeded his father 11 June 1349[37]
    John de Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute 1330 1390 Father of John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury
    Philippa Montagu 1332 1381 Married Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March
    Sibyl Montagu — — Married Edmund FitzAlan, the disinherited son of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel
    Agnes Montagu — — Was contracted to marry John, eldest son of Roger Grey, 1st Baron Grey de Ruthyn
    Alice Montagu — — Married Ralph Daubeney, son of Helias Daubeney, 1st Baron Daubeney

    *

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    William Montacute
    Born: 1301 at Cassington, Oxfordshire
    Baron Montacute
    Earl of Salisbury
    Died: 30th January 1344 at Windsor, Berkshire

    William was born in 1301, the eldest son of William Montacute, 2nd Baron Montacute (d. 1319) and his wife, Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir Piers de Montfort of Beaudesert in Warwickshire. William Junior succeeded his father as 3rd Baron on 6th November 1319, being granted wardship of his own lands, though yet a minor. In 1322, he came of age and received livery of his lands, together with a grant of Lundy Isle off the Devon coast. In 1325, he was knighted and received letters of protection on his departure for France. In 1327, he went with Edward III to repel the Scottish invasion, when the latter nearly missed capture. In 1329, he accompanied the King abroad and was sent, in June, to treat for a marriage between the eldest son of the King of France and Edward's sister, Eleanor. In September, he was despatched, with Bartholomew de Burghersh (d. 1355), on an embassy to the Pope at Avignon, returning before the end of the year, when, in his capacity as executor of Blanche, Queen of Navarre, he lent the King two thousand marks that had belonged to her, and were deposited at Whitefriars.

    Next year, the young king took him into his confidence about his plans for the arrest of Mortimer. During the parliament held at Nottingham in October 1330, Montacute, with a band of retainers, including Sir John de Molines, penetrated by a secret passage into the castle, where they found Mortimer in the Queen-Mother's apartments. After a struggle, in which two of Mortimer's attendants were killed, his arrest was effected and he was sent to London for trial. Edward obtained, from Parliament, indemnity on Montacute's behalf for all consequences of the death of Mortimer's attendants, and rewarded him with various grants of land forfeited by Mortimer in Hampshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Kent and Wales, including Sherborne, Corfe Castle and Purbeck Chase in Dorset, and the lordship of Denbigh in North Wales. On 4th April 1331, Montacute accompanied Edward III when, disguised as a merchant and attended by only a handful of men-at-arms, the King paid a secret visit to France. He was also present when Edward repeated his homage to the French King at Amiens on 13th April, and returned with him to Dover on 20th April. In September, Montacute held a great tournament in Cheapside, entertaining his guests in the Bishop of London's palace.

    Next year, he attended the King in Scotland and, in 1333, was present at the Siege of Berwick and the Battle of Halidon Hill. In the same year, Edward made over to him all his rights to the Isle of Man. He appears to have accompanied Balliol to Scotland and, in February 1334, was deputed by him to excuse his absence from the parliament held at York. On 30th March, Montacute was appointed envoy to France, with the Archbishop of Canterbury and two others; but, in June, was again in Scotland, where, in 1335, he was left in command of the army, with Arundel. In the same year, he was granted the forests of Selkirk and Ettrick and the town of Peebles, made Governor of the Channel Islands and Constable of the Tower of London, as well as acquiring Bisham Manor which, being so close to the King at Windsor, he made his principal family seat. In November, he was given power to treat with Andrew Murray, Constable of Scotland. On 27th January 1336, he commenced the Siege of Dunbar Castle, but, after nineteen weeks, the blockade was raised by Alexander Ramsay and Montacute gave it up in despair, making a truce that was strongly disapproved of in England. In the same year, he was appointed Admiral of the Fleet from the mouth of the Thames westward.

    On 16 March 1337, at the parliament held in London, Montacute was created Earl of Salisbury. In the following April, he was sent to King Philip VI to declare Edward's claim to the French Crown, and thence on an embassy to the Emperor Louis, Rupert, Count Palatine, the Duke of Bavaria and other princes of Germany and the Netherlands, to organise a league against France. In October, he was commissioned to treat with Scotland, but, in July 1338, commanded a successful raid into Scotland from Carlisle. Later on in the year, he sailed, with Edward, from the Orwell to Flanders, and by a patent, dated Antwerp 20th September 1338, was appointed Marshal of England, an office then vacant by the death of Thomas, Earl of Norfolk. He remained in Flanders, where he was one of the captains of the English forces, for the next two years, during part of which he was in garrison at Ypres. In November 1338, he was one of those appointed to treat with Philip of Valois at the desire of the Pope. Shortly after, he made an inroad into the territories of the Bishop of Liege and, in February 1339, negotiated an agreement with the Archbishop of Treves and the Duke of Brabant, and was subsequently employed in various other negotiations. In 1340, induced, perhaps, by treachery within the walls, Salisbury and Suffolk, with a small force, made an attempt on Lille. The attack failed and both were taken prisoners and conveyed to Paris, when Salisbury, it is said, owed his life to the intervention of the King of Bohemia. On 18th October, Edward demanded a levy of wools to secure his liberation. He was set free - on condition of never serving against King Philip in France - at the peace negotiated after the Siege of Tournay, in exchange for the Earl of Moray, who had been captured in the Scottish Wars.

    Salisbury returned to England in November and took part in Edward's arrest of the treasury officials and others. In May 1341, he was commissioned to investigate the charges against Stratford. Perhaps it was at this time that he conquered the Isle of Man from the Scots and was crowned King there; but the event has also been assigned to 1340 and 1342. In May 1343, Salisbury embarked, with Robert d'Artois, for Brittany, captured Vannes and proceeded to besiege Rennes. After the death of Artois and some months of ineffectual fighting, a truce was signed and, in August, Salisbury was sent on an embassy to the court of Castile. There, he took part in the Siege of Algeciras, which King Alfonso XI was then prosecuting against the Moors. He was soon recalled to England, however, and sent north against the Scots. He died on 30th January 1344 from bruises, it is said, received during a tournament held at Windsor, and was buried at Bisham Priory which he had founded in 1337. He married Katharine, daughter of Sir William Grandisson, by whom he had two sons, William, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, and John, and four daughters, one of whom, Philippa, married Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March

    Died:
    Injuries from a tournament...

    William married Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury ~ 1320. Catherine (daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison and Sibylla de Tregoz) was born ~ 1304; died 23 Nov 1349. [Group Sheet]


  12. 81.  Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury was born ~ 1304 (daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison and Sibylla de Tregoz); died 23 Nov 1349.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Catherine Montacute

    Notes:

    Catherine Montacute (or Montagu), Countess of Salisbury (c. 1304 - 23 November 1349) was an English noblewoman, remembered for her relationship with King Edward III of England and possibly the woman in whose honour the Order of the Garter was originated.[1] She was born Catherine Grandison, daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison, and Sibylla de Tregoz. Her mother was one of two daughters of John de Tregoz, Baron Tregoz (whose arms were blazoned Gules two bars gemels in chief a lion passant guardant or),[2] maternal granddaughter of Fulk IV, Baron FitzWarin).[3] Catherine married William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury in about 1320.

    Their children were:

    Elizabeth Montacute (b. before 1325); married Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer before 27 April 1341.
    William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury (1329–1397)
    John de Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute, (1330–1390); father of John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury.
    Anne Montacute, (b. 1331); married John De Grey on 12 June 1335.
    Philippa Montacute (1332–1381); married Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March.
    Sibyl Montacute (b. before 1339); married Edmund FitzAlan about 1356.

    According to rumour, King Edward III was so enamoured of the countess that he forced his attentions on her in around 1341, after having relieved a Scottish siege on Wark Castle[disambiguation needed], where she lived, while her husband was out of the country. An Elizabethan play, Edward III, deals with this incident. In the play, the Earl of Warwick is the unnamed Countess's father, though he was not her father in real life.

    In around 1348, the Order of the Garter was founded by Edward III and it is recorded [4] that he did so after an incident at a ball when the "Countess of Salisbury" dropped a garter and the king picked it up. It is assumed that Froissart is referring either to Catherine or to her daughter-in-law, Joan of Kent.

    end

    Children:
    1. 40. John Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute was born ~ 1330, (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England); died ~ 1390.
    2. Sybil Montacute was born (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England).
    3. Philippa Montagu was born 0___ 1332, (Cassington, Oxfordshire, England); died 0___ 1381, (England).

  13. 88.  Robert de Holland, II, Knight, 1st Baron Holand was born ~ 1280-1283, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 7 Oct 1328, Boreham Wood, Essex, England; was buried 0Oct 1328, Greyfriars Church, Preston, Lancashire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Robert de Holand
    • Military: Battle of Boroughbridge
    • Occupation: 1314-1321; Member of Parliament (House of Lords)

    Notes:

    Robert de Holland, 1st Baron Holand (c. 1283 - 1328) was an English nobleman, born in Lancashire.

    He was a son of Sir Robert de Holland of Upholland, Lancashire and Elizabeth, daughter of William de Samlesbury.

    He was a member of the noble Holland family and a favourite official of Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster and had been knighted by 1305. His favoured treatment by the powerful earl caused his rival knights in the area, led by Sir Adam Banastre, Sir Henry de Lea, and Sir William de Bradshagh (Bradshaw), to start a campaign of violence towards him and the earl's other supporters known as the Banastre Rebellion. The rebels protested against the earl's actions and authority by attacking the homes of his supporters and several castles, including Liverpool Castle. Sir Robert later assisted in the hunt for fugitives after the rebels had been routed in Preston by a force under the command of the Sheriff.

    The manors of Thornton and Bagworth were acquired by him in 1313. From 1314 to 1321 he was called to Parliament as a member of the House of Lords. In 1322 his part in the Battle of Boroughbridge, when he defected from Lancaster to the King, was deemed treacherous and cowardly and led to his disfavour. Although King Edward III of England would later pardon him, the partisans of the Earl of Lancaster considered him a traitor and had him executed.[1] The execution occurred in 1328 by beheading in Essex; his head was sent to the new earl and his body to Lancashire to be buried.

    Marriage and issue

    He married before 1309/10 (being contracted to marry in or before 1305/6) Maud la Zouche, daughter and co-heiress of Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby, by his wife, Eleanor de Segrave. Robert and Maud had nine children:

    Robert de Holand (born c.1311-12 [aged 16 in 1328, aged 30 and more in 1349] - died 16 March 1372/3). He married before 25 June 1343 (date of fine) Elizabeth _____.

    Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, KG (died 26 or 28 December 1360), of Broughton, Buckinghamshire, Hawes (in Brackley), Brackley and King’s Sutton, Northamptonshire, Horden, Durham, etc., Captain and Lieutenant of Brittany, 1354-5, Warden of the Channel Islands, 1356, Captain of the Fort of Cruyk, Normandy, 1357, Captain of St. Sauveur-le-Vicomte [Manche] in Normandy, 1359, Warden of the Town of Barfleur, 1359, Joint Captain and Lieutenant of Normandy, 1359, Captain and Lieutenant-General in France and Normandy, 1360. He married Joan Plantagenet, the 'Fair Maid of Kent'. One of the founders and 13th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.

    Sir Otho Holand, KG (died 3 September 1359), of Ashford, Chesterfield, and Dalbury, Derbyshire, Yoxall, Staffordshire, Talworth (in Long Ditton), Surrey, etc., Governor of the Channel Islands, 1359. He married Joan _____. He was one of the founders and 23rd Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.

    Alan de Holand, of Great Houghton, Yorkshire, living 13 October 1331 (date of fine). He was killed sometime before 30 October 1339 by William Bate, of Dunham-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire.

    Isabel de Holand. Mistress of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey.

    Margaret de Holand (died 20 or 22 August 1349). She married John la Warre, Knt., of Wickwar, Gloucestershire.

    Maud de Holand (living 1342). She married (1st) John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray; (2nd) Thomas de Swinnerton, Knt., 3rd Lord Swinnerton.

    Elizabeth de Holand (died 13 July 1387). She married Henry Fitz Roger, Knt., of Chewton, Somerset, descendant of Herbert of Winchester.[2]

    Eleanor de Holand (died before 21 Nov. 1341). She married John Darcy, Knt., 2nd Lord Darcy of Knaith.

    *

    more...

    Sir Robert's ahnentafel: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=AHN&db=labron00&id=I12550

    Robert married Maud La Zouche ~ 1304, Winchester, Sussex, England. Maud (daughter of Alan La Zouche, Knight, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby and Eleanor de Segrave, Baroness of Zouche) was born 0___ 1290, Ashby Magna, Leicester, England; died 31 May 1349, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Brackley, Northamptonshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  14. 89.  Maud La Zouche was born 0___ 1290, Ashby Magna, Leicester, England (daughter of Alan La Zouche, Knight, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby and Eleanor de Segrave, Baroness of Zouche); died 31 May 1349, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Brackley, Northamptonshire, England.

    Notes:

    Birth:
    Ashby Magna is a small English village and civil parish in the Harborough district of Leicestershire. The parish has a population of 294, increasing at the 2011 census to 347.

    The village is of Danish origin and recorded in the Domesday Book as 'Essebi' or 'Asseby'. Its name derives from the 'ash' tree, from 'by', Old Danish for a farmstead or settlement, and from 'Magna', Latin for great. It was large by medieval standards but the population has remained static at around 300-400.

    Children:
    1. 44. Thomas Holland, Knight, 1st Earl of Kent was born ~ 1314, Upholland, Lancashire, England; died 26 Dec 1360.
    2. Elizabeth de Holland

  15. 90.  Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent was born 5 Aug 1301, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England (son of Edward I, King of England and Margaret of France, Queen Consort of England); died 19 Mar 1330, Winchester Castle, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Notes:

    Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent (5 August 1301 – 19 March 1330) was the sixth son of Edward I of England, and a younger half-brother of Edward II. Edward I had intended to make substantial grants of land to Edmund, but when the king died in 1307, Edward II failed to follow through on his father's intentions, much due to his favouritism towards Piers Gaveston. Edmund still remained loyal to his brother, and in 1321 he was created Earl of Kent. He played an important part in Edward's administration, acting both as diplomat and military commander, and in 1321–22 helped suppress a rebellion against the king.

    Discontent against the king grew, however, and eventually affected also Edmund. The antagonism was largely caused by Edward's preference for his new favourites, Hugh Despenser the Younger and his father. In 1326, Edmund joined a rebellion led by Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer, whereby Edward II was deposed. Edmund failed to get along with the new administration, and in 1330 he was caught planning a new rebellion, and executed.

    Once the new king, Edward III, came of age and assumed personal control of government, he annulled the charges against his uncle. The title and estates of the Earl of Kent descended on Edmund's son, also called Edmund. When this Edmund died, in 1331, his brother John became earl. Though he was officially exonerated, Edmund did not enjoy a great reputation during his life and afterwards, due to his unreliable political dealings.

    Family background and early years

    Edward I of England had a great number of children with his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, but only one son who survived into adulthood – the future Edward II (b. 1284).[a] After Eleanor died, the king married Margaret of France, with whom he had two children: Thomas (b. 1300) and, when the king was sixty-two, Edmund.[1][b] Edmund was born at Woodstock in Oxfordshire on 5 August 1301, and was therefore referred to as Edmund of Woodstock.[2] Son of the English king, he was also, through his mother, grandson of Philip III of France.[2] On 7 July 1307, before Edmund had turned six, King Edward I died, leaving Edmund's half-brother Edward to succeed as King Edward II.[3]

    Though not resident in the two boys' household, Edward I had taken great interest in the princes' upbringing and well-being.[4] Before he died, the king had promised to provide Edmund with substantial grants of land. In August 1306, Edward I signed a charter promising Edmund land worth 7000 marks a year, and in May 1307, 1000 marks was added to this.[5] He probably intended to give the earldom of Norfolk to Thomas, while Edmund would receive the earldom of Cornwall, which had been left vacant after Edward I's cousin Edmund died without children in 1300.[5] When Edward II came to the throne, however, he went against his father's wishes by granting the earldom of Cornwall to his favourite Piers Gaveston.[6] According to the chronicle Vita Edwardi Secundi, this act was a grave insult to the king's younger brothers.[7] Edward II nevertheless took steps to provide his half-brother with an income; grants made in 1315 and 1319 secured Edmund 2000 marks a year.[2] In May 1321, Edmund received the strategically important Gloucester Castle, and further grants followed his creation as Earl of Kent on 28 July 1321.[8][c]

    Edward II's close relationship to Gaveston had been a source of conflict at court, and Gaveston's execution by a group of rebellious barons in 1312 had brought the country to the brink of civil war.[9] As Edmund came of age, he became an important member of the circle around his brother. In 1318, the Treaty of Leake was drafted as an effort to reconcile the opposing parties, and Edmund – as his first public act – was among the witnesses to sign this treaty.[10] Further official appointments followed. In the spring of 1320 he took part in an embassy to Pope John XXII in Avignon, where the mission was to absolve the king of his oath to uphold the Ordinances, a set of restrictions imposed on royal authority by the baronage.[10] Later that year, he joined his brother the king in Amiens, where Edward was paying homage to the French king.[11] In October 1320, Edmund attended his first parliament.[2]

    Civil war

    As the political conflict escalated into full-scale rebellion in 1321–22, Edmund played an important role in its suppression. The opposition stemmed from resentment against the king's new favourites, Hugh Despenser the Younger and Hugh Despenser the Elder.[12] When Bartholomew Badlesmere, steward of the royal household, defected to the opposition, Edward made his youngest brother Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports in place of Badlesmere on 16 June.[8] In the parliament of July 1321, Edmund briefly sided with the opposition when he agreed to exile the Despensers, but later claimed this had been done under duress, and in November sat on the council that annulled the exile.[2]

    In October, Edmund was once more employed in a move against Badlesmere, when he took part in a siege on Leeds Castle in Kent, which was held by Badlesmere.[2] After Badlesmere was forced to surrender, hostilities moved to the Welsh Marches, where Roger Mortimer and others were in open revolt.[13] Once confronted with the royal army, Mortimer surrendered without a fight, and attention turned to the leader of the baronial opposition, Thomas of Lancaster. Edmund, who had taken part in the Marcher campaign, was now ordered, with the Earl of Surrey, to take Lancaster's castle of Pontefract.[14] On 17 March 1322, Lancaster was captured after his defeat at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and brought to Pontefract.[15] Here, Edmund was on the jury that condemned him to death for treason.[d]

    Even with Lancaster defeated, the battle against the rebels was not over. Edmund was charged with overtaking Wallingford Castle from Maurice de Berkeley in January 1323, a task which he fulfilled with great success.[2] For his loyalty, Edmund was rewarded with substantial holdings in Wales, primarily land forfeited by Roger Mortimer.[e] The greater part of the spoils of war, however, went to the Despensers, who both benefited greatly from the forfeiture of the rebels. By 1326, the Despensers, father and son respectively, enjoyed incomes of ą3,800 and ą7,000, while Edmund's annual income was at only 2,355 marks (ą1,570).[16]

    Scotland and France

    With domestic opposition largely neutralised, the king turned his attention to Scotland. A major campaign was organised in August, but the effort ended in total failure when the English were routed by the Scots, led by Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Old Byland on 14 October 1322.[17] Edward II himself had to flee the battlefield to avoid capture, and Edmund was with him as the royal army retreated to York.[18] The king's inability to handle the Scottish situation was becoming apparent. Andrew Harclay, who had defeated Lancaster at Boroughbridge, and for this had been created Earl of Carlisle and appointed Warden of the Marches to Scotland, signed a peace treaty with the Scots without royal sanction in January 1323.[19] When the king found out, he ordered Harclay's arrest. Edmund was one of the judges who passed judgement on Harclay, who was hanged, drawn and quartered for treason.[2] With Harclay gone, Edmund was given responsibilities for the defence of the northern border, but the situation remained untenable.[8] On 30 May 1323, Edmund was on the council that agreed to a thirteen-year truce with Scotland.[2]

    Meanwhile, the English king's possessions in France were coming under threat from the French king. Charles IV of France demanded that Edward again pay homage for his Duchy of Aquitaine,[f] while at the same time threatening to confiscate the duchy under the pretext of a local dispute involving the priory at Saint-Sardos.[20] In April 1324, Edmund and Alexander de Bicknor, Archbishop of Dublin, were sent to France on a diplomatic mission.[21] While some historians have criticised Edmund for his failure to reach a diplomatic settlement,[22] others have pointed to the difficult circumstances he faced, and how others had fared little better.[16] When diplomacy failed, Edmund was appointed Edward's lieutenant in France on 20 July 1324.[2] Though there was a desperate need for reinforcements from England, these never arrived.[23] In the short war that followed, the English lands were quickly overrun by the French, and Edmund was besieged at La Râeole. Here he held out until 22 September, at which point he was forced to surrender and agree to a six-month truce.[23]

    Deposition of Edward II

    Edward II's refusal to pay homage to the French king was based on concern for his royal sovereignty, but also on fear of a potential resurgence of domestic resistance.[24] For this reason, he sent his wife Isabella to negotiate with King Charles, who was her brother.[25] The Queen departed for France on 9 March 1325, and in September she was joined by her son, the heir to the throne, Prince Edward.[26] Isabella's negotiations were successful, and it was agreed that the young Prince Edward would perform homage in the king's place, which he did on 24 September.[2] Not long after this, Edmund joined the queen and prince in Paris. A circle of opposition was emerging around the queen, including the exiled Roger Mortimer. Edmund, who had previously been steadfast in his support for his half-brother, now joined the plot against the king.[27] Though he still distrusted Mortimer, his hatred for the Despensers seems to have been even greater at this point.[28] When Edmund, along with the others, ignored the king's order to return to England, his lands were confiscated in March 1326.[2]


    Queen Isabella with the captive Hugh Despenser the Elder and the Earl of Arundel. From a 15th-century manuscript.
    In August, Isabella and Mortimer invaded England with mercenary soldiers, and Edmund took part in the invasion.[29] The invasion won the support of a great part of the English nobility, including Edmund's brother Thomas, and Henry, Earl of Lancaster, Thomas of Lancaster's brother.[30] Edmund took part in the trials of the two Despensers, and in the council transferring power to Prince Edward, who was crowned King Edward III.[2] For his participation in the coup, Edmund received a reward of land belonging to the Despensers, and the Earl of Arundel, who was also executed as a supporter of Edward II.[2] As the Northern situation was still difficult, Edmund was given joint command of the Scottish Border with Lancaster, but the two fell out, and Lancaster was soon after given sole command.[31] It did not take long for Edmund to grow disenchanted with the new regime; one source of contention was the dominant position at court of Mortimer, who has been described as Isabella's lover.[32] In the autumn of 1328, Edmund and his brother Thomas joined Henry of Lancaster in a conspiracy against Isabella and Mortimer. The conspiracy was a product of shared interest, however, rather than strong personal ties. Once it became clear that it would fail, the two brothers abandoned the venture.[33]

    Death and aftermath

    After participating in the planned rebellion, Edmund became less popular at court. He was still allowed to accompany the king's wife Philippa to her coronation in January 1330, but his appearances at court became less frequent.[2] At this point he became involved in another plot against the court, when he was convinced by rumours that his brother was still alive.[34][g] It later emerged that Roger Mortimer himself was responsible for leading Edmund into this belief, in a form of entrapment.[35] The plot was revealed, and in the parliament of March 1330 Edmund was indicted and condemned to death as a traitor.[34] Upon hearing that the verdict was death, the condemned earl pleaded with Edward III for his life, offering to walk from Winchester to London with a rope around his neck as a sign of atonement. Edward III however knew that leniency was not an option for the aforementioned entrapment utilized by Mortimer could extend to him and potentially be subversive to his own kingship if his father, Edward II truly was alive. Thus Edward III sanctioned the killing of his uncle. It was almost impossible to find anyone willing to perform the execution of a man of royal blood, until a convicted murderer eventually beheaded Edmund in exchange for a pardon.[2] Edmund's body was initially buried in a Franciscan church in Winchester, but it was removed to Westminster Abbey in 1331.[36]

    The execution of a royal prince was a great provocation to the seventeen-year-old Edward III, who had not been informed about the decision, and it probably contributed to the king's decision to rise up against his protector.[37] In 1330, Edward III carried out a coup installing himself in personal control of government, and Mortimer was executed.[38] Among the charges against Mortimer was that of procuring Edmund's death, and the charges against the late earl of Kent were annulled.[39] In late 1325, Edmund had married Margaret Wake, sister of Thomas Wake, Baron Wake of Liddell, and the couple had several children.[2] His lands and titles descended on his oldest son by the same name, but this Edmund himself died in October 1331. The earldom then passed to the younger son John.[40]

    Edmund was not particularly popular while he was alive, nor did he enjoy a good reputation after his death. His unreliability in political issues, and repeated shifts in allegiance, might have contributed to this. His household was also said to behave in a way that caused popular resentment, taking provisions as they passed through the countryside while offering little compensation.[2] At the same time, it has been pointed out that Edmund showed a great deal of loyalty to Edward II, in spite of receiving relatively little rewards and recognition from his brother.[41]

    Died:
    ...in 1330 he was caught planning a new rebellion, and executed.

    Edmund married Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell (England). Margaret (daughter of John Wake, Knight, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell and Joan de Fiennes) was born ~ 1297, (England); died 29 Sep 1349, (England). [Group Sheet]


  16. 91.  Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell was born ~ 1297, (England) (daughter of John Wake, Knight, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell and Joan de Fiennes); died 29 Sep 1349, (England).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Kent

    Notes:

    Margaret Wake, suo jure 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell and Countess of Kent (c. 1297 – 29 September 1349) was the wife of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, the youngest surviving son of Edward I of England and Margaret of France.

    Family

    She was the daughter of John Wake, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell, (son of Baldwin Wake and Hawise de Quincy) and Joan de Fiennes. By her father, she was descended from Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Gwynedd and Joan, Lady of Wales, the illegitimate daughter of John I of England. Her mother, Joan de Fiennes, was a daughter of William de Fiennes and Blanche (Lady of Loupeland) de Brienne. She was a sister of Margaret de Fiennes, making Wake a cousin of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. Joan de Fiennes also descended from Emperor Jean de Brienne and Berengaria of Leâon, herself the granddaughter of Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile.

    Marriages

    Margaret married John Comyn (c. 1294-1314) around 1312, son of the John Comyn who was murdered by Robert the Bruce in 1306. Her husband John died at the Battle of Bannockburn, and their only child, Aymer Comyn (1314–1316) died as a toddler. She married for a second time, to Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent. They received a dispensation in October 1325, and the wedding probably took place at Christmas.

    Through her marriage to Edmund of Woodstock (who was executed for treason in 1330), she was the mother of two short-lived Earls of Kent, of Margaret and Joan of Kent (wife of Edward, the Black Prince). The pregnant Margaret and her children were confined to Salisbury Castle, and her brother Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell was accused of treason but later pardoned. When King Edward III of England reached his majority and overthrew the regents, he took in Margaret and her children and treated them as his own family. She succeeded briefly as Baroness Wake of Liddell in 1349, but died during an outbreak of the plague that autumn.

    Margaret and Edmund's descendants include King Henry VII and queen consorts Anne Neville, Elizabeth of York, and Catherine Parr.

    Children:
    1. 45. Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent was born 19 Sep 1328, (Winchester Castle, Hampshire, United Kingdom); died 7 Aug 1385, Wallingford Castle, Oxfordshire, England; was buried Greyfriars, Stamford, Lincolnshire, England.

  17. 92.  Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel was born 1 May 1285, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England (son of Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel); died 17 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Paris, France
    • Also Known As: 3rd Earl of Arundel

    Notes:

    Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel[a] (1 May 1285 – 17 November 1326) was an English nobleman prominent in the conflict between Edward II and his barons. His father, Richard FitzAlan, 2nd Earl of Arundel, died on 9 March 1301, while Edmund was still a minor. He therefore became a ward of John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, and married Warenne's granddaughter Alice. In 1306 he was styled Earl of Arundel, and served under Edward I in the Scottish Wars, for which he was richly rewarded.

    After Edward I's death, Arundel became part of the opposition to the new king Edward II, and his favourite Piers Gaveston. In 1311 he was one of the so-called Lords Ordainers who assumed control of government from the king. Together with Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, he was responsible for the death of Gaveston in 1312. From this point on, however, his relationship to the king became more friendly. This was to a large extent due to his association with the king's new favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger, whose daughter was married to Arundel's son. Arundel supported the king in suppressing rebellions by Roger Mortimer and other Marcher Lords, and eventually also Thomas of Lancaster. For this he was awarded with land and offices.

    His fortune changed, however, when the country was invaded in 1326 by Mortimer, who had made common cause with the king's wife, Queen Isabella. Immediately after the capture of Edward II, the queen, Edward III's regent, ordered Arundel executed, his title forfeit and his property confiscated. Arundel's son and heir Richard only recovered the title and lands in 1331, after Edward III had taken power from the regency of Isabella and Mortimer. In the 1390s, a cult emerged around the late earl. He was venerated as a martyr, though he was never canonised.

    Family and early life

    Edmund FitzAlan was born in the Castle of Marlborough, in Wiltshire, on 1 May 1285.[1] He was the son of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel, and his wife, Alice of Saluzzo, daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo in Italy. Richard had been in opposition to the king during the political crisis of 1295, and as a result he had incurred great debts and had parts of his land confiscated.[2] When Richard died in 09/03/1301, Edmund's wardship was given to John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. Warenne's only son, William, had died in 1286, so his daughter Alice was now heir apparent to the Warenne earldom. Alice was offered in marriage to Edmund, who for unknown reasons initially refused her. By 1305 he had changed his mind, however, and the two were married.[3]

    In April 1306, shortly before turning twenty-one, Edmund was granted possession of his father's title and land. On 22 May 1306, he was knighted by Edward I, along with the young Prince Edward – the future Edward II.[1] The knighting was done in expectation of military service the Scottish Wars, and after the campaign was over, Arundel was richly rewarded. Edward I pardoned the young earl a debt of ą4,234. This flow of patronage continued after the death of Edward I in 1307; in 1308 Edward II returned the hundred of Purslow to Arundel, an honour that Edward I had confiscated from Edmund's father.[4] There were also official honours in the early years of Edward II's reign. At the new king's coronation on 25 February 1308, Arundel officiated as chief butler (or pincerna), a hereditary office of the earls of Arundel.[3]

    Opposition to Edward II

    Though the reign of Edward II was initially harmonious, he soon met with opposition from several of his earls and prelates.[5] At the source of the discontent was the king's relationship with the young Gascon knight Piers Gaveston, who had been exiled by Edward I, but was recalled immediately upon Edward II's accession.[6] Edward's favouritism towards the upstart Gaveston was an offence to the established nobility, and his elevation to the earldom of Cornwall was particularly offensive to the established nobility.[7] A group of magnates led by Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, forced Gaveston into exile in 1308.[8] By 1309, however, Edward had reconciled himself with the opposition, and Gaveston was allowed to return.[9]

    Arundel joined the opposition at an early point, and did not attend the Stamford parliament in July 1309, where Gaveston's return was negotiated.[10] After Gaveston returned, his behaviour became even more offensive, and opposition towards him grew.[11] In addition to this, there was great discontent with Edward II's failure to follow up his father's Scottish campaigns.[12] On 16 March 1310, the king had to agree to the appointment of a committee known as the Lords Ordainers, who were to be in charge of the reform of the royal government. Arundel was one of eight earls among the twenty-one Ordainers.[13]

    The Ordainers once more sent Gaveston into exile in 1311, but by 1312 he was back.[14] Now the king's favourite was officially an outlaw, and Arundel was among the earls who swore to hunt him down. The leader of the opposition – after Lincoln's death the year before – was now Thomas, Earl of Lancaster.[15] In June 1312 Gaveston was captured, tried before Lancaster, Arundel and the earls of Warwick and Hereford, and executed.[16] A reconciliation was achieved between the king and the offending magnates, and Arundel and the others received pardons, but animosity prevailed. In 1314 Arundel was among the magnates who refused to assist Edward in a campaign against the Scottish, resulting in the disastrous English defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn.[10]

    Return to loyalty

    Around the time of Bannockburn, however, Arundel's loyalty began to shift back towards the king. Edward's rapprochement towards the earl had in fact started earlier, when on 2 November 1313, the king pardoned Arundel's royal debts.[17] The most significant factor in this process though, was the marriage alliance between Arundel and the king's new favourites, the Despensers. Hugh Despenser the Younger and his father Hugh Despenser the elder were gradually taking over control of the government, and using their power to enrich themselves.[18] While this alienated most of the nobility, Arundel's situation was different. At some point in 1314–1315, his son Richard was betrothed to Isabel, daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger.[17] Now that he found himself back in royal favour, Arundel started receiving rewards in the form of official appointments. In 1317 he was appointed Warden of the Marches of Scotland, and in August 1318, he helped negotiate the Treaty of Leake, which temporarily reconciled the king with Thomas of Lancaster.[10]


    Clun Castle was the source of the personal animosity between Arundel and Roger Mortimer.
    With Arundel's change of allegiance came a conflict of interest. In August 1321, a demand was made to the king that Hugh Despenser and his father, Hugh Despenser the elder, be sent into exile.[19] The king, facing a rebellion in the Welsh Marches, had no choice but to assent.[20] Arundel voted for the expulsion, but later he claimed that he did so under compulsion, and also supported their recall in December.[10] Arundel had suffered personally from the rebellion, when Roger Mortimer seized his castle of Clun.[21][22] Early in 1322, Arundel joined King Edward in a campaign against the Mortimer family.[20] The opposition soon crumbled, and the king decided to move against Thomas of Lancaster, who had been supporting the marcher rebellion all along. Lancaster was defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge in March, and executed.[23]

    In the aftermath of the rebellion, the Despensers enriched themselves on the forfeited estates of the rebels, and Hugh Despenser the elder was created Earl of Winchester in May 1322.[24] Also Arundel, who was now one of the king's principal supporters, was richly rewarded. After the capture of Roger Mortimer in 1322, he received the forfeited Mortimer lordship of Chirk in Wales.[10] He was also trusted with important offices: he became Chief Justiciar of North and South Wales in 1323, and in 1325 he was made Warden of the Welsh Marches, responsible for the array in Wales.[1] He also extended his influence through marriage alliances; in 1325 he secured marriages between two of his daughters and the sons and heirs of two of Lancaster's main allies: the deceased earls of Hereford and Warwick.[b]

    Final years and death

    In 1323, Roger Mortimer, who had been held in captivity in the Tower of London, escaped and fled to France.[22] Two years later, Queen Isabella travelled to Paris on an embassy to the French king. Here, Isabella and Mortimer developed a plan to invade England and replace Edward II on the throne with his son, the young Prince Edward, who was in the company of Isabella.[25] Isabella and Mortimer landed in England on 24 September 1326, and due to the virulent resentment against the Despenser regime, few came to the king's aid.[26] Arundel initially escaped the invading force in the company of the king, but was later dispatched to his estates in Shropshire to gather troops.[27] At Shrewsbury he was captured by his old enemy John Charlton of Powys, and brought to Queen Isabella at Hereford. On 17 November – the day after Edward II had been taken captive – Arundel was executed, allegedly on the instigation of Mortimer.[10] According to a chronicle account, the use of a blunt sword was ordered, and the executioner needed 22 strokes to sever the earl's head from his body.[28]


    The ruins of Haughmond Abbey, Arundel's final resting place.
    Arundel's body was initially interred at the Franciscan church in Hereford. It had been his wish, however, to be buried at the family's traditional resting place of Haughmond Abbey in Shropshire, and this is where he was finally buried.[29] Though he was never canonised, a cult emerged around the late earl in the 1390s, associating him with the 9th-century martyr king St Edmund. This veneration may have been inspired by a similar cult around his grandson, Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who was executed by Richard II in 1397.[30]

    Arundel was attainted at his execution; his estates were forfeited to the crown, and large parts of these were appropriated by Isabella and Mortimer.[31] The castle and honour of Arundel was briefly held by Edward II's half-brother Edmund, Earl of Kent, who was executed on 3 September 1330.[1] Edmund FitzAlan's son, Richard, failed in an attempted rebellion against the crown in June 1330, and had to flee to France. In October the same year, the guardianship of Isabella and Mortimer was supplanted by the personal rule of King Edward III. This allowed Richard to return and reclaim his inheritance, and on 8 February 1331, he was fully restored to his father's lands, and created Earl of Arundel.[32]

    Issue

    Edmund and Alice had at least seven children:[33]

    Name Birth date Death date Notes
    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel c. 1313 24 January 1376 Married (1) Isabel le Despenser, (2) Eleanor of Lancaster
    Edmund — c. 1349
    Michael — —
    Mary — 29 August 1396 Married John le Strange, 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere[34]
    Aline — 20 January 1386 Married Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Knockin[35]
    Alice — 1326 Married John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford
    Katherine — d. 1375/76 Married (1) Henry Hussey, 2nd Baron Hussey, (2) Andrew Peverell
    Eleanor — — Married Gerard de Lisle, 1st Baron Lisle
    Elizabeth - - Married William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer
    Ancestry[edit]

    Residence:
    in exile...

    Died:
    executed...

    Edmund married Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel 0___ 1305. Alice (daughter of William de Warenne and Joan de Vere) was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England; died 23 May 1338. [Group Sheet]


  18. 93.  Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England (daughter of William de Warenne and Joan de Vere); died 23 May 1338.

    Notes:

    Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel (15 June 1287 -23 May 1338) was an English noblewoman and heir apparent to the Earldom of Surrey. In 1305, she married Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel.

    Family

    Alice, the only daughter of William de Warenne (1256-1286) and Joan de Vere, was born on 15 June 1287 in Warren, Sussex, six months after her father was accidentally killed in a tournament on 15 December 1286. On the death of her paternal grandfather, John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey in 1304, her only sibling John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey succeeded to the earldom. He became estranged from his childless wife and they never reconciled, leaving Alice as the heir presumptive to the Surrey estates and title.

    Marriage to the Earl of Arundel

    In 1305, Alice married Edmund Fitzalan, 9th Earl of Arundel,[1] the son of Richard Fitzalan, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alice of Saluzzo.[2] He had initially refused her, for reasons which were not recorded;[citation needed] however, by 1305, he had changed his mind and they were wed.[1] They had nine recorded children,[citation needed] and their chief residence was Arundel Castle in Sussex. Arundel inherited his title on 9 March 1302 upon his father's death.[2] He was summoned to Parliament as Lord Arundel in 1306, and was later one of the Lords Ordainers. He also took part in the Scottish wars.

    The Earl of Arundel and his brother-in-law John de Warenne were the only nobles who remained loyal to King Edward II, after Queen Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March returned to England in 1326. He had allied himself to the King's favourite Hugh le Despenser, and agreed to the marriage of his son to Despenser's granddaughter. Arundel had previously been granted many of the traitor Mortimer's forfeited estates, and was appointed Justice of Wales in 1322 and Warden of the Welsh Marches in 1325. He was also made Constable of Montgomery Castle which became his principal base.

    The Earl of Arundel was captured in Shropshire by the Queen's party.[3] On 17 November 1326 in Hereford, Arundel was beheaded by order of the Queen, leaving Alice de Warenne a widow. Her husband's estates and titles were forfeited to the Crown following Arundel's execution, but later restored to her eldest son, Richard.[citation needed]

    Alice died before 23 May 1338,[1] aged 50. Her brother died in 1347 without legitimate issue, thus the title of Surrey eventually passed to Alice's son, Richard.

    Issue

    Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, known as Copped Hat, (1306 Arundel Castle, Sussex – 24 January 1376), also succeeded to the title of Earl of Surrey on 12 April 1361. He married firstly Isabel le Despenser, whom he later repudiated, and was granted an annulment by Pope Clement VI. He had a son Edmund who was bastardised by the annulment. His second wife, whom he married on 5 February 1345, by Papal dispensation, was Eleanor of Lancaster, the daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth. She was the widow of John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont. Richard and Eleanor had three sons and four daughters, including Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel and Joan de Bohun, Countess of Hereford.
    Edward FitzAlan (1308–1398)
    Alice FitzAlan (born 1310), married John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford.
    Joan FitzAlan (born 1312), married Warin Gerard, Baron L'Isle.
    Aline FitzAlan (1314–1386), married Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Knockyn, by whom she had issue.
    John FitzAlan (born 1315)
    Catherine FitzAlan (died 1376), married firstly Andrew Peverell, and secondly Henry Hussey of Cockfield. Had issue by her second husband.
    Elizabeth FitzAlan (1320–1389), married William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, by whom she had one daughter, Elizabeth.
    Eleanor FitzAlan

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Arundel Castle is a restored and remodeled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery on Christmas Day 1067. Roger became the first to hold the earldom of Arundel by the graces of William the Conqueror. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War and then restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    View image, history & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundel_Castle

    Children:
    1. 46. Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 10th Earl of Arundel was born 1306-1313, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 24 Jan 1376, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Southover, Sussex, England.
    2. Mary de Arundel was born Corfham Castle, Diddlebury, Shropshire, England; died 29 Aug 1396, Corfham, Shropshire, England.
    3. Aline FitzAlan was born 0___ 1314, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; died 20 Jan 1386.
    4. Elizabeth FitzAlan was born 0___ 1320, (England); died 0___ 1389.

  19. 94.  Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and LeicesterHenry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester was born 0___ 1281, Grosmont Castle, Monmouth, England (son of Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet, Prince of England and Blanche de Capet d'Artois, Queen of Navarre, Princess of France); died 22 Sep 1345, Leicester, Leicestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Military: Appointed Captain-General of all The King's Forces in The Marches of Scotland.
    • Death: 25 Mar 1345

    Notes:

    Henry, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Lancaster (c. 1281 – 22 September 1345) was an English nobleman, one of the principals behind the deposition of Edward II of England.

    Origins

    He was the younger son of Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester,[1] who was a son of King Henry III by his wife Eleanor of Provence. Henry's mother was Blanche of Artois, Queen Dowager of Navarre.

    Henry's elder brother Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, succeeded their father in 1296, but Henry was summoned to Parliament on 6 February 1298/99 by writ directed to Henrico de Lancastre nepoti Regis ("Henry of Lancaster, nephew of the king", Edward I), by which he is held to have become Baron Lancaster. He took part in the Siege of Caerlaverock in July 1300.

    Petition for succession and inheritance

    After a period of longstanding opposition to King Edward II and his advisors, including joining two open rebellions, Henry's brother Thomas was convicted of treason, executed and had his lands and titles forfeited in 1322. Henry did not participate in his brother's rebellions; he later petitioned for his brother's lands and titles, and on 29 March 1324 he was invested as Earl of Leicester. A few years later, shortly after his accession in 1327, the young Edward III of England returned the earldom of Lancaster to him, along with other lordships such as that of Bowland.

    Revenge

    On the Queen's return to England in September 1326 with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, Henry joined her party against King Edward II, which led to a general desertion of the king's cause and overturned the power of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester, and his namesake son Hugh the younger Despenser.

    He was sent in pursuit and captured the king at Neath in South Wales. He was appointed to take charge of the king and was responsible for his custody at Kenilworth Castle.

    Full restoration and reward[edit]
    Henry was appointed "chief advisor" for the new king Edward III of England,[2] and was also appointed captain-general of all the king's forces in the Scottish Marches.[3] He was appointed High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1327. He also helped the young king to put an end to Mortimer's regency and tyranny, also had him declared a traitor and executed in 1330.

    Loss of sight

    In about the year 1330, he became blind.

    Nickname

    According to Froissart, he was nicknamed Wryneck, or Tort-col in French, possibly due to a medical condition.[citation needed]

    Succession

    He was succeeded as Earl of Lancaster and Leicester by his eldest son, Henry of Grosmont, who subsequently became Duke of Lancaster.

    Issue[edit]


    He married Maud Chaworth, before 2 March 1296/1297.[4]

    Henry and Maud had seven children:

    Henry, Earl of Derby, (about 1300–1360/61)
    Blanche of Lancaster, (about 1305–1380) married Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell
    Matilda of Lancaster, (about 1310–1377); married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster and had descendants.
    Joan of Lancaster, (about 1312–1345); married John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray and had descendants
    Isabel of Lancaster, Abbess of Amesbury, (about 1317-after 1347)
    Eleanor of Lancaster, (about 1318–1371/72) married (1) John De Beaumont and (2) 5 Feb. 1344/5, Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and had descendants
    Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320–1362), who married Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy, and was the mother of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland.

    In about the year 1330, he became blind.

    Buried:
    at the Monastery of Canons...

    Henry married Maud Chaworth Bef 2 Mar 1297. Maud (daughter of Patrick Chaworth, Knight, Lord of Kidwelly and Isabella Beauchamp) was born 2 Feb 1282, Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales; died 3 Dec 1322, Montisfort, Hampshire, England; was buried Montisfort, Hampshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  20. 95.  Maud Chaworth was born 2 Feb 1282, Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales (daughter of Patrick Chaworth, Knight, Lord of Kidwelly and Isabella Beauchamp); died 3 Dec 1322, Montisfort, Hampshire, England; was buried Montisfort, Hampshire, England.

    Notes:

    Maud de Chaworth (2 February 1282-3 Dec 1322) was an English noblewoman and wealthy heiress. She was the only child of Patrick de Chaworth. Sometime before 2 March 1297, she married Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, by whom she had seven children.

    Parents

    Maud was the daughter of Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Baron of Kidwelly, in Carmarthenshire, South Wales, and Isabella de Beauchamp. Her maternal grandfather was William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. Her father, Patrick de Chaworth died on 7 July 1283. He was thought to be 30 years old. Three years later, in 1286, Isabella de Beauchamp married Hugh Despenser the Elder and had two sons and four daughters by him. This made Maud the half-sister of Hugh the younger Despenser. Her mother, Isabella de Beauchamp, died in 1306.

    Childhood

    Maud was only a year old when her father died, and his death left her a wealthy heiress. However, because she was an infant, she became a ward of Eleanor of Castile, Queen consort of King Edward I of England. Upon Queen Eleanor's death in 1290, her husband, King Edward I, granted Maud's marriage to his brother Edmund, Earl of Lancaster on 30 December 1292.
    Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester was the son of Eleanor of Provence and Henry III of England. He first married Aveline de Forz, Countess of Albemarle, in 1269. Later, in Paris on 3 February 1276, he married Blanche of Artois, who was a niece of Louis IX of France and Queen of Navarre by her first marriage. Blanche and Edmund had four children together, one of whom was Henry, who would later become 3rd Earl of Leicester and Maud Chaworth’s husband.

    Marriage and issue


    Edmund Crouchback betrothed Maud to his son Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster.[1] Henry and Maud were married sometime before 2 March 1297. Henry was probably born between the years 1280 and 1281, making him somewhat older than Maud, but not by much since they were either fourteen or fifteen-years-old.

    Since Maud inherited her father’s property, Henry also acquired this property through the rights of marriage. Some of that property was of the following: Hampshire, Glamorgan, Wiltshire, and Carmarthenshire. Henry was the nephew of the King of England, as well as being closely related to the French royal family line. Henry's half-sister Jeanne (or Juana) was Queen of Navarre in her own right and married Philip IV of France. Henry was the uncle of King Edward II's Queen Isabella and of three Kings of France. He was also the younger brother of Thomas (Earl of Lancaster) and first cousin of Edward II.

    Maud is often described as the "Countess of Leicester" or "Countess of Lancaster", but she never bore the titles as she died in 1322, before her husband received them. Henry was named "Earl of Leicester" in 1324 and "Earl of Lancaster" in 1327. Henry never remarried and died on 22 September 1345, when he would have been in his mid-sixties. All but one of his seven children with Maud outlived him.

    Maud and Henry had seven children:

    Blanche of Lancaster, (about 1302/05–1380); Maud’s eldest daughter was probably born between 1302 and 1305, and was named after her father’s mother Blanche of Artois. Around 9 October 1316, she married Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell. Blanch was about forty-five when Thomas died, and she lived as a widow for more than thirty years. She was one of the executers of her brother Henry’s will when he died in 1361. Blanche outlived all her siblings, dying shortly before 12 July 1380 in her seventies. Born in the reign of Edward I, she survived all the way into the reign of his great grandson Richard II.

    Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, (about 1310–1361); Maud’s only son Henry was usually called Henry of Grosmont to distinguish him from his father. He was one of the great magnates of the fourteenth century, well known and highly respected. He took after his father and was well-educated, literate, and pious; he was a soldier and a diplomat. Henry produced his own memoir "Le Livre de Seyntz Medicines", which was completed in 1354. At one point, Henry of Grosmont was considered to be the richest man in England aside from the Prince of Wales. He emerged as a political figure in his own right within England: he was knighted and represented his father in Parliament. He married Isabella, daughter of Henry, Lord Beaumont. His daughter Blanche was betrothed and eventually married to the son of Edward III, John of Gaunt. In 1361, Henry was killed by a new outbreak of the Black Death, leaving John of Gaunt his inheritance and eventually his title through his daughter Blanche.[2]

    Maud of Lancaster, Countess of Ulster, (c. 1310 – 5 May 1377). There is some discrepancy as to when Maud died.[3][4] She married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster in 1327. They had one child, Elizabeth de Burgh, who was born 6 July 1332. Eleven months after the birth of their child, Earl William was murdered at “Le Ford” in Belfast, apparently by some of his own men. The countess Maud fled to England with her baby and stayed with the royal family. In 1337, Maud of Lancaster managed to ensure that the Justiciar of Ireland was forbidden to pardon her husband’s killers. She fought for her dower rights and exerted some influence there. She remarried in 1344 to Ralph Ufford and returned to Ireland, where she had another daughter, Maud. After her second husband fell ill in 1346, she again returned to England. Maud of Lancaster died on 5 May 1377.
    Joan of Lancaster, (about 1312–1345); married between 28 February and 4 June 1327 to John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray. John’s father was executed for reasons unknown, and young John was imprisoned in the Tower of London along with his mother Alice de Braose until late 1326. A large part of his inheritance was granted to Hugh Despenser the Younger, who was his future wife’s uncle; however, he was set free in 1327 before the marriage. Joan of Lancaster probably died 7July 1349. Joan and John, 3rd Lord Mowbray had six children.

    Isabel of Lancaster, Prioress of Amesbury, (about 1317–after 1347); One of the youngest daughters of Maud and Henry, she lived quietly, going on pilgrimages and spending a lot of time alone. She also spent a great deal of time outside the cloister on non-spiritual matters. Her father had given her quite a bit of property, which she administered herself. She owned hunting dogs and had personal servants. She used her family connections to secure privileges and concessions.[5]

    Eleanor of Lancaster, (1318- Sept. 1372); married John Beaumont between September and November 1330. Eleanor bore John a son, Henry, who married Margaret de Vere, a sister of Elizabeth and Thomas de Vere, Earl of Oxford. John Beaumont was killed in a jousting tournament in Northampton on 14 April 1342. Eleanor then became the mistress of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, who was married to her first cousin Isabel, daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger. Richard obtained a divorce from the Pope and married Eleanor on 5 February 1345 in the presence of Edward III. They had five children together, three sons and two daughters. Eleanor died on 11 January 1372.

    Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320–1362); married Henry, Lord Percy before 4 September 1334; he fought at the battle of Crecy in 1346, and served in Gascony under the command of his brother-in-law Henry of Grosmont. Their son was Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. Mary of Lancaster died on 1 September 1362, the year after her brother Henry.

    Birth:
    Photo, map & history of Kidwelly ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidwelly

    Children:
    1. Henry of Grosmont, Knight, 1st Duke of Lancaster was born ~ 1310, Grosmont Castle, Grosmont, Monmouthshire, Wales; died 23 Mar 1361, Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire, England.
    2. Joan Plantagenet, Baroness Mowbray was born ~ 1312, Norfolk, England; died 7 Jul 1349, Yorkshire, England; was buried Byland Abbey, Coxwold, North Yorkshire, England.
    3. 47. Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Arundel was born 11 Sep 1318, Castle, Grosmont, Monmouth, Wales; died 11 Jan 1372, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Lewes Priory, Sussex, England.
    4. Mary Plantagenet, Baroness of Percy was born 1319-1320, Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire, England; died 1 Sep 1362, Alnwick, Northumberland, England; was buried Alnwick, Northumberland, England.

  21. 96.  William de Beauchamp was born ~ 1215, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England (son of Walter de Beauchamp and Joan Mortimer); died 0___ 1268, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England.

    Notes:

    William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick (1237-1298) was an English nobleman and soldier, described as a “vigorous and innovative military commander."[1] He was active in the field against the Welsh for many years, and at the end of his life campaigned against the Scots.

    Career

    He became hereditary High Sheriff of Worcestershire for life on the death of his father in 1268.

    He was a close friend of Edward I of England, and was an important leader in Edward's invasion of Wales in 1277.[2][3] In 1294 he raised the siege of Conwy Castle, where the King had been penned in,[4] crossing the estuary.[5] He was victorious on 5 March 1295 at the battle of Maes Moydog, against the rebel prince of Wales, Madog ap Llywelyn.[6] In a night attack on the Welsh infantry he used cavalry to drive them into compact formations which were then shot up by his archers and charged.[7]R

    Family

    His father was William de Beauchamp (d.1268) of Elmley Castle and his mother Isabel Mauduit, sister and heiress of William Mauduit, 8th Earl of Warwick, from whom he inherited his title in 1268. He had a sister, Sarah, who married Richard Talbot.

    He married Maud FitzJohn. Their children included:

    Isabella de Beauchamp,[8] married firstly, Sir Patrick de Chaworth and, secondly, Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester
    Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick, who married Alice de Toeni, widow of Thomas de Leyburne

    *

    Birth:
    The ruins of an important Norman and medieval castle, from which the village derives its name, are located in the deer park, just over half a mile south on Bredon Hill. The castle is supposed to have been built for Robert Despenser in the years following the Norman Conquest. After his death (post 1098) it descended to his heirs, the powerful Beauchamp family. It remained their chief seat until William de Beauchamp inherited the earldom and castle of Warwick from his maternal uncle, William Maudit, 8th Earl of Warwick, in 1268. Thereafter, Elmley Castle remained a secondary property of the Earls of Warwick until it was surrendered to the Crown in 1487. In 1528 the castle seems to have been still habitable, for Walter Walshe was then appointed constable and keeper, and ten years later Urian Brereton succeeded to the office. In 1544, however, prior to the grant to Christopher Savage (d.1545), who had been an Esquire of the Body of King Henry VIII, a survey was made of the manor and castle of Elmley, and it was found that the castle, strongly situated upon a hill surrounded by a ditch and wall, was completely uncovered and in decay.

    Map & Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elmley_Castle

    William — Isabel Mauduit. Isabel (daughter of William de Maudit, IV, Knight, Baron of Hanslape & Hartley and Alice de Newburgh) was born ~ 1214, Hanslope, Buckinghamshire, England; died 7 Jan 1268, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  22. 97.  Isabel Mauduit was born ~ 1214, Hanslope, Buckinghamshire, England (daughter of William de Maudit, IV, Knight, Baron of Hanslape & Hartley and Alice de Newburgh); died 7 Jan 1268, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England.
    Children:
    1. William de Beauchamp, Knight, 9th Earl of Warwick was born 0___ 1237, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England; died 0___ 1298, (Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England).
    2. 48. Guy de Beauchamp, Knight, 10th Earl of Warwick was born 0___ 1262, Elmley Castle, Worcester, England; died 12 Aug 1315, Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England; was buried Bordesley Abbey, Worcester, England.

  23. 100.  Edmund Mortimer, Knight, 2nd Baron Mortimer was born 0___ 1251, (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England) (son of Roger Mortimer, Knight, 1st Baron Mortimer and Maud de Braose, Lady Mortimer); died 17 Jul 1304, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edmund de Mortimer, 7th Lord Mortimer

    Notes:

    Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Lord Mortimer (1251 – 17 July 1304)[1] was the second son and eventual heir of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer. His mother was Maud de Braose. As a younger son, Edmund had been intended for clerical or monastic life, and had been sent to study at Oxford University.

    He was made Treasurer of York in 1265. By 1268 he is recorded as studying Theology in the house of the Archbishop of York. King Henry III showed favour by supplementing his diet with the luxury of venison.

    The sudden death of his elder brother, Ralph, in 1274,[2] made him heir to the family estates; yet he continued to study at Oxford. But his father's death eventually forced his departure.

    He returned to the March in 1282 as the new Lord Mortimer of Wigmore and immediately became involved in Welsh Marches politics. Together with his brother Roger Mortimer, Baron of Chirk, John Giffard, and Roger Lestrange, he devised a plan to trap Llywelyn ap Gruffudd.[3] Edmund, a great-grandson of Llywelyn the Great, sent a message to his kinsman Llywelyn, grandson of Llywelyn the Great, telling him he was coming to Llywelyn's aid and arranged to meet with him at Builth. At Irfon Bridge[4] the Welsh prince became separated from his army. Edmund's brothers secretly forded the river behind Llywelyn's army and surprised the Welsh. In the resulting battle Llywelyn was killed and beheaded. Edmund then sent his brother Roger Mortimer of Chirk to present Llywelyn's severed head to King Edward I of England at Rhuddlan Castle. The head was displayed on the Tower of London as a warning to all rebels.[5]

    In return for his services Edmund was knighted by King Edward at Winchester in 1283. In September 1285, he married Margaret de Fiennes, the daughter of William II de Fiennes and Blanche de Brienne (herself the granddaughter of John of Brienne by his third wife Berenguela of Leon), the family entering the blood royal. Their surviving children were:

    Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (25 April 1287 – 29 November 1330) married Joan de Geneville,[6] by whom he had twelve children.
    Maud Mortimer, married Sir Theobald II de Verdun, by whom she had four daughters, Joan de Verdun, who married John de Montagu (d. August 1317), eldest son and heir apparent of William Montagu, 2nd Baron Montagu; Elizabeth de Verdun, who married Bartholomew de Burghersh, 1st Baron Burghersh; Margaret de Verdun, who married firstly Sir William le Blount of Sodington, Worcestershire, secondly Sir Mark Husee, and thirdly Sir John de Crophill; and (allegedly) Katherine de Verdun.[6][7]
    John Mortimer, accidentally slain in a joust by John de Leyburne.[6]
    Walter Mortimer, a priest, Rector of Kingston.[6]
    Edmund, a priest, Rector of Hodnet, Shropshire and Treasurer of the cathedral at York.[6]
    Hugh Mortimer, a priest, Rector of church at Old Radnor.[6]
    They also had two daughters who became nuns; Elizabeth and Joan.[6]

    Mortimer served in the king's Scottish campaign, and returned to fight in Wales. He was mortally wounded in a skirmish near Builth, and died at Wigmore Castle.

    Notes

    Jump up ^ 'M Prestwich, The Three Edwards' (2003)
    Jump up ^ J. J. Crump, ‘Mortimer, Roger (III) de, lord of Wigmore (1231–1282)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
    Jump up ^ known in Welsh as Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf
    Jump up ^ also known as Orewin Bridge
    Jump up ^ M Prestwich,(1), 13–14.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Sir Bernard Burke. A genealogical history of the dormant, abeyant, forfeited, and extinct peerages of the British empire, Harrison, 1866. p. 384. Google eBook
    Jump up ^ Richardson IV 2011, pp. 252, 255.
    References[edit]
    Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. IV (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1460992709.
    Bibliography[edit]
    Mortimer, Ian. The Greatest Traitor: The Life of Sir Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, Ruler of England 1327–1330, (Jonathan Cape, London 2003).
    Cokayne, G. E. The Complete Peerage of Great Britain and Ireland of titles extinct, abeyant, and dormant, 14 vols (London, 1910–37).
    Prestwich, M, The Three Edwards: War and State in England, 1272–1377, London, 2003.
    Prestwich, M, Plantagenet England, 1265–1399 London, 2005.

    Died:
    History, map & images of Wigmore Castle ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wigmore_Castle

    Edmund — Margaret de Fiennes, Baroness Mortimer. Margaret (daughter of William de Fiennes, II, Knight, Baron Tingy and Blanche de Brienne, Baroness Tingry) was born Aft 1269; died 7 Feb 1333. [Group Sheet]


  24. 101.  Margaret de Fiennes, Baroness Mortimer was born Aft 1269 (daughter of William de Fiennes, II, Knight, Baron Tingy and Blanche de Brienne, Baroness Tingry); died 7 Feb 1333.

    Notes:

    Margaret de Fiennes, Baroness Mortimer (after 1269 – 7 February 1333), was an English noblewoman born to William II de Fiennes, Baron Tingry and Blanche de Brienne. Her paternal grandparents were Enguerrand II de Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde. Her maternal grandparents were Jean de Brienne and Jeanne, Dame de Chateaudun.

    Margaret had a sister, Joan de Fiennes (c. 1273 - before 26 October 1309), whose daughter, Margaret Wake, was the mother of Joan of Kent. Therefore, Margaret de Fiennes was a great-aunt of Joan, the Fair Maid of Kent. Margaret de Fiennes was also a first cousin of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.

    In September 1285, when she was fourteen or fifteen years old, Margaret married Edmund Mortimer of Wigmore, 2nd Baron Mortimer, the son of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer and Maud de Braose. They had eight children.

    Children

    Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (25 April 1287 – 29 November 1330) married Joan de Geneville,[1] by whom he had twelve children. Through this union are descended the last Plantagenet monarchs of England from King Edward IV to Richard III, and every monarch of England after King Henry VII.
    Maud Mortimer, married Sir Theobald II de Verdun, by whom she had four daughters, Joan, Elizabeth, Margaret, and Katherine de Verdun. Queen consort Catherine Parr is a descendant of Margaret de Verdun by her marriage to Sir Thomas de Crophull.[1][2]
    John Mortimer, accidentally slain in battle by John de Leyburne.[1]
    Walter Mortimer, a priest, Rector of Kingston.[1]
    Edmund, a priest, Rector of Hodnet and Treasurer of the cathedral at York.[1]
    Hugh Mortimer, a priest, Rector of the church at Old Radnor.[1]
    They also had two daughters who became nuns; Elizabeth and Joan.[1]

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Sir Bernard Burke. A genealogical history of the dormant, abeyant, forfeited, and extinct peerages of the British empire, Harrison, 1866. pg 384. Google eBook
    Jump up ^ Douglas Richardson. Magna Carta Ancestry, Genealogical Publishing Com, 2005. pg 247-49.
    Richardson, Douglas, Kimball G. Everingham, and David Faris. Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Royal ancestry series. (p. 155) Baltimore, Md: Genealogical Pub. Co, 2004. googlebooks Accessed March 30, 2008

    Children:
    1. 50. Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March was born 25 Apr 1287, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England; died 29 Nov 1330, Tyburn, England.
    2. Maud de Mortimer was born (1295-1300), (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England); died 18 Sep 1312, Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England.

  25. 102.  Piers de Geneville was born 0___ 1256, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland (son of Geoffrey de Geneville and Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville); died 0Jun 1292.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Sir Piers de Geneville of Trim and Ludlow Castle

    Piers married Joan of Lusigman, 2nd Baroness Geneville 0___ 1283. Joan was born 0___ 1260, Angouleme, France; died 13 Apr 1323; was buried Abbaye de Valence, France. [Group Sheet]


  26. 103.  Joan of Lusigman, 2nd Baroness Geneville was born 0___ 1260, Angouleme, France; died 13 Apr 1323; was buried Abbaye de Valence, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Jeanne of Lusignan

    Notes:

    Joan of Lusignan (1260 – 13 April 1323) was a French noblewoman. She succeeded her uncle, Guy de la Marche, Knt., sometime in the period, 1310/13, as Lady of Couche and Peyrat, but not as Countess of La Marche since after her sister, Yolande's death, it was annexed by Philip IV of France and given as an appanage to Philip's son Charles the Fair. Previously, in 1308, following the death of her brother Guy (or Guiard), Jeanne and her sister Isabelle, as co-heiresses, had sold the county of Angoulăeme to the King.[1]

    She was married twice. Her first husband was Bernard Ezi III, Lord of Albret, by whom she had two daughters. By her second husband Sir Piers de Geneville, she had another three daughters; the eldest of whom was Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville, wife of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, the de facto ruler of England from 1327 to 1330.

    She is sometimes referred to as Jeanne of Lusignan.

    Family

    Joan was a younger daughter of Hugh XII of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Angoulăeme, lord of Lusignan and Fougáeres, and Jeanne de Fougáeres.[2]

    Marriages

    Joan married firstly Bernard Ezi III, Lord of Albret, by whom she had two daughters:

    Mathe, Dame d'Albret (died 1283)
    Isabelle, Dame d'Albret (died 1 December 1294), married Bernard VI, Count of Armagnac, as his first wife. Their marriage was childless.[3]
    After the death of her first husband on 24 December 1280, Joan married secondly before 11 Oct. 1283 (date of charter), Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim and Ludlow Castle (1256 – before June 1292), by whom she had another three daughters:

    Joan de Geneville (2 February 1286 – 19 October 1356), in 1301 married Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (d. 29 November 1330), by whom she had twelve children.
    Maud de Geneville, a nun at Aconbury Priory
    Beatrice de Geneville, a nun at Aconbury Priory
    Death and legacy[edit]
    Joan died 13 April 1323 at the age of 63, and was buried at the Abbaye de Valence.

    end

    Children:
    1. 51. Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville was born 2 Feb 1286, Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England; died 19 Oct 1396, King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, England; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

  27. 104.  William de Ferrers was born 30 Jan 1272, Yoxall, Staffordshire, England (son of William de Ferrers and Anne le Despenser); died 20 Mar 1325, Groby, Leicestershire, England; was buried St Philip and St James Church, Groby, Leicestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Scotland
    • Residence: Flanders

    Notes:

    Ferrers of Groby, Baron (E, 1299 - forfeited 1554)

    Creation: writ sum. 29 Dec 1299

    Extinct: 23 Feb 1553/4

    Family name: Ferrers later Grey
    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    Arms:
    Gules seven Mascles voided Or
    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    William [de Ferrers], 1st Baron Ferrers of Groby
    only son and heir of Sir William de Ferrers, of Groby, co. Leicester, Newbottle, co. Northampton, Woodham Ferris, Stebbing and Fairsted, co. Essex, and Bolton-le-Moors, co. Lancaster (by his first wife Anne le Despencer, dau. of Sir Hugh le Despencer, of Ryhall, co. Rutland, Loughborough, co. Leicester, Parlington, co. York, etc., Justiciar of England), 2nd son by his second wife of William [de Ferrers], 5th Earl of Derby
    born
    30 Jan 1271/2
    mar.
    Ellen de Segrave (d. after 9 Feb 1316/7), dau. of John [de Segrave], 2nd Baron Segrave, by his wife Christine de Plessy, dau. of Sir Hugh de Plessy, of Hooknorton and Kidlington, co. Oxford
    children
    1. Henry de Ferrers, later 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby
    2. Thomas de Ferrers
    1. Anne de Ferrers, mar. Sir Edward le Despencer, of Buckland, co. Buckingham, Eyworth, co. Bedford, West Winterslow, co. Wiltshire, Essendine, co. Rutland, etc., 2nd son of Hugh [le Despencer], 1st and de jure 2nd Baron le Despencer, by his wife Lady Eleanor de Clare, sister and cohrss. of Gilbert [de Clare], 7th Earl of Gloucester, and 1st dau. of Gilbert [de Clare], 6th Earl of Gloucester, by his second wife the Princess Joan, 2nd surv. dau. by his first wife of King Edward I, and had issue
    died
    20 Mar 1324/5
    created
    by writ of summons 29 Dec 1299 Baron Ferrers of Groby
    suc. by
    son
    note

    Henry [de Ferrers], 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby
    born
    c. 1302
    mar.
    bef. 20 Feb 1330/1 Isabel de Verdun (b. 21 Mar 1316/7; d. 25 Jul 1349), 4th dau. and cohrss. of Theobald [de Verdun], 2nd and 1st Baron Verdun, by his second wife Lady Elizabeth de Burgh (b. 16 Sep 1295; widow of John de Burgh, 2nd but 1st surv. son and heir ap. of Richard [de Burgh], 2nd Earl of Ulster; mar. (3) shortly bef. 3 May 1317 Roger [Damory], 1st Baron Damory; d. 4 Nov 1360), sister and cohrss. of Gilbert [de Clare], 7th Earl of Gloucester, and 3rd dau. of Gilbert [de Clare], 6th Earl of Gloucester, by his second wife the Princess Joan, 2nd surv. dau. by his first wife of King Edward I
    children
    1. William de Ferrers, later 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby
    2. Ralph de Ferrers, mar. Joan Harcourt, widow of Sir William Harcourt, of Bosworth, co. Leicester, and dau. of Richard [Grey], 2nd Baron Grey of Codnor, by his wife Joan FitzPayn, dau. of Robert [FitzPayn], 1st Baron FitzPayn
    1. Philippe de Ferrers (d. bef. 10 Aug 1384), mar. bef. 1353 Sir Guy de Beauchamp (dspm. and vp. 28 Apr 1360), 1st son and heir ap. of Thomas [de Beauchamp], 11th Earl of Warwick, by his wife Lady Catherine de Mortimer, 1st dau. of Roger [de Mortimer], 1st Earl of March, and had issue
    2. Elizabeth de Ferrers (d. 22 or 23 Oct 1375; bur. at Ashford, co. Kent), mar. (1) betw. 24 Sep 1342 and 1361 David [Strabolgi], 12th or 3rd Earl of Athol, and (2) John Malewayn, and had issue by her first husband
    died
    15 Sep 1343 (bur. in Ulverscroft Priory)
    suc. by
    son
    note

    William [de Ferrers], 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby
    born
    28 Feb 1332/3
    mar. (1)
    bef. 25 Apr 1344 Lady Margaret de Ufford, sister and cohrss. in her issue of William [de Ufford], 2nd Earl of Suffolk, and 3rd dau. of Robert [de Ufford], 1st Earl of Suffolk, by his wife Margaret de Norwich, great-aunt and hrss. in her issue of Sir John de Norwich, of Sculthorpe, co. Norfolk, and Bramfield and Mellis, co. Suffolk, and dau. of Sir Walter de Norwich, of Sculthorpe, co. Norfolk, and Bramfield and Mellis, co. Suffolk, Treasurer and Chief Baron of the Exchequer
    children by first wife
    1. Henry de Ferrers, later 4th Baron Ferrers of Groby
    1. Ann de Ferrers, a nun at the Convent of Minoresses-without, Aldgate
    2. Margaret de Ferrers (d. 22 Jan 1406/7), mar. bef. Apr 1381 Thomas [de Beauchamp], 12th Earl of Warwick, and had issue
    mar. (2)
    bef. 25 May 1368 Margaret de Umfraville (widow of Sir Robert de Umfraville, of Pallethorp and Hessle, co. York, and Stallingborough, co. Lincoln, styled Lord Umfraville (dvp. and sp.), 1st son and heir ap. of Gilbert [de Umfraville], 10th Earl of Angus later 3rd Baron Kyme; dsp. 2 Sep 1375; bur. in the Church of the Friars Preacher, Chelmsford, co. Essex), 1st dau. of Henry [de Percy], 2nd Baron Percy, by his wife Idoine de Clifford, only dau. of Robert [de Clifford], 1st Baron Clifford
    died
    8 Jan 1370/1
    suc. by
    son by first wife
    note

    Henry [de Ferrers], 4th Baron Ferrers of Groby
    born
    16 Feb 1355/6
    mar.
    bef. 27 Apr 1371 Joan de Hoo (d. 30 May 1394), dau. of Sir Thomas de Hoo, of Luton Hoo and Stopsley, co. Bedford, by his wife Isabel de St Leger, dau. and hrss. of Sir John de St Leger, of Offley, co. Hertford
    children
    1. William de Ferrers, later 5th Baron Ferrers of Groby
    died
    3 Feb 1387/8
    suc. by
    son
    note

    William [de Ferrers], 5th Baron Ferrers of Groby
    born
    25 Apr 1372
    mar. (1)
    after 10 Oct 1388 Philippa de Clifford (d. after 4 Jul 1405), 3rd dau. of Roger [de Clifford], 5th Baron Clifford, by his wife Lady Maud de Beauchamp, 1st dau. of Thomas [de Beauchamp], 11th Earl of Warwick
    children by first wife
    1. Sir Henry Ferrers, mar. shortly bef. 13 Jul 1416 Lady Isabel de Mowbray (mar. (2) c. 1423 as his second wife James [Berkeley], 1st Baron Berkeley; d. 23 Sep 1452; bur. in the Church of the Grey Friars, Gloucester, co. Gloucester), 2nd dau. and cohrss. in her issue of Thomas [de Mowbray], 1st Duke of Norfolk, by his second wife Lady Elizabeth FitzAlan, sister and cohrss. of Thomas [FitzAlan], 12th or 5th Earl of Arundel, and 1st dau. by his first wife of Richard [FitzAlan], 11th or 4th Earl of Arundel, and had issue:
    1a. Elizabeth Ferrers, suo jure Baroness Ferrers of Groby
    2. Sir Thomas Ferrers, of Tamworth Castle, co. Warwick (d. 6 Jan 1458/9), mar. Elizabeth de Frevile, sister and cohrss. of Sir Baldwin de Frevile, of Tamworth Castle, co. Warwick, and had issue:
    1a. Sir Thomas Ferrers, of Tamworth Castle, co. Warwick (d. 22 Aug 1498), mar. c. 1468 Anne Hastings, sister of William [Hastings], 1st Baron Hastings of Hastings, and 1st dau. of Sir Leonard Hastings, of Kirby, co. Leicester, and Burton Hastings, co. Warwick, by his wife Alice de Camoys, 2nd dau. by his first wife of Thomas [de Camoys], 1st Baron Camoys, and was ancestor of the family of Ferrers of Tamworth Castle, co. Warwick
    2a. Sir Henry Ferrers, mar. Margaret Heckstall, dau. of William Heckstall, of Heckstall, co. Leicester, and had issue:
    1b. Sir Edward Ferrers, of Baddesley Clinton, co. Warwick, Sheriff of Warwickshire (b. bef. 1468; d. 1535), mar. 1497 Constance Brome (d. 30 Sep 1551), only child and hrss. of Nicholas Brome, of Baddesley Clinton, co. Warwick, and was ancestor of the family of Ferrers of Baddesley Clinton, co. Warwick
    2b. Richard Ferrers
    1b. Elizabeth Ferrers, mar. James Clarke, of Fordhall
    3. John Ferrers
    4. Edmund Ferrers, of St Albans
    1. Margaret Ferrers (d. 16 Jan 1451/2), mar. (1) 1427 as his second wife Richard [Grey], 6th Baron Grey of Wilton, and (2) bef. 14 Feb 1445/6 Thomas [Grey], 1st Baron Richemount Grey, and had issue by her first husband
    2. Elizabeth Ferrers (d. 1460), mar. c. 1412 Sir William Colepeper, of Aylesford, co. Kent (d. 20 Jul 1457), and had issue
    mar. (2)
    Lady Margaret de Montagu, 3rd dau. of John [de Montagu], 3rd Earl of Salisbury, by his wife Maud Buxhall, widow of (1) John Aubrey and (2) Sir Alan Buxhall, and dau. of Sir Adam Francis MP, Mayor of London 1352-54
    mar. (3)
    bef. 26 Oct 1416 Elizabeth de Standisshe (widow of (1) John de Wrottesley, of Wrottesley, co. Stafford, and (2) Sir William Botiller, of Warrington and Layton, co. Lancaster, and Cropwell Butler, co. Nottingham; d. Feb 1441/2), dau. of Sir Robert de Standisshe, of Ulnes-Walton, co. Lancaster, by his wife Iseude .....
    died
    18 May 1445
    suc. by
    grand-daughter
    note

    Elizabeth Ferrers later Grey, suo jure Baroness Ferrers of Groby
    born
    c. 1419
    mar. (1)
    Sir Edward Grey, sum. to Parliament jure uxoris 14 Dec 1446 as Baron Ferrers of Groby, suc. his mother as de jure 6th Baron Astley 3 Sep or 12 Nov 1448 (b. c. 1415; d. 18 Dec 1457), eldest son of Reynold [Grey], 3rd Baron Grey of Ruthin, by his second wife Joan Raleigh, de jure suo jure Baroness Astley, widow of Thomas Raleigh, of Farnborough, co. Warwick, and only child and hrss. of William [de Astley], 4th Baron Astley
    children by first husband
    1. Sir John Grey, a supporter of the House of Lancaster, killed at the second Battle of St Alban's (b. c. 1432; dvm. 17 Feb 1460/1), mar. c. 1452 Lady Elizabeth Wydville (b. c. 1437; mar. (2) 1 May 1464 King Edward IV; d. 8 Jun 1492), sister and cohrss. of Richard [Wydville], 3rd Earl Rivers, and 1st dau. of Richard [Wydville], 1st Earl Rivers, by his wife Jacquetta of Luxembourg, widow of John [Plantagenet], 1st Duke of Bedford, and dau. of Peter of Luxembourg, Count of St Pol, and had issue:
    1a. Sir Thomas Grey, later 1st Earl of Huntingdon later 1st Marquess of Dorset later 7th Baron Ferrers of Groby
    2a. Sir Richard Grey (beheaded 1483)
    2. Edward Grey, later 1st Viscount L'Isle
    3. Reynold Grey, killed at the Battle of Wakefield (d. 31 Dec 1460)
    1. Anne Grey, mar. Sir Edward Hungerford
    2. Margaret Grey (dsp.), mar. as his first wife Sir Robert de Greystock (dvp. and spm. 17 Jun 1483), 2nd son of Ralph [de Greystock], 5th Baron Greystock, by his first wife Elizabeth FitzHugh, 1st dau. of William [FitzHugh], 4th Baron FitzHugh
    mar. (2)
    bef. 2 May 1462 Sir John Bourchier (dsp. 1495), 4th son of Henry [Bourchier], 1st Earl of Essex, by his wife and second cousin Lady Isabel Gray, widow of Sir Thomas Grey, of Heton, co. Northumberland, and only dau. of Richard [Plantagenet], 3rd Earl of Cambridge. He mar. (2) bef. 6 Jul 1490 Elizabeth Assheton (widow of (1) John Kerielle, of Stockbury, co. Kent, and (2) Sir Ralph Assheton, of Kingsnorth and Cheriton, co. Kent), dau. of John Chichele, of Wimpole, co. Cambridge, Chamberlain of London, by his wife Margery Knolles, dau. of Thomas Knolles, twice Mayor of London.
    died
    on or just bef. 23 Jan 1482/3
    suc. by
    grandson
    note

    Thomas [Grey], 1st Earl of Huntingdon later 1st Marquess of Dorset, KG
    created
    14 Aug 1471 Earl of Huntingdon (surrendered 1475)
    18 Apr 1475 Marquess of Dorset
    note
    suc. his grandmother as 7th Baron Ferrers of Groby 23 Jan 1482/3

    The Barony of Ferrers of Groby was held by the Marquesses of Dorset from 23 Jan 1482/3 until 23 Feb 1553/4, when Henry [Grey], 1st Duke of Suffolk, 3rd Marquess of Dorset, 9th Baron Ferrers of Groby, etc., was executed on Tower Hill, having been found guilty of treason, attainted, and all his titles forfeited. The Barony of Astley, if such existed, would have followed the course of the Barony of Ferrers of Groby from 3 Sep/12 Nov 1448 and being similarly attainted on 23 Feb 1553/4.

    Last updated 19 Jan 2013
    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    *

    Birth: Jan. 30, 1272
    Yoxall
    Staffordshire, England
    Death: Mar. 20, 1325
    Groby
    Leicestershire, England

    1st Baron de Ferrers, William was an important commander in Edward I's wars in Scotland, and his arms are entered on the Falkirk Roll of 1298.

    He fought in Flanders in 1295 and helped mount the Siege of Carlaverock in 1300.

    He saw further service in Scotland in 1303, 1306, 1308 and 1311.

    He was summoned to many councils (parliaments) for diplomatic negotiations and ceremonial duties such as Edward II's coronation, and performed other such duties that the Barony was duly created for him.

    Both his mother and daugher were married into the le Despenser family whose relationship with the Crown was so intimate.

    Family links:
    Parents:
    William De Ferrers (1240 - 1288)
    Anne Le Despenser De Ferrers (1248 - 1280)

    Spouse:
    Ellen Margret De Segrave De Ferrers (1275 - 1317)*

    Children:
    Henry de Ferrers (1303 - 1343)*

    *Calculated relationship

    Burial:
    St Philip and St James Church
    Groby
    Hinckley and Bosworth Borough
    Leicestershire, England

    Created by: Bill Velde
    Record added: Jun 20, 2011
    Find A Grave Memorial# 71687296

    *

    William married Ellen de Segrave Aft 1316. Ellen (daughter of John Segrave and Christian Deplessetis) was born 0___ 1275, Chacombe, Northamptonshire, England; died 9 Feb 1317, Groby, Leicestershire, England; was buried St Philip and St James Church, Groby, Leicestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  28. 105.  Ellen de Segrave was born 0___ 1275, Chacombe, Northamptonshire, England (daughter of John Segrave and Christian Deplessetis); died 9 Feb 1317, Groby, Leicestershire, England; was buried St Philip and St James Church, Groby, Leicestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Birth: 1275
    Chacombe
    Northamptonshire, England
    Death: Feb. 9, 1317
    Groby
    Leicestershire, England


    Family links:
    Parents:
    John Segrave (1256 - 1325)
    Christian Deplessetis Segrave (1263 - 1331)

    Spouse:
    William De Ferrers (1272 - 1325)

    Children:
    Henry de Ferrers (1303 - 1343)*

    Sibling:
    Ellen Margret De Segrave De Ferrers (1275 - 1317)
    Stephen Segrave (1285 - 1325)*

    *Calculated relationship

    Burial:
    St Philip and St James Church
    Groby
    Hinckley and Bosworth Borough
    Leicestershire, England

    Created by: Bill Velde
    Record added: Jun 20, 2011
    Find A Grave Memorial# 71688054

    *

    Children:
    1. 52. Henry de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby was born ~ 1302, Groby, Leicestershire, England; died 15 Sep 1343; was buried Ulverscroft Priory, Leicestershire, England.
    2. Thomas de Ferrers was born (Groby, Leicestershire, England).
    3. Anne de Ferrers was born (Groby, Leicestershire, England).

  29. 106.  Theobald de Verdun, II, Lord Weoberley was born 8 Sep 1278, Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England (son of Theobald de Verdun and Margaret de Bohun); died 27 Jul 1316.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Justiciar of Ireland
    • Also Known As: 2nd Lord Verdun
    • Also Known As: Baron Alton

    Notes:

    Name: Theobald 2nd Baron de VERDUN , MP, Sir 1 2 3 4
    Sex: M
    ALIA: Theobald de /Verdon/
    Birth: 8 SEP 1278 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England 5 2 4
    Death: 27 JUL 1316 6 2
    Note:
    Sir Theobald de Verdon, Knight, b. 8 Sep 1278, d. Alton 27 July 1316, 2nd Lord Verdun, MP 1299-1314; m. (1) Wigmore 29 July 1302 Maud de Mortimer, d. 17 or 18 Sep 1312, daughter of Sir Edmund de Mortimer (147-4) and Margaret de Fiennes; m. (2) near Boston 4 Feb 1315/6 Elizabeth de Clare, b. Tewkesbury 16 Sep 1295, d. 4 Nov 1360, daughter of Sir Gilbert de Clare (28-4) and Joan Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor of Castile. [Magna Charta Sureties]

    -------------------------------

    Justiciar of Ireland. [Ancestral Roots]

    -------------------------------

    BARONY OF VERDUN (II)

    THEODALD (DE VERDUN), 2nd but 1st surviving son and heir, was born 8 September 1278.

    On the death of his brother John he was ordered by the King, 14 July 1297, to serve overseas in his place; and he was frequently summoned against the Scots till 1316; knighted by the King in Northumberland, 24 June 1298, and fought in the 2nd line at the battle of Falkirk, 22 July following.

    He was summoned v.p. to Parliament from 29 December 1299 to 16 October 1315, by writs directed (till his father's death) Theobaldo de Verdun junior, whereby he also is held to have become LORD VERDUN. He had seisin of his lands, 28 September 1309; and was Justiciar of Ireland, 30 April 1313-January 1314/5.

    He married, 1stly, 29 July 1302, at Wigmore, co. Hereford, Maud, daughter of Edmund (DE MORTIMER), LORD MORTIMER, by Margaret, daughter of Sir William DE FENLES. She died 17 or 18 September 1312 at Alton, after childbirth, and was buried 9 October in Croxden Abbey.

    He married, 2ndly, 4 February 1315/6, near Bristol (against the King's will and without his licence), Elizabeth, widow of John DE BURGH (who died v.p. 18 June 1313; 2nd but 1st surviving son and heir apparent of Richard, 2nd EARL OF ULSTER [IRL],

    3rd and youngest sister of the whole blood and coheir of Gilbert (DE CLARE), 7th EARL OF GLOUCESTER AND HERTFORD, daughter of Gilbert, 6th EARL OF GLOUCESTER AND HERTFORD, by his 2nd wife, Joan, "of Acre," daughter of EDWARD I.

    He died s.p.m. 27 July 1316 at Alton, aged 37, and was buried 19 September in Croxden Abbey. His widow, who had received the Honor of Clare in her purparty of her brother's estates, married, 3rdly, shortly before 3 May 1317, Roger (DAMORY), 1st LORD DAMORY, who died s.p.m. 13 or 14 March 1321/2.

    She, who was born 16 September 1295 at Tewkesbury, died 4 November 1360, aged 65. M.I. to her and her 3rd husband in St. Mary's, Ware.

    Will, desiring burial in the Convent of the Minoresses without Aldgate, London, dated at Clare, 25 September 1355, proved 3 December 1360.

    On Theobald's death the two Baronies of Verdun, supposed to have been created by the writs of 1295 (or 1290 and 1299, fell into abeyance, according to modern doctrine, among his 3 daughters and co-heirs, by his 1st wife, Joan, Elizabeth and Margery, and his posthumous daughter and coheir, by his 2nd wife, Isabel. [Complete Peerage XII/2:250-1, (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)]

    (i) Joan, born 9 or 11 August 1303 at Wootton in Stanton Lacy, Salop, and baptised in the church of Onibury, in that co., married, 1stly, 28 April 1317, in the King's Chapel in Windsor Park, John de Montagu (1st son and heir apparent of William, 2nd Lord Montagu), who died s.p. and v.p., being buried 14 August 1317 in Lincoln Cathedral. She married, 2ndly, 24 February 1317/8, Thomas (de Furnivalle), Lord Furnivalle, who died 5, 7 or 14 October 1339. She died 2 October 1334 at Alton, aged 31, and was buried 7 or 8 January 1334/5 in Croxden Abbey. See FURNIVALLE. Her representatives are (1956) Lord Mowbray, Segrave and Stourton and Baroness Furnivall.

    [ii) Elizabeth, born circa 1306, married, before 11 June 1320, Bartholomew (Burghersh), Lord Burghersh, who died 3 August 1355. She died 1 May 1360. Her senior representative is (1956) Viscount Falmouth, the others being the descendants of Anne, suo jure Countess of Warwick, wife of Richard (Neville), Earl of Salisbury and Warwick, the "Kingmaker."

    (iii) Margery, born and baptised 10 August 1310 at Alton, married, 1stly, before 20 February 1326/7, William (le Blount), Lord Blount, who died s.p. shortly before 3 October 1337. She married, 2ndly, before 18 October 1339, Sir Mark Husee (son and heir apparent of Henry, 2nd Lord Husee), who died v.p. shortly before 10 February 1345/6. She married, 3rdly, before 10 September 1355, as his 1st wife, Sir John de Crophull, of Bonnington, Notts, who died 3 July 1383. She died before him in or before 1377. Her representatives would appear to be those of Thomas Husee, her descendant by her 2nd marriage, living 1478.


    Father: Theobald 1st Baron de VERDUN , Sir b: ABT 1248 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England
    Mother: Margery (Margaret) de BOHUN , Heiress of Bisley b: ABT 1252 in Bisley, Stroud, Gloucestershire, England

    Marriage 1 Maud de MORTIMER b: ABT 1285 in Wigmore, Ludlow, Herefordshire, England
    Married: 29 JUL 1302 in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England 2
    Married: 9 JUL 1302 in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England 7
    Children
    Has Children Joan de VERDUN , Heiress of Alton b: BET 9 AND 11 AUG 1303 in Wootton, Stanton Lacy, Shropshire, England
    Has Children Elizabeth de VERDUN b: ABT 1306 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England
    Has Children Margery de VERDUN , Heiress of Weobley b: 10 AUG 1310 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England

    Marriage 2 Elizabeth de CLARE b: 14 SEP 1295 in Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England
    Married: 4 FEB 1315/16 in 2nd husband, 2nd wife 8
    Children
    Has Children Isabel de VERDUN b: 21 MAR 1316/17 in Amesbury, Wiltshire, England

    *

    Theobald married Elizabeth de Clare 4 Feb 1315. Elizabeth (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre) was born 14 Sep 1295, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  30. 107.  Elizabeth de Clare was born 14 Sep 1295, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford and Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre).
    Children:
    1. 53. Isabel de Verdun

  31. 108.  Robert de Ufford, I, 1st Lord Ufford was born 11 Jun 1279, Parham & Wickham, Suffolk, England; died 9 Sep 1316, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Justiciar of Ireland

    Notes:

    Biography

    Father Sir Robert de Ufford, Justiciar of Ireland, Justice of Chester d. c 9 Sep 1298

    Mother Mary d. bt 10 Aug 1280 - 1285


    Sir Robert Ufford, 1st Lord Ufford was born on 11 June 1279 at of Parham & Wickham, Suffolk, England. [1]

    He married Cecily de Valoines, daughter of Sir Robert Valoines, Lord Walsham and Eve de Criketot, before 1298.[2]

    Sir Robert Ufford, 1st Lord Ufford died circa 9 September 1316.[3]


    Family

    Cecily de Valoines b. c 1281, d. 16 Jul 1325

    Children


    Sir Ralph de Ufford, Justiciary of Ireland, Constable of Corfe Castle d. 9 Apr 1346
    Eva de Ufford d. a May 1370
    William de Ufford d. 1382
    Joan de Ufford d. a 8 Oct 1319
    Sir Robert de Ufford, 1st Earl Suffolk, 2nd Lord Ufford b. 9 Aug 1298, d. 4 Nov 1369

    Sources

    ? Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 362.
    ? Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 389.
    ? Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 60
    http://knight-france.com/geneal/names/2421.htm

    Robert married Cecily Valoines Bef 1298. Cecily (daughter of Robert de Valoines, II, Lord of Walsham & Icksworth and Eve de Criketot) was born ~ 1281, Walsham, Suffolkshire, England; died 16 Jul 1325, Thurston, Suffolk, England. [Group Sheet]


  32. 109.  Cecily Valoines was born ~ 1281, Walsham, Suffolkshire, England (daughter of Robert de Valoines, II, Lord of Walsham & Icksworth and Eve de Criketot); died 16 Jul 1325, Thurston, Suffolk, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Cecily Valoines

    Notes:

    Married:
    He married Cecily de Valoines, daughter of Sir Robert Valoines, Lord Walsham and Eve de Criketot, before 1298.

    Children:
    1. Joan Ufford was born 0___ 1290; died 10 Apr 1319.
    2. 54. Robert de Ufford, (II), Knight, 1st Earl of Suffolk was born 9 Aug 1298, Ufford, Suffolk, England; died 4 Nov 1369, (Suffolk, Suffolkshire, England).

  33. 110.  Walter de Norwich, Knight was born ~ 1274, Walsingham, Norfolkshire, England (son of Geoffrey Norwich and Cecily Valoines); died 20 Jan 1329, Wangford, Suffolk, England; was buried Raveningham, Norfolkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Burial: Norwich Cathedral, Norwich, Norfolkshire, England
    • Occupation: Chief Baron of the Exchequer
    • Also Known As: Lord Norwich

    Notes:

    Biography

    Birth: Between 1250-1280

    Died: Between 1326-1329

    Arms: Per pale gules and azure, a lion rampant ermine.

    He was summoned to Parliament as Lord Norwich by Edward II in 1314.

    Residence: Sculthorpe, Norfolk, England

    Burke's A General and Heraldic Dictionary of Peerages p. 402: Walter de Norwich, who in the 5th of Edward II, was made one of the Barons of the Exchequer, and at the same time obtained a charter of free warren in all his demense lands. In some years afterwards he was made treasure of the exchequer, and had a grant of the manors of Dalham and Bradenfield, with the advowson of the church of Dalham, in Suffolk. He was a learned judge, and died in 2 Edward III. He was succeeded by his son, Sir John de Norwick, Knight.

    WALTER DE NORWICH had a protection February 1297, and, as the King's clerk, in December 129 9 licence to inclose a lane adjoining his messuage in Norwich. He was Remembrancer of the Exc hequer, March 1307/8, appointed a Baron, August 1311; Chief Baron, March 1311/2; Treasurer (a fter serving several periods as deputy Treasurer), September 1314 to May 1317. In 1315, for h is good services as Treasurer, he had a grant of 1,000 marks, to maintain his state more hono urably in the King's service. Keeper of the office of the Treasurer, November 1319 to Februar y following, and again in 1321, 1322, and 1324. He was summoned to Councils at York and Linco ln, January and June 1312, and (among the justices) to Parliaments, July 1312 onwards. As far mer of the custody of the lands of Thomas de Cailly, during the minority of the heir, he wa s Keeper of Buckenham Castle, August 1316 till September 1325. In July 1322 he was a member o f the commission to try the Mortimers, and in 1324 was returned by the sheriff of Norfolk a s summoned to attend the Great Council at Westminster. He m. Catherine, da. of Sir John DE HEDERSETE, and widow of Piers BRAUNCHE. He died between 1 2 April 1328 and 20 February 1328/9, and was buried in Norwich Cathedral. His widow had wri t for dower, and died between January 1340/1 and October 1343. [CP 9:762-3]


    Sir Walter Yorwich Yorwich ... [1]


    Sources

    Julia Dickinson, firsthand knowledge. Click the Changes tab for the details of edits by Julia and others.
    ? Entered by Julia Dickinson, Jun 28, 2012

    Biography

    NORWICH, Sir WALTER de (d. 1329), chief baron of the exchequer, was son of Geoffrey de Norwich, and perhaps a descendant of that Geoffrey de Norwich who in 1214 fell under John's displeasure (Matt. Paris, ii. 537). A Geoffrey de Norwich ‘clericus’ represented Norwich in parliament in 1306 (Returns of Members of Parliament, i. 22). The first reference to Walter de Norwich is as holding the manor of Stoke, Norfolk, in 1297. He was in the royal service in the exchequer; on 15 March 1308 he occurs as remembrancer; on 7 Aug. he was placed on a commission of oyer and terminer in Suffolk; and on 24 Nov. as clerk of the exchequer (Cal. Close Rolls, pp. 57, 131). On 29 Aug. 1311 he was appointed a baron of the exchequer, but resigned this position on 23 Oct. in order to act as lieutenant of the treasurer; on 3 March 1312 he was reappointed a baron of the exchequer, and on 8 March was made chief baron. A week later Norwich ceased to act as lieutenant of the treasurer, but on 17 May he was again directed to act in that capacity while retaining his post as chief baron, and thus he continued till 4 Oct. (Parl. Writs). On 30 Sept., when sitting in London, Norwich refused to admit the new sheriffs, as one of them was absent (Chron. Edw. I. and Edw. II. i. 218). In December 1313 he was appointed to supervise the collection of the twentieth and fifteenth in London (Fśdera, ii. 159), and in July 1314 was a justice of oyer and terminer in Norfolk and Suffolk (Parl. Writs, ii. 79). On 26 Sept. he was appointed treasurer, and two days later resigned his office as chief baron. Norwich resigned the treasurership on 27 May 1317 through illness; but before long he resumed his post at the exchequer apparently as chief baron, for he is so styled on 9 June 1320, though on some occasions he is referred to as baron simply. On 22 Dec. 1317 he was employed to inquire into the petitions of certain cardinals (Fśdera, ii. 349). In April 1318 Norwich, as one of the barons of the exchequer, was present at the council or parliament held at Leicester to endeavour to effect a reconciliation between the king and Thomas of Lancaster. In May he was appointed to treat with Robert, count of Flanders, regarding the injury done to English merchants; and in November he was one of the justices for the trial of sheriffs and others for oppression in Norfolk and Suffolk. On 25 Feb. 1319 he sat as one of the barons of the exchequer at the Guildhall, London (Chron. Edw. I. and Edw. II. i. 285). From 6 Nov. 1319 to 18 Feb. 1320 Norwich was once more lieutenant for the treasurer; both in this year and in 1321 he appears as a justice for the counties of Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk. In 1321 he was keeper of the treasury, and in July 1322, after the fall of Thomas of Lancaster, was one of the judges appointed for the trial of the two Roger Mortimers of Chirk and Wigmore. Norwich continued in office during the reign of Edward II; in the next reign he was reappointed chief baron on 2 Feb. 1327, in spite of his share in the condemnation of the Mortimers, the sentence on whom was cancelled on 27 March 1327. He was employed in May 1328 to inquire into the complaints of the weavers of Norwich, and in November to settle the differences between the abbot and townsmen of St. Edmund's (Pat. Rolls, Edw. III, 141, 297, 353). Norwich died in 1329, and was buried in Norwich Cathedral. Dugdale says that Norwich was summoned to parliament as a baron in 1314, but not at any other time. This is an error; for, though Norwich attended parliament in this and in other years as one of the barons of the exchequer, he was never summoned as a baron of parliament. Norwich married between 1295 and 1304 Catherine, daughter of John de Hedersett, and widow of Peter Braunche. She survived her second husband, and was living in 1349. By her Norwich had three sons: John, who is separately noticed; Roger (d. 1372); and Thomas whose daughter, Catherine de Brewse, was in 1375 declared heiress to her cousin John, a great-grandson of Walter de Norwich. Walter de Norwich had also a daughter Margaret, who married, first, Sir Thomas Cailey; and, secondly, Robert Ufford, earl of Suffolk; her descendants by the second marriage were her father's eventual heirs. The Norwich family had large estates in Norfolk, Suffolk, Lincolnshire, and Hertfordshire.


    [Chronicles of Edward I and Edward II (Rolls Ser.); Fśdera, Record ed.; Cal. of Close Rolls Edward II, 1307–18, and Patent Rolls Edward III, 1327–30; Palgrave's Parl. Writs, iv. 1237–9; Madox Hist. of Exchequer, i. 75, ii. 49, 84; Blomefield's Hist. of Norfolk, iii. 76, iv. 39, 164, v. 126, 129, 138, 522, vi. 137, viii. 52–3, 55, ed. 1812; Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 90–1; Foss's Judges of England, iii. 469–71.]

    Sources

    ? Entered by Julia Dickinson, Jun 28, 2012
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p19904.htm
    http://books.google.com/books?id=SfApAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA229&lpg=PA229&dq=Catherine+de+Hedersett&source=bl&ots=4z-ZssVGNd&sig=tI75FAdmMH_rSlfXtDagU1xbNqs&hl=en&ei=WN7XS4z6KpKksgOu7fWyBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CAwQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=Catherine%20de%20Hedersett&f=false ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    *

    bullet Sources, Comments and Notes

    [There is much confusion and differing opinion on Katherine's parentage who married Robert de Scales. If her father was a "Norwich", who was her father's name: John or Walter ?]


    Source :

    "Sir William de la Pole (died 21 June 1366) ...

    Descendants and legacy

    William de la Pole married Katherine, daughter of Sir Walter de Norwich, ..."
    ..........................................
    Robert de Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk, KG (9 August 1298 \endash 4 November 1369) was an English peer. He was created Earl of Suffolk in 1337. ...

    In 1334 he married Margaret Norwich (d. 2 April 1368), daughter of Sir Walter Norwich (d.1329), Treasurer of the Exchequer, and Catherine de Hedersete, by whom he had a large family,
    ________________________
    Source Par Jennifer C. Ward:
    "... Most of the other household accounts which survive were drawn up for widows, and the households range from the widows of knights to those of women of the highest standing. Katherine de Norwich, whose roll of household expenses survives for 1336-7, was the widow of Sir Walter de Norwich, chief baron of the exchequer and acting treasurer at various times under Edward II. ..."
    ________________________
    Source Par Francis Blomefield,Charles Parkin:
    "... After this, I find no mention of it till 1313, when Margery, relict of Roger Cosyn of Norwich, granted it to Sir Walter de Norwich, and Catherine his wife, and their heirs, and by a fine levied in 1316, it appears that Margery had only her life in it, for then Walter de Norwich and Katerine his wife settled it on Tho. de Caily and Margaret his wife and their heirs; for lack of which it was to return to Walter and his heirs; ..."
    _______________________
    Source Par Alfred Suckling:
    "In the reign of Edward I., Sir John de Norwich was lord, and obtained from that monarch, in 1302, a grant of free-warren in Mettingham, Shipmeadow, Redesham, &c In the ninth of Edward II., Walter de Norwich held it, and in the reign of Edward III. it was the manor of Sir John de Norwich, the same who built the castle. He died in 1361, when the manor devolved to his grandson, also named Sir John, who dying at Mettingham Castle, in 1373, appointed his body to be buried at Raveningham, by the side of his father, Sir Walter, ..."

    "... In the thirty-seventh of Henry III. occurs R. de Norwico, Chancellor of Ireland; and in the fifth of Edward II.7 we meet with Walter de Norwich, one of the Barons of the Exchequer, constituted locum tenens of the Treasurer till the King could provide one. On the 25th of October in the same year, he was admitted one of the Privy Council, and in 1314 summoned to Parliament. Two years afterwards he was appointed Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and in the twentieth of the same reign made locum tenens of William de Melton, Archbishop of York, and Treasurer to the King. This distinguished member of the family married Katharine, daughter of John, and sister to Sir Simon de Hetherset, and was father of Sir John de Norwich, his no less distinguished son, who founded Mettingham Castle. ..."
    _______________________
    Source Par Alfred Suckling:
    "Sir John de Norwich, Lord of Mettingham, temp. Edw. I. =
    - Sir Walter de Norwich.= Katharine Hetherset
    - Sir Roger de Norwich.
    - Sir Thomaa de Norwich. =
    - Catharine de Norwich = ___ De Brews
    - Sir John de Norwich, built Mettingham Castle, ob. 1361 = Margaret.
    - Waller tie Norwich, died in his father's lifetime. = Wolirna Stapleton, of Bedale, Yorkshire.
    - Margaret de Norwich = Robert de Ufford, earl of Suffolk. ..."
    ________________________________
    Source Par Thomas Christopher Banks:
    "In the time of king John, Geffery De Norwich was in rebellion against that king. From whom descended, as presumed, Walter De Norwich, one of the barons of the exchequer, and summoned to parliament the 8th Edward II. but no more.
    To whom succeeded Sir John De Norwich, knight, who was in the wars of France and Scotland; and had summons to parliament, the 16th and 34th Edward III. but no more.
    His successor was John, his grandson (viz. son of Walter, who died in his lifetime); which John, the 46th Edward III. making proof of his age, had livery of his lands; and being afterwards a knight, died the 38th Edward III. leaving Catherine de Brews, daughter of Thomas, brother to John, his grandfather, his cousin, and next heir; but she becoming a nun at Dartford, in Kent, William de Ufford, earl of Suffolk, son of Margaret, sister of Thomas de Norwich, father of the said Catherine, was found to be her next heir; and accordingly had livery of the inheritance. ..."


    Walter married Dame Catherine DE HETHERSET, De Norwich [3913]. (Dame Catherine DE HETHERSET, De Norwich [3913] was born in , , England and died after 1337 in , , England.)

    *

    Walter — Catherine de Hadersete. Catherine died Aft 1337, (Norfolkshire) England. [Group Sheet]


  34. 111.  Catherine de Hadersete died Aft 1337, (Norfolkshire) England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Catherine de Hederset
    • Also Known As: Catherine de Hetherset

    Notes:

    Sources, Comments and Notes

    [There is much confusion and differing opinion on Katherine's parentage
    If her father was a "Norwich", who was her father's name: John or Walter ?]

    Source Par Jennifer C. Ward:
    "... Most of the other household accounts which survive were drawn up for widows, and the households range from the widows of knights to those of women of the highest standing. Katherine de Norwich, whose roll of household expenses survives for 1336\emdash 7, was the widow of Sir Walter de Norwich, chief baron of the exchequer and acting treasurer at various times under Edward II. ..."
    ___________________________
    Source Par Alfred Suckling:
    "... In the thirty-seventh of Henry III. occurs R. de Norwico, Chancellor of Ireland; and in the fifth of Edward II.7 we meet with Walter de Norwich, one of the Barons of the Exchequer, constituted locum tenens of the Treasurer till the King could provide one. On the 25th of October in the same year, he was admitted one of the Privy Council, and in 1314 summoned to Parliament. Two years afterwards he was appointed Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and in the twentieth of the same reign made locum tenens of William de Melton, Archbishop of York, and Treasurer to the King. This distinguished member of the family married Katharine, daughter of John, and sister to Sir Simon de Hetherset, and was father of Sir John de Norwich, his no less distinguished son, who founded Mettingham Castle. ..."
    __________________________
    Source :

    "Sir William de la Pole (died 21 June 1366) ...

    Descendants and legacy

    William de la Pole married Katherine, daughter of Sir Walter de Norwich, ..."
    ..........................................

    Robert de Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk, KG (9 August 1298 - 4 November 1369) was an English peer. He was created Earl of Suffolk in 1337. ...

    In 1334 he married Margaret Norwich (d. 2 April 1368), daughter of Sir Walter Norwich (d.1329), Treasurer of the Exchequer, and Catherine de Hedersete, by whom he had a large family, ..."
    ____________________________
    Source publiâe par Carole Rawcliffe, Richard Wilson:
    "... Katherine was the widow of Sir Walter de Norwich (d. 1329), a former treasurer of the exchequer. She had rights of dower in a number of Norfolk and Suffolk manors, the closest to Norwich being Blackworth, about five miles from the city in the parishes of Stoke Holy Cross and Howe. Her household accounts survive from late September 1336. After periods of residence at Mettingham, Suffolk, and Blackworth, she moved to Norwich in January 1337 and remained there until at least the end of April, when the detailed accounts cease. Her stay included the anniversary of Sir Walter's death on 20 January when she held a great dinner costing almost a sixth of the expenditure recorded in the whole seven months. ..."


    Catherine married Sir Walter DE NORWICH, Knt., Chief Baron Of The Exchequer [3912], son of John DE NORWICH [4984] and Unknown. (Sir Walter DE NORWICH, Knt., Chief Baron Of The Exchequer [3912] was born in , , England, died on 20 Jan 1329 in , , England and was buried in Raveningham, Norfolk, England.)

    Children:
    1. 55. Margaret Norwich was born 0___ 1286, Mettingham, Suffolk, England; died 2 Apr 1368.
    2. Katherine de Norwich was born ~ 1306; died 28 Jan 1382.

  35. 116.  Bartholomew de Burghersh, Knight, 1st Baron Burghersh was born Burghersh, Sussex, England (son of Robert de Burghersh, Knight, 1st Baron Burghersh and Maud de Badlesmere); died 3 Aug 1355, Dover, Kent, England.

    Notes:

    Bartholomew de Burghersh, 1st Baron Burghersh (died 3 August 1355, Dover), English nobleman and soldier, was a younger son of Robert de Burghersh, 1st Baron Burghersh and Maud de Badlesmere, sister of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere.

    Life

    He was the second (or perhaps the third) son of Robert de Burghersh, 1st Baron Burghersh, and succeeded to his father's title and estates on the death of his elder brother Stephen. He was the nephew on his mother’s side and namesake of Bartholomew, lord Badlesmere, one of the most powerful of the barons.[1] He married Elizabeth, one of the three coheiresses of Theobald de Verdun, 2nd Baron Verdon and his first wife Maud Mortimer (c.1289-18 September 1312), an alliance by which Burghersh increased his wealth and power.

    Lord Badlesmere was a bitter enemy of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and Burghersh can be found taking an active 1316; in the unhappy contests of parties in Edward II’s reign as an adherent of his uncle, whom in 1317 he accompanied in an expedition to Scotland. In October 1321, when Leeds Castle, Kent-the gates of which had been shut against Queen Isabella by Lady Badlesmere – surrendered to Edward, who had with unwonted spirit raised a force of thirty thousand men to avenge the insult offered to his wife, Burghersh, who was one of the garrison, was taken prisoner and incarcerated in the Tower of London. This imprisonment was probably the means of saving him from the fate of his uncle after the disastrous battle of Boroughbridge.[1]

    He was spared to aid in the overthrow of his unfortunate sovereign. On the landing of Isabella, on 24 September 1326, his brother Henry Burghersh, the bishop of Lincoln, hastened to join her, and with Orlton, bishop of Hereford, took the initiative in the measures which speedily led to Edward's deposition and murder.[1]

    The important posts of constable of Dover Castle and warden of the Cinque Ports, which had been held by his father, were given to Burghersh, and he held both offices, with but slight intermission, to his death. In the unsettled relations between England and France, which lasted through the greater part of Edward IlI's reign, the responsibility devolving on the holder of these offices, which implied the command of the chief channel of communication between the two countries, was of the highest moment, and it evidences the confidence reposed in Burghersh that he should have held them almost continuously during so important an epoch.[1]

    The commission, even originally in the name of Edward II, out really proceeding from the party conspiring only too successfully against him, was renewed by his son in the first year of his reign. The first royal missive to him in this capacity, contained in Rymer, is an order to have sixty does taken from the king's park of Braboume, and salted for the use of the parliament about to meet at Westminster. This is followed by an order to use his authority to put a stop to predatory incursions on the French coast. Burghersh evidently very speedily obtained the complete confidence of the young king, which he retained uninterruptedly to the end of his life.[1]

    His services were rewarded by large grants of land and manorial privileges, escheated to the crown, or in some other way falling to the sovereign to dispose of. The King despatched him repeatedly on diplomatic errands. In 1329, he was sent to Philip of France to explain the reasons for the delay in the rendering of his homage, and in the same year as an ambassador to the pope, to plead for pecuniary aid from the revenues of the English church, a tenth of which was granted to the king for four years. Rymer contains a series of royal orders issued to him in his capacity of constable of Dover relating to prohibitions or licenses to cross the sea when the peace of the country was threatened, and to make arrangements for the passage of the king and other distinguished persons.[1]

    He was entrusted with other offices calling for vigour of action and practical wisdom. In 1337, on the assumption by Edward of the title of king of France, he was made admiral of the fleet from the mouth of the Thames westward. He was also appointed Seneschal of Ponthieu, Constable of the Tower of London, and Lord Chamberlain of the Household, in which capacity his presence is often recorded at delivery the great seal. In one of Edward's grievous straits for money, he was entrusted with the pawning of the crown and other jewels. As Keeper of the king's forest to the south of the Trent in 1341 he was commissioned to provide timber for the construction of engines of war and 'hourdes' or wooden stages for the defenders of castle walls. As a good and experienced soldier he was continually in attendance on the king in his Scotch and French wars, taking part in the Battle of Crâecy, 26 August 1346.[1]

    The confidence reposed in Burghersh as a diplomatic agent was equally great. He was frequently sent as may be seen in Rymer — often in company with Bishop William Bateman of Norwich — to treat with the pope at Avignon, with Philip of Valois with the counts of Brahant and Flanders, and other leading powers, on the traces and armistices so repeatedly made and broken, and to arrange the often promised but long deferred final peace between the two contending nations. As characteristic of the age, it is curious to find that under an excess of religious zeal, Burghersh, before the breaking out of the war with France when the return was comparatively quiet, had laid aside his arms and assumed the cross. Edward, unable to dispense with the services of so valuable a helper, when starting for Gascony in 1377, petitioned the pope to release him from his vow. Two years after Crecy we find him again taking part in the French wars, and despatched to Avignon to treat with the pope for a firm and lasting peace between the two countries. The next year (1349) he accompanied the earl of Lancaster to Gascony, to suppress the rebellion there. In 1355, when Edward was leaving England for a fresh invasion of France, Burghersh was appointed one of the guardians of the realm, but died at the beginning of August of that year.[1]

    He was buried in the chantry of St. Catherine, which he had founded in Lincoln minster for the soul of his brother Henry, bishop of Lincoln, and their father, Robert Burghersh. Monuments to all three, with effigies of the two brothers, are still to be seen.[1]

    Family

    Henry de Burghersh (died November 1348), married Isabel St John, daughter of Hugh St John, 2nd Baron St John of Basing but left no issue
    Bartholomew de Burghersh, 2nd Baron Burghersh (died 1369), married Cecily de Weyland
    Thomas de Burghersh
    Joan de Burghersh, married John Mohun, 2nd Baron Mohun
    Margaret de Burghersh, supposedly[who?] married Maurice FitzThomas FitzGerald, 4th Earl of Kildare. But according to a later usually[clarification needed] reference source,[2] the fourth Earl of Kildare was present with Edward III in 1347 at the siege and capture of Calais (Clyn, Annals, p. 34). He was then knighted by the king, and married to a daughter of Sir Bartholemew Burghersh (Grace, Annals, p. 146). She next is identified[clarification needed] as Elizabeth Burghersh, the mother of his four sons, including Gerald, the 5th Earl, and John, the 6th Earl.[2] So it could be Margaret's niece Elizabeth, daughter of Bartholomew de Burghersh, 2nd Baron Burghersh, who purportedly married after August 1347 although unlikely due to known dates of events.[clarification needed]
    He was succeeded as Baron Burghersh by his son Bartholomew.

    Bartholomew — Elizabeth de Verdun. Elizabeth (daughter of Theobald de Verdun, II, Lord Weoberley and Maud de Mortimer) was born (Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England). [Group Sheet]


  36. 117.  Elizabeth de Verdun was born (Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England) (daughter of Theobald de Verdun, II, Lord Weoberley and Maud de Mortimer).
    Children:
    1. 58. Bartholomew de Burghersh, KG, 2nd Baron Burghersh was born 0___ 1329, Somerset, England; died 5 Apr 1369, Walsingham, Norfolkshire, England; was buried Walsingham Abbey, Walsingham, Norfolkshire, England.

  37. 118.  Richard Weyland was born 0___ 1294, Blaxhall, Suffolk, England; died 0___ 1319, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England.

    Richard — Joan Ufford. Joan (daughter of Robert de Ufford, I, 1st Lord Ufford and Cecily Valoines) was born 0___ 1290; died 10 Apr 1319. [Group Sheet]


  38. 119.  Joan Ufford was born 0___ 1290 (daughter of Robert de Ufford, I, 1st Lord Ufford and Cecily Valoines); died 10 Apr 1319.
    Children:
    1. 59. Cicely de Weyland was born 0___ 1319, Blaxhall, Suffolk, England; died 0Aug 1354, Sussex, England.

  39. 124.  Alfonso XI, King of Castile, Leâon and GaliciaAlfonso XI, King of Castile, Leâon and Galicia was born 13 Aug 1311, Salamanca; died 27 Mar 1350, Gibraltar; was buried Collegiate Church of San Hipolito, Cordova, Spain.

    Notes:

    Alfonso XI (13 August 1311 - 26/27 March 1350) was the king of Castile, Leâon and Galicia.

    He was the son of Ferdinand IV of Castile and his wife Constance of Portugal. Upon his father's death in 1312, several disputes ensued over who would hold regency, which were resolved in 1313.

    Once Alfonso was declared adult in 1325, he began a reign that would serve to strengthen royal power. His achievements include solving the problems of the Gibraltar Strait and the conquest of Algeciras.

    Life

    Alfonso XI of Castile attacks the Muslim Moors led by Muhammed IV, Sultan of the emirate of Granada
    Alfonso XI was the son of King Ferdinand IV of Castile and Constance of Portugal. His father died when Alfonso was one year old. His grandmother, Marâia de Molina, his mother Constance, his granduncle John and uncle Peter, assumed regency. Queen Constance died first on 18 November 1313, followed by Infante John and Infante Peter during a military campaign against Granada in 1319, which left Dowager Queen Marâia as the only regent until her death on 1 July 1321.

    Since Infante John's and Infante Peter's deaths in 1339, Infante Philip (son of Sancho IV and Marâia de Molina, thus brother of Infante Peter), Juan Manuel (the king's second-degree uncle by virtue of being Ferdinand III's grandson) and Juan el Tuerto (the late Juan's son and the king's second-degree uncle) split the kingdom among themselves according to their aspirations for regency, even as it was being looted by moors and Levantine nobility.

    As soon as he took the throne, he began working hard to strengthen royal power by dividing his enemies. His early display of rulership skills included the unhesitant execution of possible opponents (Don Juan el Tuerto in 1326, among others).[1]

    He managed to extend the limits of his kingdom to the Strait of Gibraltar after the important victory at the Battle of Râio Salado against the Marinid Dynasty in 1340 and the conquest of the Kingdom of Algeciras in 1344. Once that conflict was resolved, he redirected all his Reconquista efforts to fighting the Moorish king of Granada.

    He is variously known among Castilian kings as the Avenger or the Implacable, and as "He of Râio Salado." The first two names he earned by the ferocity with which he repressed the disorders caused by the nobles during his long minority; the third by his victory in the Battle of Râio Salado over the last formidable Marinid invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 1340.

    Alfonso XI never went to the insane lengths of his son Peter of Castile, but he could be bloody in his methods. He killed for reasons of state without any form of trial. He openly neglected his wife, Maria of Portugal, and indulged a scandalous passion for Eleanor of Guzman, who bore him ten children. This set Peter an example which he failed to better. It may be that his early death, during the Great Plague of 1350, at the Fifth Siege of Gibraltar, only averted a desperate struggle with Peter, though it was a misfortune in that it removed a ruler of eminent capacity, who understood his subjects well enough not to go too far.

    Marriage and issue

    Alfonso XI first married Constanza Manuel in 1325, but had the union annulled two years later. His second marriage, in 1328, was to Maria of Portugal, daughter of Alfonso IV of Portugal.[2] They had:

    Ferdinand (Valladolid, (1332–1333);
    Peter of Castile.
    By his mistress, Eleanor of Guzman, he had ten children:

    Pedro Alfonso (1330–1338), Lord of Aguilar de Campoo
    Sancho Alfonso (1331–1343), 1st Lord of Ledesma
    Henry II of Castile (1333–1379) king of Castile;
    Fadrique Alfonso (1333–1358), Henry's twin brother, he was Master of the Order of Santiago and Lord of Haro;
    Fernando Alfonso (1336–c. 1350), 2nd Lord of Ledesma;
    Tello Alfonso (1337–1370), Lord of Aguilar de Campoo
    Juan Alfonso (1341–1359), Lord of Badajoz and Jerez de la Frontera;
    Juana Alfonso, (born 1342), Lady of Trastâamara due to her marriage in 1354 to Fernando Ruiz de Castro. The marriage was annulled and in 1366 she married Felipe de Castro;
    Sancho Alfonso (1343–1375), 1st Count of Alburquerque
    Pedro Alfonso (1345–1359)
    After Alfonso's death, his widow Maria had Eleanor arrested and later killed.[3]

    Appearance

    "...King Alfonso was not very tall but well proportioned, and he was rather strong and had fair skin and hair."[4]

    Alfonso married Maria of Portugal 0___ 1328, (Lisbon, Portugal). Maria (daughter of Afonso IV, King of Portugal and The Algarves and Beatrice of Castile) was born 0___ 1313, Lisbon, Portugal; died 18 Jan 1357, (Lisbon, Portugal). [Group Sheet]


  40. 125.  Maria of Portugal was born 0___ 1313, Lisbon, Portugal (daughter of Afonso IV, King of Portugal and The Algarves and Beatrice of Castile); died 18 Jan 1357, (Lisbon, Portugal).
    Children:
    1. 62. Peter of Castile, King of Castile and Leon was born 30 Aug 1334, Monasterio de Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas, Burgos, Spain; died 23 Mar 1369, Montiel, Toledo, Spain; was buried Cathedral of Seville, Seville, Spain.


Generation: 8

  1. 128.  Robert Neville was born 0___ 1237, Castle Raby, Raby-Keverstone, Durham, England; died 0___ 1282.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Robert de Neville, II
    • Alt Death: 6 Jun 1271, Middleham, Yorkshire, England

    Notes:

    Robert de Neville, who died during his father's lifetime [see Neville, Robert de, d. 1282], made one of those fortunate marriages which became traditional with this family, acquiring the lordship of Middleham, in Wensleydale, with the side valley of Coverdale, and the patronage of the abbey of Coverham, by his marriage with Mary, the heiress of the FitzRanulphs.

    end of comment

    Robert de Neville, II
    Also Known As: "alt. d. 6/6/1271 Coverham Abbey", "North Riding", "Yorkshire", "England"
    Birthdate: 1237 (34)
    Birthplace: Castle Raby, Staindrop, County Durham, England
    Death: June 6, 1271 (34)
    Middleham, North Riding of Yorkshire, England
    Place of Burial: Yorkshire, England
    Immediate Family:
    Husband of Anne (Warwick) and Mary de Neville
    Father of Anastasia De Neville; Margaret de Wynton; Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville de Raby; Henry Neville; Joan Neville and 2 others
    Managed by: Bernard Raimond Assaf
    Last Updated: July 15, 2017

    About Robert de Neville, II
    Robert (II) de Neville1

    M, #19615, b. circa 1240, d. 1271

    Robert (II) de Neville was born circa 1240 at Raby, County Durham, England.
    He was the son of Robert (I) de Neville, Lord of Raby and unknown wife (?).
    He married Mary fitz Ranulf, daughter of Ralf fitz Ranulf, Lord of Middleham and Anastasia de Percy, circa 1260 in a Middleham, Yorkshire, England marriage.
    He died in 1271.
    Children of Robert (II) de Neville and Mary fitz Ranulf

    1.Ranulf de Neville, 1st Lord Neville+1 b. 18 Oct 1262, d. c 1337

    2.Randolph de Neville+2 b. 18 Oct 1262, d. 18 Apr 1332

    3.Ralph de Neville1 b. b 1271, d. a 1321

    4.Robert de Neville1 b. 1321, d. a 1321

    http://thepeerage.com/p1962.htm#i19615

    *********************************************************
    Section ABN: Descendants of Geoffrey Neville

    David Thaler

    18043 NE 132nd St, Redmond WA 98052

    Send questions and corrections to: dthaler@microsoft.com

    HTML generated by Issue v1.3.6 on 8 Dec. 2008

    http://www.armidalesoftware.com/issue/

    From Thaler_export.ged

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation One

    1. GEOFFREY1 NEVILLE was born between 1139 and 1235, and died in 1249[6]. He married MARGARET. [6]

    Child: + 2 i. ROBERT2, d. in 1282; m. IDA.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation Two

    2. ROBERT2 NEVILLE (Geoffrey1), son of (1) Geoffrey1 and Margaret NEVILLE, was born between 1172 and 1250, and died in 1282[6]. He married IDA. [6]

    Child: + 3 i. ROBERT3, d. in 1271; m. MARY in 1270.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation Three

    3. ROBERT3 NEVILLE (Robert2, Geoffrey1), son of (2) Robert2 and Ida NEVILLE, was born between 1186 and 1256, and died in 1271[6]. He married in 1270, MARY[6], who died in 1320[6]. [6]

    Child: + 4 i. RANDOLPH4, 1ST BARON NEVILLE OF RABY, d. in 1331; m. (OI-7) EUPHEMIA DE CLAVERING.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation Four

    4. RANDOLPH4 DE NEVILLE, 1ST BARON NEVILLE OF RABY (Robert3, Robert2, Geoffrey1), son of (3) Robert3 and Mary NEVILLE, was born between 1231 and 1272, and died in 1331[2]. He married (OI-7) EUPHEMIA DE CLAVERING, daughter of (OI-6) Baron Robert FitzRoger and (ADX-15) Margery (de la ZOUCHE). [3, 6, 11]

    Child: + 5 i. RALPH5, 2ND BARON NEVILLE, b. circa 1291, d. on 5 Aug. 1367; m. (CC-6) ALICE DE AUDLEY.

    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

    Generation Five

    5. RALPH5 NEVILLE, 2ND BARON NEVILLE (Randolph4, Robert3, Robert2, Geoffrey1), son of (4) Randolph4, 1st Baron Neville of Raby and (OI-7) Euphemia (de CLAVERING), was born circa 1291[11], and died on 5 Aug. 1367[11]. He married (CC-6) ALICE DE AUDLEY, daughter of (CC-4) Baron Hugh and (AAS-10) Isolde (de MORTIMER), who was born circa 1300 in Hadley, Staffordshire, England, United Kingdom, died on 12 Jan. 1373/4[8, 11], and was buried in Cathedral Church, Durham, Durham, England. [4, 16, 6, 11]

    Child: + 6 i. JOHN6, 3RD BARON NEVILLE, b. circa 1329, d. on 17 Oct. 1388; m. (ADI-5) MAUD DE PERCY before 1362.

    --^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation Six

    6. JOHN6 DE NEVILLE, 3RD BARON NEVILLE (Ralph5, Randolph4, Robert3, Robert2, Geoffrey1), son of (5) Ralph5, 2nd Baron Neville and (CC-6) Alice (de AUDLEY) (GREYSTOKE), was born circa 1329[12], and died on 17 Oct. 1388[12]. He married before 1362, (ADI-5) MAUD DE PERCY[12], daughter of (ADI-4) Henry, 2nd Baron Percy and (P-79) Idoine (de CLIFFORD), who died before 18 Feb. 1378/9[12]. [16, 7, 13]

    Children: + 7 i. ELEANOR7, d. after 16 July 1447; m. (XM-3) RALPH DE LUMLEY, 1ST BARON LUMLEY.

    + 8 ii. THOMAS, BARON FURNIVALL, d. on 14 March 1406/7; m. (PH-2) JOAN FURNIVALL before 1 July 1379.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation Seven

    7. ELEANOR7 NEVILLE (John6, Ralph5, Randolph4, Robert3, Robert2, Geoffrey1), daughter of (6) John6, 3rd Baron Neville and (ADI-5) Maud (de PERCY), was born between 1343 and 1380, and died after 16 July 1447[9]. She married (XM-3) RALPH DE LUMLEY, 1ST BARON LUMLEY, son of (XM-2) Marmaduke and Margaret LUMLEY, who was born INT circa 1360 (61 ())[9], and died on 5 Jan. 1399/1400[9]. [16, 10]

    Child: See (XM-3) Ralph de LUMLEY, 1st Baron Lumley

    8. THOMAS7 NEVILLE, BARON FURNIVALL (John6, Ralph5, Randolph4, Robert3, Robert2, Geoffrey1), son of (6) John6, 3rd Baron Neville and (ADI-5) Maud (de PERCY), was born between 1343 and 1365, and died on 14 March 1407[15]. He married before 1 July 1379, (PH-2) JOAN FURNIVALL[15], daughter of (PH-1) Baron William, who was born circa Oct. 1368[15], and died in 1395[15]. [5, 14]

    Child: + 9 i. MAUDE8, b. in 1392, d. in 1423; m. (AJK-7) JOHN TALBOT, LORD LIEUTENANT OF IRELAND.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Generation Eight

    9. MAUDE8 DE NEVILLE (Thomas7, John6, Ralph5, Randolph4, Robert3, Robert2, Geoffrey1), daughter of (8) Thomas7, Baron Furnivall and (PH-2) Joan (FURNIVALL), was born in 1392[1], and died in 1423[1]. She married (AJK-7) JOHN TALBOT, LORD LIEUTENANT OF IRELAND, son of (AJK-6) Sir Richard and (AIT-21) Ankaret (le STRANGE), who was born in 1384[1], and died on 17 July 1453[1]. [5, 15]

    Child: See (AJK-7) John TALBOT, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Robert De NEVILLE (Sir)

    Died: AFT Jul 1373

    Father: Robert De NEVILLE (Sir)

    Mother: Isabel De BYRON

    Married 1: Joan De ATHERTON (dau. of Henry De Atherton and Emma Aintree)

    Children:

    1. Robert De NEVILLE of Hornby (Sir)

    2. John De NEVILLE (b. ABT 1325)

    3. Giles De NEVILLE (b. ABT 1327)

    4. Thomas De NEVILLE (b. ABT 1329)

    5. William De NEVILLE (b. ABT 1331)

    6. Geoffrey De NEVILLE (b. ABT 1333)

    Married 2: Elizabeth De St. LAWRENCE (dau. of Thomas De St. Laurence) AFT 1338, St. Lawrence, Kent, England

    end of biography

    Robert — Mary FitzRanulph, Heiress of Middleham. Mary was born 0___ 1244, Middleham, Yorkshire, England; died 11 Apr 1320, Yorkshire, England; was buried Coverham, Yorkshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 129.  Mary FitzRanulph, Heiress of Middleham was born 0___ 1244, Middleham, Yorkshire, England; died 11 Apr 1320, Yorkshire, England; was buried Coverham, Yorkshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Mary de Neville (Fitzrandolph)

    Notes:

    Mary de Neville (Fitzrandolph)
    Also Known As: "Fitzralph", "Heiress of Middleham"
    Birthdate: 1244 (76)
    Birthplace: Middleham, Yorkshire, England
    Death: April 11, 1320 (76)
    Yorkshire, England
    Place of Burial: Coverham, Yorkshire, England
    Immediate Family:
    Daughter of Ranulf FitzRanulf, Sir., Lord of Spennithorne and Middleham and Anastasia FitzRanulf
    Wife of Robert de Neville, II
    Mother of Anastasia De Neville; Margaret de Wynton; Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville de Raby; Henry Neville; Joan Neville and 2 others
    Sister of Joan of Middleham and Anastasia FitzRandolph
    Half sister of Ralph fitz Ranulf, Sir, Lord of Spennithorne; Piers fitz Ranulf; Henry fitz Ranulf and Adam fitz Ranulf
    Occupation: Heiress of Middleham
    Managed by: Mike Bullock
    Last Updated: July 15, 2017

    About Mary de Neville
    Mary FitzRalph1,2
    F, #11547, b. circa 1246, d. circa 11 April 1320
    Father Sir Ralph FitzRandolph, Lord Middleham3 b. c 1218, d. 31 Mar 1270
    Mother Anastasia de Percy3 b. c 1220, d. b 28 Apr 1272
    Mary FitzRalph was born circa 1246 at of Middleham, Durham, England. She married Robert de Neville, son of Sir Robert de Neville, Sheriff of Northumberland, circa 1260; They had 5 sons (Sir Ranulph, 1st Lord Neville of Raby; Robert; Ralph; Henry; & Reynold) and 4 daughters (Margaret, wife of Gilbert de Wauton; Jane; Merisia; & Anastasia).2 Mary FitzRalph died circa 11 April 1320 at Coverham, Yorkshire, England; Buried at Coverham Abbey, Yorkshire.2
    Family Robert de Neville b. b 1240, d. 6 Aug 1271
    Child
    Sir Randolph de Neville, 1st Lord Neville of Raby, Constable of Warkworth Castle+2 b. 18 Oct 1262, d. c 18 Apr 1331
    Citations
    1.[S3190] Unknown author, Stemmata Robertson, p. 239; Wallop Family, Vol. 4, line 728.
    2.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 240-241.
    3.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 240.
    From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p385.htm#i11547
    ______________
    Mary fitz Ranulf1
    F, #19616, b. circa 1244, d. before 11 April 1320
    Last Edited=6 Apr 2013
    Mary fitz Ranulf was born circa 1244 at Middleham, Yorkshire, England.2 She was the daughter of Ralf fitz Ranulf, Lord of Middleham and Anastasia de Percy.1,2 She married Robert (II) de Neville, son of Robert (I) de Neville, Lord of Raby and unknown wife (?), circa 1260 in a Middleham, Yorkshire, England marriage.2 She died before 11 April 1320 at Coverham, Yorkshire, England.1,2 She was buried at Caverham Abbey.3
    Children of Mary fitz Ranulf and Robert (II) de Neville
    1.Ranulf de Neville, 1st Lord Neville+1 b. 18 Oct 1262, d. c 18 Apr 1331
    2.Ralph de Neville1 b. b 1271, d. a 1321
    3.Robert de Neville1 b. b 1271, d. a 1321
    Citations
    1.[S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 14. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    2.[S125] Richard Glanville-Brown, online , Richard Glanville-Brown (RR 2, Milton, Ontario, Canada), downloaded 17 August 2005.
    3.[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume IX, page 496. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
    From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p1962.htm#i19616
    ______________
    Mary TAILBOYS
    Born: ABT 1244, Middleham
    Died: BEF 11 Apr 1320
    Father: Ralph TAILBOYS
    Mother: Anastasia De PERCY
    Married: Robert De NEVILLE
    Children:
    1. Ralph De NEVILLE (1° B. Neville of Raby)
    2. Jane De NEVILLE
    3. Mericia (Mercy) De NEVILLE
    4. Anastasia De NEVILLE
    5. Margaret De NEVILLE
    6. Henry De NEVILLE
    7. Reginald De NEVILLE
    8. Robert De NEVILLE
    From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/TALBOYS.htm#Mary TAILBOYS1
    __________________
    Mary fitz Ranulf1

    F, #19616, b. circa 1244, d. before 11 April 1320

    Last Edited=29 Apr 2009

    Mary fitz Ranulf was born circa 1244 at Middleham, Yorkshire, England.
    She was the daughter of Ralf fitz Ranulf, Lord of Middleham and Anastasia de Percy.
    She married Robert (II) de Neville, son of Robert (I) de Neville, Lord of Raby and unknown wife (?), circa 1260 in a Middleham, Yorkshire, England marriage.
    She died before 11 April 1320 at Coverham, Yorkshire, England.
    She was buried at Caverham Abbey.
    From circa 1260, her married name became de Neville.
    Children of Mary fitz Ranulf and Robert (II) de Neville

    1.Ranulf de Neville, 1st Lord Neville+1 b. 18 Oct 1262, d. c 1337

    2.Randolph de Neville+2 b. 18 Oct 1262, d. 18 Apr 1332

    3.Ralph de Neville1 b. b 1271, d. a 1321

    4.Robert de Neville1 b. 1321, d. a 1321

    Citations

    http://thepeerage.com/p1962.htm#i19616

    Mary TAILBOYS is another name for Mary fitz Ranulf.

    http://www.thepeerage.com/p1962.htm#i19616

    Born: ABT 1244, Middleham

    Died: BEF 11 Apr 1320

    Father: Ralph TAILBOYS

    Mother: Anastasia De PERCY

    Married: Robert De NEVILLE

    Children:

    1. Ralph De NEVILLE (1° B. Neville of Raby)

    2. Jane De NEVILLE

    3. Mericia (Mercy) De NEVILLE

    4. Anastasia De NEVILLE

    5. Margaret De NEVILLE

    6. Henry De NEVILLE

    7. Reginald De NEVILLE

    8. Robert De NEVILLE

    http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/TALBOYS.htm

    Notes:

    Residence (Family):
    Mimi & I spent a couple of nights at, "The Wensleydale Heifer", pub and hotel ... DAH

    Children:
    1. 64. Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville of Raby was born 18 Oct 1262, Raby, Durham, England; died 18 Apr 1331, Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England.

  3. 130.  Robert FitzRoger Clavering, 5th Baron Warkworth, 1st Baron Clavering was born ~ 1241, Clavering, Essex, England; died 0___ 1310, Clavering, Essex, England.

    Notes:

    Born: Abt 1241, Clavering, Essex, England 2
    Marriage: Margery Mary DE LA ZOUCHE [1417] in 1265 in Warkworth, Northumberland, England 1
    Died: 1310, Clavering, Essex, England about age 69 2
    Sources, Comments and Notes
    Source Par Charles H. Browning:
    "..., the son of Sir John, third Baron de Nevill, of Raby, K.G., constituted admiral of the king's fleet, d. October 17, 1385, the son of Ralph de Nevill, second Baron, d. 1367, son of Ralph, Baron de Nevill, of Raby, and his first wife, Lady Euphemia, sister of John de Clavering, and daughter of Robert Fitz-Roger, son of Roger Fitz-John, the son of Robert Fitz-Robert, one of the Sureties for the Magna Charta."
    ______________________________
    Source Par Mostyn John Armstrong:
    "... After this sir Robert Fitz-Roger de Clavering, married Margery, daughter of lord Zouch, and died lord in the 3d of Edward II. and John de Clavering was his fon and heir, aged 40; he was a knight, and left left Eve his only daughter and heir, by Hawife his wife, daughter of fir Pain Tibetot..."
    ______________________________
    Source Par Thomas Gregory Smart:
    "... Descent through Clavering.
    i.\emdash b Robert Fitzroger, 5th Baron Warkworth, summoned to Parliament, 1295."
    _____________________________
    Source <
    "... Roger. He died in 1249; his son, Robert was one and a half at the time. Consequentially, a guardian was appointed to care for the family's property: William de Valence, half-brother of the king, Henry III , and later Earl of Pembroke . In his record of events, the chronicler Matthew Paris characterised it as "a noble castle". Valence remained guardian until 1268, when it reverted to Robert Fitz John. King Edward I of England stayed at Warkworth Castle for a night in 1292. The English king was asked to mediate in a dispute over the Scottish throne and laid his own claim, leading to the Anglo-Scottish Wars. After the Scottish victory at the Battle of Stirling Bridg in 1297, Robert and his son, John de Clavering, were captured. They were subsequently released and in 1310 John assumed control of the family estates. A year later, John made the Crown inheritor. Such was the importance of large castles during the Scottish Wars, the Crown subsidised their maintenance and even construction. In 1319, King Edward II paid for a garrison of four men-at-arms and eight hobilars to enhance the existing force of twelve men-at-arms. Ralph Neville was the keeper of Warkworth Castle in 1322. As he was married to John's daughter, Euphemia, Ralph may have hoped to inherit the Clavering estates, however that was not to be the case. A Scottish force besieged the castle unsuccessfully in 1327. "
    _____________________________
    Source Par Anthony Hall,Robert Morden:
    "ALINGTON, a Member of the Manor of Werkworth, of which Roger de Clavering died possessed, 33 Hen., III. leaving his Son and Heir Robert, very young, who was committed to the Tuition of William dt Valence, the King's Brother."
    _____________________________
    Source Publiâe par Eneas Mackenzie:
    "... The manor of Corbridge was granted by the crown, 6 king John, to Robert, son of Roger de Clavering, baron of Warkworth, to hold, with all its regalities, in fee-farm, by the annual service of ą40, with the privilege of a weekly market, and an annual fair on the eve, day, and day after the festival of St. John the Baptist. It had also the privilege of sending two members to parliament, which privilege was disused on account of the burthen of the members' expences; the names of two of whom are on record, viz. Adam Fitz-Allan, and Hugh Fitz-Hugh, 23 king Edward I. John, the last Baron Clavering, granted the reversion of his honour of Warkworth, and of this and his other manors in this county, to the crown, 6 king Edward I. which were given by king Edward III. to Henry Percy. The widow of John Lord Clavering held a third part of Corbridge manor for her dower; but Henry Percy died seized of the whole, 26 king Edward III. and left it, with other great estates, to his son and heir of the same name."
    [Wikipedia: "Corbridge is a village in Northumberland , England , situated 16 miles (26 km) west of Newcastle and 4 miles (6 km) east of Hexham . Villages in the vicinity include Halton , Acomb , Aydon and Sandhoe .]
    _____________________________
    "Genealogy of the Founders of the Abbey of Sibton.
    THE Lady Sibyl, sister of JOHN DE CATNETO, daughter of RALPH DE CATNETO, who came at the Conquest of England, was married to Sir ROBERT FITZ-WALTER, Founder of the House of St. Faith, of Horsham ;who begat of her a son by name Roger ;and John, Sheriff; and WILLIAM DE CATNETO. Roger; and John, the Sheriff, died without issue ; but William took a Wife, and begat of her three daughters, namely: Margaret; Clemence and Sara.
    Clemence and Sara died without issue ;but Margaret was married to a certain Norman HUGH DE CRESCY; who begat of her a Son, named Roger. ROGER DE CRESCY took a Wife by name ISABELLA DE RYE; and begat of her four sons, namely: Hugh; Roger ; John and Stephen, who all died without issue. The aforesaid Margaret, after her husband Sir HUGH DE CRESCY was dead, married another Nobleman, by name, ROBERT FITZ-ROGER ;who begat of her JOHN FITZ-ROBERT.
    John begat a son by name ROGER. The same ROGER begat a son by name ROBERT FITZ-ROGER, now Patron. Who after the death of STEPHEN DE CRESCY succeeded by Inheritance to the Barony of Horsford, as heir of the Lady MARGARET DE CHENET, who married two husbands as is aforesaid.

    But the aforesaid ROBERT [FITZ-ROGER] married a Wife, by name, MARGERY DE LA ZOUCHE, of whom he begat many sons and daughters, son of KingHenry, caused to be namely : JOHN; ALEXANDER; ROGER ; ROBERT; ALAN; HENRY; and EDMUND. JOHN married a Wife, by name, HAWISE, of whom he begat a daughter, by name, EVA, who now claims to be the Patroness of the House of Sibton, of St. Faith, and of Blythburgh as of Hereditary Right."
    ____________________________
    Source :
    "ROBERT FitzRoger of Warkworth, Northumberland and Clavering, Essex, son of ROGER FitzJohn of Warkworth & his wife --- (-before 29 Apr 1310). A manuscript genealogy of the founders of Horsham priory, Norfolk names "Robertum filium Rogeri, nunc patronum" as the son of "Rogerum", son of "Johannem filium Roberti", adding that he inherited "post obitum Stephani de Crescy...in hereditate baronniµ de Horsford, quasi hµres dominµ Margeriµ de Cheny" [his paternal great-grandmother]. He was summoned to Parliament in 1295 whereby he is held to have become Lord FitzRoger.

    m MARGARET la Zouche, daughter of ---. A manuscript genealogy of the founders of Horsham priory, Norfolk records that "Robertum filium Rogeri, nunc patronum" married "Margeriam de la Souche". Her precise relationship to the Zouche family has not been ascertained. Robert & his wife had eight children:

    1. JOHN FtzRobert of Costessey, Norfolk ([1265/66]-Aynhoe, Northamptonshire [1/23] Jan 1332, bur Langley Abbey, Norfolk). ...
    2. Alexander. ...
    3. Roger. ...
    4. Robert. ...
    5. Alan. ...
    6. Henry. ...
    7. Edmund. ...
    8. Ellen. ...." [and Euphemia ?]

    Robert married Margery Mary DE LA ZOUCHE [1417] in 1265 in Warkworth, Northumberland, England.1 (Margery Mary DE LA ZOUCHE [1417] was born about 1245 in Clavering, Essex, England 3 and died in 1329 in Clavering, Essex, England.)

    Robert married Margery Mary de la Zouche 0___ 1265, Warkworth, Alnwick, Northumberland, England. Margery (daughter of Alan la Zouche and Helen de Quincy) was born ~ 1245, Clavering, Essex, England; died 0___ 1329, Clavering, Essex, England. [Group Sheet]


  4. 131.  Margery Mary de la Zouche was born ~ 1245, Clavering, Essex, England (daughter of Alan la Zouche and Helen de Quincy); died 0___ 1329, Clavering, Essex, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Margaret la Zouche

    Children:
    1. 65. Euphemia Clavering, Baroness of Raby was born 0___ 1267, Clavering, Essex, England; died 0___ 1320, (Raby Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England).

  5. 132.  James de Audley, Knight was born 0___ 1220, Heleighley Castle, Staffordshire, England; died 11 Jun 1272, Ireland.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Justiciar of Ireland
    • Also Known As: James Aiditheley
    • Also Known As: James de Aldithel
    • Also Known As: James de Aldthley, Justice of Chester

    Notes:

    James de Audley (1220 - 1272), or James de Aldithel and Alditheley, was an English baron.[1]

    Biography

    Audley was born in 1220 to Henry de Audley, and was, like him, a lord-marcher. In 1257 he accompanied Richard, king of the Romans, to his coronation at Aachen (Matt. Paris), sailing on 29 April (Rymer) and returning to England in the autumn to take part in the Welsh campaign (1257-1260).

    In the following year (1258) he was one of the royalist members of the council of fifteen nominated by the Provisions of Oxford, and witnessed, as 'James of Aldithel,' their confirmation by the king (18 Oct.).

    He also, with his brother-in-law, Peter de Montfort, was appointed commissioner to treat with Llewelyn (18 Aug.), and two years later he acted as an itinerant justice.

    On Llewelyn of Wales attacking Mortimer, a royalist marcher, Audley joined Prince Edward at Hereford, 9 January 1263 to resist the invasion. But the barons, coming to Llewelyn's assistance, dispersed the royalist forces, and seized on his castles and estates.

    He is wrongly said by Dugdale and Foss to have been made 'justice of Ireland' in this year, but in December he was one of the royalist sureties in the appeal to Louis of France.

    At the time of the battle of Lewes (May 1264) he was in arms for the king on the Welsh marches (Matthew Paris), and he was one of the first to rise against the government of Simon de Montfort.

    On Gloucester embracing the royal cause, early in 1265, Audley joined him with the other marchers, and took part in the campaign of Evesham and the overthrow of the baronial party.

    He appears to have gone on a pilgrimage to Galicia in 1268, and also, it is stated, to Palestine in 1270; but though his name occurs among the 'Crucesignati' of 21 May 1270, it is clear that he never went, for he was appointed justiciary of Ireland a few months later, his name first occurring in connection with that office 5 September 1270.

    He also served as High Sheriff of Staffordshire and Shropshire in 1261 and 1270.[2] During his tenure as Justiciar of Ireland he led several expeditions against 'the Irish rebels,' but died by 'breaking his neck' about 11 June 1272 (when he is last mentioned as justiciary), and was succeeded by his son James, who did homage 29 July 1272.

    References

    Jump up ^ "(Sir) James DE AUDLEY Knight, Justiciar of Ireland". washington.ancestryregister.com. Archived from the original on March 20, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
    Jump up ^ Collections for a history of Staffordshire. Staffordshire Record Society. 1912. p. 276.

    end of biography

    Birth:
    Heighley Castle (or Heleigh Castle) is a ruined medieval castle near Madeley, Staffordshire. The castle was completed by the Audley family in 1233 and for over 300 years was one of their ancestral homes. It was held for Charles I during the English Civil War and was destroyed by Parliamentary forces in the 1640s. The ruinous remains comprise masonry fragments, mostly overgrown by vegetation. The site is protected by Grade II listed building status and is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The castle is privately owned and is not open to visitors.

    Heleigh Castle was built by Henry de Aldithley (c.1175-1246) (later "de Audley"), Sheriff of Shropshire 1227-1232. He also built the nearby Red Castle, Shropshire. He endowed the nearby Cistercian Abbey of St. Mary at Hulton in 1223, and donated to it a large amount of land, some of which was an inheritance from his mother and some of which was purchased.

    ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heighley_Castle

    James married Ela Longespee 0___ 1244. Ela (daughter of William Longespee, II, Knight, Earl of Salisbury, Crusader and Odoine de Camville) was born ~ 1228, (Salisbury, Wiltshire) England; died 22 Nov 1299. [Group Sheet]


  6. 133.  Ela Longespee was born ~ 1228, (Salisbury, Wiltshire) England (daughter of William Longespee, II, Knight, Earl of Salisbury, Crusader and Odoine de Camville); died 22 Nov 1299.
    Children:
    1. Nicholas de Audley was born Bef 1258, Heleighley Castle, Staffordshire, England; died 28 Aug 1299, Brimsfield,,Gloucestershire,Englan.
    2. Maud Audley was born ~ 1260, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England.
    3. 66. Hugh de Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Stratton was born 0___ 1267, Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England; died Bef 1326; was buried Much Marcle, Saint Bartholomew's Churchyard, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England.

  7. 136.  Henry de Percy, Knight, 7th Feudal Baron of Topcliffe died 0___ 1272, (Alnwick, Northumberland, England).

    Henry married Eleanor de Warenne 8 Sep 1268. Eleanor (daughter of John de Warenne, Knight, 6th Earl of Surrey and Alice de Lusignan) was born 0___ 1251. [Group Sheet]


  8. 137.  Eleanor de Warenne was born 0___ 1251 (daughter of John de Warenne, Knight, 6th Earl of Surrey and Alice de Lusignan).
    Children:
    1. 68. Henry de Percy, Knight, 1st Baron Percy was born 25 Mar 1273, Petworth, Sussex, England; died 0Oct 1314, Alnwick, Northumberland, England.

  9. 138.  Richard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of ArundelRichard FitzAlan, Knight, 8th Earl of Arundel was born 2 Mar 1266, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England (son of John FitzAlan, Knight, 7th Earl of Arundel and Isabella Mortimer); died 9 Mar 1302, Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England.

    Notes:

    Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel (7th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots) (3 February 1266/7 – 9 March 1301/2) was an English Norman medieval nobleman.

    Lineage

    He was the son of John FitzAlan, 7th Earl of Arundel (6th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots) and Isabella Mortimer, daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Wigmore and Maud de Braose. His paternal grandparents were John Fitzalan, 6th Earl of Arundel and Maud le Botiller.

    Richard was feudal Lord of Clun and Oswestry in the Welsh Marches. After attaining his majority in 1289 he became the 8th Earl of Arundel, by being summoned to Parliament by a writ directed to the Earl of Arundel.

    He was knighted by King Edward I of England in 1289.

    Fought in Wales, Gascony & Scotland

    He fought in the Welsh wars, 1288 to 1294, when the Welsh castle of Castell y Bere (near modern-day Towyn) was besieged by Madog ap Llywelyn. He commanded the force sent to relieve the siege and he also took part in many other campaigns in Wales ; also in Gascony 1295-97; and furthermore in the Scottish wars, 1298-1300.

    Marriage & Issue

    He married sometime before 1285, Alice of Saluzzo (also known as Alesia di Saluzzo), daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo in Italy. Their issue:

    Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel.
    John, a priest.
    Alice FitzAlan, married Stephen de Segrave, 3rd Lord Segrave.
    Margaret FitzAlan, married William le Botiller (or Butler).
    Eleanor FitzAlan, married Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy.[a]

    Burial

    Richard and his mother are buried together in the sanctuary of Haughmond Abbey, long closely associated with the FitzAlan family.

    Ancestry

    [show]Ancestors of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel

    Notes

    Jump up ^ Standard accounts of the Percy family identify Eleanor as the daughter of the "Earl of Arundel". Arrangements for Eleanor's marriage to Lord Percy are found in the recognizance made in 1300 by Eleanor's father, Richard, Earl of Arundel, for a debt of 2,000 marks which he owed Sir Henry Percy. Eleanor was styled as a "kinswoman" of Edward II on two separate occasions; once in 1318 and again in 1322 presumably by her descent from Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy who was the brother of Edward II's great-grandmother, Beatrice of Savoy. Eleanor's brothers, Edmund and John were also styled as "kinsmen" of the king. Eleanor's identity is further indicated by the presence of the old and new arms of FitzAlan (or Arundel) at her tomb.

    References

    Jump up ^ www.briantimms.net, Charles's Roll
    Jump up ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.833
    Wikisource link to Fitzalan, Richard (1267-1302) (DNB00). Wikisource.
    Weis, Frederick Lewis. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700.
    External links[edit]
    Medieval Lands Project on Richard FitzAlan

    Richard married Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel Bef 1285. Alice (daughter of Thomas of Saluzzo and Luigia de Ceva) was born 0___ 1269, Saluzzo, Italy; died 25 Sep 1292; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  10. 139.  Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel was born 0___ 1269, Saluzzo, Italy (daughter of Thomas of Saluzzo and Luigia de Ceva); died 25 Sep 1292; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Alesia di Saluzzo

    Notes:

    Alice of Saluzzo, Countess of Arundel (died 25 September 1292),[1] also known as Alesia di Saluzzo, was an Italian-born noblewoman and an English countess. She was a daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo, and the wife of Richard Fitzalan, 8th Earl of Arundel. Alice was one of the first Italian women to marry into an English noble family. She assumed the title of Countess of Arundel in 1289.

    Family

    Alesia was born on an unknown date in Saluzzo (present-day Province of Cuneo, Piedmont); the second eldest daughter of Thomas I, 4th Margrave of Saluzzo, and Luigia di Ceva (died 22 August 1291/1293), daughter of Giorgio, Marquis of Ceva[2] and Menzia d'Este.[1] Alesia had fifteen siblings. Her father was a very wealthy and cultured nobleman under whose rule Saluzzo achieved a prosperity, freedom, and greatness it had never known previously.[citation needed]

    Marriage and issue

    Sometime before 1285, Alice married Richard Fitzalan, feudal Lord of Clun and Oswestry in the Welsh Marches, the son of John Fitzalan, 7th Earl of Arundel and Isabella Mortimer. Richard would succeed to the title of Earl of Arundel in 1289, thus making Alice the 8th Countess of Arundel. Along with her aunt, Alasia of Saluzzo who married Edmund de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln in 1247, Alice was one of the first Italian women to marry into an English noble family. Her marriage had been arranged by the late King Henry III's widowed Queen consort Eleanor of Provence.

    Richard and Alice's principal residence was Marlborough Castle in Wiltshire, but Richard also held Arundel Castle in Sussex and the castles of Clun and Oswestry in Shropshire. Her husband was knighted by King Edward I in 1289, and fought in the Welsh Wars (1288–1294), and later in the Scottish Wars. The marriage produced four children:[3]

    Edmund Fitzalan, 9th Earl of Arundel (1 May 1285- 17 November 1326 by execution), married Alice de Warenne, by whom he had issue.
    John Fitzalan, a priest
    Alice Fitzalan (died 7 September 1340), married Stephen de Segrave, 3rd Lord Segrave, by whom she had issue.
    Margaret Fitzalan, married William le Botiller, by whom she had issue.
    Eleanor Fitzalan, married Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy, by whom she had issue.
    Alice died on 25 September 1292 and was buried in Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire. Her husband Richard died on 09/03/1301 and was buried alongside Alice. In 1341, provision was made for twelve candles to be burned beside their tombs.[2] The Abbey is now a ruin as the result of a fire during the English Civil War. Her many descendants included the Dukes of Norfolk, the English queen consorts of Henry VIII, Sir Winston Churchill, Diana, Princess of Wales, and the current British Royal Family.

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b Cawley, Charles, Saluzzo, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    ^ Jump up to: a b The Complete Peerage, vol.1, page 241.[full citation needed]
    Jump up ^ Cawley, Charles, Earls of Arundel, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]

    Categories: 13th-century births1292 deathsPeople from SaluzzoWomen of medieval Italy

    Children:
    1. 69. Eleanor FitzAlan was born 0___ 1282; died 0___ 1328; was buried Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, England.
    2. 92. Edmund FitzAlan, Knight, 9th Earl of Arundel was born 1 May 1285, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England; died 17 Nov 1326, Hereford, Herefordshire, England; was buried Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire, England.
    3. Alice FitzAlan was born 0___ 1291, Arundel, Sussex, England; died 7 Feb 1340, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Chacombe Priory, Chacombe, Northamptonshire, England.
    4. Margaret FitzAlan was born (Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex, England).

  11. 140.  Roger de Clifford, II, Knight was born (Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England) (son of Walter de Clifford, Knight, Baron Clifford and Agnes Cundy); died 0___ 1282.

    Roger — Isabella Vipont. Isabella (daughter of Robert de Vieuxpont and Idonea de Builli) died 0___ 1291. [Group Sheet]


  12. 141.  Isabella Vipont (daughter of Robert de Vieuxpont and Idonea de Builli); died 0___ 1291.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isabella Vieuxpont

    Children:
    1. 70. Robert de Clifford, Knight, 1st Baron de Clifford was born ~ 1274, Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England; died 24 Jun 1314, Bannockburn, Scotland; was buried Shap Abbey, Cumbria, England.

  13. 142.  Thomas de Clare, Knight, Lord of Thomond was born ~ 1245, Tonbridge, Kent, England (son of Richard de Clare, Knight, 6th Earl of Gloucester and Maud de Lacy); died 29 Aug 1287, Ireland.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Lord of Inchiquin and Youghal

    Notes:

    Thomas de Clare, Lord of Inchiquin and Youghal (c. 1245 - 29 August 1287) was a Hiberno-Norman peer and soldier. He was the second son of Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester and his wife Maud de Lacy, Countess of Gloucester. On 26 January 1276 he was granted the lordship of Thomond by Edward I of England; he spent the next eight years attempting to conquer it from the O'Brien dynasty, kings of Thomond.

    Career

    Thomas was born in about 1245 in Tonbridge, Kent, England, the second eldest son of Richard de Clare and Maud de Lacy.[1] He and his brother Bogo received gifts from King Henry III when they were studying at Oxford from 1257–59.[2]

    Thomas was a close friend and intimate advisor of Prince Edward of England, who would in 1272 accede to the throne as King Edward I. Together they took part in the Ninth Crusade. He held many important posts such as Governor of Colchester Castle (1266) and Governor of The City of London (1273). He was made Commander of the English forces in Munster, Ireland and created Lord of Inchiquin and Youghal. On 26 January 1276, he was granted the entire lordship of Thomond by King Edward.

    That same year, he jointly commanded a Norman army along with Sir Geoffrey de Geneville, Justiciar of Ireland against the Irish clans of County Wicklow. They were joined by a contingent of men from Connacht led by his father-in-law Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly. Thomas and Justiciar de Geneville's forces attacked the Irish at Glenmalure, but they were soundly defeated and suffered severe losses.[3]

    Civil war raged in Thomond between the rival factions of the O'Brien dynasty. In 1276, Brian Ruad, the deposed King of Thomond appealed to Thomas for support to help him regain his kingdom from his great-nephew Toirrdelbach MacTaidg O' Brien, who had usurped the throne. In return for his aid, Brian Ruad promised that Thomas would be allowed to colonise all the land between Athsollus in Quin and Limerick.[4] Together, Thomas and Brian Ruad expelled Toirrdelbach MacTaidg O'Brien and recaptured Clonroad which the latter had taken from Brian Ruad. O'Brien escaped to Galway where he elicited the help of his cousin William de Burgh, and in 1277 together with the assistance from clans, MacNamara and O'Dea they defeated the combined forces of Thomas and Brian Ruad. The latter fled to Bunratty Castle, but Thomas had his former ally hanged and drawn for treason.[5] The civil war continued for the next seven years, with Thomas supporting Brian Ruad's son Donnchad against Toirrdelbach; however, following the drowning death of Donnchad in 1284, Toirrdelbach emerged the victor. Thereafter until his death in 1306, Toirrdelbach MacTaidg O'Brien ruled as undisputed King of Thomond and Thomas had no choice but to accommodate him. O'Brien rented part of Bunratty Manor at ą121 per annum.[5]

    In 1280, Thomas embarked on a castle-building project at Quin, but was disrupted in his efforts by the O'Briens and MacNamaras. Thomas also reconstructed Bunratty Castle in stone, replacing the earlier wooden building.

    Marriage and children

    In February 1275, he married Juliana FitzGerald, the 12-year-old daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly and Maud de Prendergast.[6]

    Thomas and Juliana had four children:

    Maud de Clare (c. 1276–1326/27), married firstly, Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford, by whom she had issue; and secondly Robert de Welles.
    Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Thomond, (3 February 1281–1308)
    Richard de Clare, Steward of Forest of Essex, 1st Lord Clare, Lord of Thomond (after 1281 – 10 May 1318), married a woman by the name of Joan, by whom he had one son, Thomas. He was killed at the Battle of Dysert O'Dea.
    Margaret de Clare (c. 1 April 1287 – 22 October 1333/3 January 1334), married firstly, Gilbert de Umfraville; and secondly Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, by whom she had issue.
    During their marriage, Thomas and Juliana lived in Ireland and in England. For instance, on 5 May 1284 the King notified his bailiffs and lieges in Ireland of the attorneys who were to act in Ireland on behalf of the couple as they were then in England. This arrangement was to continue for three years, except when Thomas and Juliana went to Ireland.[7]

    Death

    When evidence was taken in 1302 to prove the age of his son Gilbert, it was established that Thomas had died on 29 August 1287.[8] A mid-18th century compilation known as the Dublin Annals of Inisfallen states that Thomas was killed in battle against Turlough son of Teige and others. However, none of the earlier records of his death indicate that Thomas met a violent end. Some of the witnesses to Gilbert's age in 1302 referred to the date of Thomas' death in their calculations but all were silent as to its circumstances. This and much other evidence on the subject has been set out and evaluated by Goddard Henry Orpen of Trinity College, Dublin.[9]

    Thomas was succeeded as Lord of Thomond by his eldest son, Gilbert who was six years old. His widow Juliana, aged 24 years, would go on to marry two more times.

    Thomas married Juliana Fitzgerald, Lady of Thomond 0Feb 1275, (Ireland). Juliana (daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, II, 3rd Lord Offally and Emmeline Longespee) was born 12 Apr 1266, Dublin, Ireland; died 24 Sep 1300. [Group Sheet]


  14. 143.  Juliana Fitzgerald, Lady of Thomond was born 12 Apr 1266, Dublin, Ireland (daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, II, 3rd Lord Offally and Emmeline Longespee); died 24 Sep 1300.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Juliana FitzMaurice
    • Also Known As: Lady of Inchiquin and Youghal
    • Alt Birth: 0___ 1263, Dublin, Ireland

    Notes:

    Juliana FitzMaurice, Lady of Thomond (12 Apr 1266 - 29 Sep 1300) was a Norman-Irish noblewoman, the daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly, and the wife of Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond, a powerful Anglo-Norman baron in Ireland, who was a younger brother of Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford. Juliana was married three times; Thomas being her first. She is sometimes referred to as Juliane FitzMaurice.

    Early life and family

    Juliana FitzMaurice was born 12 Apr 1266 in Dublin, Ireland, the eldest daughter of Maurice FitzGerald II, 3rd Lord of Offaly, Justiciar of Ireland and Emeline Longspee.[1] She had a sister Amabel who married but was childless. Her first cousin was John FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Kildare. Her paternal grandparents were Maurice FitzGerald I, 2nd Lord of Offaly and Juliana, and her maternal grandparents were Sir Gerald de Prendergast of Beauvoir and the unnamed daughter of Richard Mor de Burgh, Lord of Connacht and Egidia de Lacy. Juliana's maternal ancestors included Brian Boru, Dermot McMurrough, and Maud de Braose.

    Juliana's father, Maurice FitzGerald, was married twice, first to Maud de Prendergast and secondly to Emmeline Longespee. It has been some source of contention as to which of his two wives had issue Juliana. However, at her death, Emmeline Longespee did not mention Juliana as her daughter and heir; rather, Emmeline's heir was her neice, Maud la Zouche, wife of Robert la Zouche, 1st Lord Holland. It has been concluded by several reputable researchers that Juliana's mother was Maurice FitzGerald's first wife, Maud de Prendergast. Supporters for Emmeline Longespee being the mother have yet to produce any counter-evidence beyond hearsay.

    Marriages and issue

    In 1278, at the age of 12, Juliana married her first husband, Thomas de Clare, Lord of Inchiquin and Youghal. He was the second eldest son of Richard de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford, 2nd Earl of Gloucester and Maud de Lacy. Thomas was a friend of King Edward I of England, with whom he went on a Crusade. He held many important posts including the Office of Governor of Colchester Castle (1266), Governor of the City of London (1273). He was also the commander of the English forces in Munster, Ireland, and on 26 January 1276, he was granted the lordship of Thomond. He was born in 1245, which made him about eighteen years older than Juliana. Throughout their marriage, the couple lived in both Ireland and England. It is recorded that on 5 May 1284, King Edward notified his lieges and bailiffs in Ireland of the attorneys who were to act on behalf of Thomas and Juliana as they were in England at the time. This arrangement continued for another three years except while they were residing in Ireland.[2]

    Thomas and Juliana had four children:[3]

    Maud de Clare (c. 1276–1326/27), married firstly on 3 November 1295 Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford, by whom she had issue; she married secondly after 1314 Robert de Welle.
    Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Thomond (3 February 1281–1308)
    Richard de Clare, Steward of Forest of Essex, 1st Lord Clare, Lord of Thomond (after 1281 – 10 May 1318 at the Battle of Dysert O'Dea), married a woman by the name of Joan by whom he fathered one son, Thomas.
    Margaret de Clare (c. 1 April 1287 – 22 October 1333), married firstly in 1303 Gilbert de Umfraville; she married secondly before 30 June 1308 Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Lord Badlesmere, by whom she had four daughters and one son.

    The era was marked by unrest and strife as civil war was waged between rival factions of the powerful O'Brien clan. In 1277, Juliana's husband had his former ally Brian Ruad, the deposed King of Thomond, hanged for treason at Bunratty.[4]

    Thomas died on 29 August 1287, leaving Juliana a widow at the age of twenty-four with four small children; the youngest, Margaret was not quite five months old. On an unknown date she married her second husband, Nicholas Avenel. He presumably died before 11 December 1291/16 February 1292, as this is when she married her third husband, Adam de Cretynges.[5][6]

    Death and legacy

    Juliana died on 24 September 1300. Her numerous descendants included Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland who married Lady Joan Beaufort and thus their descendant, the English king Edward IV. By Edward IV's daughter, Elizabeth of York, consort of Henry VII, she was an ancestress to all subsequent monarchs of England and the current British Royal Family. Henry VIII's queens consort Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr also descended from her.

    Ancestors of Juliana FitzMaurice[show)

    Notes

    Jump up ^ The Complete Peerage
    Jump up ^ Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1252-1284, No. 2210
    Jump up ^ Cawley, Charles, Earls of Gloucester (Clare), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    Jump up ^ Joe Power, The Normans in Thomond, retrieved on 28 May 2009
    Jump up ^ Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1281–1292, pp.463, 476
    Jump up ^ "Adam de Cretinge et Juliana uxor ejus (filia Mauritii filii Mauritii defuncti) quondam uxor Thomµ de Clare defuncti." Calendarium Genealogicum Henry III and Edward I, ed. Charles Roberts, 1:431, 448.

    References

    The Complete Peerage, Vol. VII, p. 200
    Cawley, Charles, Medieval Lands, Ireland, Earls of Kildare, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    Cawley, Charles, Medieval Lands, Earls of Gloucester (Clare), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[better source needed]
    Power, Joe. "The Normans in Thomond". Retrieved 28 May 2009.

    Children:
    1. 71. Maude de Clare was born 0___ 1276; died 0___ 1327.
    2. Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere was born ~ 1 Apr 1287, Ireland; died 22 Oct 1333, Aldgate, London, Middlesex, England.

  15. 144.  Edward I, King of EnglandEdward I, King of England was born 17 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was christened 22 Jun 1239, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom (son of Henry III, King of England and Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile); died 7 Jul 1307, Burgh by Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria, England; was buried 28 Oct 1307, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward Longshanks

    Notes:

    More on King Edward I ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England

    Remember Mel Gibson's role as William Wallace in his 1995 movie, "Braveheart", about the 13th c. Scottish Rebellion? Here is the fellow he battled, brilliantly portrayed by Patrick McGoohan... Here's a clip of that movie... http://www.cinemagia.ro/trailer/braveheart-braveheart-inima-neinfricata-1054/

    Edward I, called Longshanks (1239-1307), king of England (1272-1307), Lord of Gascony, of the house of Plantagenet. He was born in Westminster on June 17, 1239, the eldest son of King Henry III, and at 15 married Eleanor of Castile. In the struggles of the barons against the crown for constitutional and ecclesiastical reforms, Edward took a vacillating course. When warfare broke out between the crown and the nobility, Edward fought on the side of the king, winning the decisive battle of Evesham in 1265. Five years later he left England to join the Seventh Crusade.

    Following his father's death in 1272, and while he was still abroad, Edward was recognized as king by the English barons; in 1273, on his return to England, he was crowned.

    The first years of Edward's reign were a period of the consolidation of his power. He suppressed corruption in the administration of justice, restricted the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to church affairs, and eliminated the papacy's overlordship over England. On the refusal of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd (died 1282), ruler of Wales, to submit to the English crown, Edward began the military conflict that resulted, in 1284, in the annexation of Llewelyn's principality to the English crown. In 1290 Edward expelled all Jews from England. War between England and France broke out in 1293 as a result of the efforts of France to curb Edward's power in Gascony. Edward lost Gascony in 1293 and did not again come into possession of the duchy until 1303. About the same year in which he lost Gascony, the Welsh rose in rebellion.
    Greater than either of these problems was the disaffection of the people of Scotland. In agreeing to arbitrate among the claimants to the Scottish throne, Edward, in 1291, had exacted as a prior condition the recognition by all concerned of his overlordship of Scotland. The Scots later repudiated him and made an alliance with France against England. To meet the critical situations in Wales and Scotland, Edward summoned a parliament, called the Model Parliament by historians because it was a representative body and in that respect was the forerunner of all future parliaments. Assured by Parliament of support at home, Edward took the field and suppressed the Welsh insurrection. In 1296, after invading and conquering Scotland, he declared himself king of that realm. In 1298 he again invaded Scotland to suppress the revolt led by Sir William Wallace. In winning the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, Edward achieved the greatest military triumph of his career, but he failed to crush Scottish opposition.

    The conquest of Scotland became the ruling passion of his life. He was, however, compelled by the nobles, clergy, and commons to desist in his attempts to raise by arbitrary taxes the funds he needed for campaigns. In 1299 Edward made peace with France and married Margaret, sister of King Philip III of France. Thus freed of war, he again undertook the conquest of Scotland in 1303. Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. No sooner had Edward established his government in Scotland, however, than a new revolt broke out and culminated in the coronation of Robert Bruce as king of Scotland. In 1307 Edward set out for the third time to subdue the Scots, but he died en route near Carlisle on July 7, 1307. He also had a daughter with Eleanor of Castile that died young.

    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Edward I [37370] Burgh by Sands, Cumbria, England

    is the 22nd great-grandfather of David Hennessee:

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    and also of Sheila Ann Mynatt Hennessee (1945-2016):

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=I27517&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    Died:
    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church, St. Michael's, until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Photos, maps & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgh_by_Sands

    Edward married Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England 18 Oct 1254, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain. Eleanor (daughter of Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu) was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain; died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom. [Group Sheet]


  16. 145.  Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England was born 0___ 1241, Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain (daughter of Fernando III, King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu); died 28 Nov 1290, Hardby, Nottinghamshire, England; was buried 16 Dec 1290, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Ponthieu

    Notes:

    Eleanor of Castile (1241 - 28 November 1290) was the first queen consort of Edward I of England. She was also Countess of Ponthieu in her own right from 1279 until her death in 1290, succeeding her mother and ruling together with her husband.

    Eleanor was better-educated than most medieval queens, and exerted a strong cultural influence on the nation. She was a keen patron of literature, and encouraged the use of tapestries, carpets and tableware in the Spanish style, as well as innovative garden designs. She was also a successful businesswoman, endowed with her own fortune as Countess of Ponthieu.

    Issue

    Daughter, stillborn in May 1255 in Bordeaux, France. Buried in Dominican Priory Church, Bordeaux, France.
    Katherine (c 1261 – 5 September 1264) and buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Joanna (January 1265 - before 7 September 1265), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    John (13 July 1266 – 3 August 1271), died at Wallingford, in the custody of his granduncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall. Buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Henry (before 6 May 1268 – 16 October 1274), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Eleanor (18 June 1269 – 29 August 1298). She was long betrothed to Alfonso III of Aragon, who died in 1291 before the marriage could take place, and in 1293 she married Count Henry III of Bar, by whom she had one son and one daughter.
    Daughter (1271 Palestine ). Some sources call her Juliana, but there is no contemporary evidence for her name.
    Joan (April 1272 – 7 April 1307). She married (1) in 1290 Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, who died in 1295, and (2) in 1297 Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer. She had four children by each marriage.
    Alphonso (24 November 1273 - 19 August 1284), Earl of Chester.
    Margaret (15 March 1275 – after 1333). In 1290 she married John II of Brabant, who died in 1318. They had one son.
    Berengaria (1 May 1276 – before 27 June 1278), buried in Westminster Abbey.
    Daughter (December 1277/January 1278 - January 1278), buried in Westminster Abbey. There is no contemporary evidence for her name.
    Mary (11 March 1279 – 29 May 1332), a Benedictine nun in Amesbury.
    Son, born in 1280 or 1281 who died very shortly after birth. There is no contemporary evidence for his name.
    Elizabeth (7 August 1282 – 5 May 1316). She married (1) in 1297 John I, Count of Holland, (2) in 1302 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex. The first marriage was childless; by Bohun, Elizabeth had ten children.
    Edward II of England, also known as Edward of Caernarvon (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327). In 1308 he married Isabella of France. They had two sons and two daughters.
    It is often said, on the basis of antiquarian genealogies from the 15th-17th centuries, that Eleanor delivered 2 daughters in the years after Edward II's birth. The names most often associated with these ephemeral daughters are "Beatrice" and "Blanche"; later writers also mention "Juliana" and "Euphemia," and even a "Berenice," probably by confusion with the historical daughter Berengaria. At least one eighteenth-century writer made "Beatrice" and Berengaria into twins, presumably because of the alliteration of names; but Berengaria's birth in 1276 (not the 1280s) was noted by more than one chronicler of the day, and none of them reports that Berengaria had a twin sister. Queen Eleanor's wardrobe and treasury accounts survive almost intact for the years 1288-1290 and record no births in those years, nor do they ever refer to daughters with any of those names. Even more records survive from King Edward's wardrobe between 1286 and 1290 than for his wife's, and they too are silent on any such daughters. It is most unlikely that they ever existed in historical fact. It is more likely that there were other pregnancies and short-lived children in the years prior to 1266, when records for Eleanor's movements are very slight.

    Eleanor as a mother

    It has been suggested that Eleanor and Edward were more devoted to each other than to their children. As king and queen, however, it was impossible for them to spend much time in one place, and when they were very young, the children could not travel constantly with their parents. The children had a household staffed with attendants carefully chosen for competence and loyalty, with whom the parents corresponded regularly. The children lived in this comfortable establishment until they were about seven years old; then they began to accompany their parents, if at first only on important occasions. By their teens they were with the king and queen much of the time. In 1290, Eleanor sent one of her scribes to join her children's household, presumably to help with their education. She also sent gifts to the children regularly, and arranged for the entire establishment to be moved near to her when she was in Wales. In 1306 Edward sharply scolded Margerie de Haustede, Eleanor's former lady in waiting who was then in charge of his children by his second wife, because Margerie had not kept him well informed of their health. Edward also issued regular instructions for the care and guidance of these children.

    Two incidents cited to imply Eleanor's lack of interest in her children are easily explained in the contexts of royal childrearing in general, and of particular events surrounding Edward and Eleanor's family. When their six-year-old son Henry lay dying at Guildford in 1274, neither parent made the short journey from London to see him; but Henry was tended by Edward's mother Eleanor of Provence. The boy had lived with his grandmother while his parents were absent on crusade, and since he was barely two years old when they left England in 1270, he could not have had many worthwhile memories of them at the time they returned to England in August 1274, only weeks before his last illness and death. In other words, the dowager queen was a more familiar and comforting presence to her grandson than his parents would have been at that time, and it was in all respects better that she tended him then. Furthermore, Eleanor was pregnant at the time of his final illness and death; exposure to a sickroom would probably have been discouraged. Similarly, Edward and Eleanor allowed her mother, Joan of Dammartin, to raise their daughter Joan in Ponthieu (1274–78). This implies no parental lack of interest in the girl; the practice of fostering noble children in other households of sufficient dignity was not unknown and Eleanor's mother was, of course, dowager queen of Castile. Her household was thus safe and dignified, but it does appear that Edward and Eleanor had cause to regret their generosity in letting Joan of Dammartin foster young Joan. When the girl reached England in 1278, aged six, it turned out that she was badly spoiled. She was spirited and at times defiant in childhood, and in adulthood remained a handful for Edward, defying his plans for a prestigious second marriage for her by secretly marrying one of her late first husband's squires. When the marriage was revealed in 1297 because Joan was pregnant, Edward was enraged that his dignity had been insulted by her marriage to a commoner of no importance. Joan, at twenty-five, reportedly defended her conduct to her father by saying that nobody saw anything wrong if a great earl married a poor woman, so there could be nothing wrong with a countess marrying a promising young man. Whether or not her retort ultimately changed his mind, Edward restored to Joan all the lands he had confiscated when he learned of her marriage, and accepted her new husband as a son-in-law in good standing. Joan marked her restoration to favour by having masses celebrated for the soul of her mother Eleanor.

    Birth:
    Maps & History of Burgos ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Burgos

    Children:
    1. Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre was born 0Apr 1272, Acre, Israel; died 23 Apr 1307, Clare Castle, Clare, Suffolk, England; was buried Clare Priory, Clare, Suffolk, England.
    2. Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England was born 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales; died 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England; was buried 23 May 1316, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.
    3. 72. Edward II, King of England was born 25 Apr 1284, Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales; died 21 Sep 1327, Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England.

  17. 146.  Philip of France, IV, King of FrancePhilip of France, IV, King of France was born APRIL-JUNE 1268, Fontainebleu, France; died 29 Nov 1314, Fontainebleu, France; was buried Saint Denis Basilica, France.

    Notes:

    It was Philip the Fair who was the source of "Friday, the 13th" being bad luck because at daybreak on Friday, 13 October 1307, hundreds of Templars in France were simultaneously arrested by agents of Philip the Fair, to be later tortured into admitting heresy in the Order.

    The Templars were supposedly answerable to only the Pope, but Philip used his influence over Clement V , who was largely his pawn, to disband the organization. Pope Clement did attempt to hold proper trials, but Philip used the previously forced confessions to have many Templars burned at the stake before they could mount a proper defense.

    History with images of King Philip .. .http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_IV_of_France

    Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (French: Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (French: le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also, as Philip I, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.

    Philip relied on skillful civil servants, such as Guillaume de Nogaret and Enguerrand de Marigny, to govern the kingdom rather than on his barons. Philip and his advisors were instrumental in the transformation of France from a feudal country to a centralized state. Philip, who sought an uncontested monarchy, compelled his vassals by wars and restricted feudal usages. His ambitions made him highly influential in European affairs. His goal was to place his relatives on thrones. Princes from his house ruled in Naples and Hungary. He tried and failed to make another relative the Holy Roman Emperor. He began the long advance of France eastward by taking control of scattered fiefs.[1]

    The most notable conflicts of Philip's reign include a dispute with Edward I of England, who was also his vassal as the Duke of Aquitaine, and a war with the County of Flanders, which gained temporary autonomy following Philip’s embarrassing defeat at the Battle of the Golden Spurs (1302). To further strengthen the monarchy, he tried to control the French clergy and entered in conflict with Pope Boniface VIII. This conflict led to the transfer of the papal court in the enclave of Avignon in 1309.

    In 1306, Philip the Fair expelled the Jews from France and, in 1307, he annihilated the order of the Knights Templar. Philip was in debt to both groups and saw them as a "state within the state".

    His final year saw a scandal amongst the royal family, known as the Tour de Nesle Affair, during which the three daughters-in-law of Philip were accused of adultery. His three sons were successively kings of France, Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV.

    Photos of the Fountainbleu Palace ... http://bit.ly/1lbsJLj

    View a panorama of The Basilica of St. Denis where King Philip is interred ... http://bit.ly/1gLnKkC

    Birth:
    Palace of Fontainebleu

    Died:
    Palace of Fontainebleu

    Philip married Joan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of Champagne 16 Aug 1284. Joan was born 14 Jan 1273, Bar-sur-Seine, Champagne, France; died 2 Apr 1305, Chateau de Vincennes, France. [Group Sheet]


  18. 147.  Joan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of ChampagneJoan of Navarre, I, Queen of France,Countess of Champagne was born 14 Jan 1273, Bar-sur-Seine, Champagne, France; died 2 Apr 1305, Chateau de Vincennes, France.

    Notes:

    Joan was described as having been a plump, plain woman, whereas her beautiful daughter Isabella resembled her father more in physical appearance. As regards her character, Joan was bold, courageous, and enterprising. She even led an army against the Count of Bar when he rebelled against her.

    Quenn Joan is the ancestor of the:

    20th, 21st & 22nd great grandmother of the grandchildren of Vernia Swindell Byars (1894-1985)

    24th, 25th & 26th great grandmother of the grandchildren of Perry Green Byars (1894-1968)

    Children:
    1. 73. Isabella of France, Queen of England was born Abt 1279, Paris, France; died 22 Aug 1358, Castle Rising, Norfolk, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, London, Middlesex, England.

  19. 162.  William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison

    William — Sibylla de Tregoz. [Group Sheet]


  20. 163.  Sibylla de Tregoz
    Children:
    1. 81. Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury was born ~ 1304; died 23 Nov 1349.

  21. 178.  Alan La Zouche, Knight, 1st Baron la Zouche of AshbyAlan La Zouche, Knight, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby was born 9 Oct 1267, North Molton, Devonshire, England (son of Roger La Zouche, Lord of Ashby and Ela Longespee); died 25 Mar 1314, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Brackley, Northamptonshire, England.

    Notes:

    Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby (9 October 1267 - shortly before 25 March 1314)[1] was born at North Molton, Devonshire, the only son of Roger La Zouche and his wife, Ela Longespee, daughter of Stephen Longespee and Emmeline de Ridelsford. He received seisin of his father's lands after paying homage to the king on October 13, 1289. Alan was governor of Rockingham Castle and steward of Rockingham Forest. Alan La Zouche died without any sons shortly before at the age of 46, and his barony fell into abeyance among his daughters.

    Birth

    Alan la Zouche was born in North Molton on St Denis's Day (9 October) 1267 and was baptised in the church there, as was testified by his uncle "Henry la Zuche, clerk" and several local and other gentry and clerics at his proof of age inquisition in 1289 which enabled him to exit royal wardship:[2][3]

    "Alan son and heir of Roger la Zusche alias la Zuch, la Souche. Writ to Peter Heym and Robert de Radington, to enquire whether the said Alan, who is in the king's wardship, is of full age, as he says, or not, The eve of St. Margaret (20 June), 17 Edw. I. The said Alan, who was born at North Molton and baptized in the church there, was 21 on the day of St. Denis, 16 Edw. I. The Abbot of Lyleshull ( Lilleshall Abbey in Shropshire, to which he gave the advowson of North Molton Church in 1313) says the said Alan was born in Devon on the feast of St. Denis, and was 22 at that feast last past, and he knows it because he was keeper of a grange of Alan's father at Assheby four years ago, and knew from his father and mother that he was then 18. The prior of Repindon agrees, and knows it because his predecessor was created prior in the same year and was prior for twelve years, and he himself has now been prior for ten years. The prior of Swaveseye agrees, for he has been prior for twenty years, and saw him (Alan) before his creation when he was 2 years old. The prior of Ulvescroft agrees, for he has enquired from religious men, and especially from the nuns of Gracedieu who dwell near Alan's father's manor of Assheby. Brother William Ysnach of Gerendon agrees, for he sued the pleas of the house for nearly twenty-two (?) years, and Alan was born at the feast of St. Denis preceding. Geoffrey prior of Brackele agrees, for he was always with Alan's ancestors and ... twenty-four years ago, and within two years following Alan was born. Richard le Flemyng, knight, (probably of Bratton Fleming) agrees, and knows it from the wife of William de Raleye (probably of Raleigh, Pilton) who nursed Alan. John Punchardon, knight, (probably of Heanton Punchardon) agrees, for he held his land for such a time. Alfred de Suleny, knight, agrees, for his firstborn son was born on the same day. John de Curteny, knight, (i.e. Courtenay) agrees, for his mother died at Easter before Alan was born. William (?) de Sancto Albino, knight, agrees, for his brother gave him certain land, which he has held for twenty-one years, and one year previously Alan was born. William L'Estrange (Latinised as "Extraneus"), knight, agrees, for his (Alan's ?) father made him a knight sixteen years ago last Christmas, when Alan carried the sword before him, and was then 6 years old, except between Christmas and St. Denis. Robert de Crues, knight, agrees, for he has a daughter of the same age. Henry la Zuche, clerk, agrees, for he is his uncle, and likewise knows it from him who was at that time parson of the church of Hamme. Walter parson of Manecestre agrees, for the church of Karlingford in Ireland was given to him nearly twenty-two years ago, and when the news came to him in Devon Alan's mother lay in childbed. Robert parson of Pakinton agrees, for he was instituted into his vicarage at the Purification last past now twenty-two years ago, and Alan was born at the feast of St. Denis following. [4]

    Military service

    Alan was in Gascony with King Edward I of England in October 1288, when he was one of the hostages given by the king to Alfonso of Aragon for the fulfillment of certain agreements. He was in Scotland in the King's service in June 1291. In April 1294 he had a writ of protection from the King when he travelled overseas with the King's daughter, Eleanor of Bar. He served in Gascony in 1295 and 1296, and was present at the action around Bordeaux on 28 March 1296, when his standard bearer was captured by the French. In 1297 he was summoned for service in the Franco-Flemish War, [5] and attended Councils in Rochester and London in that year.

    War against the Scots

    He was summoned for service against the Scots in 1297-1313. He fought in the Vanguard at the Battle of Falkirk on 22 July 1298. King Edward's army at that battle consisted of 12,000 infantry, including 10,000 Welsh, and 2,000 cavalry. William Wallace, the Scottish leader accepted battle in a withdrawn defensive position. Wallace had few cavalry and few archers; but his solid "schiltrons" (circles) of spearmen were almost invincible. The armoured cavalry of the English vanguard were hurled back with severe losses. Edward brought up his Welsh archers in the intervals between the horsemen of the second line, concentrating their arrows on specific points in the Scottish schiltrons. It was into these gaps that the English knights forced their way, and once the Scottish order was broken the spearmen were quickly massacred.

    Siege of Caerlaverock

    Alan was at the siege of Caerlaverock Castle in July 1300. His presence is recorded in the contemporary "Caerlaverock Poem", being an early roll of arms:

    Aleyn de la Souche tresor Signiioit ke fust brians
    Sa rouge baniere a besans
    Car bienscai ki a dependu Tresor plus ke en burce pendu
    "Sa rouge baniere a bezants" (as re-stated in modern French) "his red banner bezantâee", is the description of the coat of arms he bore at the siege.

    Subsequent career

    He was summoned to Edward II's coronation on 18 January 1307/08. In December of that year he had a protection to go on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. He was the Constable of Rockingham Castle and the Keeper of the forests between the bridges of Oxford and Stamford.

    Marriage and issue

    He married Eleanor de Segrave, daughter of Nicholas de Segrave, 1st Baron Segrave. At his death he left no male progeny and the barony went into abeyance between his three daughters and co-heiresses:

    Ellen la Zouche, married Alan de Charlton; also married Nicholas de St Maur, 1st Baron St Maur (d.1316)[6]
    Maud la Zouche, married Robert de Holland, 1st Baron Holand
    Elizabeth la Zouche, married John Ingham (1320-12 Dec. 1365), son of Oliver de Ingham (1294–1344)

    Alan married Eleanor de Segrave, Baroness of Zouche ~ 1287, Ashby de La Zouch, Leicester, England. Eleanor (daughter of Nicholas de Segrave, Knight, 1st Baron Segrave and Matilda de Lucy) was born ~ 1270, Seagrave, Leicester, England; died 0___ 1314, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  22. 179.  Eleanor de Segrave, Baroness of Zouche was born ~ 1270, Seagrave, Leicester, England (daughter of Nicholas de Segrave, Knight, 1st Baron Segrave and Matilda de Lucy); died 0___ 1314, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England.
    Children:
    1. 89. Maud La Zouche was born 0___ 1290, Ashby Magna, Leicester, England; died 31 May 1349, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Brackley, Northamptonshire, England.

  23. 180.  Edward I, King of EnglandEdward I, King of England was born 17 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England; was christened 22 Jun 1239, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom (son of Henry III, King of England and Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile); died 7 Jul 1307, Burgh by Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria, England; was buried 28 Oct 1307, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Edward Longshanks

    Notes:

    More on King Edward I ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England

    Remember Mel Gibson's role as William Wallace in his 1995 movie, "Braveheart", about the 13th c. Scottish Rebellion? Here is the fellow he battled, brilliantly portrayed by Patrick McGoohan... Here's a clip of that movie... http://www.cinemagia.ro/trailer/braveheart-braveheart-inima-neinfricata-1054/

    Edward I, called Longshanks (1239-1307), king of England (1272-1307), Lord of Gascony, of the house of Plantagenet. He was born in Westminster on June 17, 1239, the eldest son of King Henry III, and at 15 married Eleanor of Castile. In the struggles of the barons against the crown for constitutional and ecclesiastical reforms, Edward took a vacillating course. When warfare broke out between the crown and the nobility, Edward fought on the side of the king, winning the decisive battle of Evesham in 1265. Five years later he left England to join the Seventh Crusade.

    Following his father's death in 1272, and while he was still abroad, Edward was recognized as king by the English barons; in 1273, on his return to England, he was crowned.

    The first years of Edward's reign were a period of the consolidation of his power. He suppressed corruption in the administration of justice, restricted the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to church affairs, and eliminated the papacy's overlordship over England. On the refusal of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd (died 1282), ruler of Wales, to submit to the English crown, Edward began the military conflict that resulted, in 1284, in the annexation of Llewelyn's principality to the English crown. In 1290 Edward expelled all Jews from England. War between England and France broke out in 1293 as a result of the efforts of France to curb Edward's power in Gascony. Edward lost Gascony in 1293 and did not again come into possession of the duchy until 1303. About the same year in which he lost Gascony, the Welsh rose in rebellion.
    Greater than either of these problems was the disaffection of the people of Scotland. In agreeing to arbitrate among the claimants to the Scottish throne, Edward, in 1291, had exacted as a prior condition the recognition by all concerned of his overlordship of Scotland. The Scots later repudiated him and made an alliance with France against England. To meet the critical situations in Wales and Scotland, Edward summoned a parliament, called the Model Parliament by historians because it was a representative body and in that respect was the forerunner of all future parliaments. Assured by Parliament of support at home, Edward took the field and suppressed the Welsh insurrection. In 1296, after invading and conquering Scotland, he declared himself king of that realm. In 1298 he again invaded Scotland to suppress the revolt led by Sir William Wallace. In winning the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, Edward achieved the greatest military triumph of his career, but he failed to crush Scottish opposition.

    The conquest of Scotland became the ruling passion of his life. He was, however, compelled by the nobles, clergy, and commons to desist in his attempts to raise by arbitrary taxes the funds he needed for campaigns. In 1299 Edward made peace with France and married Margaret, sister of King Philip III of France. Thus freed of war, he again undertook the conquest of Scotland in 1303. Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. No sooner had Edward established his government in Scotland, however, than a new revolt broke out and culminated in the coronation of Robert Bruce as king of Scotland. In 1307 Edward set out for the third time to subdue the Scots, but he died en route near Carlisle on July 7, 1307. He also had a daughter with Eleanor of Castile that died young.

    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Edward I [37370] Burgh by Sands, Cumbria, England

    is the 22nd great-grandfather of David Hennessee:

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    and also of Sheila Ann Mynatt Hennessee (1945-2016):

    http://thehennesseefamily.com/relationship.php?altprimarypersonID=&savedpersonID=I3&secondpersonID=I27517&maxrels=1&disallowspouses=0&generations=30&tree=hennessee&primarypersonID=I37370

    Died:
    Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church, St. Michael's, until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey.

    There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 11/4 miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.

    Photos, maps & source ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgh_by_Sands

    Edward married Margaret of France, Queen Consort of England 10 Sep 1299, Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England. Margaret (daughter of Phillip III, King of France and Maria of Brabant, Queen of France) was born ~ 1279, Paris, France; died 14 Feb 1318, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, Newgate, London, England. [Group Sheet]


  24. 181.  Margaret of France, Queen Consort of England was born ~ 1279, Paris, France (daughter of Phillip III, King of France and Maria of Brabant, Queen of France); died 14 Feb 1318, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England; was buried Christ Church Greyfriars, Newgate, London, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Princess Marguerite of France

    Notes:

    Margaret of France (c. 1279[1] - 14 February 1318[1]), a daughter of Philip III of France and Maria of Brabant, was Queen of England as the second wife of King Edward I.

    Early life

    Her father died when she was three years old and she grew up under guidance of her mother and Joan I of Navarre, her half-brother King Philip IV's wife.[2]

    Marriage

    The death of Edward's beloved first wife, Eleanor of Castile, at the age of 49 in 1290, left him reeling in grief. However, it was much to Edward's benefit to make peace with France to free him to pursue his wars in Scotland. Additionally, with only one surviving son, Edward was anxious to protect the English throne with additional heirs. In summer of 1291, the English king had betrothed his son and heir, Edward, to Blanche of France in order to achieve peace with France. However, hearing of her renowned beauty, Edward decided to have his son's bride for his own and sent emissaries to France. Philip agreed to give Blanche to Edward on the following conditions: that a truce would be concluded between the two countries and that Edward would give up the province of Gascony. Edward agreed to the conditions and sent his brother Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, to fetch the new bride. Edward had been deceived, for Blanche was to be married to Rudolph III of Habsburg, the eldest son of King Albert I of Germany. Instead, Philip offered her younger sister Margaret to marry Edward (then 55). Upon hearing this, Edward declared war on France, refusing to marry Margaret. After five years, a truce was agreed upon under the influence of Pope Boniface VIII. A series of treaties in the first half of 1299 provided terms for a double marriage: Edward I would marry Margaret and his son would marry Isabella of France, Philip's youngest surviving child. Additionally, the English monarchy would regain the key city of Guienne and receive ą15,000 owed to Margaret as well as the return of Eleanor of Castile's lands in Ponthieu and Montreuil as a dower first for Margaret, and then Isabella of France.[3]

    Edward was then 60 years old, at least 40 years older than his bride. The wedding took place at Canterbury on 8 September 1299. Margaret was never crowned, being the first uncrowned queen since the Conquest. This in no way lessened her dignity as the king's wife, however, for she used the royal title in her letters and documents, and appeared publicly wearing a crown even though she had not received one during a formal rite of investiture.[5]

    French Monarchy
    Direct Capetians
    Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg
    Philip III
    Louis of France
    Philip IV
    Charles, Count of Valois
    Louis, Count of âEvreux
    Blanche, Duchess of Austria
    Margaret of France, Queen of England
    v t e
    Edward soon returned to the Scottish border to continue his campaigns and left Margaret in London, but she had become pregnant quickly after the wedding. After several months, bored and lonely, the young queen decided to join her husband. Nothing could have pleased the king more, for Margaret's actions reminded him of his first wife Eleanor, who had had two of her sixteen children abroad.

    In less than a year Margaret gave birth to a son, Thomas of Brotherton who was named after Thomas Becket, since she had prayed to him during her pregnancy. That Margaret was physically fit was demonstrated by the fact that she was still hunting when her labour pains started.[6]

    The next year she gave birth to another son, Edmund.

    It is said[who?] that many who fell under the king's wrath were saved from too stern a punishment by the queen's influence over her husband, and the statement, Pardoned solely on the intercession of our dearest consort, queen Margaret of England, appears. In 1305, the young queen acted as a mediator between her step-son and husband, reconciling the heir to his aging father, and calming her husband's wrath.[7]

    She favored the Franciscan order and was a benefactress of a new foundation at Newgate. Margaret employed the minstrel Guy de Psaltery and both she and her husband liked to play chess.[8] She and her stepson, Edward, Prince of Wales, the future king Edward II (who was two years younger than she), also became fond of each other: he once made her a gift of an expensive ruby and gold ring, and she on one occasion rescued many of the Prince's friends from the wrath of the King.

    The mismatched couple were blissfully happy. When Blanche died in 1305 (her husband never became Emperor), Edward ordered all the court to go into mourning to please his queen. He had realised the wife he had gained was "a pearl of great price" as Margaret was respected for her beauty, virtue, and piety. The same year Margaret gave birth to a girl, Eleanor, named in honour of Edward's first wife, a choice which surprised many, and showed Margaret's unjealous nature.

    When Edward went on summer campaign to Scotland in 1307, Margaret accompanied him, but he died in Burgh by Sands.

    Widowhood

    Arms of Margaret of France as Queen of England.
    Margaret never remarried after Edward's death in 1307, despite being only 26 when widowed. She was alleged to have stated that "when Edward died, all men died for me".

    Margaret was not pleased when Edward II elevated Piers Gaveston to become Earl of Cornwall upon his father's death, since the title had been meant for one of her own sons.[9] She attended the new king's wedding to her half-niece, Isabella of France, and a silver casket was made with both their arms. After Isabella's coronation, Margaret retired to Marlborough Castle (which was by this time a dower house), but she stayed in touch with the new Queen and with her half-brother Philip IV by letter during the confusing times leading up to Gaveston's death in 1312. Margaret, too, was a victim of Gaveston's influence over her step-son. Edward II gave several of her dower lands to the favourite, including Berkhamsted Castle. In May 1308, an anonymous informer reported that Margaret had provided ą40,000 along with her brother, Philip IV, to support the English barons against Gaveston.[10] Due to this action, Gaveston was briefly exiled and Margaret remained fairly unmolested by the upstart until his death in June 1312.

    She was present at the birth of the future Edward III in November 1312.

    On 14 February 1318 she died in her castle at Marlborough. Dressed in a Franciscan habit, she was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars in London, a church she had generously endowed. Her tomb, beautifully carved, was destroyed during the Reformation.[11]

    Issue

    In all, Margaret gave birth to three children:[12]

    Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1 June 1300 – 4 August 1338)
    Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent (5 August 1301 – 19 March 1330)
    Eleanor of England (1306-1311)[12]

    Notes:

    Married:
    “An interlude in the political wrangling occurred on 10 September 1299, when Edward married Margaret of France at Canterbury, in a ceremony conducted by Archbishop Winchelsey, who was, at least briefly, on relatively good terms with the king.

    The bishops of Durham, Winchester and Chester were present, as were the earls of Lincoln, Warenne, Warwick, Lancaster, Hereford and Norfolk, along with a host of other magnates. After the ceremony, there was a splendid feast, with entertainment provided by a host of minstrels. The festivities took three days in all".

    Children:
    1. Thomas of Brotherton, Knight, 1st Earl of Norfolk was born 1 Jun 1300, Brotherton, Yorkshire, England; died 23 Aug 1338, Framlington Castle, Suffolk, England; was buried Bury St Edmunds Abbey, Suffolk, England.
    2. 90. Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent was born 5 Aug 1301, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England; died 19 Mar 1330, Winchester Castle, England; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

  25. 182.  John Wake, Knight, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell was born 0___ 1268 (son of Baldwin Wake, Knight, Lord Bourne and Hawise de Quincy); died 10 Apr 1300.

    Notes:

    Baron Wake of Liddell is an abeyant title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1295 for John Wake. It has been in abeyance since 1408.

    John Wake

    John Wake was born in 1268, the son of Balwin Wake and Hawise de Quincy.[1]

    He campaigned in Gascony between 1288 and 1297.[1] He campaigned against the Scots between 1297-1300.[1] To this he was appointed Joint Captain of March of Scotland in Cumberland and Westmoreland in 1297. He fought at the Battle of Falkirk (1298).

    He was married Joan de Fenes by 24 September 1291. She was allegedly daughter of Sir John FitzBernard, of Kingsdown, Kent or William de Fenes/Fiennes, a Spanish Count, and Blanche de Brienne, Dame de La Loupelande.[1] Joan de Fiennes was possibly a relative of Edward I. She died just prior to 26 October 1309.

    John Wake, 1st Lord Wake, was created baron by writ of summons to Parliament on 24 June 1295.[2] He died circa 10 April 1300.[1]

    Through his mother, John Wake, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell was a great-great-grandson of King John of England. He was great-grandfather of Richard II of England.[citation needed]

    The family claimed descent from Hereward the Wake's daughter by his second wife, Alftruda.[3]

    Children of John Wake, 1st Lord Wake and Joan de Fiennes:[1]

    John Wake1 died bt 1320 - 1349
    Thomas Wake, 2nd Lord Wake born c 20 Mar 1297/98, d. fr 30 May 1349 - 31 May 1349
    Margaret Wake, born c 1300, d. 29 September 1349[4]
    Barons Wake of Liddell (1295)[edit]
    John Wake, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell (1268 – c. 4/10/1300).[5]
    Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell (1297–1349)
    Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell (c. 1300–1349)
    John, 4th Baron Wake of Liddell and 3rd Earl of Kent (1330–1352)
    Joan, 5th Baroness Wake of Liddell and Countess of Kent (1328–1385)
    Thomas Holland, 6th Baron Wake of Liddell and 2nd Earl of Kent (1350–1397)
    Thomas Holland, 7th Baron Wake of Liddell, 3rd Earl of Kent, and 1st Duke of Surrey (1374–1400)
    Edmund Holland, 8th Baron Wake of Liddell and 4th Earl of Kent (1384–1408)

    References

    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f

    John married Joan de Fiennes BY 24 Sep 1291. Joan (daughter of William de Fiennes, II, Knight, Baron Tingy and Blanche de Brienne, Baroness Tingry) was born ~ 1273; died Bef 26 Oct 1309. [Group Sheet]


  26. 183.  Joan de Fiennes was born ~ 1273 (daughter of William de Fiennes, II, Knight, Baron Tingy and Blanche de Brienne, Baroness Tingry); died Bef 26 Oct 1309.
    Children:
    1. 91. Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell was born ~ 1297, (England); died 29 Sep 1349, (England).

  27. 186.  William de Warenne was born 9 Feb 1256, Lewes Castle, Lewes, East Sussex, England (son of John de Warenne, Knight, 6th Earl of Surrey and Alice de Lusignan); died 15 Dec 1296, Croydon, England.

    Notes:

    William de Warenne (9 February 1256 - 15 December 1286) was the only son of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey and his wife Alice de Lusignan.[1]

    Life

    William married Joan, daughter of Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford. They had the following children:

    John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey (30 June 1286 – June 1347)
    Alice de Warenne (15 June 1287 - 23 May 1338), wife of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel.
    William was killed in a tournament at Croydon in 1286,[1] predeceasing his father. It has been suggested that this was murder, planned in advance by William's enemies.[2][3] On the 5th Earl's death the title went to John, the only son of William. John died without legitimate children, so on his death the title passed to Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, eldest son of Edmund FitzAlan and John' sister Alice.

    William — Joan de Vere. [Group Sheet]


  28. 187.  Joan de Vere (daughter of Robert de Vere, Knight, 5th Earl of Oxford and Alice de Sanford).
    Children:
    1. John de Warenne, Knight, 7th Earl of Surrey was born 30 Jun 1286; died 0Jun 1347.
    2. 93. Alice de Warenne, Countess of Arundel was born 15 Jun 1287, Warren, Sussex, England; died 23 May 1338.

  29. 188.  Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet, Prince of England was born 16 Jan 1245, London, Middlesex, England (son of Henry III, King of England and Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, Princess of Castile); died 5 Jun 1296, Bayonne, Pyrennes-Atlantiques, France; was buried 15 Jul 1296, Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Earl of Lancaster
    • Also Known As: Earl of Leicester

    Notes:

    More on Sir Edmund ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Crouchback

    Edmund married Blanche de Capet d'Artois, Queen of Navarre, Princess of France Bef 29 Oct 1275-6, Paris, France. Blanche was born 0___ 1245, Arras, Pas-de-Calais, France; died 2 May 1302, Paris, France. [Group Sheet]


  30. 189.  Blanche de Capet d'Artois, Queen of Navarre, Princess of France was born 0___ 1245, Arras, Pas-de-Calais, France; died 2 May 1302, Paris, France.
    Children:
    1. 94. Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester was born 0___ 1281, Grosmont Castle, Monmouth, England; died 22 Sep 1345, Leicester, Leicestershire, England.

  31. 190.  Patrick Chaworth, Knight, Lord of Kidwelly was born ~ 1250, Kempsford, Gloucestershire, England (son of Patrick de Chaworth and Hawise de Londres); died 0___ 1283.

    Patrick married Isabella Beauchamp ~ 1281, Carmarthenshire, Wales. Isabella (daughter of William de Beauchamp, Knight, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud FitzGeoffrey) was born ~ 1263, Warwickshire, England; died Bef 30 May 1306. [Group Sheet]


  32. 191.  Isabella Beauchamp was born ~ 1263, Warwickshire, England (daughter of William de Beauchamp, Knight, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud FitzGeoffrey); died Bef 30 May 1306.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isabel de Beauchamp
    • Also Known As: Lady Despencer
    • Also Known As: Lady Kidwelly

    Notes:

    Isabella de Beauchamp, Lady Kidwelly, Lady Despenser (born c. 1263 - died before 30 May 1306), was an English noblewoman and wealthy heiress.

    Family

    Isabella was born in about 1263 in Warwickshire, England. She was the only daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud FitzJohn who appears to have married; two sisters who were nuns at Shouldham are mentioned in her father's will.[1] She had a brother, Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick who married Alice de Toeni, by whom he had seven children. Her paternal grandparents were William de Beauchamp of Elmley Castle and Isabel Maudit, and her maternal grandparents were Sir John FitzGeoffrey, Lord of Shere, and Isabel Bigod.

    Marriages and issue

    Sometime before 1281, she married firstly Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Lord of Kidwelly in Carmarthenshire, South Wales. The marriage produced one daughter:

    Maud Chaworth (2 February 1282- 1322), married Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, by whom she had seven children.
    Following Patrick's death in 1286, Isabella had in her possession four manors in Wiltshire and two manors in Berkshire, assigned to her until her dowry should be set forth along with the livery of Chedworth in Gloucestershire and the Hampshire manor of Hartley Mauditt which had been granted to her and Sir Patrick in frankmarriage by her father.[2]

    That same year 1286, she married secondly Sir Hugh le Despenser without the King's licence for which Hugh had to pay a fine of 2000 marks.[2] He was created Lord Despenser by writ of summons to Parliament in 1295, thereby making Isabella Lady Despenser.

    Together Hugh and Isabella had four children:

    Hugh le Depenser, Lord Despenser the Younger (1286- executed 24 November 1326), married Eleanor de Clare, by whom he had issue.
    Aline le Despenser (died before 28 November 1353), married Edward Burnell, Lord Burnell
    Isabella le Despenser (died 4/5 December 1334), married firstly as his second wife, John Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, by whom she had three children. Their descendants became the Lords Hastings; she married secondly as his second wife, Sir Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer.[4]
    Phillip le Despenser (died 1313), married as his first wife Margaret de Goushill, by whom he had issue.
    Isabella died sometime before 30 May 1306. Twenty years later, her husband and eldest son, favourites of King Edward II, were both executed by the orders of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Queen Isabella. The couple were by that time the de facto rulers of England, and along with most of the people in the kingdom, they had resented the power both Despensers wielded over the King.

    As her husband had been made Earl of Winchester in 1322, Isabella was never styled as the Countess of Winchester.

    References

    Jump up ^ Testamenta Vestusta by Nicholas Harris Nicolas.
    ^ Jump up to: a b http://www.powernet.co.uk/barfield/chap1.htm.[dead link]
    Jump up ^ Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Winchester
    Jump up ^ Richardson, D. (2011) Magna Carta Ancestry 2nd Edition, pg 325 (via Google)
    Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Warwick
    Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Winchester

    Children:
    1. 95. Maud Chaworth was born 2 Feb 1282, Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales; died 3 Dec 1322, Montisfort, Hampshire, England; was buried Montisfort, Hampshire, England.

  33. 192.  Walter de Beauchamp was born 1195-1197, Worcestershire, England; died 0___ 1236.

    Notes:

    Walter de Beauchamp (1195/97–1236) was an English judge, son and heir of William de Beauchamp and Amice de Beauchamp, lord of Elmley, Worcester, and hereditary castellan of Worcester and sheriff of the county.

    A minor at his father's death, he did not obtain his shrievalty till February 1216. Declaring for Louis of France on his arrival (May 1216), he was excommunicated by the legate at Whitsuntide, and his lands seized by the Marchers. But hastening to make his peace, on the accession of Henry, he was one of the witnesses to his reissue of the charter, and was restored to his shrievalty and castellanship.

    He also Attested Henry's 'Third Charter,' on 11 February 1225. In May 1226 and in January 1227 he was appointed an itinerant justice, and 14 April 1236 he died, leaving by his wife Joane Mortimer, daughter of his guardian, Roger de Mortimer, whom he had married in 1212, and who died in 1225, a son and heir, William, who married the eventual heiress of the earls of Warwick, and was grandfather of Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick.

    *

    Walter married Joan Mortimer 0May 1212. Joan (daughter of Roger de Mortimer and Isabel de Ferrers) was born (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England); died 0___ 1225. [Group Sheet]


  34. 193.  Joan Mortimer was born (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England) (daughter of Roger de Mortimer and Isabel de Ferrers); died 0___ 1225.
    Children:
    1. 96. William de Beauchamp was born ~ 1215, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England; died 0___ 1268, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England.
    2. Sarah de Beauchamp was born 0___ 1255, Elmley Castle, Worcester, England; died Aft 1316.

  35. 194.  William de Maudit, IV, Knight, Baron of Hanslape & Hartley was born ~ 1196, Hanslape, Borough of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England; died 15 Apr 1257, Hertley Mauduit, Hampshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Chamberlain of the Exchequer
    • Also Known As: 8th Earl of Warwick

    Notes:

    About William Mauduit, IV, Baron of Hanslape and Hartley, Chamberlain of the Exchequer
    William de Maudit, Baron of Hanslape, Chamberlain to the King. They children were:

    1. William Maudit, 8th Earl of Warwick; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Maudit,_8th_Earl_of_Warwick 2. Isabel de Maudit, married William de Beauchamp, Baron Emley. Their son was William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick.
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p25498.htm#i254979 William Mauduit1 M, #254979

    Last Edited=15 Jun 2009

    William Mauduit married Alice de Newburgh, daughter of Waleran de Newburgh, 4th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Harcourt.2 William Mauduit gained the title of Baron of Hanslape [feudal barony].2
    Child of William Mauduit William Mauduit, 8th Earl of Warwick3 Child of William Mauduit and Alice de Newburgh Isabel Mauduit+1

    Citations [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume XII/1, page 610. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage. [S22] Sir Bernard Burke, C.B. LL.D., A Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire, new edition (1883; reprint, Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1978), page 399. Hereinafter cited as Burkes Extinct Peerage. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume XII/2, page 367.

    http://thepeerage.com/p25498.htm#i254979 William Mauduit1 M, #254979
    Last Edited=15 Jun 2009

    William Mauduit married Alice de Newburgh, daughter of Waleran de Newburgh, 4th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Harcourt.2 William Mauduit gained the title of Baron of Hanslape [feudal barony].2
    Child of William Mauduit William Mauduit, 8th Earl of Warwick3 Child of William Mauduit and Alice de Newburgh Isabel Mauduit+1

    Citations [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume XII/1, page 610. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage. [S22] Sir Bernard Burke, C.B. LL.D., A Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire, new edition (1883; reprint, Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1978), page 399. Hereinafter cited as Burkes Extinct Peerage. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume XII/2, page 367.

    Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    His second wife was Alice de Harcourt, widow of John de Limesy, Lord of Cavendish, daughter of Robert de Harcourt and had one child: Alice de Beaumont (died before 1263), married William de Maudit, Baron of Hanslape, Chamberlain to the King. They children were: William Maudit, 8th Earl of Warwick; Isabel de Maudit, married William de Beauchamp, Baron Emley. Their son was William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick.

    William — Alice de Newburgh. Alice (daughter of Waleran de Newburgh, Knight, 4th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Harcourt) died Bef 1263. [Group Sheet]


  36. 195.  Alice de Newburgh (daughter of Waleran de Newburgh, Knight, 4th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Harcourt); died Bef 1263.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Alice de Beaumont

    Children:
    1. 97. Isabel Mauduit was born ~ 1214, Hanslope, Buckinghamshire, England; died 7 Jan 1268, Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England.
    2. William Mauduit, Knight, 8th Earl of Warwick was born ~ 1220; died 8 Jan 1267.

  37. 200.  Roger Mortimer, Knight, 1st Baron Mortimer was born 0___ 1231, (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England) (son of Ralph de Mortimer, Knight and Gwladus Ddu); died 30 Oct 1292; was buried Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Roger de Mortimer

    Notes:

    Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer, of Wigmore (1231 – 30 October 1282), was a famous and honoured knight from Wigmore Castle in Herefordshire. He was a loyal ally of King Henry III of England. He was at times an enemy, at times an ally, of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales.

    Early career

    Born in 1231, Roger was the son of Ralph de Mortimer and his Welsh wife, Princess Gwladys Ddu, daughter of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth and Joan Plantagenet, daughter of John "Lackland", King of England.

    In 1256 Roger went to war with Llywelyn ap Gruffudd when the latter invaded his lordship of Gwrtheyrnion or Rhayader. This war would continue intermittently until the deaths of both Roger and Llywelyn in 1282. They were both grandsons of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth.

    Mortimer fought for the King against the rebel Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, and almost lost his life in 1264 at the Battle of Lewes fighting Montfort's men. In 1265 Mortimer's wife, Maud de Braose helped rescue Prince Edward; and Mortimer and the Prince made an alliance against de Montfort.

    Victor at Evesham

    In August 1265, de Montfort's army was surrounded by the River Avon on three sides, and Prince Edward's army on the fourth. Mortimer had sent his men to block the only possible escape route, at the Bengeworth bridge. The Battle of Evesham began in earnest. A storm roared above the battle field. Montfort's Welsh soldiers broke and ran for the bridge, where they were slaughtered by Mortimer's men. Mortimer himself killed Hugh Despencer and Montfort, and crushed Montfort's army. Mortimer was awarded Montfort's severed head and other parts of his anatomy, which he sent home to Wigmore Castle as a gift for his wife, Lady Mortimer.

    Welsh wars and death

    See also: Conquest of Wales by Edward I

    Mortimer took part in Edward I's 1282 campaign against Llewelyn the Last, and was put in charge of operations in mid-Wales.[1] It was a major setback for Edward when Mortimer died in October 1282.[1]

    Marriage and children

    Lady Mortimer was Maud de Braose, daughter of William de Braose, Lord of Abergavenny by Eva Marshal. Roger Mortimer had married her in 1247. She was, like him, a scion of a Welsh Marches family. Their six known children were:[2]

    Ralph Mortimer, died 10 August 1274, Sheriff of Shropshire and Staffordshire.
    Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer (1251–1304), married Margaret de Fiennes, the daughter of William II de Fiennes and Blanche de Brienne. Had issue, including Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March
    Isabella Mortimer, died 1292. She married (1) John Fitzalan, 7th Earl of Arundel,[2] (2) Ralph d'Arderne and (3) Robert de Hastang;[3]
    Margaret Mortimer, died 1297. She married Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford
    Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer of Chirk, died 1326.
    Geoffrey Mortimer, died 1273.
    William Mortimer, died before June 1297, a knight, married Hawise, daughter and heir of Robert de Mucegros. Died childless.
    Their eldest son, Ralph, was a famed knight but died in his youth. The second son, Edmund, was recalled from Oxford University and appointed his father's heir.

    Epitaph

    Roger Mortimer died on 30 October 1282, and was buried at Wigmore Abbey, where his tombstone read:

    Here lies buried, glittering with praise, Roger the pure, Roger Mortimer the second, called Lord of Wigmore by those who held him dear. While he lived all Wales feared his power, and given as a gift to him all Wales remained his. It knew his campaigns, he subjected it to torment.

    Buried:
    his tombstone read:

    Here lies buried, glittering with praise, Roger the pure, Roger Mortimer the second, called Lord of Wigmore by those who held him dear. While he lived all Wales feared his power, and given as a gift to him all Wales remained his. It knew his campaigns, he subjected it to torment.

    Roger married Maud de Braose, Lady Mortimer 0___ 1247, King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, England. Maud (daughter of William de Braose, Lord of Brycheiniog and Eva Marshal, Countess of Abergavenny) was born ~ 1224, (Wales); died 0___ 1301. [Group Sheet]


  38. 201.  Maud de Braose, Lady Mortimer was born ~ 1224, (Wales) (daughter of William de Braose, Lord of Brycheiniog and Eva Marshal, Countess of Abergavenny); died 0___ 1301.
    Children:
    1. Isabella Mortimer was born 0___ 1248; died 0___ 1292.
    2. 100. Edmund Mortimer, Knight, 2nd Baron Mortimer was born 0___ 1251, (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England); died 17 Jul 1304, Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

  39. 202.  William de Fiennes, II, Knight, Baron Tingy was born 0___ 1245, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England (son of Enguerrand de Fiennes, Knight, Seigneur of Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde).

    William married Blanche de Brienne, Baroness Tingry 0___ 1269. Blanche (daughter of Jean de Brienne and Jeanne de Chateaudun) was born ~ 1252, France; died ~ 1302. [Group Sheet]


  40. 203.  Blanche de Brienne, Baroness Tingry was born ~ 1252, France (daughter of Jean de Brienne and Jeanne de Chateaudun); died ~ 1302.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Dame de La Loupeland

    Notes:

    Blanche de Brienne, Baroness Tingry (c. 1252 – c. 1302) was the wife of William II de Fiennes, Baron of Tingry (c. 1250 – 11 July 1302). She was also known as Dame de La Loupeland, and Blanche of Acre.

    Family[edit]
    Blanche was born in about the year 1252 in France. She was the only child and heiress of Jean de Brienne, Grand Butler of France, and his first wife, Jeanne, Dame de Chateaudun, widow of Jean I de Montfort. Her paternal grandparents were John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem, Emperor of Constantinople, and Berenguela of Leon, and her maternal grandparents were Geoffrey VI, Viscount de Chateaudun and Clâemence des Roches. Blanche had a uterine half-sister Beatrice de Montfort, Countess of Montfort-l'Amaury from her mother's first marriage to Jean I de Montfort (died 1249 in Cyprus). In 1260, Beatrice married Robert IV of Dreux, Count of Dreux, by whom she had six children.

    Blanche was co-heiress to her mother, by which she inherited Loupeland in Maine.[1]

    Marriage and issue

    In the year 1269, Blanche married William II de Fiennes, Baron of Tingry and Fiennes, son of Enguerrand II de Fiennes and Isabelle de Conde. His other titles included Lord of Wendover, Buckinghamshire, of Lambourne, Essex, of Chokes and Gayton, Northamptonshire, of Martock, Somerset, of Carshalton and Clapham, Surrey, and custodian of the county of Ponthieu. The settlement for the marriage had been made in February 1266/67.[2] William and Blanche had at least one son and two daughters:

    Jean de Fiennes, Seigneur of Fiennes and Tingry (b. before 1281 in France – 1340), in 1307 married Isabelle de Dampierre, daughter of Guy de Dampierre, Count of Flanders and Isabelle of Luxembourg. They had a son Robert, who was Constable of France, and two daughters, Jeanne de Fiennes who married Jean de Chăatillon, Count of Saint-Pol, and Mahaut de Fiennes who married Jean de Bournonville.[2]
    Joan de Fiennes (d. before 26 October 1309), in 1291 married John Wake, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell. Had issue, including Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell, mother of Joan of Kent and grandmother of Richard II of England.
    Margaret de Fiennes (b. after 1269 – 7 February 1333), in September 1285, married Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Wigmore. They had three children, including Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March.
    Blanche is ancestress of Edward IV and all subsequent English monarchs. Her other descendants include Lady Margaret Beaufort (mother of King Henry VII) and queen consorts Elizabeth Woodville, Lady Anne Neville, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr.

    In 1285, Blanche received the gift of twelve leafless oak stumps from Selwood Forest from King Edward I for her fuel.[2]

    Blanche de Brienne died on an unknown date around the year 1302. Her husband William was killed on 11 July 1302 at the Battle of Courtrai.

    Children:
    1. 101. Margaret de Fiennes, Baroness Mortimer was born Aft 1269; died 7 Feb 1333.
    2. Joan de Fiennes was born ~ 1273; died Bef 26 Oct 1309.

  41. 204.  Geoffrey de Geneville died 0___ 1249.

    Geoffrey — Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville. Maud (daughter of Gilbert de Lacy and Isabel Bigod) was born 0___ 1230, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland; died 11 Apr 1304, Trim Castle, Meath, Ireland. [Group Sheet]


  42. 205.  Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville was born 0___ 1230, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland (daughter of Gilbert de Lacy and Isabel Bigod); died 11 Apr 1304, Trim Castle, Meath, Ireland.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Matilda de Lacy

    Notes:

    Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville (1230 – 11 April 1304) was a Norman-Irish noblewoman and wealthy heiress who upon the death of her grandfather, Walter de Lacy, Lord of Trim and Ludlow inherited half his estates. The lordships of Trim and Ludlow passed to her second husband Sir Geoffrey de Geneville, 1st Baron Geneville by right of his marriage to her; although she helped to rule and administer the estates in an equal partnership. She is sometimes referred to as Matilda de Lacy.[a]

    Family

    Maud was born in Dublin,Ireland in 1230, the youngest child of Gilbert de Lacy of Ewyas Lacy and Isabel Bigod. Her paternal grandparents were Walter de Lacy and Margaret de Braose, daughter of Maud de Braose who was walled up alive by King John of England. Her maternal grandparents were Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk and Maud Marshal.[1] She had an elder brother, Walter and sister Margery. On 25 December 1230, the year of her birth, Maud's father died, leaving her mother a widow at the age of eighteen. Less than four years later on 12 April 1234, her mother married again; he was John FitzGeoffrey, Lord of Shere in Surrey, England, and Justiciar of Ireland. Maud had six younger half-siblings from her mother's second marriage to John.

    In early 1241, Maud's brother Walter died. He was in his early teens. When their grandfather Walter de Lacy died shortly afterwards on 24 February, Maud and her sister, Margery inherited his vast estates and lordships in Ireland, Herefordshire, and the Welsh Marches. Maud and Margery both received a moiety of Ewyas Lacy in Herefordshire, and a share of the lordship with the taxes and revenues that attached to it.[2]

    Marriages and issue

    On an unknown date, Maud married her first husband Pierre de Genáeve, son of Humbert, Count of Genáeve, and a relative of Eleanor of Provence. He was one of the "Savoyards" who had arrived in England in the retinue of Queen Eleanor when she married King Henry III. The marriage produced a son and a daughter whose names were not recorded.[3] Pierre died in 1249, and sometime before 8 August 1252, Maud married her second husband, another "Savoyard", Sir Geoffrey de Geneville, Seigneur of Vaucouleurs( c.1226- 21 October 1314), son of Simon de Joinville and Beatrix d'Auxonne. Both Maud's marriages and the marriage of her sister, Margery[b] were personally arranged by King Henry III to ensure that the estates they inherited from their grandfather were retained in the hands of those known to be trusted servants of the Crown.[4]


    Trim Castle, Ireland, one of the lordships of Maud de Lacy
    The king granted Geoffrey and Maud, and their heirs rights in the land of Meath held by her grandfather, Walter de Lacy by charter dated 8 August 1252.[5] On 18 September 1254, the king granted them all the liberties and free customs in Meath which her grandfather had held; and they might issue their own writs in Meath according to the law and custom of Ireland. On 21 September 1252, they had livery of Trim Castle and a moiety of forty marcates of lands as the inheritance of Maud.[6] They made Trim Castle their chief residence. Maud and Geoffrey jointly ruled and administered their estates together in an equal partnership. They later donated property to Dore Abbey.

    In 1254, Maud accompanied Queen Eleanor to Gascony.

    Maud's husband was a loyal supporter and favourite of Prince Edward who would in 1272 reign as King Edward I of England. Geoffrey fought with the Prince against Simon de Monfort at the Battle of Evesham, and it was at Ludlow Castle that Prince Edward was sheltered following his escape in May 1265 from Montfortian captivity.[7] Geoffrey was appointed Justiciar of Ireland by his friend and patron, the new king, Edward I in September 1273, a post he held until June 1276; however, he had little success against the Irish of Leinster.[8] He was summoned to Parliament by writ as 1st Baron Geneville on 6 February 1299.

    Together Geoffrey and Maud had at least three children:[c]

    Geoffrey de Geneville (died 1292

    Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim and Ludlow (1256- shortly before June 1292), who in his turn married in 1283 Jeanne of Lusignan, by whom he had three daughters, including Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville.
    Joan de Geneville, married Gerald FitzMaurice FitzGerald (died 1287).

    Later years

    In 1283, Maud gave all her lands in England and Wales to Piers, her second eldest son by Geoffrey. These included Ludlow Castle in Shropshire, and Walterstone Manor as well as all the knights' fees which she had held in England.[9] That same year, her son Geoffrey died.

    Maud was described as independent-minded, and she usually accompanied her husband on his numerous travels abroad, which included Rome where he was sent on a mission to Pope Nicholas IV in 1290. She was aged sixty at the time. Maud was highly protective of her properties, and always ready to enter into litigation at the slightest threat to her lands or privileges whether posed by family members, the Church or the Dublin administration.[10]

    Maud died at Trim Castle on 11 April 1304 at the age of seventy-four. Her husband Geoffrey died ten years later. Their son Piers had died in 1292, leaving Joan as heiress-apparent to the estates and lordships. She succeeded as the suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville on 21 October 1314. She was the wife of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, by whom she had twelve children.

    Notes

    Jump up ^ The names Maud and Matilda were used interchangeably in the Middle Ages, both being versions of the French name Mahaut. Most primary source documents record Maud de Lacy as Mahaut, as can be seen in Cawley, Charles, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Missing or empty |title= (help),[self-published source][better source needed]
    Jump up ^ Margery married John de Verdun, Lord of Westmeath, by whom she had issue.
    Jump up ^ Geoffrey de Geneville and Maud de Lacy possibly had two additional sons, Gautier and Jean.
    Jump up ^ The Complete Peerage[page needed]
    Jump up ^ The History of Ewyas Lacy, An ancient Hundred of South-West Herefordshire, theme: de Lacy family history, date: 1000s, 1100s, 1200s, Ewyas Lacy, retrieved on 30 June 2009, http://www.ewyaslacy.org.uk/doc.php?d=rs_ewy[not in citation given]
    Jump up ^ Cawley, Charles, Burgundy, Comtes de Geneve, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[self-published source][better source needed]
    Jump up ^ The History of Ewyas Lacy', retrieved on 30 June 2009'
    Jump up ^ Cawley, Charles, Lords of Meath, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[self-published source][better source needed]
    Jump up ^ The Complete Peerage, Vol. V (628-634)
    Jump up ^ Medieval Ireland, p.196, by Sean Duffy, Aibhe MacShamhrain, James Moynes, retrieved 30 June 2009
    Jump up ^ The Oxford Companion to Irish History, retrieved on 30 June 2009
    Jump up ^ The Complete Peerage[page needed]
    Jump up ^ The Heiress as Fortune-Maker and Widow in Thirteenth-Century Anglo-Norman Ireland: Christiana de Marisco, Matilda de Lacy, and the de Genevre Brothers, by Gillian Kenny, Department of Medieval History, retrieved on 30 June 2009

    end

    Children:
    1. 102. Piers de Geneville was born 0___ 1256, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland; died 0Jun 1292.

  43. 208.  William de Ferrers was born 0___ 1240, Woodham Ferrers, Essex, England (son of William de Ferrers, III, Knight, 5th Earl of Derby and Margaret de Quincy); died 0___ 1288, Groby, Leicestershire, England; was buried St Philip and St James Church, Groby, Leicestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Sir William De Ferrers

    Birth: 1240
    Woodham Ferrers
    Essex, England
    Death: Jan. 24, 1288
    Groby
    Leicestershire, England


    Family links:
    Parents:
    William Ferrers (1193 - 1254)
    Margaret De Quincy Ferrers (1218 - 1281)

    Spouse:
    Anne Le Despenser De Ferrers (1248 - 1280)*

    Children:
    William De Ferrers (1272 - 1325)*

    Siblings:
    Joan Ferrers Berkeley (____ - 1309)*
    Agnes de Ferrieres (1224 - 1290)**
    Isabelle de Ferrers (1226 - 1260)**
    Maud "Matilda" de Ferrers Rochechouart (1230 - 1298)**
    Eleanor de Ferrieres (1232 - 1274)**
    Joan de Ferrieres (1233 - 1267)**
    Robert de Ferrers (1239 - 1279)*
    William De Ferrers (1240 - 1288)

    *Calculated relationship
    **Half-sibling

    Burial:
    St Philip and St James Church
    Groby
    Hinckley and Bosworth Borough
    Leicestershire, England

    Created by: Bill Velde
    Record added: Jun 20, 2011
    Find A Grave Memorial# 71688990

    *

    William — Anne le Despenser. Anne was born 0___ 1248; died 0___ 1280. [Group Sheet]


  44. 209.  Anne le Despenser was born 0___ 1248; died 0___ 1280.
    Children:
    1. 104. William de Ferrers was born 30 Jan 1272, Yoxall, Staffordshire, England; died 20 Mar 1325, Groby, Leicestershire, England; was buried St Philip and St James Church, Groby, Leicestershire, England.

  45. 210.  John Segrave was born 0___ 1256; died 0___ 1325.

    John — Christian Deplessetis. Christian was born 0___ 1263; died 0___ 1331. [Group Sheet]


  46. 211.  Christian Deplessetis was born 0___ 1263; died 0___ 1331.
    Children:
    1. 105. Ellen de Segrave was born 0___ 1275, Chacombe, Northamptonshire, England; died 9 Feb 1317, Groby, Leicestershire, England; was buried St Philip and St James Church, Groby, Leicestershire, England.

  47. 212.  Theobald de Verdun was born ~ 1248, Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England (son of John de Verdun, Baron of Westmeath and Margaret de Lacy); died 24 Aug 1309, Alton, Staffordshire, England; was buried Croxden Abbey, Staffordshire, England.

    Notes:

    Theobald "Tebaud, 1st Lord Verdun" de Verdun formerly Verdun
    Born about 1248 in Alton, Staffordshire, Englandmap
    ANCESTORS ancestors
    Son of John (Butler) de Verdun and Margery (Lacy) de Verdun
    Brother of Nicholas (Verdun) de Verdun and Maud (Verdun) de Grey [half]
    Husband of Margery (Bohun) de Verdon — married before 6 Nov 1276 [location unknown]
    DESCENDANTS descendants
    Father of Unknown (Verdun) Hussey, John Verdon, Tebaud (Verdun) de Verdun, Bartholomew (Verdun) de Verdun, Miles Verdon and Nicholas (Verdun) de Verdon
    Died 24 Aug 1309 in Alton, Staffordshire, Englandmap
    Profile manager: Katherine Patterson private message [send private message]
    Verdun-59 created 12 May 2012 | Last modified 26 May 2017
    This page has been accessed 1,954 times.


    Contents

    [hide]
    1 Biography
    1.1 Death and burial
    1.2 Inquisitions Post Mortem
    1.2.1 Theobald de Verdun, alias de Verdoun, de Verdon, the elder
    1.3 Sources
    Biography

    Death and burial

    Sir Thebaud de Verdun, 1st Lord Verdun, died testate at Alton, Staffordshire, 24 August 1309, and was buried at Croxden Abbey, Staffordshire.

    Inquisitions Post Mortem

    Theobald de Verdun, alias de Verdoun, de Verdon, the elder

    Writ, 28 Aug. 3 Edw. II. [1309] [1]
    Theobald his son, aged 28, is his next heir.
    Heir as above, aged 30 and more.
    Heir as above, aged 30 and more.
    Heir as above, aged 24 and more.
    Heir as above, aged 22 and more.
    Heir as above, aged 31 at the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary last.
    Sources

    ? J E E S Sharp and A E Stamp. "Inquisitions Post Mortem, Edward II, File 14 and 15," in Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem: Volume 5, Edward II, (London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1908), 90-107. British History Online, accessed May 26, 2017, [1].
    Royal Ancestry D. Richardson 2013 Vol. I. p. 418
    Royal Ancestry 2013 Vol. V p. 243-245
    http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p376.htm#i11297

    Theobald married Margaret de Bohun Bef 6 Nov 1276. Margaret (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, VI, 2nd Earl of Hereford and Eleanor de Braose) was born ~ 1252, Bisley, Stroud, Gloucestershire, England. [Group Sheet]


  48. 213.  Margaret de Bohun was born ~ 1252, Bisley, Stroud, Gloucestershire, England (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, VI, 2nd Earl of Hereford and Eleanor de Braose).

    Notes:

    Name: Margery (Margaret) de BOHUN , Heiress of Bisley 1 2 3 4
    Sex: F
    ALIA: Margery (Eleanor) Heiress of /Bisley/
    Birth: ABT 1252 in Bisley, Stroud, Gloucestershire, England
    Note:
    Margery (or Eleanor), heiress of 1/4 hundred of Bisley, co. Gloucester. [Ancestral Roots]

    --------------------------------------------------------

    He [Theobald de Verdun] married, before 6 November 1276, Margery (c). He died 24 August 1309 at Alton, aged about 61, and was buried 13 October in Croxden Abbey, in that co. [Complete Peeerage XII/2:249-50, (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)]

    (c) By right of his wife he held 1/4 of the hundred of Bisley, co. Gloucester.

    --------------------------------------------------------

    The following is a post to SGM, 11 Jan 2002, by Douglas Richardson:

    From: Douglas Richardson (royalancestry AT msn.com)
    Subject: Margery de Bohun, wife of Theobald de Verdun (Was: A New Bohun Daughter Discovered)
    Newsgroups: soc.genealogy.medieval
    Date: 2002-01-11 15:41:47 PST

    Dear Newsgroup ~

    Today I had the opportunity to further research the matter of Theobald de Verdun's wife, Margery.

    VCH Gloucester 11 (1976): 12 indicates about 1170, Hugh, Earl of Chester, granted the fee of Bisley, co. Gloucester to Humphrey de Bohun, son-in-law of Miles of Hereford. Humphrey was to hold the property for the service of 3 knights fees out of the 5 owed for the fee.

    VCH Gloucester 11 (1976): 1 further shows that in 1274, the Hundred Rolls show that the hundred of Bisley was held by Peter Corbet (in right of his wife, Joan), Tibbald le Botiler (in right of his wife, Margery), and Richard le Eyer. Half of the profits belonged to Peter, the other half was shared equally by Tibbald and Richard.

    In 1303, a total of 2 3/4 fees in Bisley and Stroud were held from the earl of Hereford. including parts of Bisley manor, which fees were in the possession respectively of Joan Corbet, Tibbald de Verdun, and Richard of Bisley [Reference: Feudal Aids, 2 (1900): 251].

    In 1309, at Theobald de Verdun's death, it was recorded that he owned a capital messuage and lands at Bisley, co. Gloucester "in free marriage of the earl of Hereford by service of rendering 1 lb. cummin yearly." [Reference: Cal. IPM, vol. 5 (1908): 96].

    The above information, taken together with the abstract of the legal case I posted earlier today, make it clear that Theobald de Verdun's wife, Margery, was the daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, and that she had a 1/4 share of the manor and hundred of Bisley, co. Gloucester in free marriage. Also, it appears that Margery was married previously to a certain Robert de W., who evidently died prior to 1274, without male issue. For an abstract of the legal case, see my earlier post which is shown below.

    As to which Humphrey de Bohun was Margery's father, it appears that the correct Humphrey is the Humphrey de Bohun, born say 1230, died 1265, who married before 1249 Eleanor, daughter of William de Breuse, lord of Abergavenny, by Eve, daughter of William le Marshal, Earl of Pembroke. This Humphrey was never Earl of Hereford, he having died in his father's lifetime. This would explain why Theobald de Verdun's statements refer to him only as "one Humphrey" and not as "Humphrey, Earl of Hereford."

    It is unusual that a high born marriage for a Bohun woman should have escaped the attention of so many people prior to this time. This situation appears to have been caused by the tangled history of the hundred and manor of Bisley, co. Gloucester, which properties had multiple owners. It is fortunate indeed that a record of Theobald de Verdun's statements regarding his wife's parentage were preserved in the Yearbooks of Edward I and that his inquisition clearly show that he acquired the property at Bisley in free marriage, held under the Earls of Hereford.

    Given that some 40 odd immigrants descend from Theobald de Verdun and his wife, Margery de Bohun, this new discovery doubtless affects the ancestry of a good many people here in the newsgroup.

    Best always, Douglas Richardson, Salt Lake City, Utah

    E-mail: royalancestry AT msn.com




    Father: Humphrey VI de BOHUN , Governor of Winchester b: ABT 1228 in Caldicot, Chepstow, Monmouthshire, Wales
    Mother: Eleanor de BRAOSE b: 1230 in Brecknock, Breconshire, Wales

    Marriage 1 Theobald 1st Baron de VERDUN , Sir b: ABT 1248 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England
    Married: BEF 6 NOV 1276 5 6 7
    Children
    Has Children Theobald 2nd Baron de VERDUN , MP, Sir b: 8 SEP 1278 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England

    Sources:
    Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
    Page: 70-31
    Text: Margery or Eleanor (no last name)
    Title: Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999
    Page: 13-5
    Text: Margery (no last name)
    Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000
    Page: XII/2:250
    Text: Margery (no last name)
    Title: Newsgroup: soc.genealogy.medieval, at groups - google.com
    Page: Douglas Richardson, 11 Jan 2002
    Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
    Page: 70-31
    Title: Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999
    Page: 13-5
    Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000

    *

    Children:
    1. 106. Theobald de Verdun, II, Lord Weoberley was born 8 Sep 1278, Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England; died 27 Jul 1316.

  49. 214.  Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of HertfordGilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Hertford was born 2 Sep 1243, Christchurch, Hampshire, England (son of Richard de Clare, Knight, 6th Earl of Gloucester and Maud de Lacy); died 7 Dec 1295, Monmouth Castle, Monmouth, Monmouthshire, Wales; was buried Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: 7th Earl of Gloucester
    • Also Known As: 9th Earl Clare
    • Also Known As: Gilbert "The Red"
    • Also Known As: Lord of Glamorgan

    Notes:

    Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 9th Lord of Clare (2 September 1243 - 7 December 1295) was a powerful English noble. Also known as "Red" Gilbert de Clare or "The red earl", probably because of his hair colour or fiery temper in battle.[3] He held the Lordship of Glamorgan which was one of the most powerful and wealthy of the Welsh Marcher Lordships as well as many other English manors such as the Manor of Chilton.

    Lineage

    Gilbert de Clare was born at Christchurch, Hampshire, the son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester, and of Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, daughter of John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy.[4] Gilbert inherited his father's estates in 1262. He took on the titles, including Lord of Glamorgan, from 1263. Being under age at his father's death, he was made a ward of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford.

    Massacre of the Jews at Canterbury

    In April 1264, Gilbert de Clare led the massacre of the Jews at Canterbury,[5] as Simon de Montfort had done in Leicester. Gilbert de Clare’s castles of Kingston and Tonbridge were taken by the King, Henry III. However, the King allowed de Clare's Countess Alice de Lusignan, who was in the latter, to go free because she was his niece; but on 12 May de Clare and de Montfort were denounced as traitors.

    The Battle of Lewes

    Two days later, just before the Battle of Lewes, on 14 May, Simon de Montfort knighted the Earl and his brother Thomas. The Earl commanded the central division of the Baronial army, which formed up on the Downs west of Lewes. When Prince Edward had left the field in pursuit of Montfort's routed left wing, the King and Earl of Cornwall were thrown back to the town. Henry took refuge in the Priory of St Pancras, and Gilbert accepted the surrender of the Earl of Cornwall, who had hidden in a windmill. Montfort and the Earl were now supreme and de Montfort in effect de facto King of England.

    Excommunication

    On 20 October 1264, Gilbert and his associates were excommunicated by Pope Clement IV, and his lands placed under an interdict.[citation needed] In the following month, by which time they had obtained possession of Gloucester and Bristol, the Earl was proclaimed to be a rebel. However at this point he changed sides as he fell out with de Montfort and the Earl, in order to prevent de Montfort's escape, destroyed ships at the port of Bristol and the bridge over the River Severn at Gloucester.[citation needed]Having changed sides, de Clare shared the Prince's victory at Kenilworth on 16 July, and in the Battle of Evesham, 4 August, in which de Montfort was slain, he commanded the second division and contributed largely to the victory.[citation needed]On 24 June 1268 he took the Cross at Northampton in repentance and contrition for his past misdeeds.[citation needed][clarification needed]

    Activities as a Marcher Lord

    In October 1265, as a reward for supporting Prince Edward, Gilbert was given the castle and title of Abergavenny and honour and castle of Brecknock.At Michaelmas his disputes with Llewelyn the Last were submitted to arbitration, but without a final settlement. Meanwhile, he was building Caerphilly Castle into a fortress. At the end of the year 1268 he refused to obey the King's summons to attend parliament, alleging that, owing to the constant inroads of Llewelyn the Last, his Welsh estates needed his presence for their defence. At the death of Henry III, 16 November 1272, the Earl took the lead in swearing fealty to Edward I, who was then in Sicily on his return from the Crusade. The next day, with the Archbishop of York, he entered London and proclaimed peace to all, Christians and Jews, and for the first time, secured the acknowledgment of the right of the King's eldest son to succeed to the throne immediately.Thereafter he was joint Guardian of England, during the King's absence, and on the new King's arrival in England, in August 1274, entertained him at Tonbridge Castle.

    The Welsh war in 1282

    See also: Conquest of Wales by Edward I
    During Edward's invasion of Wales in 1282, de Clare insisted on leading an attack into southern Wales. King Edward made de Clare the commander of the southern army invading Wales. However, de Clare's army faced disaster after being heavily defeated at the Battle of Llandeilo Fawr. Following this defeat, de Clare was relieved of his position as the southern commander and was replaced by William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke (whose son had died during the battle).

    Private Marcher War

    In the next year, 1291, he quarrelled with the Earl of Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, grandson of his onetime guardian, about the Lordship of Brecknock, where de Bohun accused de Clare of building a castle on his land culminated in a private war between them. Although it was a given right for Marcher Lords to wage private war the King tested this right in this case, first calling them before a court of their Marcher peers, then realising the outcome would be coloured by their likely avoidance of prejudicing one of their greatest rights they were both called before the superior court, the Kings own. At this both were imprisoned by the King, both sentenced to having their lands forfeit for life and de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester, as the aggressor, was fined 10,000 marks, and the Earl of Hereford 1,000 marks.They were released almost immediately and both of their lands completely restored to them - however they had both been taught a very public lesson and their prestige diminished and the King's authority shown for all.

    Marriage and succession

    Gilbert's first marriage was to Alice de Lusignan, also known as Alice de Valence, the daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan and of the family that succeeded the Marshal family to the title of the Earl of Pembroke in the person of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke. They married in 1253, when Gilbert was ten years old. She was of high birth, being a niece of King Henry, but the marriage floundered. Gilbert and Alice separated in 1267; allegedly, Alice's affections lay with her cousin, Prince Edward. Previous to this, Gilbert and Alice had produced two daughters: Isabella de Clare (10 March 1262 – 1333), after a marriage with Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick having been contemplated, or possibly having taken place and then annulled, married Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley Joan de Clare (1264-after 1302), married (1) Duncan Macduff, 7th Earl of Fife; (2) Gervase Avenel.

    After his marriage to Alice de Lusignan was annulled in 1285, Gilbert married Joan of Acre, a daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife Eleanor of Castile. King Edward sought to bind de Clare, and his assets, more closely to the Crown by this means. By the provisions of the marriage contract, their joint possessions and de Clare's extensive lands could only be inherited by a direct descendant, i.e. close to the Crown, and if the marriage proved childless, the lands would pass to any children Joan may have by further marriage.

    On 3 July 1290, the Earl gave a great banquet at Clerkenwell to celebrate his marriage of 30 April 1290 with Joan of Acre (1272 - 23 April 1307) after waiting for the Pope to sanction the marriage. Edward then gave large estates to Gilbert, including one in Malvern. Disputed hunting rights on these led to several armed conflicts with Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, that Edward resolved.[6] Gilbert made gifts to the Priory, and also had a "great conflict" about hunting rights and a ditch that he dug, with Thomas de Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford, that was settled by costly litigation.[7] Gilbert had a similar conflict with Godfrey Giffard, Bishop and Administrator of Worcester Cathedral (and formerly Chancellor of England. Godfrey, who had granted land to the Priory, had jurisdictional disputes about Malvern Priory, resolved by Robert Burnell, the then Chancellor.[8] Thereafter, Gilbert and Joan are said to have taken the Cross and set out for the Holy Land. In September, he signed the Barons' letter to the Pope, and on 2 November, surrendered to the King his claim to the advowson of the Bishopric of Llandaff.

    Gilbert and Joan had one son: also

    Gilbert, and three daughters: Eleanor, Margaret and Elizabeth.

    Gilbert, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester (1291–1314) succeeded to his father's titles and was killed at the Battle of Bannockburn.
    Eleanor de Clare (1292–1337) married Hugh Despenser the Younger, favourite of her uncle Edward II. Hugh was executed in 1326, and Eleanor married secondly William de la Zouche.
    Margaret de Clare (1293–1342) married firstly Piers Gaveston (executed in 1312) and then Hugh de Audley.
    The youngest sister Elizabeth de Clare (1295–1360) married John de Burgh in 1308 at Waltham Abbey, then Theobald of Verdun in 1316, and finally Roger d'Amory in 1317. Each marriage was brief, produced one child (a son by the 1st, daughters by the 2nd and 3rd), and left Elizabeth a widow.

    Death and burial

    He died at Monmouth Castle on 7 December 1295, and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey, on the left side of his grandfather Gilbert de Clare. His extensive lands were enjoyed by his surviving wife Joan of Acre until her death in 1307. Gilbert and Joan had a descendant named Ursula Hildyard of Yorkshire, who in 1596 married (Sir) Richard Jackson of Killingwoldgraves, near Beverley in the East Riding.[citation needed] Jackson died in 1610 and was interred at Bishop Burton. In 1613, James posthumously awarded a coat of arms and a knighthood to Richard for meretorious military service in the Lowlands of Scotland.

    Buried:
    image, map & history ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tewkesbury_Abbey

    Died:
    Images for Monmounth Castle ... https://www.google.com/search?q=monmouth+castle+wales&rlz=1C1KMZB_enUS591US591&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=815&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjGlI_Uj4nLAhWFkh4KHWskBTsQsAQIMg

    Gilbert — Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre. Joan (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England) was born 0Apr 1272, Acre, Israel; died 23 Apr 1307, Clare Castle, Clare, Suffolk, England; was buried Clare Priory, Clare, Suffolk, England. [Group Sheet]


  50. 215.  Joan (Plantagenet) of Acre was born 0Apr 1272, Acre, Israel (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor de Castile, Queen of England); died 23 Apr 1307, Clare Castle, Clare, Suffolk, England; was buried Clare Priory, Clare, Suffolk, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Gloucester
    • Also Known As: Countess of Hertford
    • Also Known As: Joan of Acre

    Notes:

    Joan of Acre (April 1272 - 23 April 1307) was an English princess, a daughter of King Edward I of England and Queen Eleanor of Castile.[2] The name "Acre" derives from her birthplace in the Holy Land while her parents were on a crusade.

    She was married twice; her first husband was Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, one of the most powerful nobles in her father's kingdom; her second husband was Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in her household whom she married in secret.

    Joan is most notable for the claim that miracles have allegedly taken place at her grave, and for the multiple references to her in literature.

    Birth and childhood

    Joan (or Joanna, as she is sometimes called) of Acre was born in the spring of 1272 in the Kingdom of Acre, Outremer, now in modern Israel, while her parents, Edward I and Eleanor of Castile, were on crusade.[3] At the time of Joan's birth, her grandfather, Henry III, was still alive and thus her father was not yet king of England. Her parents departed from Acre shortly after her birth, traveling to Sicily and Spain[4] before leaving Joan with Eleanor's mother, Joan, Countess of Ponthieu, in France.[5] Joan lived for several years in France where she spent her time being educated by a bishop and “being thoroughly spoiled by an indulgent grandmother.”[6] Joan was free to play among the “vine clad hills and sunny vales”[7] surrounding her grandmother’s home, although she required “judicious surveillance.”[8]

    As Joan was growing up with her grandmother, her father was back in England, already arranging marriages for his daughter. He hoped to gain both political power and more wealth with his daughter's marriage, so he conducted the arrangement in a very “business like style”.[9] He finally found a man suitable to marry Joan (aged 5 at the time), Hartman, son of King Rudoph I, of Germany. Edward then brought her home from France for the first time to meet him.[10] As she had spent her entire life away from Edward and Eleanor, when she returned she “stood in no awe of her parents”[6] and had a fairly distanced relationship with them.

    Unfortunately for King Edward, his daughter’s suitor died before he was able to meet or marry Joan. The news reported that Hartman had fallen through a patch of shallow ice while “amusing himself in skating” while a letter sent to the King himself stated that Hartman had set out on a boat to visit his father amidst a terrible fog and the boat had smashed into a rock, drowning him.[11]

    First marriage

    Edward arranged a second marriage almost immediately after the death of Hartman.[12] Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, who was almost thirty years older than Joan and newly divorced, was his first choice.[13] The earl resigned his lands to Edward upon agreeing to get them back when he married Joan, as well as agreed on a dower of two thousand silver marks.[14] By the time all of these negotiations were finished, Joan was twelve years old.[14] Gilbert de Clare became very enamored with Joan, and even though she had to marry him regardless of how she felt, he still tried to woo her.[15] He bought her expensive gifts and clothing to try to win favor with her.[16] The couple were married on 30 April 1290 at Westminster Abbey, and had four children together.[17] They were:

    Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford
    Eleanor de Clare
    Margaret de Clare
    Elizabeth de Clare

    Joan's first husband, Gilbert de Clare died on 7 December 1295.[18]

    Secret second marriage

    Joan had been a widow for only a little over a year when she caught the eye of Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in Joan’s father’s household.[19] Joan fell in love and convinced her father to have Monthermer knighted. It was unheard of in European royalty for a noble lady to even converse with a man who had not won or acquired importance in the household. However, in January 1297 Joan secretly married [20] Ralph. Joan's father was already planning another marriage for Joan to Amadeus V, Count of Savoy,[20] to occur 16 March 1297. Joan was in a dangerous predicament, as she was already married, unbeknownst to her father.

    Joan sent her four young children to their grandfather, in hopes that their sweetness would win Edward's favor, but her plan did not work.[21] The king soon discovered his daughter's intentions, but not yet aware that she had already committed to them,[18] he seized Joan’s lands and continued to arrange her marriage to Amadeus of Savoy.[17] Soon after the seizure of her lands, Joan told her father that she had married Ralph. The king was enraged and retaliated by immediately imprisoning Monthermer at Bristol Castle.[17] The people of the land had differing opinions on the princess’ matter. It has been argued that the ones who were most upset were those who wanted Joan’s hand in marriage.[22]

    With regard to the matter, Joan famously said, “It is not considered ignominious, nor disgraceful for a great earl to take a poor and mean woman to wife; neither, on the other hand, is it worthy of blame, or too difficult a thing for a countess to promote to honor a gallant youth.”[23] Joan's statement in addition to a possibly obvious pregnancy seemed to soften Edward’s attitude towards the situation.[22] Joan's first child by Monthermer was born in October 1297; by the summer of 1297, when the marriage was revealed to Edward I, Joan's condition would certainly have been apparent, and would have convinced Edward that he had no choice but to recognize his daughter's marriage. Edward I eventually relented for the sake of his daughter and released Monthermer from prison in August 1297.[17] Monthermer paid homage 2 August, and being granted the titles of Earl of Gloucester and Earl of Hertford, he rose to favour with the King during Joan's lifetime.[24]

    Monthermer and Joan had four children:

    Mary de Monthermer, born October 1297. In 1306 her grandfather King Edward I arranged for her to wed Duncan Macduff, 8th Earl of Fife.
    Joan de Monthermer, born 1299, became a nun at Amesbury.
    Thomas de Monthermer, 2nd Baron Monthermer, born 1301.
    Edward de Monthermer, born 1304 and died 1339.

    Relationship with family

    Joan of Acre was the seventh of Edward I and Eleanor’s fourteen children. Most of her older siblings died before the age of seven, and many of her younger siblings died before adulthood.[25] Those who survived to adulthood were Joan, her younger brother, Edward of Caernarfon (later Edward II), and four of her sisters: Eleanor, Margaret, Mary, and Elizabeth.[26]

    Joan, like her siblings, was raised outside her parents' household. She lived with her grandmother in Ponthieu for four years, and was then entrusted to the same caregivers who looked after her siblings.[27] Edward I did not have a close relationship with most of his children while they were growing up, yet “he seemed fonder of his daughters than his sons.”[26]

    However, Joan of Acre’s independent nature caused numerous conflicts with her father. Her father disapproved of her leaving court after her marriage to the Earl of Gloucester, and in turn “seized seven robes that had been made for her.”[28] He also strongly disapproved of her second marriage to Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in her household, even to the point of attempting to force her to marry someone else.[28][29] While Edward ultimately developed a cordial relationship with Monthermer, even giving him the title of Earl,[28] there appears to have been a notable difference in the Edward’s treatment of Joan as compared to the treatment of the rest of her siblings. For instance, her father famously paid messengers substantially when they brought news of the birth of grandchildren, but did not do this upon birth of Joan’s daughter.[30]

    In terms of her siblings, Joan kept a fairly tight bond. She and Monthermer both maintained a close relationship with her brother, Edward, which was maintained through letters. After Edward became estranged from his father and lost his royal seal, “Joan offered to lend him her seal” .[31]

    Death

    Joan died on 23 April 1307, at the manor of Clare in Suffolk.[24] The cause of her death remains unclear, though one popular theory is that she died during childbirth, a common cause of death at the time. While Joan's age in 1307 (about 35) and the chronology of her earlier pregnancies with Ralph de Monthermer suggest that this could well be the case, historians have not confirmed the cause of her death.[32]

    Less than four months after her death, Joan’s father died. Joan's widower, Ralph de Monthermer, lost the title of Earl of Gloucester soon after the deaths of his wife and father-in-law. The earldom of Gloucester was given to Joan’s son from her first marriage, Gilbert, who was its rightful holder. Monthermer continued to hold a nominal earldom in Scotland, which had been conferred on him by Edward I, until his death.

    Joan’s burial place has been the cause of some interest and debate. She is interred in the Augustinian priory at Clare, which had been founded by her first husband's ancestors and where many of them were also buried. Allegedly, in 1357, Joan’s daughter, Elizabeth De Burgh, claimed to have “inspected her mother's body and found the corpse to be intact,”,[32] which in the eyes of the Roman Catholic Church is an indication of sanctity. This claim was only recorded in a fifteenth-century chronicle, however, and its details are uncertain, especially the statement that her corpse was in such a state of preservation that "when her paps [breasts] were pressed with hands, they rose up again." Some sources further claim that miracles took place at Joan's tomb,[32] but no cause for her beatification or canonization has ever been introduced.

    Children:
    1. Margaret de Clare was born 12 Oct 1293, Tonbridge Castle, Kent, England; died 9 Apr 1342, Chebsey, Staffordshire, England; was buried Tonbridge Priory, Kent, England.
    2. Eleanor de Clare, Baroness of Despencer was born 0Oct 1292, Caerphilly Castle, Caerphilly, Urban, Glamorgan, Wales; died 30 Jun 1337, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England; was buried (Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England GL20 5RZ).
    3. 107. Elizabeth de Clare was born 14 Sep 1295, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

  51. 218.  Robert de Valoines, II, Lord of Walsham & Icksworth was born 0___ 1247, Thurston, Suffolk, England (son of Robert Valoines and Rohesia Blount); died 0___ 1289.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: DE VALAINES, DE VALONYES, DE VALOYNES, DE WALEYNS, DE WALONIIS and DE WALOYNIS
    • Also Known As: Robert de Valognes
    • Also Known As: Robert de Valoignes

    Notes:

    Sources, Comments and Notes

    Source :
    "ROBERT de Valoignes . m EVA Tregoz, daughter of ---. Robert & his wife had children:
    a) CECILY de Valoignes ([1280/81]-16 Jul 1325). m (before 1298) ROBERT de Ufford , son of ROBERT de Ufford & his first wife Mary --- (11 Jun 1279-9 Sep 1316 or before). He was summoned to Parliament 4 Mar 1309, whereby he is held to have become Lord Ufford."
    ___________________________________
    Source Par Thomas Christopher Banks:
    "'john De Valoins succeeded his brother Robert, as the next heir male; and by Ifabella his wife, daughter of Sir Robert de Creke, of North Creke, in Norfolk, had Robert, his son and heir; who, by Roesia, one of the sisters and coheirs of Sir William le Blund, left Robert de Valoins, his son, who took to wise Eve de Criketot, and was lord of . Icksworth, in Suffolk, as heir to Blund; and had issue, two daughters (Ixwortb.) and heirs, viz. Roesc, married to Sir Edward, or Edmund, de Pakenham; and Cicely, to Robert de Ufford, earl of Suffolk.
    Of this family was also Alan De Valoins, sheriff of Kent. temp. Henry II. and Richard I. about the 6th of whofe reign he died, without issue."
    ____________________________________
    Source :
    "? Robert 1er de Valognes ° 1217 âep. Rose Blund ° ~1217
    - Robert II de Valognes ° 1247 + 1282 Lord of Orford âep. 1) Eve Criketot ° ~1254 (veuve de William Tregoz) âep. 2) Rohaise Le Blount (fille de William Le Blount, Lord of Ixworth)
    - Cecily de Valognes ° 1284 (Thurston, Suffolk) âep. Robert 1er Ufford °1279"
    ____________________________
    Source :
    "Robert II De Valoines Lord of Walsham was born in 1247 in Thurston, Suffolk, England. He married Eve De Tregoz-Criketot in 1280 in Suffolk, England.

    Eve De Tregoz-Criketot was born in 1259. She married Robert II De Valoines Lord of Walsham in 1280 in Suffolk, England.
    They had the following children:

    F i Cecily De Valoines
    F ii Rohesia De Valoines"
    _____________________________
    Source :
    "Sir Robert Valoines, Lord Walsham d. circa 1282
    Father Robert de Valoines
    Mother Roesia Blund
    Sir Robert Valoines, Lord Walsham was born at of Ixworth & Walsham, Suffolk, England.2 He married Eve de Criketot, daughter of William de Criketot. Sir Robert Valoines, Lord Walsham died circa 1282.

    Family Eve de Criketot b. 1247
    Child Cecily de Valoines+2,3 b. c 1281, d. 16 Jul 1325"
    _____________________________
    Source :
    "Robert II de Valognes, Lord Walsham (c.1245 - 1282)
    Birthdate: circa 1245 Birthplace: Thurston, Suffolk, England
    Death: Died 1282 in England

    Immediate Family
    Eve De Valoines (Criketot) wife
    Cecily de Valognes, Lady Of Orford daughter
    Eve de Tregoz wife
    Roesia le Blount mother
    Robert Valoines-Walsham, I father
    Thomas de Valoines brother
    Lucy stepdaughter
    Joan Loudham stepdaughter"
    _____________________________
    Source
    "Robert son of Robert de Valoignes ...
    Sum of all the lands of the said Robert, excepting the manors of Toleshunt and Blunteshal, whereof Eva, late his wife, was enfeoffed as dower, 46l. 19s. 2d. Dower 15l. 13s. 0˝d.
    His daughters, Rose (Roysea) aged 2 at the feast of All Saints, 10 Edw. I., and Cecily, aged 1 about the said feast, are his next heirs. ...

    From: 'Inquisitions Post Mortem, Edward I, File 30', Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume 2: Edward I (1906), pp. 245-252. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=108102 Date accessed: 18 November 2012."


    Robert married Eve DE CRIKETOT [2431], daughter of Sir William IV DE CRIKETOT [2437] and Agnes BLUND [2439], in 1280 in , Suffolk, England. (Eve DE CRIKETOT [2431] was born about 1250 in Thurston, Suffolk, England and died in 1316 in Thurston, Suffolk, England.)

    Robert married Eve de Criketot 0___ 1280, Suffolkshire, England. Eve (daughter of William Criketot and unnamed spouse) was born 0___ 1259, Thurston, Suffolk, England; died 0___ 1316, Thurston, Suffolk, England. [Group Sheet]


  52. 219.  Eve de Criketot was born 0___ 1259, Thurston, Suffolk, England (daughter of William Criketot and unnamed spouse); died 0___ 1316, Thurston, Suffolk, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Eva Tregoz
    • Also Known As: Eve de la Pecche

    Children:
    1. 109. Cecily Valoines was born ~ 1281, Walsham, Suffolkshire, England; died 16 Jul 1325, Thurston, Suffolk, England.

  53. 220.  Geoffrey Norwich

    Geoffrey — Cecily Valoines. Cecily (daughter of Robert de Valoines, II, Lord of Walsham & Icksworth and Eve de Criketot) was born ~ 1281, Walsham, Suffolkshire, England; died 16 Jul 1325, Thurston, Suffolk, England. [Group Sheet]


  54. 221.  Cecily Valoines was born ~ 1281, Walsham, Suffolkshire, England (daughter of Robert de Valoines, II, Lord of Walsham & Icksworth and Eve de Criketot); died 16 Jul 1325, Thurston, Suffolk, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Cecily Valoines

    Children:
    1. 110. Walter de Norwich, Knight was born ~ 1274, Walsingham, Norfolkshire, England; died 20 Jan 1329, Wangford, Suffolk, England; was buried Raveningham, Norfolkshire, England.

  55. 232.  Robert de Burghersh, Knight, 1st Baron Burghersh was born 1252-1256, Burghersh, Sussex, England (son of Reynold de Burghersh and unnamed spouse); died 0___ 1306.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Constable of Dover Castle
    • Also Known As: Lord Burghersh
    • Occupation: 1299-1306; Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports

    Notes:

    Robert de Burghersh, 1st Baron Burghersh, was born between 1252 and 1256, at Burghersh, in Sussex, England, and died in 1306.

    He married Maud de Badlesmere (born between 1260 and 1270; died 1306), of Kent, England, the daughter of Gunselm de Badlesmere, Justiciar of Kent, around 1282.

    Lord Burghersh was the son and heir of Reynold de Burghersh, and was Constable of Dover Castle, and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports from 1299 until his death. He was summoned to Parliament from 12 November 1303 until 13 July 1305, 'whereby he is held to have become Lord Burghersh'.

    He had at least three children with Maud:

    Stephen de Burghersh (d. 1310), who succeeded him
    Henry de Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln
    Bartholomew de Burghersh, later created Baron Burghersh in his own right.

    Occupation:
    Map, photo & history of Dover Castle ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dover_Castle

    Occupation:
    The Confederation of Cinque Ports (/s??k p??rts/[1]) is a historic series of coastal towns in Kent and Sussex.[2] It was originally formed for military and trade purposes, but is now entirely ceremonial. It lies at the eastern end of the English Channel, where the crossing to the continent is narrowest. The name is Norman French, meaning "five ports". They were:

    Hastings
    New Romney
    Hythe
    Dover
    Sandwich
    However, Rye, originally a subsidiary of New Romney, changed to become one of the Cinque Ports once New Romney was damaged by storms and silted up.

    Other towns also contribute to the confederation, including two Antient (see e.g.[3]) Towns, and seven Limbs.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinque_Ports

    Robert married Maud de Badlesmere 1260-1270. Maud (daughter of Gunselm de Badlesmere and Joan LNU) was born ~ 1282, Kent, England. [Group Sheet]


  56. 233.  Maud de Badlesmere was born ~ 1282, Kent, England (daughter of Gunselm de Badlesmere and Joan LNU).
    Children:
    1. Stephen de Burghersh, Knight, 2nd Baron Burghersh was born (Burghersh, Sussex, England); died 0___ 1310.
    2. Henry de Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln was born (Burghersh, Sussex, England).
    3. 116. Bartholomew de Burghersh, Knight, 1st Baron Burghersh was born Burghersh, Sussex, England; died 3 Aug 1355, Dover, Kent, England.
    4. FNU Burghersh was born (Burghersh, Sussex, England).

  57. 234.  Theobald de Verdun, II, Lord Weoberley was born 8 Sep 1278, Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England (son of Theobald de Verdun and Margaret de Bohun); died 27 Jul 1316.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Justiciar of Ireland
    • Also Known As: 2nd Lord Verdun
    • Also Known As: Baron Alton

    Notes:

    Name: Theobald 2nd Baron de VERDUN , MP, Sir 1 2 3 4
    Sex: M
    ALIA: Theobald de /Verdon/
    Birth: 8 SEP 1278 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England 5 2 4
    Death: 27 JUL 1316 6 2
    Note:
    Sir Theobald de Verdon, Knight, b. 8 Sep 1278, d. Alton 27 July 1316, 2nd Lord Verdun, MP 1299-1314; m. (1) Wigmore 29 July 1302 Maud de Mortimer, d. 17 or 18 Sep 1312, daughter of Sir Edmund de Mortimer (147-4) and Margaret de Fiennes; m. (2) near Boston 4 Feb 1315/6 Elizabeth de Clare, b. Tewkesbury 16 Sep 1295, d. 4 Nov 1360, daughter of Sir Gilbert de Clare (28-4) and Joan Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor of Castile. [Magna Charta Sureties]

    -------------------------------

    Justiciar of Ireland. [Ancestral Roots]

    -------------------------------

    BARONY OF VERDUN (II)

    THEODALD (DE VERDUN), 2nd but 1st surviving son and heir, was born 8 September 1278.

    On the death of his brother John he was ordered by the King, 14 July 1297, to serve overseas in his place; and he was frequently summoned against the Scots till 1316; knighted by the King in Northumberland, 24 June 1298, and fought in the 2nd line at the battle of Falkirk, 22 July following.

    He was summoned v.p. to Parliament from 29 December 1299 to 16 October 1315, by writs directed (till his father's death) Theobaldo de Verdun junior, whereby he also is held to have become LORD VERDUN. He had seisin of his lands, 28 September 1309; and was Justiciar of Ireland, 30 April 1313-January 1314/5.

    He married, 1stly, 29 July 1302, at Wigmore, co. Hereford, Maud, daughter of Edmund (DE MORTIMER), LORD MORTIMER, by Margaret, daughter of Sir William DE FENLES. She died 17 or 18 September 1312 at Alton, after childbirth, and was buried 9 October in Croxden Abbey.

    He married, 2ndly, 4 February 1315/6, near Bristol (against the King's will and without his licence), Elizabeth, widow of John DE BURGH (who died v.p. 18 June 1313; 2nd but 1st surviving son and heir apparent of Richard, 2nd EARL OF ULSTER [IRL],

    3rd and youngest sister of the whole blood and coheir of Gilbert (DE CLARE), 7th EARL OF GLOUCESTER AND HERTFORD, daughter of Gilbert, 6th EARL OF GLOUCESTER AND HERTFORD, by his 2nd wife, Joan, "of Acre," daughter of EDWARD I.

    He died s.p.m. 27 July 1316 at Alton, aged 37, and was buried 19 September in Croxden Abbey. His widow, who had received the Honor of Clare in her purparty of her brother's estates, married, 3rdly, shortly before 3 May 1317, Roger (DAMORY), 1st LORD DAMORY, who died s.p.m. 13 or 14 March 1321/2.

    She, who was born 16 September 1295 at Tewkesbury, died 4 November 1360, aged 65. M.I. to her and her 3rd husband in St. Mary's, Ware.

    Will, desiring burial in the Convent of the Minoresses without Aldgate, London, dated at Clare, 25 September 1355, proved 3 December 1360.

    On Theobald's death the two Baronies of Verdun, supposed to have been created by the writs of 1295 (or 1290 and 1299, fell into abeyance, according to modern doctrine, among his 3 daughters and co-heirs, by his 1st wife, Joan, Elizabeth and Margery, and his posthumous daughter and coheir, by his 2nd wife, Isabel. [Complete Peerage XII/2:250-1, (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)]

    (i) Joan, born 9 or 11 August 1303 at Wootton in Stanton Lacy, Salop, and baptised in the church of Onibury, in that co., married, 1stly, 28 April 1317, in the King's Chapel in Windsor Park, John de Montagu (1st son and heir apparent of William, 2nd Lord Montagu), who died s.p. and v.p., being buried 14 August 1317 in Lincoln Cathedral. She married, 2ndly, 24 February 1317/8, Thomas (de Furnivalle), Lord Furnivalle, who died 5, 7 or 14 October 1339. She died 2 October 1334 at Alton, aged 31, and was buried 7 or 8 January 1334/5 in Croxden Abbey. See FURNIVALLE. Her representatives are (1956) Lord Mowbray, Segrave and Stourton and Baroness Furnivall.

    [ii) Elizabeth, born circa 1306, married, before 11 June 1320, Bartholomew (Burghersh), Lord Burghersh, who died 3 August 1355. She died 1 May 1360. Her senior representative is (1956) Viscount Falmouth, the others being the descendants of Anne, suo jure Countess of Warwick, wife of Richard (Neville), Earl of Salisbury and Warwick, the "Kingmaker."

    (iii) Margery, born and baptised 10 August 1310 at Alton, married, 1stly, before 20 February 1326/7, William (le Blount), Lord Blount, who died s.p. shortly before 3 October 1337. She married, 2ndly, before 18 October 1339, Sir Mark Husee (son and heir apparent of Henry, 2nd Lord Husee), who died v.p. shortly before 10 February 1345/6. She married, 3rdly, before 10 September 1355, as his 1st wife, Sir John de Crophull, of Bonnington, Notts, who died 3 July 1383. She died before him in or before 1377. Her representatives would appear to be those of Thomas Husee, her descendant by her 2nd marriage, living 1478.


    Father: Theobald 1st Baron de VERDUN , Sir b: ABT 1248 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England
    Mother: Margery (Margaret) de BOHUN , Heiress of Bisley b: ABT 1252 in Bisley, Stroud, Gloucestershire, England

    Marriage 1 Maud de MORTIMER b: ABT 1285 in Wigmore, Ludlow, Herefordshire, England
    Married: 29 JUL 1302 in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England 2
    Married: 9 JUL 1302 in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England 7
    Children
    Has Children Joan de VERDUN , Heiress of Alton b: BET 9 AND 11 AUG 1303 in Wootton, Stanton Lacy, Shropshire, England
    Has Children Elizabeth de VERDUN b: ABT 1306 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England
    Has Children Margery de VERDUN , Heiress of Weobley b: 10 AUG 1310 in Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England

    Marriage 2 Elizabeth de CLARE b: 14 SEP 1295 in Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England
    Married: 4 FEB 1315/16 in 2nd husband, 2nd wife 8
    Children
    Has Children Isabel de VERDUN b: 21 MAR 1316/17 in Amesbury, Wiltshire, England

    *

    Theobald married Maud de Mortimer 29 Jul 1302, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England. Maud (daughter of Edmund Mortimer, Knight, 2nd Baron Mortimer and Margaret de Fiennes, Baroness Mortimer) was born (1295-1300), (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England); died 18 Sep 1312, Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  58. 235.  Maud de Mortimer was born (1295-1300), (Wigmore Castle, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England) (daughter of Edmund Mortimer, Knight, 2nd Baron Mortimer and Margaret de Fiennes, Baroness Mortimer); died 18 Sep 1312, Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England.

    Notes:

    Died:
    in childbirth...

    Children:
    1. Margery Verdun was born 10 Aug 1310, Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England; died 12 Oct 1363.
    2. 117. Elizabeth de Verdun was born (Alton Castle, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England).

  59. 108.  Robert de Ufford, I, 1st Lord Ufford was born 11 Jun 1279, Parham & Wickham, Suffolk, England; died 9 Sep 1316, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Justiciar of Ireland

    Notes:

    Biography

    Father Sir Robert de Ufford, Justiciar of Ireland, Justice of Chester d. c 9 Sep 1298

    Mother Mary d. bt 10 Aug 1280 - 1285


    Sir Robert Ufford, 1st Lord Ufford was born on 11 June 1279 at of Parham & Wickham, Suffolk, England. [1]

    He married Cecily de Valoines, daughter of Sir Robert Valoines, Lord Walsham and Eve de Criketot, before 1298.[2]

    Sir Robert Ufford, 1st Lord Ufford died circa 9 September 1316.[3]


    Family

    Cecily de Valoines b. c 1281, d. 16 Jul 1325

    Children


    Sir Ralph de Ufford, Justiciary of Ireland, Constable of Corfe Castle d. 9 Apr 1346
    Eva de Ufford d. a May 1370
    William de Ufford d. 1382
    Joan de Ufford d. a 8 Oct 1319
    Sir Robert de Ufford, 1st Earl Suffolk, 2nd Lord Ufford b. 9 Aug 1298, d. 4 Nov 1369

    Sources

    ? Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 362.
    ? Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 389.
    ? Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 60
    http://knight-france.com/geneal/names/2421.htm

    Robert married Cecily Valoines Bef 1298. Cecily (daughter of Robert de Valoines, II, Lord of Walsham & Icksworth and Eve de Criketot) was born ~ 1281, Walsham, Suffolkshire, England; died 16 Jul 1325, Thurston, Suffolk, England. [Group Sheet]


  60. 109.  Cecily Valoines was born ~ 1281, Walsham, Suffolkshire, England (daughter of Robert de Valoines, II, Lord of Walsham & Icksworth and Eve de Criketot); died 16 Jul 1325, Thurston, Suffolk, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Cecily Valoines

    Notes:

    Married:
    He married Cecily de Valoines, daughter of Sir Robert Valoines, Lord Walsham and Eve de Criketot, before 1298.

    Children:
    1. 119. Joan Ufford was born 0___ 1290; died 10 Apr 1319.
    2. Robert de Ufford, (II), Knight, 1st Earl of Suffolk was born 9 Aug 1298, Ufford, Suffolk, England; died 4 Nov 1369, (Suffolk, Suffolkshire, England).

  61. 250.  Afonso IV, King of Portugal and The Algarves was born 8 Feb 1291, Lisbon, Portugal; died 28 May 1357, Lisbon, Portugal; was buried Lisbon Cathedral, Lisbon, Portugal.

    Notes:

    Afonso IV[a] (Portuguese pronunciation: [?'fäosu]; 8 February 1291 - 28 May 1357), called the Brave (Portuguese: o Bravo), was King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1325 until his death. He was the only legitimate son of King Denis of Portugal by his wife Elizabeth of Aragon.

    Early life

    Afonso, born in Lisbon, was the rightful heir to the Portuguese throne. However, he was not Denis' favourite son, the old king preferring his illegitimate son, Afonso Sanches.[1] The notorious rivalry between the half brothers led to civil war several times. On 7 January 1325, Afonso's father died and he became king, whereupon he exiled his rival to Castile, and stripped him of all the lands and fiefdom given by their father. From Castile, Afonso orchestrated a series of attempts to usurp the crown. After a few failed attempts at invasion, the brothers signed a peace treaty, arranged by Afonso's mother Queen Elizabeth.[2]

    In 1309, Afonso IV married Infanta Beatrice of Castile, daughter of King Sancho IV of Castile by his wife Marâia de Molina. The first-born of this union was Infanta Maria of Portugal.

    King of Portugal and Algarve

    In 1325 Alfonso XI of Castile entered a child-marriage with Constanza Manuel of Castile, the daughter of one of his regents. Two years later, he had the marriage annulled so he could marry Afonso's daughter, Maria of Portugal. Maria became Queen of Castile in 1328 upon her marriage to Alfonso XI, who soon became involved publicly with a mistress.[2] Constanza was imprisoned in a castle in Toro while her father, Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena, waged war against Alfonso XI until 1329. Eventually, the two reached a peaceful accord after mediation by Juan del Campo, Bishop of Oviedo; this secured Constance's release from prison.

    The public humiliation of his daughter led Afonso IV to have his son and heir, Peter, marry the no less aggrieved Castilian infanta, Constanza. Afonso subsequently started a war against Castile,[2] peace arriving four years later, through the intervention of the Infanta Maria herself. A year after the peace treaty was signed in Seville, Portuguese troops played an important role in defeating the Moors at the Battle of Râio Salado in October 1340.

    Later life

    Political intrigue marked the last part of Afonso IV's reign, although Castille was torn by civil war after Alfonso XI died. Henry of Trastâamara challenged the new King Pedro of Castile, who sent many Castilian nobles into exile in Portugal. Afonso's heir, Pedro, fell in love with his new wife's lady-in-waiting, Inăes de Castro. Inăes was the daughter of an important noble family from Galicia, with links (albeit illegitimate) to both the royal houses of Castile and Portugal. Her brothers were aligned with the Trastamara faction, and became favorites of crown prince Pedro, much to the dismay of others at the Portuguese court, who considered them Castilian upstarts. When Constance of Peänafiel died weeks after giving birth to their third child, Pedro began living openly with Inăes, recognized all her children as his and repudiated the idea of marrying anyone other than Inăes herself. His father refused to go to war again against Castile, hoping his heir's infatuation would end, and tried to arrange another dynastic marriage for Pedro.

    The situation became worse as the years passed and the aging Afonso lost control over his court. His grandson and Pedro's only legitimate son, future king Fernando of Portugal, was a sickly child, while Inăes' illegitimate children thrived. Worried about his legitimate grandson's life, and the growing power of Castile within Portugal's borders, Afonso ordered Inăes de Castro first imprisoned in his mother's old convent in Coimbra, and then murdered in 1355. He expected his son to give in and marry a princess, but the heir became enraged upon learning of his lover's decapitation in front of their young child. Pedro put himself at the head of an army and devastated the country between the Douro and the Minho rivers before he was reconciled to his father in early 1357. Afonso died almost immediately after, in Lisbon in May.

    Afonso IV's nickname the Brave alludes to his martial exploits. However, his most important accomplishments were the relative peace enjoyed by the country during his long reign and the support he gave to the Portuguese Navy. Afonso granted public funding to raise a proper commercial fleet and ordered the first Portuguese maritime explorations. The conflict with Pedro, and the explorations he initiated, eventually became the foundation of the Portuguese national epic, Os Lusâiadas by Luâis de Camäoes.

    The dramatic circumstances of the relationship between father and son and Inăes de Castro was used as the basis for the plot of more than twenty operas and ballets, as well as the "Nise lastimosa" and "Nise laureada" (1577) by Jerâonimo Bermâudez, 'Reinar despues de morir' by Luâis Vâelez de Guevara, "Inez de Castro" by Mary Russell Mitford, and La Reine morte (The Dead Queen) by Henry de Montherlant. The story with its tragic denouement is immortalized in several plays and poems in Portuguese, such as The Lusâiadas by Luâis de Camäoes (canto iii, stanzas 118-135), and in Spanish, including Nise lastimosa and Nise laureada (1577) by Jerâonimo Bermâudez, Reinar despues de morir by Luâis Vâelez de Guevara, as well as a play by French playwright Henry de Montherlant called La Reine morte (The Dead Queen). Mary Russell Mitford also wrote a drama based on the story entitled Inez de Castro. Inăes de Castro is a novel by Maria Pilar Queralt del Hierro in Spanish and Portuguese.

    Ancestry

    Marriage and descendants

    On 12 September 1309,[3][4] Afonso married Beatrice of Castile, daughter of Sancho IV of Castile, and Marâia de Molina,[3][5] and had four sons and three daughters. Afonso broke the tradition of previous kings and did not have any children out of wedlock.[b][c][d]

    Maria (1313 – 18 January 1357),[4][8][4] was the wife of Alfonso XI of Castile,[7] and mother of the future king Peter I of Castile. Due to the affair of her husband with his mistress Leonor de Guzmâan "it was an unfortunate union from the start, contributing to dampening the relations of both kingdoms";[9]
    Afonso (1315 – 1317), heir to the throne, died in his infancy.[4][7] Buried at the disappeared Convento das Donas of the Dominican Order in Santarâem;[10]
    Denis (born 12 February 1317), heir to the throne, died a few months after his birth,[4][7] and was buried in Alcobađca Monastery;[10]
    Peter (8 April 1320 – 18 January 1367), the first surviving male offspring, he succeeded his father.[4] [7] When his wife Constance died in 1345, Queen Beatrice took care of the education of the two orphans, the infantes Maria and Ferdinand, who later reigned as King Ferdinand I of Portugal;[11]
    Isabel (21 December 1324[4] – 11 July 1326), buried at the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha in Coimbra;[7][10]
    John (23 September 1326 – 21 June 1327), buried at the Monastery of Säao Dinis de Odivelas;[7]
    Eleanor (1328 – 1348), born in the same year as her sister Maria's wedding,[4] she married King Peter IV of Aragon in November 1347 and died a year after her marriage succumbing to the Black Death.[12][7]

    Notes

    Jump up ^ English: Alphonzo or Alphonse, or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin).
    Jump up ^ "We assume that after the marriage of dona Beatriz and don Alfonso IV, married life was harmonious (...) based on the fact that D. Afonso IV did not have any bastard children, thereby breaking a long family tradition" (loose translation)[6]
    Jump up ^ "Perhaps since he had so many problems with those of his father, D. Afonso did not have any illegitimate children." (loose translation)[7]
    Jump up ^ "There are no known bastard children of the king. Two possible explanations could be the ties of profound esteem, friendship and respect that existed because he had been raised and had lived from a very early age with his future wife or, perhaps, because he wanted to avoid that his heirs had the same problems that he had had with his bastard brothers".(loose translation)[4]
    References[edit]
    Jump up ^ Josâe Miguel Pero-Sanz (19 September 2011). Santa Isabel: Reina de Portugal. Palabra. p. 69. ISBN 978-84-9840-546-0.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c Spain and Portugal, Graeme Mercer Adam ed., J. D. Morris, 1906
    ^ Jump up to: a b Sousa 1735, p. 312.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i Rodrigues Oliveira 2010, p. 217.
    Jump up ^ Rodrigues Oliveira 2010, p. 215.
    Jump up ^ Lourenđco Menino 2008, p. 356.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Sotto Mayor Pizarro 1997, p. 201.
    Jump up ^ Sousa 1735, pp. 317 y 322.
    Jump up ^ Rodrigues Oliveira 2010, p. 218.
    ^ Jump up to: a b c Sousa 1735, p. 315.
    Jump up ^ Rodrigues Oliveira 2010, pp. 228-229.
    Jump up ^ Rodrigues Oliveira 2010, pp. 217, 220.

    Bibliography[edit]

    Gonzâalez Mâinguez, Câesar (2004). "Fernando IV de Castilla (1295-1312): Perfil de un reinado" (PDF). Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, Serie III, Historia Medieval (in Spanish) (17) (Madrid: Universidad Nacional de Educaciâon a Distancia (UNED), Facultad de Geografâia e Historia). pp. 223–244. ISSN 0214-9745.
    Lourenđco Menino, Vanda Lisa (2008). "Cartas de Arras da Rainha D. Beatriz (1309-1359)" (PDF). Estudios humanâisticos. Historia (in Portuguese) (7) (Leâon: Universidad de Leâon: Servicio de Publicaciones). pp. 349–358. ISSN 1696-0300.
    Rodrigues Oliveira, Ana (2010). Rainhas medievais de Portugal. Dezassete mulheres, duas dinastias, quatro sâeculos de Histâoria (in Portuguese). Lisbon: A esfera dos livros. ISBN 978-989-626-261-7.
    Sotto Mayor Pizarro, Josâe Augusto (1997). Linhagens Medievais Portuguesas: Genealogias e Estratâegias (1279–1325) (in Portuguese). Oporto: Doctorate thesis, author's edition.
    Sousa, Antâonio Caetano de (1735). Historia Genealâogica da Casa Real Portugueza (PDF) (in Portuguese). Lisbon: Lisboa Occidental, of. de Joseph Antonio Da Sylva, Impressor da Academia Real. OCLC 3910285.

    Afonso married Beatrice of Castile 12 Sep 1309, Lisbon, Portugal. Beatrice was born 8 Mar 1293, Lisbon, Portugal; died 25 Oct 1359, Lisbon, Portugal; was buried Lisbon Cathedral, Lisbon, Portugal. [Group Sheet]


  62. 251.  Beatrice of Castile was born 8 Mar 1293, Lisbon, Portugal; died 25 Oct 1359, Lisbon, Portugal; was buried Lisbon Cathedral, Lisbon, Portugal.

    Notes:

    Beatrice of Castile or Beatriz (Toro, 8 March 1293[1] – Lisbon, 25 October 1359),[2][3] was an Infanta of Castile, daughter of Sancho IV and Marâia de Molina. She was queen consort of Portugal from 1325, when her husband, Infante Afonso, succeeded his father, King Denis, as Afonso IV,[4] until his death on 28 May 1357.

    Biography

    Family origins and early years

    Daughter of Sancho IV and of Marâia de Molina,[6][7] Infanta Beatrice had six siblings, including King Ferdinand IV of Castile and Queen Isabella, wife of King James II of Aragon, and later duchess as the wife of John III, Duke of Brittany.[7]

    On 13 September 1297, when Beatrice was only four years old, the bilateral agreement, known as the Treaty of Alcaänices, was signed between Castile and Portugal, putting an end to the hostilities between both kingdoms and establishing the definitive borders. The treaty was signed by Queen Marâia de Molina, as the regent of Castile on behalf of her son, Ferdinand IV, who was still a minor, and King Denis of Portugal. To reinforce the peace, the agreement included clauses arranging the marriages of King Ferdinand and Constance of Portugal and that of her brother, Afonso, with Beatrice; that is, the marriage of two siblings, infantes of Portugal, with two other siblings, infantes of Castile.[7][8][9][a]

    Beatrice abandoned Castile in the same year and moved to the neighboring kingdom where she was raised in the court of King Denis together with her future spouse, Infante Afonso, who at that time was about six years old.[12] Her future father-in-law "had inherited from his grandfather, Alfonso