Isabel de Atholl

Female 1361 - Bef 1387  (~ 25 years)


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Generation: 1

  1. 1.  Isabel de Atholl was born ~ 1361, Felton, Northumberland, England (daughter of Aymer de Strathbogie, Knight and Mary Stewart); died Bef 1387.

    Isabel married Ralph Eure, Knight Bef May 1372, (Durham) England. Ralph (son of John Eure, Knight and Margaret de Grey) was born Cal 1350, Witton Castle, Witton-le-Wear, Durham, England; died 10 Mar 1423, Derlynton, West Aukland, Durham, England. [Group Sheet]

    Children:
    1. Margaret Eure was born ~ 1374, Witton Castle, Witton-le-Wear, Durham, England; died ~ 1444-1445; was buried Beverley Minster Churchyard, Beverley, East Riding, Yorkshire, England.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  Aymer de Strathbogie, Knight was born Felton, Northumberland, England (son of David Strathbogie, II, 10th Earl of Strathbogie and Joan Comyn); died 13 Apr 1402; was buried Holy Trinity of Saint Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England.

    Notes:

    His second son, Sir Aymer de Strathbogie, Knt., of Felton, Jesmond, Ponteland, and Tarcet (in Thormeburre), was Knight of the Shire for Northumberland (as Adomar de Atholl) in 1381.

    Sir Aymer married Mary, said to be a daughter of Walter Steward.

    They are buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity of St. Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (brass now destroyed) and left issue.

    Buried:
    in the chancel of St Andrew's Church, Newcastle upon Tyne, is a Grade I listed parish church in the Church of England[1] in Newcastle upon Tyne.

    The church dates from the 12th century, but is mainly of 13th and 14th century construction. The porch was re-fronted in 1726. Other restoration work was undertaken in 1866 by Fowler.

    Photo, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Andrew%27s_Church,_Newcastle_upon_Tyne

    Aymer — Mary Stewart. Mary (daughter of Walter Stewart, Lord Brechin, Earl of Atholl and Margaret de Barclay) was born St. Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Northumberland, England; was buried Holy Trinity of Saint Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England. [Group Sheet]


  2. 3.  Mary Stewart was born St. Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Northumberland, England (daughter of Walter Stewart, Lord Brechin, Earl of Atholl and Margaret de Barclay); was buried Holy Trinity of Saint Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England.
    Children:
    1. 1. Isabel de Atholl was born ~ 1361, Felton, Northumberland, England; died Bef 1387.


Generation: 3

  1. 4.  David Strathbogie, II, 10th Earl of Strathbogie was born ~ 1290, Chilham, Kent, England (son of John of Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl and Margaret); died 28 Dec 1326, Kilbaine Forest, England.

    Other Events:

    • Residence: Gascony, France
    • Also Known As: Earl of Atholl
    • Also Known As: Lord Strathbogie

    Notes:

    David II Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl

    David II Strathbogie (died 28 December 1326) was Earl of Atholl, Constable of Scotland, and Chief Warden of Northumberland.

    The eldest son and heir of John Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl by his wife Marjory (or Margaret) daughter of Donald, 10th Earl of Mar, Sir David was a prisoner in England in 1300. He succeeded his father in 1306 and was restored to his earldom and Scottish estates in 1307 by the surrender of them by Ralph de Monthermer, to whom was paid a large sum of money.

    That year he rebelled against Robert the Bruce who banished him, forfeiting his office, title, and lands, the latter being given to Sir Neil Campbell. Strathbogie received three manors in Norfolk as a compensation for his Scottish possessions. In 1321, he was granted the feudal barony of Chilham, Kent, which had belonged to his father and grandmother. In 1322 he was summoned to the English parliament as Lord Strathbogie.[1] His wife was co-heiress in 1324 to her uncle, Aymer de Valence, knt., Earl of Pembroke, by which she inherited the manor and castle of Mitford, the manor of Ponteland, and lands in Little Eland, Northumberland, and the manor of Foston (in Foston-on-the-Wolds), Yorkshire.

    In 1325 he was commander of the English troops in Gascony.

    Marriage [edit]Strathbogie married Joan, elder daughter of Sir John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, Joint Guardian of Scotland, by his spouse Joan (1292–1326), daughter of Sir William de Valance, Knt., Lord of Pembroke, Valence, Montignac, Bellac, etc., uterine brother of King Henry III of England.

    His claim to the earldom of Atholl was maintained by his eldest son and heir, David III Strathbogie, titular Earl of Atholl, a leading supporter of Edward Balliol.

    His second son, Sir Aymer de Strathbogie, Knt., of Felton, Jesmond, Ponteland, and Tarcet (in Thormeburre), was Knight of the Shire for Northumberland (as Adomar de Atholl) in 1381. Sir Aymer married Mary, said to be a daughter of Walter Steward. They are buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity of St. Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (brass now destroyed) and left issue.

    end of biography

    David — Joan Comyn. Joan (daughter of John "The Red" Comyn, III, Lord of Badenoch and Joan de Valence) was born ~ 1292, (Badenoch, Isle of Skye, Inverness, Scotland); died Bef 1327. [Group Sheet]


  2. 5.  Joan Comyn was born ~ 1292, (Badenoch, Isle of Skye, Inverness, Scotland) (daughter of John "The Red" Comyn, III, Lord of Badenoch and Joan de Valence); died Bef 1327.

    Notes:

    Click here for her lineage... http://histfam.familysearch.org/ahnentafel.php?personID=I5397&tree=EuropeRoyalNobleHous&parentset=0&generations=6

    Children:
    1. 2. Aymer de Strathbogie, Knight was born Felton, Northumberland, England; died 13 Apr 1402; was buried Holy Trinity of Saint Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England.
    2. David Strathbogie, III, Earl of Atholl was born ~ 1309; died 30 Nov 1335, Culblean, Aberdeenshire, Scotland.

  3. 6.  Walter Stewart, Lord Brechin, Earl of Atholl was born Abt 1360, (Scotland) (son of Robert II of Scotland, King of The Scots and Elizabeth Mure); died 26 Mar 1437, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.

    Notes:

    Walter was beheaded in Edinburgh (some sources say Stirling) for his involvement in the murder of his nephew King James I of Scotland.

    Walter married Margaret de Barclay Bef 19 Oct 1378, (Scotland). Margaret was born (Scotland); died BY 1404, (Scotland). [Group Sheet]


  4. 7.  Margaret de Barclay was born (Scotland); died BY 1404, (Scotland).
    Children:
    1. 3. Mary Stewart was born St. Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Northumberland, England; was buried Holy Trinity of Saint Andrew's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England.


Generation: 4

  1. 8.  John of Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl was born ~1266, Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland (son of David Strathbogie, I, Earl of Atholl and Isabel de Dover); died 7 Nov 1306, London, Middlesex, England.

    Notes:

    John of Strathbogie (c. 1266 - 7 November 1306)[1] was warden and Justiciary of Scotland.

    Early years and family

    John was born in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland around 1266.[1] He was the son of David I Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl (d. 1270), by his spouse Isabel, daughter of Richard de Dover, Baron of Chilham, Kent. John de Strathbogie first appears on record as his father's son and heir in 1282. He was a great-great-grandson of King John of England.

    Life and military service

    In 1284, he joined with other Scottish noblemen who acknowledged Margaret of Norway as the heir to King Alexander.[2] In 1296, he fought on the Scottish side at the Battle of Dunbar, where he was captured and sent to the Tower of London. After a year's confinement there he was set free on condition that he served King Edward I of England in Flanders.

    He did homage for his manor of Lesnes, Kent, in 1305 but subsequently returned to Scotland, and in 1306 joined Robert the Bruce in his rebellion against English overlordship, and his English possessions were forfeited. He took part in the coronation of The Bruce in that year.

    Execution

    In the subsequent English invasion of Scotland in 1306, he was taken prisoner at the Battle of Methven. John, Earl of Atholl, was hanged in London, Middlesex, England on 7 November 1306, on a gallows 30 feet higher than ordinary. This was to signify his higher status than his fellow prisoners, no earl had been executed in England for 230 years. His body was burnt and his head fixed on London Bridge.[3]

    Marriage and children

    John married Marjory (also known as Margaret),[3] daughter of Donald, 6th Earl of Mar.[3] They had two sons and a daughter:

    David de Strathbogie, 10th Earl of Atholl (d. 28 December 1326)[3]
    Sir John de Strathbogie, Knight.
    Isabel, wife or mistress of Edward de Brus, Earl of Carrick.

    References[edit]

    ^ Jump up to: a b "Ancestors and/or relations of John DE STRATHBOGIE 9th Earl of Atholl". Retrieved 5 November 2011.
    Jump up ^ Foedera, p228
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d Lewis, Marlyn. "John of Strathbogie, 9th Earl Atholl". Our Royal, Titled, Noble, and Commoner Ancestors & Cousins. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
    Rymer, Thomas,Foedera Conventiones, Literae et cuiuscunque generis Acta Publica inter Reges Angliae. London. 1745. (Latin) [1]
    Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2004, p. 50, ISBN 0-8063-1750-7

    John — Margaret. [Group Sheet]


  2. 9.  Margaret (daughter of Donald, 6th Earl of Mar and unnamed spouse).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Margory

    Children:
    1. 4. David Strathbogie, II, 10th Earl of Strathbogie was born ~ 1290, Chilham, Kent, England; died 28 Dec 1326, Kilbaine Forest, England.
    2. John de Strathbogie
    3. Isabel de Strathbogie

  3. 10.  John "The Red" Comyn, III, Lord of Badenoch was born Abt 1269, Badenoch, Isle of Skye, Inverness, Scotland (son of John "Black Comyn" Comyn, II, Lord of Badenoch and Eleanor de Balliol); died 10 Feb 1306, Dumfries, Scotland.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Guardian of Scotland
    • Occupation: 1296-1306; Guardian of Scotland

    Notes:

    Red Comyn was the son of John Comyn, ‘the Black Comyn’, one of the claimants for the Scots throne. His mother was Eleanor Balliol so King John Balliol was his uncle. The Comyns sided with the Balliols and became the enemies of the Bruces.

    John Comyn married an English noblewoman, Joan de Valence. Her father was an uncle of King Edward I.

    When Scotland was plunged into war, Robert the Bruce’s father was constable of Carlisle Castle under Edward I. The Black Comyn and the Comyn Earl of Buchan attacked Carlisle Castle in support of the Scots King Balliol.

    Red Comyn was among the Scots captured at the Battle of Dunbar in 1296. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London. After agreeing to fight for Edward in Flanders, Red Comyn deserted and sailed to Scotland. It is said that he led the cavalry at the Battle of Falkirk. The Scots cavalry at Falkirk were vastly outnumbered by English knights and mounted men at arms. They turned and rode away, leaving the Scots foot soldiers to be slaughtered by Edward I’s army.

    Red Comyn was made a guardian of Scotland alongside Robert the Bruce, after the resignation of William Wallace and the death of Andrew Moray. In 1299, at a council in Peebles, a fight broke out between Comyn and Bruce - it was reported that Comyn grabbed Bruce by the throat. Within a year Bruce had resigned the guardianship.

    When his father, the Black Comyn, died, John Comyn became Lord of Badenoch.

    In February 1303, Red Comyn and Sir Simon Fraser defeated three successive English forces at the Battle of Roslin. It is said that Wallace may have fought at the battle. The Scots drove the English knights over the steep sides of Roslin Glen and cut down their English prisoners as a second then a third force arrived. In 1304 Red Comyn was forced to make peace with Edward I.

    On 10 February 1306, Robert the Bruce and the Red Comyn fought by the high altar at Greyfriars Kirk in Dumfries. Comyn was killed and Bruce went on to become king.

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    more...

    Robert the Bruce met John Comyn, his rival for the crown of Scotland, at Greyfriars monastery in Dumfries. A row erupts and Comyn is murdered. Bruce becomes an outlaw.

    Video: A history of Scotland: Bishop Makes King. http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/history/wars_of_independence/bruce_kills_comyn_at_greyfriars_church_dumfries/

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    more...

    Fascinating biography of Red Comyn and his family's influence on Scotland's history... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_III_Comyn,_Lord_of_Badenoch

    More on John... http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/scotlandshistory/warsofindependence/johncomyn/index.asp or
    http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/usbiography/c/johniiicomyn.html

    *

    John married Joan de Valence Abt 1289, Badenoch, Isle of Skye, Inverness, Scotland. Joan (daughter of William de Valence, Knight, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Joan de Munchensi, Lady of Swanscombe and Countess of Pembr) died 0___ 1326. [Group Sheet]


  4. 11.  Joan de Valence (daughter of William de Valence, Knight, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Joan de Munchensi, Lady of Swanscombe and Countess of Pembr); died 0___ 1326.
    Children:
    1. 5. Joan Comyn was born ~ 1292, (Badenoch, Isle of Skye, Inverness, Scotland); died Bef 1327.
    2. Elizabeth Comyn was born 1 Nov 1299, Wyke, Axminster, Devon, England; died 20 Nov 1372.

  5. 12.  Robert II of Scotland, King of The Scots was born 2 Mar 1316, Paisley Abbey, Renfrewshire, Scotland (son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and Marjorie Bruce); died 19 Apr 1390, Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire, Scotland; was buried Scone Abbey, Perthshire, Scotland.

    Robert married Elizabeth Mure 0___ 1336. Elizabeth died 0___ 1355. [Group Sheet]


  6. 13.  Elizabeth Mure died 0___ 1355.
    Children:
    1. Robert III of Scotland, King of the Scots was born 14 Aug 1337, Scone Palace, Perthshire, Scotland; died 4 Apr 1406, Rothesay Castle, Scotland.
    2. 6. Walter Stewart, Lord Brechin, Earl of Atholl was born Abt 1360, (Scotland); died 26 Mar 1437, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.


Generation: 5

  1. 16.  David Strathbogie, I, Earl of Atholl died 6 Aug 1270.

    Notes:

    David I Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    David I Strathbogie (died 6 August 1270) was the first of the Strathbogie Earls of Atholl.

    David was the son of John de Strathbogie and Ada, suo jure Countess of Atholl.

    He died at Tunis (or Carthage) in the Eighth Crusade, in the company of Louis IX of France, having married before June 1266, Isabel (d. 1292), daughter of Richard de Dover, feudal baron of Chilham, Kent, by his spouse Maud, suo jure Countess of Angus. In 1266 Isabel was heiress to her brother, Richard de Dover, by which she inherited the barony of Chilham, with the manor of Chingford Earls, Essex. In 1270 they leased the latter to the Knights Templar by licence from the king.

    The 8th Earl of Atholl was succeeded in by their only son, John de Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl, Warden and Justiciar of Scotland.

    References

    Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, 2004, p. 49-50. ISBN 0-8063-1750-7

    Preceded by
    Ada Earl of Atholl
    1264–1269 Succeeded by
    John de Strathbogie

    David — Isabel de Dover. [Group Sheet]


  2. 17.  Isabel de Dover
    Children:
    1. 8. John of Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl was born ~1266, Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland; died 7 Nov 1306, London, Middlesex, England.

  3. 18.  Donald, 6th Earl of Mar

    Donald — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  4. 19.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 9. Margaret

  5. 20.  John "Black Comyn" Comyn, II, Lord of Badenoch (son of John Comyn, I, Lord of Badenoch and Alice de Roos); died 0___ 1302, Lochindorb Castle, Strathspey, Scotland.

    Other Events:

    • Ordained: Guardian of Scotland

    Notes:

    John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch and Lord of Lochaber (died 1302) or John "the Black", also known as Black Comyn, a Scottish nobleman, was a Guardian of Scotland, and one of the six Regents for Margaret, Maid of Norway. His father was John I Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.

    Competitor for the Crown

    In 1284 he joined with other Scottish noblemen who acknowledged Margaret of Norway as the heir of King Alexander.[1] He was a Guardian of the Realm from 1286 to 1292.[2] Comyn submitted to the English king in July 1296 at Montrose.[3]

    As a descendant of King Donald III, Comyn was one of the thirteen Competitors for the Crown of Scotland. He did not aggressively push his claim for fear of jeopardising that of his brother-in-law John de Balliol, King of Scotland.[3]

    Comyn, head of the most powerful noble family in Scotland, was a committed ally of Balliol and assisted him in his struggle against Edward I of England. It has even been suggested that the Comyn family were the driving force behind both the Balliol kingship and the revolt against Edward's demands. John Comyn is credited with the building of several large castles or castle houses in and around Inverness. Parts of Mortlach (Balvenie Castle) and Inverlochy Castle still stand today. John Comyn as his father was before him was entrusted by Alexander III of Scotland with the defense of Scotland's northern territories from invasion by the Vikings and the Danes.

    Family

    Comyn married Eleanor de Balliol, daughter of John I de Balliol of Barnard Castle, sister of King John of Scotland. Together they had several children, which included:

    John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.,[4][5] who married Lady Joan de Valence of Pembroke, daughter of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke, who was the half-brother to Henry III of England, and uncle of Edward I of England.
    One of their daughters, Euphemia, married Sir Andrew Moray of Petty.
    Their other daughter, whose given name is not known, married Sir William Galbraith, Chief of that Ilk. It is commonly accepted that Sir William Galbraith and the unnamed Princess of Badenoch are the common progenitures of the Kincaid Family of Scotland and all of their descendents.

    Death

    John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch died at Lochindorb Castle,[3] in 1302.

    John — Eleanor de Balliol. Eleanor (daughter of John de Balliol, King of Scotland and Dervorguilla of Galloway) was born 0___ 1246. [Group Sheet]


  6. 21.  Eleanor de Balliol was born 0___ 1246 (daughter of John de Balliol, King of Scotland and Dervorguilla of Galloway).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Alianora de Balliol
    • Also Known As: Mary de Balliol

    Children:
    1. 10. John "The Red" Comyn, III, Lord of Badenoch was born Abt 1269, Badenoch, Isle of Skye, Inverness, Scotland; died 10 Feb 1306, Dumfries, Scotland.

  7. 22.  William de Valence, Knight, 1st Earl of PembrokeWilliam de Valence, Knight, 1st Earl of Pembroke was born 1225-1230, Cistercian Abbey, Valence, France (son of Hugh of Lusignan, X, Knight, Count of La Marche and Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England); died 18 May 1296, Bayonne, Gascony, France; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Guillaume de Lusignan

    Notes:

    William de Valence (died 18 May 1296), born Guillaume de Lusignan, was a French nobleman and knight who became important in English politics due to his relationship to Henry III. He was heavily involved in the Second Barons' War, supporting the King and Prince Edward against the rebels led by Simon de Montfort. He took the name de Valence ("of Valence").

    He was the fourth son of Isabella of Angoulăeme, widow of king John of England, and her second husband, Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche, and was thus a half-brother to Henry III of England, and uncle to Edward I. William was born in the Cistercian abbey in Valence, Couhâe-Vâerac, Vienne, Poitou, near Lusignan,[1] sometime in the late 1220s (his elder sister Alice was born in 1224).

    Move to England

    Coat of Arms of William de Valence before he became Earl of Pembroke, showing for difference a label gules of five points each charged with three lions rampant argent
    The French conquest of Poitou in 1246 created great difficulties for William's family, and so he and his brothers, Guy de Lusignan and Aymer, accepted Henry III's invitation to come to England in 1247. The king found important positions for all of them; William was soon married to a great heiress, Joan de Munchensi or Munchensy (c. 1230 – after 20 September 1307), the only surviving child of Warin de Munchensi, lord of Swanscombe, and his first wife Joan Marshal, who was one of the five daughters of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke suo jure. As an eventual co-heiress of the Marshal estates, Joan de Munchensi's portion included the castle and lordship of Pembroke and the lordship erected earldom of Wexford in Ireland. The custody of Joan's property was entrusted to her husband, who apparently assumed the lordships of Pembroke and Wexford between 1250 and 1260.

    The Second Barons' War

    This favouritism to royal relatives was unpopular with many of the English nobility, a discontent which would culminate in the Second Barons' War. It did not take long for William to make enemies in England. From his new lands in South Wales, he tried to regain the palatine rights which had been attached to the Earldom of Pembroke, but his energies were not confined to this. The King heaped lands and honours upon him, and he was soon thoroughly hated as one of the most prominent of the rapacious foreigners. Moreover, some trouble in Wales led to a quarrel between him and Simon de Montfort, who was to become the figurehead for the rebels. He refused to comply with the provisions imposed on the King at Oxford in 1258, and took refuge in Wolvesey Castle at Winchester, where he was besieged and compelled to surrender and leave the country.

    However, in 1259 William and de Montfort were formally reconciled in Paris, and in 1261 Valence was again in England and once more enjoying the royal favour. He fought for Henry at the disastrous Battle of Lewes, and after the defeat again fled to France, while de Montfort ruled England. However, by 1265 he was back, landing in Pembrokeshire, and taking part in the Siege of Gloucester and the final royalist victory at Evesham. After the battle he was restored to his estates and accompanied Prince Edward, afterwards Edward I, to Palestine.

    Welsh wars and death

    From his base in Pembrokeshire he was a mainstay of the English campaigns against Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and later Dafydd ap Gruffudd; in the war of 1282–3 that led to the conquest of Wales he negotiated the surrender of one of Dafydd's last remaining castles, Castell-y-Bere, with its custodian, Cynfrig ap Madog. He also went several times to France on public business and he was one of Edward's representatives in the famous suit over the succession to the crown of Scotland in 1291 and 1292.

    William de Valence died at Bayonne on the 13 June 1296; his body is buried at Westminster Abbey.

    Descendants

    William and Joan de Munchensi (described above) had the following children:

    Isabel de Valence (died 5 October 1305), married before 1280 John Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings (6 May 1262 – 10 February 1313). Their grandson Lawrence later became earl of Pembroke. They had:

    William Hastings (1282–1311)
    John Hastings, 2nd Baron Hastings (29 September 1286 – 20 January 1325), married to Juliane de Leybourne (died 1367)
    Sir Hugh Hastings of Sutton (died 1347)
    Elizabeth Hastings (1294 - 6 March 1353), married Roger Grey, 1st Baron Grey de Ruthyn.

    Joan de Valence, married to John Comyn (the "Red Comyn"), Lord of Badenoch (died 10 February 1306, murdered), and had
    John Comyn (k.1314 at Bannockburn), married to Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell
    Joan Comyn (c.1296-1326), married to David II Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl
    Elizabeth Comyn (1 November 1299 – 20 November 1372), married to Richard Talbot, Lord Talbot

    John de Valence (died January 1277)
    William de Valence (died 16 June 1282, in the Battle of Llandeilo Fawr in Wales), created Seigneur de Montignac and Bellac
    Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke and Wexford in 1296 (c. 1270 – 23 June 1324), married firstly to Beatrice de Clermont and married secondly to Marie de Chatillon
    Margaret de Valence, died young. Buried at Westminster Abbey.
    Agnes de Valence (born c. 1250, date of death unknown), married (1) Maurice FitzGerald, Baron of Offaly, (2) Hugh de Balliol, son of John de Balliol, and brother of John Balliol, King of Scotland, and (3) John of Avesnes, Lord of Beaumont son of Baldwin of Avesnes. Agnes had children from her first and third marriage:[2]
    Gerald FitzMaurice, Baron of Offaly
    John of Avesnes
    Baldwin of Avesnes, Lord of Beaumont.
    Felicite of Avesnes
    Jeanne of Avesnes, Abbess of Flines.

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    Click here for photos, maps & history of the great Westminister Abbey... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Abbey#Burials_and_memorials

    William married Joan de Munchensi, Lady of Swanscombe and Countess of Pembr 6 Aug 1247, England. Joan (daughter of Warin de Munchesi, Knight, Lord Swanscombe and Joan Marshal) was born ~ 1230, (Kent, England); died Aft 20 Sep 1307, (England). [Group Sheet]


  8. 23.  Joan de Munchensi, Lady of Swanscombe and Countess of Pembr was born ~ 1230, (Kent, England) (daughter of Warin de Munchesi, Knight, Lord Swanscombe and Joan Marshal); died Aft 20 Sep 1307, (England).

    Notes:

    Joan de Munchensi or Munchensy (or Joanna), Lady of Swanscombe and Countess of Pembroke (c. 1230 - aft. September 20, 1307), was the daughter of Joan Marshal and granddaughter of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke suo jure.

    Family[edit]
    William Marshal was the great Lord Marshal who served five successive Kings of England and died in 1219. William's five sons each in turn became Earl of Pembroke, but all died childless. His inheritance was thus divided among his daughters. Joan Marshal, the fourth daughter, married Warin de Munchensi (or Munchensy), Lord of Swanscombe. They were survived by one daughter, Joan de Munchensi, who (owing to Joan Marshal's death soon after her daughter's birth) was brought up by her stepmother, Warin's second wife, Dionisie de Munchensi.

    Marriage and children

    In 1247 three sons of Hugh X of Lusignan, in difficulties after the French annexation of their territories, accepted Henry III's invitation to come to England. The three were William of Valence, Guy of Lusignan and Aymer. The king found important positions for all of them and William was soon married to Joan. Her portion of the Marshal estates included the castle and lordship of Pembroke and the lordship of Wexford in Ireland. The custody of Joan's property was entrusted to her husband. She also, apparently, transmitted to him the title of Earl of Pembroke; he thus became the first of the de Valence holders of the earldom.

    William of Valence died in 1296. Accounts of the offspring of William and Joan vary, but all say that there were five children, others[citation needed] seven including the last two:

    Isabel de Valence (d. October 5, 1305), married before 1280 John Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings (May 6, 1262 – February 10, 1313). Their grandson Lawrence later became earl of Pembroke. They had:
    William Hastings (1282 – 1311)
    John Hastings, 2nd Baron Hastings (September 29, 1286 – January 20, 1325), married to Juliane de Leybourne (d. 1367)
    Sir Hugh Hastings of Sutton (d. 1347)
    Joan de Valence, married to John Comyn (the "Red Comyn"), Lord of Badenoch (d. murdered, February 10, 1306), and had
    Elizabeth Comyn (November 1, 1299 – November 20, 1372), married to Richard Talbot, Lord Talbot
    John de Valence (d. January, 1277)
    William de Valence (d. in battle in Wales on June 16, 1282), created Seigneur de Montignac and Bellac
    Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke and Wexford in 1296 (c. 1270 – June 23, 1324), married firstly to Beatrice de Clermont and married secondly to Marie de Chăatillon
    Margaret de Valence
    Agnes de Valence (b. about 1250)

    Children:
    1. 11. Joan de Valence died 0___ 1326.
    2. Isabel de Valence was born 0___ 1262; died 5 Oct 1305.

  9. 24.  Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland was born ~ 1296; died 9 Apr 1327, Bathgate Castle, West Lothian, Scotland.

    Walter — Marjorie Bruce. Marjorie (daughter of Robert the Bruce, I, King of Scotland and Isabella of Mar) was born 0___ 1297, (Ayrshire, Scotland); died 2 Mar 1316, Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland; was buried Paisley Abbey, Scotland. [Group Sheet]


  10. 25.  Marjorie Bruce was born 0___ 1297, (Ayrshire, Scotland) (daughter of Robert the Bruce, I, King of Scotland and Isabella of Mar); died 2 Mar 1316, Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland; was buried Paisley Abbey, Scotland.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Marjorie de Brus

    Children:
    1. 12. Robert II of Scotland, King of The Scots was born 2 Mar 1316, Paisley Abbey, Renfrewshire, Scotland; died 19 Apr 1390, Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire, Scotland; was buried Scone Abbey, Perthshire, Scotland.


Generation: 6

  1. 40.  John Comyn, I, Lord of Badenoch was born ~ 1215, Buchan, Aberdeenshire, Scotland (son of Richard Comyn and unnamed spouse); died ~ 1275.

    Notes:

    John Comyn (Cumyn) (c. 1215 – c. 1275) was Lord of Badenoch in Scotland. He was justiciar of Galloway in 1258.[1][2] He held lands in Nithsdale[3] (Dalswinton, a Comyn stronghold,[4][5] and Duncow[6]) and Tynedale.

    Life[edit]
    The Comyn family were in effective power in Scotland from 1249 to 1255, when Alexander III of Scotland was a minor; John was one of those with court influence.[3] The Comyns were ousted, by Alan Durward, but returned to power in 1257-8, before provoking a strong English reaction.[3][7]

    He fought for Henry III of England at the Battle of Lewes (1265), with John Baliol the elder and Robert Bruce the elder,[8] and was captured.[9] In 1267 he was given license to crenellate Tarset Castle in Tynedale (by present-day Lanehead, near Hexham), by Henry III;[10] Tarset had previously been held by Walter Comyn.[11]

    He started castle construction at Blair Castle with a tower built in 1269.[12] The place was soon taken back by David, Earl of Atholl.[13]

    Family

    John was the son of a Richard Comyn and was the grandson (through Richard) of William Comyn, jure uxoris Earl of Buchan.

    According to the 1911 Encyclopµdia Britannica he died in 1274, and was nephew of Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan, Constable of Scotland), and of Walter Comyn, Earl of Mentieth.[14] His date of death is also given as 1277.[15]

    He succeeded his uncle Walter, in 1258, as Lord of Badenoch, and was succeeded by his son John II, the "Black Comyn". John I was known as the "Red Comyn", the nickname more commonly applied to his grandson.[16]

    His second wife is given as Alice de Roos (Ros),[17] or Alice de Lindsay of Lamberton.[15] His first wife was called Eva.

    His children, at least four sons and four daughters, included:

    John II
    a daughter who married Alexander of Argyll[15]
    a daughter who married Sir William Galbraith, 4th Chief of that Ilk, Lord of Kyncaith[18]
    a daughter who married Galfrid de Mowbray[19]
    a daughter who married Sir Andrew Moray[20]

    John married Alice de Roos 0___ 1260. [Group Sheet]


  2. 41.  Alice de Roos

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Alice de Ros

    Children:
    1. 20. John "Black Comyn" Comyn, II, Lord of Badenoch died 0___ 1302, Lochindorb Castle, Strathspey, Scotland.

  3. 42.  John de Balliol, King of Scotland was born Bef 1208, Bernard Castle, Gainford, Durham, England; died 25 Oct 1268, St Waast, Bailleul, Nord, France.

    Notes:

    John de Balliol (died 25 October 1268) was a leading figure of Scottish and Anglo-Norman life of his time. Balliol College, in Oxford, is named after him.

    Life

    John de Balliol was born before 1208 to Hugh de Balliol, Lord of Balliol and of Barnard Castle and Gainford (c. 1177-February 2, 1229) and Cecily de Fontaines, daughter of Alâeaume de Fontaines, chevalier, seigneur of Fontaines and Longprâe-les-Corps-Saints. It is believed that he was educated at Durham School in the city of Durham.

    In 1223, Lord John married Dervorguilla of Galloway, the daughter of Alan, Lord of Galloway and Margaret of Huntingdon. By the mid-thirteenth century, he and his wife had become very wealthy, principally as a result of inheritances from Dervorguilla's family. This wealth allowed Balliol to play a prominent public role, and, on Henry III's instruction, he served as joint protector of the young king of Scots, Alexander III. He was one of Henry III's leading counsellors between 1258 and 1265.[1] and was appointed Sheriff of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire from 1261 to 1262. He was captured at the Battle of Lewes in 1264 but escaped and rejoined King Henry. In 1265 Thomas de Musgrave owed him a debt of 123 marks. About 1266 Baldwin Wake owed him a debt of 100 marks and more.

    Following a dispute with the Bishop of Durham, he agreed to provide funds for scholars studying at Oxford. Support for a house of students began in around 1263; further endowments after his death, supervised by Dervorguilla, resulted in the establishment of Balliol College.

    Issue

    John and Dervorguilla had issue:

    Sir Hugh de Balliol, who died without issue before 10 April 1271. He married Agnes de Valence, daughter of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke.[2]
    Alan de Balliol, who died before 10 April 1271 without issue.[2]
    Sir Alexander de Balliol, who died without issue before 13 November 1278. He married Eleanor de Genoure.[2]
    King John I of Scotland, successful competitor for the Crown in 1292.[2]
    Ada de Balliol, who married in 1266, William Lindsay, of Lambarton, and had a daughter, Christian de Lindsay.[2]
    Margaret de Balliol, who may have married Thomas de Moulton.
    Cecily de Balliol (d. before 1273), who married Sir John de Burgh (d. before 3 March 1280) of Wakerley, Northamptonshire, by whom she had three daughters, Devorguille de Burgh (c.1256 – 1284), who in 1259 married Robert FitzWalter, 1st Baron FitzWalter; Hawise de Burgh (d. before 24 March 1299), who married Sir Robert de Grelle (or Grelley) (d. 15 February 1282) of Manchester; and Margery de Burgh, who became a nun.[3][4][2]
    Mary (or Alianora) de Balliol, who married John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, and had a son, John 'The Red Comyn, Lord of Badenoch (d. 1306).[2]
    Maud (or Matilda) de Balliol, married to Bryan FitzAlan, Lord FitzAlan, and feudal Baron of Bedale. They were parents to Agnes FitzAlan (b. 1298), who married Sir Gilbert Stapleton, Knt., of Bedale [5] (1291-1324). Gilbert is better known for his participation in the assassination of Piers Gaveston, Earl of Cornwall.

    John married Dervorguilla of Galloway ~ 1223. Dervorguilla (daughter of Alan of Galloway and Margaret of Huntingdon, Lady of Galloway) was born ~ 1210, (Galloway, Scotland); died 28 Jan 1290. [Group Sheet]


  4. 43.  Dervorguilla of GallowayDervorguilla of Galloway was born ~ 1210, (Galloway, Scotland) (daughter of Alan of Galloway and Margaret of Huntingdon, Lady of Galloway); died 28 Jan 1290.

    Notes:

    Dervorguilla of Galloway (c. 1210 - 28 January 1290) was a 'lady of substance' in 13th century Scotland, the wife from 1223 of John, 5th Baron de Balliol, and mother of John I, a future king of Scotland.

    The name Dervorguilla or Devorgilla was a Latinization of the Gaelic Dearbhfhorghaill (alternative spellings, Derborgaill or Dearbhorghil).

    Family

    Dervorguilla was one of the three daughters and heiresses of the Gaelic prince Alan, Lord of Galloway. She was born to Alan's second wife Margaret of Huntingdon, who was the eldest daughter of David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon and Matilda (or Maud) of Chester. David in turn was the youngest brother to two Kings of Scotland, Malcolm IV and William the Lion. Thus, through her mother, Dervorguilla was descended from the Kings of Scotland, including David I.

    Dervorguilla's father died in 1234 without a legitimate son (he had an illegitimate son Thomas). According to both Anglo-Norman feudal laws and to ancient Gaelic customs, Dervorguilla was one of his heiresses, her two sisters Helen and Christina being older and therefore senior. This might be considered an unusual practice in England, but it was more common in Scotland and in Western feudal tradition. Because of this, Dervorguilla bequeathed lands in Galloway to her descendants, the Balliol and the Comyns. Dervorguilla's son John of Scotland was briefly a King of Scots too, known as Toom Tabard (Scots: 'puppet king' literally "empty coat").

    Life

    The Balliol family into which Devorguilla married was based at Barnard Castle in County Durham, England. Although the date of her birth is uncertain, her apparent age of 13 was by no means unusually early for betrothal and marriage at the time.

    In 1263, her husband Sir John was required to make penance after a land dispute with Walter Kirkham, Bishop of Durham. Part of this took the very expensive form of founding a College for the poor at the University of Oxford. Sir John's own finances were less substantial than those of his wife, however, and long after his death it fell to Devorguilla to confirm the foundation, with the blessing of the same Bishop as well as the University hierarchy. She established a permanent endowment for the College in 1282, as well as its first formal Statutes. The college still retains the name Balliol College, where the history students' society is called the Devorguilla society and an annual seminar series featuring women in academia is called the Dervorguilla Seminar Series. While a Requiem Mass in Latin was sung at Balliol for the 700th anniversary of her death, it is believed that this was sung as a one-off, rather than having been marked in previous centuries.

    Devorguilla founded a Cistercian Abbey 7 miles south of Dumfries in South West Scotland, in April 1273. It still stands as a picturesque ruin of red sandstone.

    When Sir John died in 1269, his widow, Dervorguilla, had his heart embalmed and kept in a casket of ivory bound with silver. The casket travelled with her for the rest of her life. In 1274–5 John de Folkesworth arraigned an assize of novel disseisin against Devorguilla and others touching a tenement in Stibbington, Northamptonshire. In 1275–6 Robert de Ferrers arraigned an assize of mort d'ancestor against her touching a messuage in Repton, Derbyshire. In 1280 Sir John de Balliol's executors, including his widow, Devorguilla, sued Alan Fitz Count regarding a debt of ą100 claimed by the executors from Alan. In 1280 she was granted letters of attorney to Thomas de Hunsingore and another in England, she staying in Galloway. The same year Devorguilla, Margaret de Ferrers, Countess of Derby, Ellen, widow of Alan la Zouche, and Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan, and Elizabeth his wife sued Roger de Clifford and Isabel his wife and Roger de Leybourne and Idoine his wife regarding the manors of Wyntone, King’s Meaburn, Appleby, and Brough-under-Stainmore, and a moiety of the manor of Kyrkby-Stephan, all in Westmorland. The same year Devorguilla sued John de Veer for a debt of ą24. In 1280–1 Laurence Duket arraigned an assize of novel disseisin again Devorguilla and others touching a hedge destroyed in Cotingham, Middlesex. In 1288 she reached agreement with John, Abbot of Ramsey, regarding a fishery in Ellington.

    In her last years, the main line of the royal House of Scotland was threatened by a lack of male heirs, and Devorguilla, who died just before the young heiress Margaret, the Maid of Norway, might, if she had outlived her, have been one of the claimants to her throne. Devorguilla was buried beside her husband at New Abbey, which was christened 'Sweetheart Abbey', the name which it retains to this day. The depredations suffered by the Abbey in subsequent periods have caused both graves to be lost.

    Successors

    Dervorguilla and John de Balliol had issue:

    Sir Hugh de Balliol, who died without issue before 10 April 1271.[1]
    Alan de Balliol, who died without issue.[1]
    Sir Alexander de Balliol, who died without issue before 13 November 1278.[1][2]
    King John of Scotland, successful competitor for the Crown in 1292.[1]
    Cecily de Balliol, who married John de Burgh, Knt., of Walkern, Hertfordshire.[1]
    Ada de Balliol, who married in 1266, William de Lindsay, of Lamberton.[1][3]
    Margaret (died unmarried)
    Eleanor de Balliol, who married John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.[1][4]
    Maud, who married Sir Bryan FitzAlan, Lord FitzAlan, of Bedale, Knt., (d. 1 June 1306),[5][6][7] who succeeded the Earl of Surrey as Guardian and Keeper of Scotland for Edward I of England.
    Owing to the deaths of her elder three sons, all of whom were childless, Dervorguilla's fourth and youngest surviving son John of Scotland asserted a claim to the crown in 1290 when queen Margaret died. He won in arbitration against the rival Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale in 1292, and subsequently was king of Scotland for four years (1292–96).

    Aunt and niece

    She should not be confused with her father's sister,[8][9][10] Dervorguilla of Galloway, heiress of Whissendine, who married Nicholas II de Stuteville. Her daughter Joan de Stuteville married 1stly Sir Hugh Wake, Lord of Bourne and 2ndly Hugh Bigod (Justiciar). Her other daughter Margaret married William de Mastac but died young.[11]

    *

    Children:
    1. Cecilia de Balliol was born ~ 1240, Bernard Castle, Gainford, Durham, England; died 0___ 1289.
    2. 21. Eleanor de Balliol was born 0___ 1246.
    3. John Balliol, I, King of Scots was born ~ 1249, London, Middlesex, England; died 25 Nov 1314, Picardy, France.
    4. Maud Balliol was buried Church of the Black Friars, York, England.

  5. 44.  Hugh of Lusignan, X, Knight, Count of La MarcheHugh of Lusignan, X, Knight, Count of La Marche was born ~ 1183, Angouleme, France; died 5 Jun 1249, Angouleme, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Hugh I of Angoulăeme
    • Also Known As: Hugh V of La Marche
    • Also Known As: Hugh X de Lusignan
    • Also Known As: Hugues X & V & I de Lusignan

    Notes:

    Hugh X de Lusignan, Hugh V of La Marche or Hugh I of Angoulăeme or Hugues X & V & I de Lusignan (c. 1183 or c. 1195 – c. 5 June 1249, Angoulăeme) succeeded his father Hugh IX as Seigneur de Lusignan and Count of La Marche in November 1219 and was Count of Angoulăeme by marriage.

    His father, Hugh IX de Lusignan was betrothed to marry 12-year-old Isabel of Angoulăeme in 1200,[2] when King John of England took her for his Queen, an action which resulted in the entire de Lusignan family rebelling against the English king. Following John's death, Queen Isabella returned to her native France, where she married Hugh X de Lusignan on 10 May 1220 [3]

    By Hugh's marriage to Isabella, he became Count of Angoulăeme until her death in 1246. Together they founded the abbey of Valence. They had nine children:

    Hugues XI & III & II de Lusignan, seigneur of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulăeme (1221–1250)
    Aymer de Lusignan, Bishop of Winchester c. 1250 (c. 1222 – Paris, 5 December 1260 and buried there)
    Agathe de Lusignan (c. 1223 – aft. 7 April 1269), married Guillaume II de Chauvigny, seigneur of Chăateauroux (1224 – Palermo, 3 January 1271)
    Alice de Lusignan (1224 – 9 February 1256), married 1247 John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey
    Guy de Lusignan (d. 1264), seigneur of Couhe, Cognac, and Archiac in 1249, killed at the Battle of Lewes.[citation needed] (Prestwich states he fled after the Battle of Lewes)[4]
    Geoffroi de Lusignan (d. 1274), seigneur of Jarnac, married in 1259 Jeanne de Chăatellerault, Vicomtess of Chăatellerault (d. 16 May 1315) and had issue:
    Eustachie de Lusignan (d. Carthage, Tunisia, 1270), married 1257 Dreux III de Mello (d. 1310)
    William (or Guillaume) de Valence (d. 1296)
    Marguerite de Lusignan (c. 1226/1228–1288), married (1st) 1240/1241 Raymond VII of Toulouse (1197–1249), married (2nd) c. 1246 Aimery IX de Thouars, Viscount of Thouars (d. 1256), and married (3rd) Geoffrey V de Chateaubriant, seigneur of Chateubriant
    Isabella of Lusignan (1224 – 14 January 1299), lady of Beauvoir-sur-Mer et de Mercillac, married (1st) Maurice IV de Craon (1224/1239 – soon before 27 May 1250/1277) (2nd) Geoffrey de Rancon, seigneur of Taillebourg.
    Hugh X was succeeded by his eldest son, Hugh XI of Lusignan.

    According to explanations in the manuscripts of Gaucelm Faidit's poems, this troubadour was a rival of Hugh X of Lusignan for the love of Marguerite d'Aubusson.

    He was buried at Angoulăeme.

    Hugh married Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England 10 May 1220, (Angouleme) France. Isabelle was born 0___ 1188, Angouleme, France; died 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France; was buried 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France. [Group Sheet]


  6. 45.  Isabelle of Angouleme, Queen of EnglandIsabelle of Angouleme, Queen of England was born 0___ 1188, Angouleme, France; died 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France; was buried 31 May 1246, Fontevrault L'abbe, Maine-Ete-Loire, France.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Countess of Angouleme
    • Also Known As: Isabella de Taillefer, Queen of England
    • Alt Birth: Abt 1173
    • Alt Death: 14 Oct 1217
    • Alt Death: 4 Jun 1246

    Notes:

    Isabel of Gloucester (c. 1173 - 14 October 1217) was the first wife of John of England . She is known by an exceptionally large number of alternative names: Hadwisa, Hawisia, Hawise, Joan, Eleanor, Avise and Avisa.

    *

    Isabella of Angoulăeme (French: Isabelle d'Angoulăeme, IPA: [izab?l d?~gul?m]; c.1188 – 4 June 1246) was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216. She was also reigning Countess of Angoulăeme from 1202 until 1246.

    She had five children by the king including his heir, later Henry III. In 1220, Isabella married Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche, by whom she had another nine children.

    Some of her contemporaries, as well as later writers, claim that Isabella formed a conspiracy against King Louis IX of France in 1241, after being publicly snubbed by his mother, Blanche of Castile for whom she had a deep-seated hatred.[1] In 1244, after the plot had failed, Isabella was accused of attempting to poison the king. To avoid arrest, she sought refuge in Fontevraud Abbey where she died two years later, but none of this can be confirmed.

    Queen of England

    She was the only daughter and heir of Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angoulăeme, by Alice of Courtenay, who was sister of Peter II of Courtenay, Latin Emperor of Constantinople and granddaughter of King Louis VI of France.

    Isabella became Countess of Angoulăeme in her own right on 16 June 1202, by which time she was already queen of England. Her marriage to King John took place on 24 August 1200, in Angoulăeme,[2] a year after he annulled his first marriage to Isabel of Gloucester. She was crowned queen in an elaborate ceremony on 8 October at Westminster Abbey in London. Isabella was originally betrothed to Hugh IX le Brun, Count of Lusignan,[3] son of the then Count of La Marche. As a result of John's temerity in taking her as his second wife, King Philip II of France confiscated all of their French lands, and armed conflict ensued.

    At the time of her marriage to John, the blonde and blue-eyed 12-year-old Isabella was already renowned by some for her beauty[4] and has sometimes been called the Helen of the Middle Ages by historians.[5] Isabella was much younger than her husband and possessed a volatile temper similar to his own. King John was infatuated with his young, beautiful wife; however, his acquisition of her had as much, if not more to do with spiting his enemies, than romantic love. She was already engaged to Hugh IX le Brun, when she was taken by John. It had been said that he neglected his state affairs to spend time with Isabella, often remaining in bed with her until noon. However, these were rumors, ignited by John's enemies to discredit him as being a weak and grossly irresponsible ruler. Given that at the time they were made John was engaging in a desperate war with King Phillip of France to hold on to the remaining Plantagenet dukedoms. The common people began to term her a "siren" or "Messalina", which spoke volumes as to common opinion .[6] Her mother-in-law, Eleanor of Aquitaine readily accepted her as John's wife.[7]

    On 1 October 1207 at Winchester Castle, Isabella gave birth to a son and heir who was named Henry after the King's father, Henry II. He was quickly followed by another son, Richard, and three daughters, Joan, Isabel, and Eleanor. All five children survived into adulthood, and would make illustrious marriages; all but Joan would produce offspring of their own.

    Second marriage

    When King John died in October 1216, Isabella's first act was to arrange the speedy coronation of her nine-year-old son at the city of Gloucester on 28 October. As the royal crown had recently been lost in The Wash, along with the rest of King John's treasure, she supplied her own golden circlet to be used in lieu of a crown.[8] The following July, less than a year after his crowning as King Henry III of England, she left him in the care of his regent, William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and returned to France to assume control of her inheritance of Angoulăeme.

    In the spring of 1220, she married Hugh X of Lusignan, "le Brun", Seigneur de Luisignan, Count of La Marche, the son of her former fiancâe, Hugh IX, to whom she had been betrothed before her marriage to King John. It had been previously arranged that her eldest daughter Joan should marry Hugh, and the little girl was being brought up at the Lusignan court in preparation for her marriage. Hugh, however, upon seeing Isabella, whose beauty had not diminished,[9] preferred the girl's mother. Princess Joan was provided with another husband, King Alexander II of Scotland, whom she wed in 1221.

    Isabella had married Hugh without waiting to receive the consent of the King's council in England, which was the required procedure for a former Queen of England, as the Council had the power to not only choose the Queen Dowager's second husband, but to decide whether or not she should be allowed to marry at all. Isabella's flouting of this law caused the Council to confiscate her dower lands and stop the payment of her pension.[10] Isabella and her husband retaliated by threatening to keep Princess Joan, who had been promised in marriage to the King of Scotland, in France. The council first responded by sending furious letters, signed in the name of young King Henry, to the Pope, urging him to excommunicate Isabella and her husband, but then decided to come to terms with Isabella, as to avoid conflict with the Scottish king, who was eager to receive his bride. Isabella was granted, in compensation for her dower lands in Normandy, the stannaries in Devon and the revenue of Aylesbury for a period of four years. She also received ą3000 as payment for arrears in her pension.[11]

    By Hugh X, Isabella had nine more children. Their eldest son Hugh XI of Lusignan succeeded his father as Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulăeme in 1249.

    Isabella's children from her past marriage continued their lives in England.

    Rebellion and death[edit]
    Described by some contemporaries as "vain, capricious, and troublesome,"[12] Isabella could not reconcile herself with her less prominent position in France. Though Queen dowager of England, Isabella was now mostly regarded as a mere Countess of La Marche and had to give precedence to other women.[13] In 1241, when Isabella and Hugh were summoned to the French court to swear fealty to King Louis IX of France's brother, Alphonse, who had been invested as Count of Poitou, their mother, the Queen Dowager Blanche openly snubbed her. This so infuriated Isabella, who had a deep-seated hatred of Blanche due to the latter having fervently supported the French invasion of England during the First Barons' War in May 1216, that she began to actively conspire against King Louis. Isabella and her husband, along with other disgruntled nobles, including her son-in-law Raymond VII of Toulouse, sought to create an English-backed confederacy which united the provinces of the south and west against the French king.[14] She encouraged her son Henry in his invasion of Normandy in 1230, but then did not provide him the support she had promised.[15]

    In 1244, after the confederacy had failed and Hugh had made peace with King Louis, two royal cooks were arrested for attempting to poison the King; upon questioning they confessed to having been in Isabella's pay.[16] Before Isabella could be taken into custody, she fled to Fontevraud Abbey, where she died on 4 June 1246.[17]

    By her own prior arrangement, she was first buried in the Abbey's churchyard, as an act of repentance for her many misdeeds. On a visit to Fontevraud, her son King Henry III of England was shocked to find her buried outside the Abbey and ordered her immediately moved inside. She was finally placed beside Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Afterwards, most of her many Lusignan children, having few prospects in France, set sail for England and the court of Henry, their half-brother.

    Issue

    With King John of England: 5 children, all of whom survived into adulthood, including:
    King Henry III of England (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272). Married Eleanor of Provence, by whom he had issue, including his heir, King Edward I of England.
    Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272). Married firstly Isabel Marshal, secondly Sanchia of Provence, and thirdly Beatrice of Falkenburg. Had issue.
    Joan (22 July 1210 – 1238), the wife of King Alexander II of Scotland. Her marriage was childless.
    Isabella (1214–1241), the wife of Emperor Frederick II, by whom she had issue.
    Eleanor (1215–1275), who would marry firstly William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke; and secondly Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, by whom she had issue.

    With Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche: nine children, all of whom survived into adulthood, including:

    Hugh XI of Lusignan (1221–1250), Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulăeme. Married Yolande de Dreux, Countess of Penthiáevre and of Porhoet, by whom he had issue.
    Aymer of Lusignan (1222–1260), Bishop of Winchester
    Agnáes de Lusignan (1223–1269). Married William II de Chauvigny (d. 1270), and had issue.
    Alice of Lusignan (1224 – 9 February 1256). Married John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, by whom she had issue.
    Guy of Lusignan (c. 1225 – 1264), killed at the Battle of Lewes. (Tufton Beamish maintains that he escaped to France after the Battle of Lewes and died there in 1269).
    Geoffrey of Lusignan (c. 1226 – 1274). Married in 1259 Jeanne, Viscountess of Chăatellerault, by whom he had issue.
    Isabella of Lusignan (c.1226/1227 14 January 1299). Married firstly before 1244 Maurice IV, seigneur de Craon (1224–1250),[18] by whom she had issue; she married secondly, Geoffrey de Rancon.[19]
    William of Lusignan (c. 1228 – 1296). 1st Earl of Pembroke. Married Joan de Munchensi, by whom he had issue.
    Marguerite de Lusignan (c. 1229 – 1288). Married firstly in 1243 Raymond VII of Toulouse; secondly c. 1246 Aimery IX de Thouars, Viscount of Thouars and had issue

    Birth:
    Aquitaine, Charente department...

    Children:
    1. 22. William de Valence, Knight, 1st Earl of Pembroke was born 1225-1230, Cistercian Abbey, Valence, France; died 18 May 1296, Bayonne, Gascony, France; was buried Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, London SW1P 3PA, United Kingdom.
    2. Alice de Lusignan

  7. 46.  Warin de Munchesi, Knight, Lord Swanscombe was born 0___ 1192, (Swanscombe, Kent, England); died 0___ 1255.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Warin de Munchensy

    Warin married Joan Marshal (England). Joan (daughter of William Marshal, Templar Knight, 1st Earl Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke) was born 0___ 1210, (England); died 0___ 1234, (England). [Group Sheet]


  8. 47.  Joan Marshal was born 0___ 1210, (England) (daughter of William Marshal, Templar Knight, 1st Earl Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke); died 0___ 1234, (England).

    Other Events:

    • Alt Birth: 1202

    Children:
    1. 23. Joan de Munchensi, Lady of Swanscombe and Countess of Pembr was born ~ 1230, (Kent, England); died Aft 20 Sep 1307, (England).

  9. 50.  Robert the Bruce, I, King of ScotlandRobert the Bruce, I, King of Scotland was born 11 Jul 1274, Turnberry Castle, Kirkoswald, Ayrshire, Scotland (son of Robert the Bruce, Knight, VII, Earl of Carrick and Margery of Carrick); died 7 Jun 1329, Manor of Cardross, Scotland; was buried Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.

    Other Events:

    • Burial: Melrose Abbey
    • Also Known As: Robert I of Scotland

    Notes:

    Robert I (11 July 1274 - 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Medieval Gaelic: Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys, Early Scots: Robert Brus), was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329. Robert was one of the most famous warriors of his generation, and eventually led Scotland during the first of the Wars of Scottish Independence against England. He fought successfully during his reign to regain Scotland's place as an independent nation and is today remembered in Scotland as a national hero.

    Descended from the Anglo-Norman and Gaelic nobilities, his paternal fourth-great grandfather was David I. Robert’s grandfather, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, was one of the claimants to the Scottish throne during the "Great Cause". As Earl of Carrick, Robert the Bruce supported his family’s claim to the throne and took part in William Wallace’s revolt against Edward I of England. In 1298, Bruce became a Guardian of Scotland alongside his great rival for the Scottish throne, John Comyn, and William Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews. Bruce resigned as guardian in 1300 due in part to his quarrels with Comyn but chiefly because the restoration of King John seemed imminent. In 1302, he submitted to Edward I and returned to "the king’s peace". When his father died in 1304, Bruce inherited his family’s claim to the throne. In February 1306, following an argument during a meeting at Greyfriars monastery, Dumfries, Bruce killed Comyn. He was excommunicated by the Pope but absolved by Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow.

    Bruce moved quickly to seize the throne and was crowned king of Scots on 25 March 1306, at Scone. Edward I’s forces defeated Robert in battle, and Bruce was forced to flee into hiding in the Hebrides and Ireland before returning in 1307 to defeat an English army at Loudoun Hill and wage a highly successful guerrilla war against the English. Bruce defeated the Comyns and his other Scots enemies, destroying their strongholds and devastating their lands from Buchan to Galloway. In 1309, he held his first parliament at St Andrews, and a series of military victories between 1310 and 1314 won him control of much of Scotland. At the Battle of Bannockburn in June 1314, Bruce defeated a much larger English army under Edward II, confirming the re-establishment of an independent Scottish monarchy. The battle marked a significant turning point, and, freed from English threats, Scotland's armies could now invade northern England; Bruce launched devastating raids into Lancashire and Yorkshire. He also decided to expand his war against the English and create a second front by sending an army under his younger brother, Edward, to invade Ireland, appealing to the native Irish to rise against Edward II's rule.

    Despite Bannockburn and the capture of the final English stronghold at Berwick in 1318, Edward II refused to give up his claim to the overlordship of Scotland. In 1320, the Scottish magnates and nobles submitted the Declaration of Arbroath to Pope John XXII, declaring Bruce as their rightful monarch and asserting Scotland’s status as an independent kingdom. In 1324, the Pope recognised Bruce as king of an independent Scotland, and in 1326, the Franco-Scottish alliance was renewed in the Treaty of Corbeil. In 1327, the English deposed Edward II in favour of his son, Edward III, and peace was temporarily concluded between Scotland and England with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, by which Edward III renounced all claims to sovereignty over Scotland.

    Robert the Bruce died on 7 June 1329. His body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey, while his heart was interred in Melrose Abbey. Bruce's lieutenant and friend Sir James Douglas agreed to take the late King's embalmed heart on crusade to the Lord's Sepulchre in the Holy Land, but he reached only as far as Moorish Granada. Douglas was killed in battle during the siege of Teba while fulfilling his promise. His body and the casket containing the embalmed heart were found upon the field. They were both conveyed back to Scotland by Sir William Keith of Galston.

    Background and early life

    Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale, the first of the Bruce, or de Brus, line arrived in Scotland with David I in 1124 and was given the lands of Annandale in Dumfries and Galloway.[4] Robert was the first son of Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale, and Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, and claimed the Scottish throne as a fourth great-grandson of David I.[5] His mother was by all accounts a formidable woman who, legend would have it, kept Robert Bruce's father captive until he agreed to marry her. From his mother, he inherited the Earldom of Carrick, and through his father, a royal lineage that would give him a claim to the Scottish throne. The Bruces also held substantial estates in Garioch, Essex, Middlesex, and County Durham.[6]

    Although Robert the Bruce's date of birth is known,[7] his place of birth is less certain, although it is most likely to have been Turnberry Castle in Ayrshire, the head of his mother’s earldom.[1][7][8][9][10] Very little is known of his youth. He was probably brought up in a mixture of the Anglo-Norman culture of northern England and south-eastern Scotland, and the Gaelic culture of south-west Scotland and most of Scotland north of the River Forth. Annandale was thoroughly feudalised and the form of Northern Middle English that would later develop into the Scots language was spoken throughout the region. Carrick was historically an integral part of Galloway, and though the earls of Carrick had achieved some feudalisation, the society of Carrick at the end of the thirteenth century remained emphatically Celtic and Gaelic speaking.[11]

    Robert the Bruce would most probably have become trilingual at an early age. He would have spoken both the Anglo-Norman language of his Scots-Norman peers and his father’s family, and the Gaelic language of his Carrick birthplace and his mother’s family. He would also have spoken the early Scots language.[12][13] The family would have moved between the castles of their lordships — Lochmaben Castle, the main castle of the lordship of Annandale, and Turnberry and Loch Doon Castle, the castles of the earldom of Carrick. Robert had nine siblings, and he and his brother Edward may have been fostered according to Gaelic tradition, spending a substantial part of their youth at the courts of other noblemen (Robert’s foster-brother is referred to by Barbour as sharing Robert’s precarious existence as an outlaw in Carrick in 1307-08).[14] As heir, Robert would have been schooled by tutors in all the requirements of courtly etiquette, and he would have waited as a page at his father’s and grandfather’s tables. This grandfather, known to contemporaries as Robert the Noble, and to history as "Bruce the Competitor" (because he competed with the other claimants to the throne of Scotland in the "Great Cause") seems to have been an immense influence on the future king.[14]

    Robert's first appearance in history is on a witness list of a charter issued by Alexander Og MacDonald, Lord of Islay. His name appears in the company of the Bishop of Argyll, the vicar of Arran, a Kintyre clerk, his father, and a host of Gaelic notaries from Carrick.[15] Robert Bruce, the king to be, was sixteen years of age when Margaret, Maid of Norway died in 1290. It is also around this time that Robert would have been knighted, and he began to appear on the political stage in the Bruce dynastic interest.[16]

    Robert's mother died early in 1292. In November of the same year Edward I of England, on behalf of the Guardians of Scotland and following the "Great Cause", awarded the vacant Crown of Scotland to his grandfather's first cousin once removed, John Balliol.[17] Almost immediately, his grandfather, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, resigned his Lordship of Annandale and his claim to the throne to Robert's father. Days later that son, Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale, resigned the earldom of Carrick he had held in right of his late wife to their son, Robert, the future king.[18]

    Even after John's accession, Edward still continued to assert his authority over Scotland and relations between the two kings soon began to deteriorate. The Bruces sided with King Edward against King John and his Comyn allies. Robert the Bruce and his father both considered John a usurper.[19][20] Against the objections of the Scots, Edward I agreed to hear appeals on cases ruled on by the court of the Guardians that had governed Scotland during the interregnum.[21] A further provocation came in a case brought by Macduff, son of Malcolm, Earl of Fife, in which Edward demanded that John appear in person before the English Parliament to answer the charges.[21] This the Scottish king did, but the final straw was Edward's demand that the Scottish magnates provide military service in England's war against France.[21] This was unacceptable; the Scots instead formed an alliance with France.[22] The Comyn-dominated council acting in the name of King John summoned the Scottish host to meet at Caddonlee on 11 March. The Bruces and the earls of Angus and March refused, and the Bruce family withdrew temporarily from Scotland, while the Comyns seized their estates in Annandale and Carrick, granting them to John Comyn, Earl of Buchan.[20] Edward I thereupon provided a safe refuge for the Bruces, having appointed the Lord of Annandale to the command of Carlisle Castle in October 1295.[23] At some point in early 1296, Robert married his first wife, Isabella of Mar, the daughter of Domhnall I, Earl of Mar and his wife Helen.

    Beginning of the Wars of Independence[edit]

    Drawing of Robert the Bruce and Isabella of Mar, from 1562
    Almost the first blow in the war between Scotland and England was a direct attack on the Bruces. On 26 March 1296, Easter Monday, seven Scottish earls made a surprise attack on the walled city of Carlisle, which was not so much an attack against England as the Comyn Earl of Buchan and their faction attacking their Bruce enemies.[24] Both his father and grandfather were at one time Governors of the Castle, and following the loss of Annandale to Comyn in 1295, it was their principal residence. Robert Bruce would have gained first-hand knowledge of the city’s defences. The next time Carlisle was besieged, in 1315, Robert the Bruce would be leading the attack.[23]

    Edward I responded to King John's alliance with France and the attack on Carlisle by invading Scotland at the end of March 1296 and taking the town of Berwick in a particularly bloody attack upon the flimsy palisades.[25][26] At the Battle of Dunbar, Scottish resistance was effectively crushed.[27] Edward deposed King John, placed him in the Tower of London, and installed Englishmen to govern the country. The campaign had been very successful, but the English triumph would only be temporary.[23][28]

    Although the Bruces were by now back in possession of Annandale and Carrick, in August 1296 Robert Bruce, Lord of Annandale, and his son, Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick and future king, were among the more than 1,500 Scots at Berwick[29] who swore an oath of fealty to King Edward I of England.[30] When the Scottish revolt against Edward I broke out in July 1297, James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland, led into rebellion a group of disaffected Scots, including Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow, MacDuff, the son of the earl of Fife, and the young Robert Bruce.[31] The future king was now twenty-two, and in joining the rebels he seems to have been acting independently of his father, who took no part in the rebellion and appears to have abandoned Annandale once more for the safety of Carlisle. It appears that Robert Bruce had fallen under the influence of his grandfather’s friends, Wishart and Stewart, who had inspired him to resistance.[31] With the outbreak of the revolt, Robert left Carlisle and made his way to Annandale, where he called together the knights of his ancestral lands and, according to the English chronicler Walter of Guisborough, addressed them thus:

    No man holds his own flesh and blood in hatred and I am no exception. I must join my own people and the nation in which I was born. I ask that you please come with me and you will be my councillors and close comrades"[31][32]

    Urgent letters were sent ordering Bruce to support Edward's commander, John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (to whom Bruce was related), in the summer of 1297; but instead of complying, Bruce continued to support the revolt against Edward I. That Bruce was in the forefront of fomenting rebellion is shown in a letter written to Edward by Hugh Cressingham on 23 July 1292, which reports the opinion that "if you had the earl of Carrick, the Steward of Scotland and his brother…you would think your business done".[33] On 7 July, Bruce and his friends made terms with Edward by a treaty called the Capitulation of Irvine. The Scottish lords were not to serve beyond the sea against their will and were pardoned for their recent violence in return for swearing allegiance to King Edward. The Bishop of Glasgow, James the Steward, and Sir Alexander Lindsay became sureties for Bruce until he delivered his infant daughter Marjorie as a hostage, which he never did.[citation needed].

    When King Edward returned to England after his victory at the Battle of Falkirk, the Bruce's possessions were excepted from the Lordships and lands that Edward assigned to his followers. The reason for this is uncertain, though Fordun records Robert fighting for Edward, at Falkirk, under the command of Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham, Annandale and Carrick. This participation is contested as no Bruce appears on the Falkirk roll of nobles present in the English army, and two 19th Century antiquarians: Alexander Murison and George Chalmers have stated Bruce did not participate and in the following month decided to lay waste Annandale and burn Ayr Castle, to prevent it being garrisoned by the English.

    William Wallace resigned as Guardian of Scotland after his defeat at the Battle of Falkirk. He was succeeded by Robert Bruce and John Comyn as joint Guardians, but they could not see past their personal differences. As a nephew and supporter of King John, and as someone with a serious claim to the Scottish throne, Comyn was Bruce's enemy. In 1299, William Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews, was appointed as a third, neutral Guardian to try to maintain order between Bruce and Comyn. The following year, Bruce finally resigned as joint Guardian and was replaced by Sir Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus. In May 1301, Umfraville, Comyn, and Lamberton also resigned as joint Guardians and were replaced by Sir John de Soules as sole Guardian. Soules was appointed largely because he was part of neither the Bruce nor the Comyn camps and was a patriot. He was an active Guardian and made renewed efforts to have King John returned to the Scottish throne.

    In July 1301 King Edward I launched his sixth campaign into Scotland. Though he captured the castles of Bothwell and Turnberry, he did little to damage the Scots' fighting ability, and in January 1302 he agreed to a nine-month truce. It was around this time that Robert the Bruce submitted to Edward, along with other nobles, even though he had been on the side of the Scots until then. There were rumours that John Balliol would return to regain the Scottish throne. Soules, who had probably been appointed by John, supported his return, as did most other nobles. But it was no more than a rumour and nothing came of it.

    In March 1302 Bruce sent a letter to the monks at Melrose Abbey apologising for having called tenants of the monks to service in his army when there had been no national call-up. Bruce pledged that, henceforth, he would "never again" require the monks to serve unless it was to "the common army of the whole realm", for national defence. Bruce also married his second wife that year, Elizabeth de Burgh, the daughter of Richard de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster. By Elizabeth he had four children: David II, John (died in childhood), Matilda (who married Thomas Isaac and died at Aberdeen 20 July 1353), and Margaret (who married William de Moravia, 5th Earl of Sutherland in 1345).

    In 1303, Edward invaded again, reaching Edinburgh before marching to Perth. Edward stayed in Perth until July, then proceeded via Dundee, Brechin, and Montrose to Aberdeen, where he arrived in August. From there he marched through Moray to Badenoch before re-tracing his path back south to Dunfermline. With the country now under submission, all the leading Scots, except for William Wallace, surrendered to Edward in February 1304. John Comyn, who was by now Guardian, submitted to Edward. The laws and liberties of Scotland were to be as they had been in the days of Alexander III, and any that needed alteration would be with the assent of King Edward and the advice of the Scots nobles.

    On 11 June 1304, Bruce and William Lamberton made a pact that bound them, each to the other, in “friendship and alliance against all men.” If one should break the secret pact, he would forfeit to the other the sum of ten thousand pounds. The pact is often interpreted[by whom?] as a sign of their patriotism despite both having already surrendered to the English. Homage was again obtained from the nobles and the burghs, and a parliament was held to elect those who would meet later in the year with the English parliament to establish rules for the governance of Scotland. The Earl of Richmond, Edward's nephew, was to head up the subordinate government of Scotland. While all this took place, William Wallace was finally captured near Glasgow, and he was hanged, drawn, and quartered in London on 23 August 1305.

    In September 1305, Edward ordered Robert Bruce to put his castle at Kildrummy, "in the keeping of such a man as he himself will be willing to answer for," suggesting that King Edward suspected Robert was not entirely trustworthy and may have been plotting behind his back. However, an identical phrase appears in an agreement between Edward and his lieutenant and lifelong friend, Aymer de Valence. A further sign of Edward's distrust occurred on 10 October 1305, when Edward revoked his gift of Sir Gilbert de Umfraville's lands to Bruce that he had made only six months before.[34]

    Robert Bruce as Earl of Carrick, and now 7th Lord of Annandale, held huge estates and property in Scotland and a barony and some minor properties in England, and a strong claim to the Scottish throne.

    Murder of John Comyn; for his biography, go to: http://thehennesseefamily.com/getperson.php?personID=I35738&tree=hennessee

    The killing of Comyn in the Greyfriars church in Dumfries, as imagined by Felix Philippoteaux, a 19th-century illustrator.
    Bruce, like all his family, had a complete belief in his right to the throne. However, his actions of supporting alternately the English and Scottish armies had led to a great deal of distrust towards Bruce among the "Community of the Realm of Scotland". His ambition was further thwarted by John Comyn, who had been much more resolute in his opposition to the English. Comyn was the most powerful noble in Scotland and was related to many more powerful nobles both within Scotland and England, including relatives that held the earldoms of Buchan, Mar, Ross, Fife, Angus, Dunbar, and Strathearn; the Lordships of Kilbride, Kirkintilloch, Lenzie, Bedrule, and Scraesburgh; and sheriffdoms in Banff, Dingwall, Wigtown, and Aberdeen. He also had a powerful claim to the Scottish throne through his descent from Donald III on his father's side and David I on his mother's side. Comyn was the nephew of John Balliol.

    According to Barbour and Fordoun, in the late summer of 1305, in a secret agreement sworn, signed, and sealed, John Comyn agreed to forfeit his claim to the Scottish throne in favour of Robert Bruce upon receipt of the Bruce lands in Scotland should an uprising occur led by Bruce.[35] Whether the details of the agreement with Comyn are correct or not, King Edward moved to arrest Bruce while Bruce was still at the English court. Fortunately for Bruce, his friend, and Edward's son-in-law, Ralph de Monthermer learnt of Edward's intention and warned Bruce by sending him twelve pence and a pair of spurs. Bruce took the hint,[36] and he and a squire fled the English court during the night. They made their way quickly for Scotland.

    According to Barbour, Comyn betrayed his agreement with Bruce to King Edward I, and when Bruce arranged a meeting for 10 February 1306 with Comyn in the Chapel of Greyfriars Monastery in Dumfries and accused him of treachery, they came to blows.[37] Bruce assaulted Comyn in Dumfries before the high altar. The Scotichronicon says that on being told that Comyn had survived the attack and was being treated, two of Bruce's supporters, Roger de Kirkpatrick (uttering the words "I mak siccar" ("I make sure")) and John Lindsay, went back into the church and finished Bruce's work. Barbour, however, tells no such story. Bruce asserted his claim to the Scottish crown and began his campaign by force for the independence of Scotland.

    Bruce and his party then attacked Dumfries Castle where the English garrison surrendered. Bruce hurried from Dumfries to Glasgow, where his friend and supporter Bishop Robert Wishart granted him absolution and subsequently adjured the clergy throughout the land to rally to Bruce.[38] Nonetheless, Bruce was excommunicated for this crime.[39]

    English records still in existence today tell a completely different story. They state that the Comyn murder was planned in an attempt to gain the throne of Scotland. For this reason King Edward of England wrote to the Pope and asked for his excommunication of Robert Bruce. No records have ever been found in England stating that King Edward had any knowledge of treachery by Robert Bruce before his acts against Comyn. They state that King Edward did not hear of the murder of John Comyn until several days after his death[citation needed].

    War of King Robert I

    Bruce crowned King of Scots; modern tableau at Edinburgh Castle
    Six weeks after Comyn was killed in Dumfries, Bruce was crowned King of Scots by Bishop William de Lamberton at Scone, near Perth, on 25 March 1306 with all formality and solemnity. The royal robes and vestments that Robert Wishart had hidden from the English were brought out by the Bishop and set upon King Robert. The bishops of Moray and Glasgow were in attendance as well as the earls of Atholl, Menteith, Lennox, and Mar. The great banner of the kings of Scotland was planted behind his throne.[40]

    Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan and wife of John Comyn, 3rd Earl of Buchan (a cousin of the murdered John Comyn) arrived the next day, too late for the coronation. She claimed the right of her family, the MacDuff Earl of Fife, to crown the Scottish king for her brother, Donnchadh IV, Earl of Fife, who was not yet of age, and in English hands. So a second coronation was held and once more the crown was placed on the brow of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, Lord of Annandale, King of the Scots.

    In June 1306 Bruce was defeated at the Battle of Methven. His wife and daughters and other women of the party were sent to Kildrummy in August 1306 under the protection of Bruce's brother Neil Bruce and the Earl of Atholl and most of his remaining men.[41] Bruce fled with a small following of his most faithful men, including Sir James Douglas and Gilbert Hay, Bruce's brothers Thomas, Alexander, and Edward, as well as Sir Neil Campbell and the Earl of Lennox.[42]

    Edward I marched north again in the spring. On his way, he granted the Scottish estates of Bruce and his adherents to his own followers and had published a bill excommunicating Bruce. Bruce's queen, Elizabeth, his daughter Marjorie, his sisters Christina and Mary, and Isabella MacDuff were captured in a sanctuary at Tain and sent to harsh imprisonment, which included Mary and Isabella being hung in cages at Roxburgh and Berwick castles respectively for about four years, while Bruce's brother Neil was executed by being hanged, drawn, and quartered.[43][44]

    On 7 July, King Edward I died, leaving Bruce opposed by the king's son, Edward II.

    It is still uncertain where Bruce spent the winter of 1306–07. Most likely he spent it in the Hebrides, possibly sheltered by Christina of Garmoran, who was married to Bruce's brother-in-law, Duncan, the brother of Bruce's first wife, Isabella of Mar. Ireland is also a serious possibility, and Orkney (under Norwegian rule at the time) or Norway proper (where his sister Isabel Bruce was queen dowager) although unlikely are not impossible.[45] Bruce and his followers returned to the Scottish mainland in February in two groups. One, led by Bruce and his brother Edward landed at Turnberry Castle and began a guerrilla war in south-west Scotland. The other, led by his brothers Thomas and Alexander, landed slightly further south in Loch Ryan, but they were soon captured and executed. In April, Bruce won a small victory over the English at the Battle of Glen Trool, before defeating Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, at the Battle of Loudoun Hill. At the same time, James Douglas made his first foray for Bruce into south-western Scotland, attacking and burning his own castle in Douglasdale. Leaving his brother Edward in command in Galloway, Bruce travelled north, capturing Inverlochy and Urquhart Castles, burning Inverness Castle and Nairn to the ground, then unsuccessfully threatening Elgin.

    Transferring operations to Aberdeenshire in late 1307, he threatened Banff before falling seriously ill, probably owing to the hardships of the lengthy campaign. Recovering, leaving John Comyn, 3rd Earl of Buchan unsubdued at his rear, Bruce returned west to take Balvenie and Duffus Castles, then Tarradale Castle on the Black Isle. Looping back via the hinterlands of Inverness and a second failed attempt to take Elgin, Bruce finally achieved his landmark defeat of Comyn at the Battle of Inverurie in May 1308; he then overran Buchan and defeated the English garrison at Aberdeen. The Harrying of Buchan in 1308 was ordered by Bruce to make sure all Comyn family support was extinguished. Buchan had a very large population because it was the agricultural capital of northern Scotland, and much of its population was loyal to the Comyn family even after the defeat of the Earl of Buchan. Most of the Comyn castles in Moray, Aberdeen, and Buchan were destroyed and their inhabitants killed. Bruce ordered similar harryings in Argyle and Kintyre, in the territories of Clan MacDougall. With these acts, Bruce had successfully destroyed the power of the Comyns, which had controlled much of northern and southwestern Scotland for over a hundred and fifty years. He then crossed to Argyll and defeated the MacDougalls (allies of the Comyns) at the Battle of Pass of Brander and took Dunstaffnage Castle, the last major stronghold of the Comyns.[46]


    Bruce reviewing troops before the Battle of Bannockburn
    In March 1309, Bruce held his first Parliament at St. Andrews, and by August he controlled all of Scotland north of the River Tay. The following year, the clergy of Scotland recognised Bruce as king at a general council. The support given to him by the church in spite of his excommunication was of great political importance. Over the next three years, one English-held castle or outpost after another was captured and reduced: Linlithgow in 1310, Dumbarton in 1311, and Perth, by Bruce himself, in January 1312. Bruce also made raids into northern England and, landing at Ramsey in the Isle of Man, then laid siege to Castle Rushen in Castletown, capturing it on 21 June 1313 and denying the island's strategic importance to the English. In the spring of 1314, Edward Bruce laid siege to Stirling Castle, whose governor, Philip de Mowbray, agreed to capitulate if not relieved before 24 June 1314. In March 1314, James Douglas captured Roxburgh, and Randolph captured Edinburgh Castle. In May, Bruce again raided England and subdued the Isle of Man.

    The eight years of exhausting but deliberate refusal to meet the English on even ground have caused many to consider Bruce as one of the great guerrilla leaders of any age. This represented a transformation for one raised as a feudal knight.

    Battle of Bannockburn

    Main article: Battle of Bannockburn
    Bruce secured Scottish independence from England militarily – if not diplomatically – at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. An English army led by Edward II in person trying to relieve the siege of Stirling Castle was decisively defeated in an atypical set-piece battle.

    Further confrontation with England then the Irish conflict[edit]
    Main article: Bruce campaign in Ireland
    Freed from English threats, Scotland's armies could now invade northern England. Bruce also drove back a subsequent English expedition north of the border and launched raids into Yorkshire and Lancashire. Buoyed by his military successes, Bruce's forces also invaded Ireland in 1315, purportedly to free the country from English rule (having received a reply to offers of assistance from Donal O'Neil, king of Tyrone), and to open a second front in the continuing wars with England. The Irish even crowned Edward Bruce as High King of Ireland in 1316. Robert later went there with another army to assist his brother.

    In conjunction with the invasion, Bruce popularised an ideological vision of a "Pan-Gaelic Greater Scotia" with his lineage ruling over both Ireland and Scotland. This propaganda campaign was aided by two factors. The first was his marriage alliance from 1302 with the de Burgh family of the Earldom of Ulster in Ireland; second, Bruce himself, on his mother's side of Carrick, was descended from Gaelic royalty in Scotland as well as Ireland. Bruce's Irish ancestors included Eva of Leinster (d.1188), whose ancestors included Brian Boru of Munster and the kings of Leinster. Thus, lineally and geopolitically, Bruce attempted to support his anticipated notion of a pan-Gaelic alliance between Scottish-Irish Gaelic populations, under his kingship. This is revealed by a letter he sent to the Irish chiefs, where he calls the Scots and Irish collectively nostra nacio (our nation), stressing the common language, customs and heritage of the two peoples:

    Whereas we and you and our people and your people, free since ancient times, share the same national ancestry and are urged to come together more eagerly and joyfully in friendship by a common language and by common custom, we have sent you our beloved kinsman, the bearers of this letter, to negotiate with you in our name about permanently strengthening and maintaining inviolate the special friendship between us and you, so that with God's will our nation (nostra nacio) may be able to recover her ancient liberty.

    The diplomacy worked to a certain extent, at least in Ulster, where the Scots had some support. The Irish chief, Donal O'Neil, for instance, later justified his support for the Scots to Pope John XXII by saying "the Kings of Lesser Scotia all trace their blood to our Greater Scotia and retain to some degree our language and customs."[47]

    The Bruce campaign in Ireland was characterised by some initial military success. However, the Scots failed to win over the non-Ulster chiefs or to make any other significant gains in the south of the island, where people couldn't see the difference between English and Scottish occupation. Eventually it was defeated when Edward Bruce was killed at the Battle of Faughart. The Irish Annals of the period described the defeat of the Bruces by the English as one of the greatest things ever done for the Irish nation due to the fact it brought an end to the famine and pillaging wrought upon the Irish by both the Scots and the English.[48]

    Diplomacy

    The reign of Robert Bruce also included some significant diplomatic achievements. The Declaration of Arbroath of 1320 strengthened his position, particularly vis-áa-vis the Papacy, and Pope John XXII eventually lifted Bruce's excommunication. In May 1328 King Edward III of England signed the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, which recognised Scotland as an independent kingdom, and Bruce as its king.

    Death

    King Robert I is buried in Dunfermline Abbey

    Robert I had been suffering from a serious illness from at least 1327. The Lanercost Chronicle and Scalacronica state that the king was said to have contracted and died of leprosy.[49] Jean Le Bel also stated that in 1327 the king was a victim of 'la grosse maladie', which is usually taken to mean leprosy.[49] However, the ignorant use of the term 'leprosy' by fourteenth-century writers meant that almost any major skin disease might be called leprosy. The earliest mention of this illness is to be found in an original letter written by an eye-witness in Ulster at the time the king made a truce with Sir Henry Mandeville on 12 July 1327. The writer of this letter reported that Robert I was so feeble and struck down by illness that he would not live, 'for he can scarcely move anything but his tongue'.[49] Barbour writes of the king's illness that 'it began through a benumbing brought on by his cold lying', during the months of wandering from 1306 to 1309.[50] None of the Scottish accounts of his death hint at leprosy. It has been proposed that, alternatively, he may have suffered from tuberculosis, syphilis, motor neurone disease, or a series of strokes.[51] There does not seem to be any evidence as to what the king himself or his physicians believed his illness to be. Nor is there any evidence of an attempt in his last years to segregate the king in any way from the company of friends, family, courtiers, or foreign diplomats.[50]

    In October 1328 the Pope finally lifted the interdict from Scotland and the excommunication of Robert I.[52] The king’s last journey appears to have been a pilgrimage to the shrine of Saint Ninian at Whithorn; this was possibly in search of a miraculous cure, or to make his peace with God. With Moray by his side, Robert set off from his manor at Cardross for Tarbert on his 'great ship', thence to the Isle of Arran, where he celebrated Christmas of 1328 at the hall of Glenkill near Lamlash. Thence he sailed to the mainland to visit his son and his bride, both mere children, now installed at Turnberry Castle, the head of the earldom of Carrick and once his own main residence.[49][52] He journeyed overland, being carried on a litter, to Inch in Wigtownshire: houses were built there and supplies brought to that place, as though the king's condition had deteriorated. At the end of March 1329 he was staying at Glenluce Abbey and at Monreith, from where St Ninian’s cave was visited.[52] Early in April he arrived at the shrine of St Ninian at Whithorn. He fasted four or five days and prayed to the saint, before returning by sea to Cardross.[49][52]

    Barbour and other sources relate that Robert summoned his prelates and barons to his bedside for a final council at which he made copious gifts to religious houses, dispensed silver to religious foundations of various orders, so that they might pray for his soul, and repented of his failure to fulfil a vow to undertake a crusade to fight the 'Saracens' in the Holy Land.[49][52] Robert's final wish reflected conventional piety, and was perhaps intended to perpetuate his memory. After his death his heart was to be removed from his body and borne by a noble knight on a crusade against the Saracens and carried to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, before being brought back to Scotland:[49][52]

    I will that as soone as I am trespassed out of this worlde that ye take my harte owte of my body, and embawme it, and take of my treasoure as ye shall thynke sufficient for that enterprise, both for your selfe and suche company as ye wyll take with you, and present my hart to the holy Sepulchre where as our Lorde laye, seyng my body can nat come there.[53]

    Robert died on 7 June 1329, at the Manor of Cardross, near Dumbarton.[54] He died utterly fulfilled, in that the goal of his lifetime's struggle – untrammelled recognition of the Bruce right to the crown – had been realised, and confident that he was leaving the kingdom of Scotland safely in the hands of his most trusted lieutenant, Moray, until his infant son reached adulthood.[55] Six days after his death, to complete his triumph still further, papal bulls were issued granting the privilege of unction at the coronation of future Kings of Scots.[55]

    Burial

    The king's body was embalmed and his sternum was sawn to allow extraction of the heart, which Sir James Douglas placed in a silver casket to be worn on a chain around his neck. The body was taken to Dunfermline Abbey, and Robert I was interred in what was then the very centre of the abbey, beneath the high altar, and beside his queen.[55] The king’s tomb was carved in Paris by Thomas of Chartres from alabaster brought from England and was decorated with gold leaf. The tomb was transported to Dunfermline via Bruges and was erected over the king’s grave in the autumn of 1330. Ten alabaster fragments from the tomb are on display in the National Museum of Scotland and traces of gilding still remain on some of them.[49][55]

    When a projected international crusade failed to materialise, Douglas and his company sailed to Spain where Alfonso XI of Castile was mounting a campaign against the Moorish kingdom of Granada. According to tradition, Douglas and his company including Sir William de Keith, Sir William de St. Clair of Rosslyn and the brothers Sir Robert Logan of Restalrig and Sir Walter Logan, were received by Alfonso. In August 1330 they participated in the Battle of Teba. As he was pursuing the Moorish cavalry after having fought back a feigned attack, Sir James Douglas took the silver casket containing the heart of Robert the Bruce from his neck, and threw it before him among the enemy, saying, "Now pass thou onward before us, as thou wert wont, and I will follow thee or die." The Muslim cavalry, realising the small number of their pursuers, turned around and renewed the fight. Douglas was about to retreat when he noticed Sir William de St. Clair of Rosslyn being surrounded by Moorish warriors, and with his remaining men attempted to relieve him. As the knights were hard pressed and outnumbered by the Moors, Sir James Douglas and most of his men were slain, among them Sir Robert Logan and Sir Walter Logan. A few of the surviving companions of Douglas found both his body and the casket on the battlefield and took care that they were sent back home. The Bruce's heart was brought back to Scotland by Sir Symon Locard of Lee (later Lockhart) and Sir William Keith of Galston.[3][56]

    In accordance with Bruce's written request, the heart was buried at Melrose Abbey in Roxburghshire.[57] In 1920, the heart was discovered by archaeologists and was reburied, but the location was not marked.[58] In 1996, a casket was unearthed during construction work.[59] Scientific study by AOC archaeologists in Edinburgh, demonstrated that it did indeed contain human tissue and it was of appropriate age. It was reburied in Melrose Abbey in 1998, pursuant to the dying wishes of the King.[58]

    Discovery of the Bruce's tomb
    Main article: Dunfermline Abbey

    The tower of the rebuilt eastern end of the Abbey bears the sculpted words "King Robert The Bruce"
    On 17 February 1818, workmen breaking ground on the new parish church to be built on the site of the eastern choir of Dunfermline Abbey uncovered a vault before the site of the former abbey high altar.[60][61] The vault was covered by two large, flat stones – one forming a headstone, and a larger stone six feet (182 cm) in length, with six iron rings or handles set in it. When these stones were removed, the vault was found to be seven feet (214 cm) in length, 56 cm wide and 45 cm deep.[62] Within the vault, inside the remnants of a decayed oak coffin, there was a body entirely enclosed in lead, with a decayed shroud of cloth of gold over it. Over the head of the body the lead was formed into the shape of a crown.[63] Fragments of marble and alabaster had been found in the debris around the site of the vault several years earlier, which were linked to Robert the Bruce’s recorded purchase of a marble and alabaster tomb made in Paris.[64] The Barons of Exchequer ordered that the vault was to be secured from all further inspection with new stones and iron bars and guarded by the town constables, and that once the walls of the new church were built up around the site, an investigation of the vault and the remains could take place.[65] Accordingly, on 5 November 1819, the investigation took place. The cloth of gold shroud and the lead covering were found to be in a rapid state of decay since the vault had first been opened 21 months earlier.[62] The body was raised up and placed on a wooden coffin board on the edge of the vault. It was found to be covered in two thin layers of lead, each around 5 mm thick. The lead was removed and the skeleton was inspected by James Gregory and Alexander Monro, Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh. The sternum was found to have been sawn open from top to bottom, permitting removal of the king’s heart after death.[66] A plaster cast was taken of the detached skull by artist William Scoular.[66][67] The bones were measured and drawn, and the king’s skeleton was measured to be 5 feet 11 inches (180 cm). It has been estimated that Bruce may have stood at around 6 feet 1 inch (186 cm) tall as a young man, which by medieval standards was impressive. At this height he would have stood almost as tall as Edward I (6 feet 2 inches; 188 cm).[66]

    The skeleton, lying on the wooden coffin board, was then placed upon the top of a lead coffin and the large crowd of curious people who had assembled outside the church were allowed to file past the vault to view the king’s remains.[68] It was at this point in the proceedings that some small relics – teeth and finger bones – were allegedly removed from the skeleton. The published accounts of eyewitnesses such as Henry Jardine and James Gregory confirm the removal of small objects at this time.[69] Robert the Bruce’s remains were ceremonially re-interred in the vault in Dunfermline Abbey on 5 November 1819. They were placed in a new lead coffin, into which was poured 1,500 lbs of molten pitch to preserve the remains, before the coffin was sealed.[68]

    A number of reconstructions of the face of Robert the Bruce have been produced, including those by Richard Neave from the University of Manchester [70] and Peter Vanezis from the University of Glasgow

    Burial:
    his heart at Melrose Abbey ...

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melrose_Abbey

    Buried:
    his body at Dunfermline Abbey

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunfermline_Abbey

    Robert — Isabella of Mar. Isabella (daughter of Domhnall, I, Earl of Mar and Helen of Wales) was born ~ 1277, Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland; died 12 Dec 1296, Manor of Cardross, Dunbartonshire, Scotland; was buried Paisley Abbey, Scotland. [Group Sheet]


  10. 51.  Isabella of Mar was born ~ 1277, Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland (daughter of Domhnall, I, Earl of Mar and Helen of Wales); died 12 Dec 1296, Manor of Cardross, Dunbartonshire, Scotland; was buried Paisley Abbey, Scotland.

    Notes:

    Isabella of Mar (modern Scottish Gaelic: Iseabail) (c. 1277 – 12 December 1296) was the first wife of Robert the Bruce and the grandmother of Robert II of Scotland, founder of the royal House of Stuart. She died before Robert was crowned King of Scots, and never became the Queen.

    She was the daughter of Domhnall I, Earl of Mar and Helen (or Ellen) of Wales (1246–1295), the illegitimate daughter of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth ("the Great") Prince of Wales; she had previously been the wife of Maol Choluim II, Earl of Fife. Her father was one of the seven guardians of Scotland who believed Robert Bruce to be the rightful King of Scotland. Despite the considerable risks, the Earl of Mar could foresee the advantage of the two families joining in marriage and bearing an heir to the throne, and the marriage of Isabella and Robert was arranged. Mar was the first to sign over the estates of his family to the Bruce.

    Isabella was married to Robert at the age of 18 and legend has it that they were much in love. Shortly after their marriage Isabella became pregnant. She had a healthy pregnancy but she died soon after giving birth to a daughter, Marjorie Bruce in 1296. She is buried at Paisley Abbey, Renfrewshire.[2]

    Robert married his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh, six years later. Isabella's daughter Princess Marjorie (died 1316) married Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland, and their son became Robert II of Scotland. From him descend the monarchs of the House of Stewart and the later royal families of the United Kingdom.

    Children:
    1. 25. Marjorie Bruce was born 0___ 1297, (Ayrshire, Scotland); died 2 Mar 1316, Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland; was buried Paisley Abbey, Scotland.


Generation: 7

  1. 80.  Richard Comyn was born 1190-1194, (Buchan, Aberdeenshire, Scotland) (son of William Comyn, Lord of Badenoch and Sarah FitzHugh); died 1244-1249.

    Richard — unnamed spouse. [Group Sheet]


  2. 81.  unnamed spouse
    Children:
    1. 40. John Comyn, I, Lord of Badenoch was born ~ 1215, Buchan, Aberdeenshire, Scotland; died ~ 1275.

  3. 86.  Alan of Galloway was born Bef 1199, (Scotland) (son of Roland of Galloway, Lord of Galloway and Helen de Morville); died 0___ 1234, (Scotland); was buried Dundrennan Abbey, Dundrennan, Scotland.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Alan fitz Roland

    Notes:

    Alan of Galloway (before 1199 - 1234), also known as Alan fitz Roland, was a leading thirteenth-century Scottish magnate. As the hereditary Lord of Galloway and Constable of Scotland, he was one of the most influential men in the Kingdom of Scotland and Irish Sea zone.

    Alan first appears in courtly circles in about 1200, about the time he inherited his father's possessions and offices. After he secured his mother's inheritance almost two decades later, Alan became one of the most powerful magnates in the Scottish realm. Alan also held lands in the Kingdom of England, and was one of King John's advisors concerning Magna Carta. Alan later played a considerable part in Alexander II of Scotland's northern English ambitions during the violent aftermath of John's repudiation of Magna Carta. Alan participated in the English colonisation of Ulster, receiving a massive grant in the region from the English king, and simultaneously aided the Scottish crown against rebel claimants in the western and northern peripheries of the Scottish realm. Alan entered into a vicious inter-dynastic struggle for control of the Kingdom of the Isles, supporting one of his kinsman against another. Alan's involvement in the Isles, a region under nominal Norwegian authority, provoked a massive military response by Haakon IV of Norway, causing a severe crisis for the Scottish crown.

    As ruler of the semi-autonomous Lordship of Galloway, Alan was courted by the Scottish and English kings for his remarkable military might, and was noted in Norse saga-accounts as one of the greatest warriors of his time. Like other members of his family, he was a generous religious patron. Alan died in February 1234. Although under the traditional Celtic custom of Galloway, Alan's illegitimate son could have succeeded to the Lordship of Galloway, under the feudal custom of the Scottish realm, Alan's nearest heirs were his surviving daughters. Using Alan's death as an opportunity to further integrate Galloway within his realm, Alexander forced the partition of the lordship amongst Alan's daughters. Alan was the last legitimate ruler of Galloway, descending from the native dynasty of Fergus, Lord of Galloway.

    Background

    Alan was born sometime before 1199. He was the eldest son of Roland, Lord of Galloway (died 1200), and his wife, Helen de Morville (died 1217).[3] His parents were likely married before 1185,[4] possibly at some point in the 1170s, since Roland was compelled to hand over three sons as hostages to Henry II of England in 1186.[5] Roland and Helen had three sons, and two daughters.[3] The name of one of Alan's brothers is unknown, suggesting that he died young.[6] The other, Thomas (died 1231), became Earl of Atholl by right of his wife.[3] One of Alan's sisters, Ada, married Walter Bisset, Lord of Aboyne.[7] The other, Dervorguilla, married Nicholas de Stuteville, Lord of Liddel (died 1233).[8]

    Alan's mother was the sister and heir of William de Morville, Lord of Lauderdale and Cunningham, Constable of Scotland (died 1196).[9] Alan's father was the eldest son of Uhtred, Lord of Galloway (died 1174),[4] son of Fergus, Lord of Galloway (died 1161). The familial origins of Fergus are unknown, and he first appears on record in 1136. The mother of at least two of his children, Uhtred and Affraic, was an unknown daughter of Henry I of England.[10] It was probably not long after Fergus' emergence into recorded history that he gave away Affraic in marriage to Amlaâib mac Gofraid, King of the Isles.[11] One after-effect of these early twelfth-century marital alliances was that Alan—Fergus' great-grandson—was a blood relative of the early thirteenth-century kings of England and the kings of the Isles—men who proved to be important players throughout Alan's career.[12]

    Alan married Margaret of Huntingdon, Lady of Galloway 0___ 1209. Margaret (daughter of David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon and Matilda of Chester, Countess of Huntingdon) was born ~ 1194, Galloway, Wigtownshire, Scotland; died 0___ 1223. [Group Sheet]


  4. 87.  Margaret of Huntingdon, Lady of Galloway was born ~ 1194, Galloway, Wigtownshire, Scotland (daughter of David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon and Matilda of Chester, Countess of Huntingdon); died 0___ 1223.

    Notes:

    Margaret of Huntingdon (died before 1228) was the eldest daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon (died 1219) and his wife, Maud (died 1233), sister of Ranulf III, Earl of Chester (died 1232),[1] and daughter of Hugh II, Earl of Chester (died 1181).[2]

    Margaret was the second wife of Alan, Lord of Galloway (died 1234).[3] She and Alan married in 1209,[4] and had a family of a son and two daughters.

    The elder daughter, Christiana, married William de Forz (died 1260).[5]

    The younger daughter, Dervorguilla (died 1290), married John de Balliol, Lord of Barnard Castle (died 1268).[6] Margaret and Alan's son, Thomas—Alan's only legitimate son—may have lived into the 1220s, but died young.

    Children:
    1. 43. Dervorguilla of Galloway was born ~ 1210, (Galloway, Scotland); died 28 Jan 1290.

  5. 94.  William Marshal, Templar Knight, 1st Earl PembrokeWilliam Marshal, Templar Knight, 1st Earl Pembroke was born 1146-1147, (Berkshire, England) (son of John FitzGilbert and Sibyl of Salisbury); died 14 Apr 1219, Caversham, Berkshire, England; was buried Temple Church, London, Middlesex, England.

    Notes:

    William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1146 or 1147 - 14 May 1219), also called William the Marshal (Norman French: Williame le Mareschal), was an Anglo-Norman soldier and statesman.[1] He served five English kings – The "Young King" Henry, Henry II, Richard I, John, and Henry III.

    Knighted in 1166, he spent his younger years as a knight errant and a successful tournament fighter; Stephen Langton eulogized him as the "best knight that ever lived."[2] In 1189, he received the title of Earl of Pembroke through marriage during the second creation of the Pembroke Earldom. In 1216, he was appointed protector for the nine-year-old Henry III, and regent of the kingdom.

    Before him, his father's family held an hereditary title of Marshal to the king, which by his father's time had become recognized as a chief or master Marshalcy, involving management over other Marshals and functionaries. William became known as 'the Marshal', although by his time much of the function was actually delegated to more specialized representatives (as happened with other functions in the King's household). Because he was an Earl, and also known as the Marshal, the term "Earl Marshal" was commonly used and this later became an established hereditary title in the English Peerage.


    Early life

    Tomb effigy of William Marshal in Temple Church, London
    William's father, John Marshal, supported King Stephen when he took the throne in 1135, but in about 1139 he changed sides to back the Empress Matilda in the civil war of succession between her and Stephen which led to the collapse of England into "the Anarchy".[4]

    When King Stephen besieged Newbury Castle in 1152, according to William's biographer, he used the young William as a hostage to ensure that John kept his promise to surrender the castle. John, however, used the time allotted to reinforce the castle and alert Matilda's forces. When Stephen ordered John to surrender immediately or William would be hanged, John replied that he should go ahead saying, "I still have the hammer and the anvil with which to forge still more and better sons!" Subsequently there was a bluff made to launch William from a pierriáere, a type of trebuchet towards the castle. Fortunately for the child, Stephen could not bring himself to harm young William.[5] William remained a crown hostage for many months, only being released following the peace that resulted from the terms agreed at Winchester on 6 November 1153 that ended the civil war.

    Knight-Errant

    As a younger son of a minor nobleman, William had no lands or fortune to inherit, and had to make his own way in life. Around the age of twelve, when his father's career was faltering, he was sent to Normandy to be brought up in the household of William de Tancarville, a great magnate and cousin of young William's mother. Here he began his training as a knight. This would have included basic biblical stories and prayers written in Latin, as well as exposure to French romances, which conferred the basic precepts of chivalry to the budding knight.[6] In addition, while in Tancarville’s household, it is likely that Marshal also learned important and lasting practical lessons concerning the politics of courtly life. According to his thirteenth-century biography, L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal, Marshal had a number of adversaries in court who machinated to his disadvantage—these individuals likely would have been threatened by the boy’s close relationship with the magnate.[7] He was knighted in 1166 on campaign in Upper Normandy, then being invaded from Flanders. His first experience in battle came with mixed reviews. According to L'Histoire, everyone who witnessed the young knight in action agreed that he had acquitted himself well in combat. However, as medieval historian David Crouch explains, “War in the twelfth century was not fought wholly for honour. Profit was there to be made…”[8] On this front, Marshal was not so successful, as he was unable to parlay his combat victories into profit from either ransom or seized booty. As described in L'Histoire, the Earl of Essex, who was expecting the customary tribute from his valorous knight following battle, jokingly remarked: “Oh? But Marshal, what are you saying? You had forty or sixty of them — yet you refuse me so small a thing!”[9] In 1167 he was taken by William de Tancarville to his first tournament where he found his true mâetier. Quitting the Tancarville household he then served in the household of his mother's brother, Patrick, Earl of Salisbury. In 1168 his uncle was killed in an ambush by Guy de Lusignan. William was injured and captured in the same skirmish. It is known that William received a wound to his thigh and that someone in his captor's household took pity on the young knight. He received a loaf of bread in which were concealed several lengths of clean linen bandages with which he could dress his wounds. This act of kindness by an unknown person perhaps saved Marshal's life as infection setting into the wound could have killed him. After a period of time, he was ransomed by Eleanor of Aquitaine, who was apparently impressed by tales of his bravery.

    Thereafter he found he could make a good living out of winning tournaments, dangerous, often deadly, staged battles in which money and valuable prizes could be won by capturing and ransoming opponents, their horses and armour. His record is legendary: on his deathbed he recalled besting 500 knights during his tourneying career.[10]

    Royal favour

    13th-century depiction by Matthew Paris of the Earl of Pembroke's coat of arms[11]
    Upon his return during the course of 1185 William rejoined the court of King Henry II, and now served the father as a loyal captain through the many difficulties of his final years. The returns of royal favour were almost immediate. The king gave William the large royal estate of Cartmel in Cumbria, and the keeping of Heloise, the heiress of the northern barony of Lancaster. It may be that the king expected him to take the opportunity to marry her and become a northern baron, but William seems to have had grander ambitions for his marriage. In 1188 faced with an attempt by Philip II to seize the disputed region of Berry, Henry II summoned the Marshal to his side. The letter by which he did this survives, and makes some sarcastic comments about William's complaints that he had not been properly rewarded to date for his service to the king. Henry therefore promised him the marriage and lands of Dionisia, lady of Chăateauroux in Berry. In the resulting campaign, the king fell out with his heir Richard, count of Poitou, who consequently allied with Philip II against his father. In 1189, while covering the flight of Henry II from Le Mans to Chinon, William unhorsed the undutiful Richard in a skirmish. William could have killed the prince but killed his horse instead, to make that point clear. He is said to have been the only man ever to unhorse Richard. Nonetheless after Henry's death, Marshal was welcomed at court by his former adversary, now King Richard I, who was wise to include a man whose legendary loyalty and military accomplishments were too useful to ignore, especially in a king who was intending to go on Crusade.[1]

    During the old king's last days he had promised the Marshal the hand and estates of Isabel de Clare (c.1172–1220), but had not completed the arrangements. King Richard however, confirmed the offer and so in August 1189, at the age of 43, the Marshal married the 17-year-old daughter of Richard de Clare (Strongbow). Her father had been Earl of Pembroke, and Marshal acquired large estates and claims in England, Wales, Normandy and Ireland. Some estates however were excluded from the deal. Marshal did not obtain Pembroke and the title of earl, which his father-in-law had enjoyed, until 1199, as it had been taken into the king's hand in 1154. However, the marriage transformed the landless knight from a minor family into one of the richest men in the kingdom, a sign of his power and prestige at court. They had five sons and five daughters, and have numerous descendants.[1] William made numerous improvements to his wife's lands, including extensive additions to Pembroke Castle and Chepstow Castle.[citation needed]

    William was included in the council of regency which the King appointed on his departure for the Third Crusade in 1190. He took the side of John, the king's brother, when the latter expelled the justiciar, William Longchamp, from the kingdom, but he soon discovered that the interests of John were different from those of Richard. Hence in 1193 he joined with the loyalists in making war upon him. In spring 1194, during the course of the hostilities in England and before King Richard's return, William Marshal's elder brother John Marshal (who was serving as seneschal) was killed while defending Marlborough for the king's brother John. Richard allowed Marshal to succeed his brother in the hereditary marshalship, and his paternal honour of Hamstead Marshall. The Marshal served the king in his wars in Normandy against Philip II. On Richard's death-bed the king designated Marshal as custodian of Rouen and of the royal treasure during the interregnum.[1]

    King John and Magna Carta

    A 13th-century depiction of the Second Battle of Lincoln, which occurred at Lincoln Castle on 20 May 1217; the illustration shows the death of Thomas du Perche, the Comte de la Perche

    William supported King John when he became king in 1199, arguing against those who maintained the claims of Arthur of Brittany, the teenage son of John's elder brother Geoffrey Plantagenet. William was heavily engaged with the defence of Normandy against the growing pressure of the Capetian armies between 1200 and 1203. He sailed with King John when he abandoned the duchy in December 1203. He and the king had a falling out in the aftermath of the loss of the duchy, when he was sent with the earl of Leicester as ambassadors to negotiate a truce with King Philip II of France in 1204. The Marshal took the opportunity to negotiate the continued possession of his Norman lands.

    Before commencing negotiations with King Philip, William had been generously permitted to do homage to the King of France by King John so he might keep his possessions in Normandy; land which must have been of sentimental value due to the time spent there in his youth and adolescence. However, once official negotiations began, Philip demanded that such homage be paid exclusively to him, which King John had not consented to.[12] When William paid homage to King Philip, John took offence and there was a major row at court which led to cool relations between the two men. This became outright hostility in 1207 when John began to move against several major Irish magnates, including William. Though he left for Leinster in 1207 William was recalled and humiliated at court in the autumn of 1208, while John's justiciar in Ireland Meilyr fitz Henry invaded his lands, burning the town of New Ross.

    Meilyr's defeat by Countess Isabel led to her husband's return to Leinster. He was once again in conflict with King John in his war with the Braose and Lacy families in 1210, but managed to survive. He stayed in Ireland until 1213, during which time he had Carlow Castle erected[13] and restructured his honour of Leinster. Taken back into favour in 1212, he was summoned in 1213 to return to the English court. Despite their differences, William remained loyal throughout the hostilities between John and his barons which culminated on 15 June 1215 at Runnymede with the sealing of Magna Carta. William was one of the few English earls to remain loyal to the king through the First Barons' War. It was William whom King John trusted on his deathbed to make sure John's nine-year-old son Henry would get the throne. It was William who took responsibility for the king's funeral and burial at Worcester Cathedral.[1]

    On 11 November 1216 at Gloucester, upon the death of King John, William Marshal was named by the king's council (the chief barons who had remained loyal to King John in the First Barons' War) to serve as protector of the nine-year-old King Henry III, and regent of the kingdom. In spite of his advanced age (around 70) he prosecuted the war against Prince Louis and the rebel barons with remarkable energy. In the battle of Lincoln he charged and fought at the head of the young King's army, leading them to victory. He was preparing to besiege Louis in London when the war was terminated by the naval victory of Hubert de Burgh in the straits of Dover. [1]

    William was criticised for the generosity of the terms he accorded to Louis and the rebels in September 1217; but his desire for an expeditious settlement was dictated by sound statesmanship. Self-restraint and compromise were the keynote of Marshal's policy, hoping to secure peace and stability for his young liege. Both before and after the peace of 1217 he reissued Magna Carta, in which he is a signatory as one of the witnessing barons.

    Death and legacy

    William Marshal was interred in Temple Church, London
    Marshal's health finally failed him early in 1219. In March 1219 he realised that he was dying, so he summoned his eldest son, also William, and his household knights, and left the Tower of London for his estate at Caversham in Berkshire, near Reading, where he called a meeting of the barons, Henry III, the Papal legate Pandulf Verraccio, the royal justiciar (Hubert de Burgh), and Peter des Roches (Bishop of Winchester and the young King's guardian). William rejected the Bishop's claim to the regency and entrusted the regency to the care of the papal legate; he apparently did not trust the Bishop or any of the other magnates that he had gathered to this meeting. Fulfilling the vow he had made while on crusade, he was invested into the order of the Knights Templar on his deathbed. He died on 14 May 1219 at Caversham, and was buried in the Temple Church in London, where his tomb can still be seen.[1]

    Descendants of William Marshal and Isabel de Clare

    William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (1190–6 April 1231), married (1) Alice de Bâethune, daughter of Earl of Albemarle; (2) 23 April 1224 Eleanor Plantagenet, daughter of King John of England. They had no children.
    Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1191–16 April 1234), married Gervase le Dinant. He died in captivity. They had no children.
    Maud Marshal (1194–27 March 1248), married (1) Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk, they had four children; (2) William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey, they had two children; (3) Walter de Dunstanville.
    Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke (1197–27 June 1241), married (1) Marjorie of Scotland, youngest daughter of King William I of Scotland; by an unknown mistress he had one illegitimate daughter:
    Isabel Marshal, married to Rhys ap Maeldon Fychan.
    Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke (c. 1199 – November 1245), married Margaret de Quincy, Countess of Lincoln, granddaughter of Hugh de Kevelioc, 3rd Earl of Chester. No children.
    Isabel Marshal (9 October 1200 – 17 January 1240), married (1) Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford, whose daughter Isabel de Clare married Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, the grandfather of Robert the Bruce; (2) Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall
    Sibyl Marshal (c. 1201–27 April 1245), married William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby–they had seven daughters.
    Agnes Ferrers (died 11 May 1290), married William de Vesci.

    Isabel Ferrers (died before 26 November 1260)
    Maud Ferrers (died 12 March 1298), married (1) Simon de Kyme, and (2) William de Vivonia (de Forz), and (3) Amaury IX of Rochechouart.
    Sibyl Ferrers, married Sir Francis or Franco de Bohun.
    Joan Ferrers (died 1267)
    Agatha Ferrers (died May 1306), married Hugh Mortimer, of Chelmarsh.
    Eleanor Ferrers (died 16 October 1274), married to:

    Eva Marshal (1203–1246), married William de Braose, Lord of Abergavenny

    Isabella de Braose (b.1222), married Prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn. She died childless.
    Maud de Braose (1224–1301), in 1247, she married Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer and they had descendants.
    Eva de Braose (1227 – 28 July 1255), married Sir William de Cantelou and had descendants.
    Eleanor de Braose (c.1228–1251). On an unknown date after August 1241, she married Sir Humphrey de Bohun and had descendants.

    Anselm Marshal, 6th Earl of Pembroke (c. 1208–22 December 1245), married Maud de Bohun, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford. They had no children.
    Joan Marshal (1210–1234), married Warin de Munchensi (d. 1255), Lord of Swanscombe
    Joan de Munchensi (1230–20 September 1307) married William of Valence, the fourth son of King John's widow, Isabella of Angoulăeme, and her second husband, Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche. Valence was half-brother to Henry III and Edward I's uncle.

    The fate of the Marshal family

    During the civil wars in Ireland, William had taken two manors that the Bishop of Ferns claimed but could not get back. Some years after William's death, that bishop is said[14] to have laid a curse on the family that William's sons would have no children, and the great Marshal estates would be scattered. Each of William's sons did become earl of Pembroke and marshal of England, and each died without legitimate issue. William's vast holdings were then divided among the husbands of his five daughters. The title of "Marshal" went to the husband of the oldest daughter, Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk, and later passed to the Mowbray dukes of Norfolk and then to the Howard dukes of Norfolk, becoming "Earl Marshal" along the way. The title of "Earl of Pembroke" passed to William of Valence, the husband of Joan Marshal's daughter, Joan de Munchensi; he became the first of the de Valence line of earls of Pembroke.

    Through his daughter Isabel, William is ancestor to the both the Bruce and Stewart kings of Scots. Through his granddaughter Maud de Braose, William is ancestor to the last Plantagenet kings, Edward IV through Richard III, and all English monarchs from Henry VIII and afterward.

    Buried:
    at Temple Church...

    The Temple Church is a late 12th-century church in the City of London located between Fleet Street and the River Thames, built by the Knights Templar as their English headquarters. During the reign of King John (1199-1216) it served as the royal treasury, supported by the role of the Knights Templars as proto-international bankers. It is jointly owned by the Inner Temple and Middle Temple[1] Inns of Court, bases of the English legal profession. It is famous for being a round church, a common design feature for Knights Templar churches, and for its 13th and 14th century stone effigies. It was heavily damaged by German bombing during World War II and has since been greatly restored and rebuilt. The area around the Temple Church is known as the Temple and nearby formerly in the middle of Fleet Street stood the Temple Bar, an ornamental processional gateway. Nearby is the Temple Underground station.

    Photo, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_Church

    Died:
    Caversham is a suburb in the Borough of Reading...

    Map, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caversham,_Berkshire

    William married Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke 0Aug 1189, London, England. Isabel (daughter of Richard de Clare, Knight, 2nd Earl Pembroke and Eva Aoife Mac Murchada, Countess Pembroke) was born 0___ 1172, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 14 Oct 1217, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; was buried Tintern Abbey, Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales. [Group Sheet]


  6. 95.  Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke was born 0___ 1172, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales (daughter of Richard de Clare, Knight, 2nd Earl Pembroke and Eva Aoife Mac Murchada, Countess Pembroke); died 14 Oct 1217, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; was buried Tintern Abbey, Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales.

    Other Events:

    • Alt Death: 0___ 1220, Pembrokeshire, Wales

    Notes:

    F Isabel De CLAREPrint Family Tree
    Born in 1172 - Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales
    Deceased 14 October 1217 - Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales , age at death: 45 years old
    Buried in 1217 - Monmouth, Monmouthshire, Wales

    Parents
    Richard (Strongbow) De ( 2nd Earl Pembroke, Lord Marshall) CLARE, born in 1125 - Tonbridge, Kent, England, Deceased 20 April 1176 - Dublin, Ireland age at death: 51 years old , buried in 1176 - Dublin, Ireland
    Married 26 August 1171, Waterford, Waterford, Ireland, to
    Eva Aoife Mac (Countess Pembroke) MURCHADA, born 26 April 1141 - Dublin, Ireland, Deceased in 1188 - Waterford, Ireland age at death: 47 years old , buried - Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales

    Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
    Married in August 1189, London, England, to William (SIR - Knight Templar)(Earl Pembroke) MARSHALL, born 12 May 1146 - Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales, Deceased 14 May 1219 - Reading, Berkshire, England age at death: 73 years old , buried in 1219 - London, England (Parents : M John (Fitzgilbert) (Earl of Pembroke, Marshall of England) MARSHALL 1105-1165 & F Sibilla De SALISBURY 1109-1155) with
    F Maud (Countess of Norfolk Countess of Surrey) MARSHALL 1192-1248 married to William (de Warenne) WARREN 1166-1240 with
    M John De (SIR - Earl of Surrey) WARREN 1231-1304 married before 1244, England, to Alice (Le Brun) De (Countess of Surrey) LUSIGNAN 1224-1291 with :
    F Eleanor (Plantagenet) De WARREN 1244-1282
    M William De (SIR) WARREN 1256-1286

    John De (SIR - Earl of Surrey) WARREN 1231-1304 married in 1247, Surrey, England, to Isabel De Surrey 1234-
    Maud (Countess of Norfolk Countess of Surrey) MARSHALL 1192-1248 married to Hugh (Magna Charta Baron - EARL of NORFOLK) BIGOD 1175-1225 with
    F Isabel BIGOD ca 1215-1239 married before 1235, Shere, Surrey, England, to John (Fitzgeoffrey) (SIR - Lord of Shere) (Justiciar of England) FITZPIERS 1215-1258 with :
    F Aveline (Fitzjohn) FITZPIERS ca 1235-1274
    F Maud (Fitzjohn) (Countess of WARWICK) FITZPIERS 1237-1301
    F Eve (Baroness of Abergavenny) MARSHALL 1194-1246 married 2 May 1230, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales, to William "Black William" (de Braose) BRUCE 1204-1230 with
    M William (de Braose) BRUCE 1210-1292 married to Maud De Fay 1180-1249 with :
    F Eleanor (de Braose) BRUCE 1230-
    F Isabella (de Braose) BRUCE 1220/- married to Dafydd (Ap Llywelyn) (Prince of WALES) TUDOR 1208-1246
    F Eva (de Braose) BRUCE 1220-1255 married 25 July 1238, Calne, Wiltshire, England, to William De CANTILUPE 1216-1254 with :
    F Joane CANTILUPE 1240-1271
    F Sybilla De Cantilupe ca 1240-
    F Millicent (Cauntelo) De CANTILUPE ca 1250-/1299
    F Maud (de Braose) (BARONESS WIGMORE) BRUCE 1226-1300 married in 1247, King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, England, to Roger De (SIR) MORTIMER 1231-1282 with :
    F Isabella De MORTIMER 1248-1274
    M Edmund De (Sir - 7th Lord) MORTIMER 1252-1303
    F Isolde De MORTIMER 1267-1338
    Eve (Baroness of Abergavenny) MARSHALL 1194-1246 married in 1230, England, to Milo (de Saint Maur) (SIR) SEYMOUR ca 1200-1245 with
    M Richard SEYMOUR 1230-1271 married in 1250 to Isabel (Lady) MARSHALL 1238-1268 with :
    M Roger (de Saint Maur) SEYMOUR 1258-1300
    F Katherine SEYMOUR ca 1265-ca 1335
    M Gilbert MARSHALL 1196-1241 married to Marjorie Of SCOTLAND 1204-1244 with
    F Isabel (Lady) MARSHALL 1238-1268 married in 1250 to Richard SEYMOUR 1230-1271 with :
    M Roger (de Saint Maur) SEYMOUR 1258-1300
    F Katherine SEYMOUR ca 1265-ca 1335
    M William (4th Earl of Pembroke/ChiefJusticar of Ireland) MARSHALL 1198-1231 married 23 April 1224, Hampshire, England, to Eleanor (Princess of England) PLANTAGENET ca 1205-1275 with
    F Isabel Marshall 1225/-1239
    M X MARSHALL ca 1230- married to ? ? with :
    M X MARSHALL ca 1260-
    F Isabel (Fitzgilbert) (Countess MARSHALL) MARSHALL 1200-1239 married 9 October 1217, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England, to Gilbert III De (Earl of Gloucester - Hertford) CLARE, MAGNA CARTA BARON ca 1180-1230 with
    M Richard De (Earl of Herts - Gloucs) CLARE 1222-1262 married 25 January 1238, Lincolnshire, England, to Maud De (Countess of Gloucester) LACY 1223-1289 with :
    M Gilbert IV De (Earl of Herts - Gloucs) CLARE 1243-1295
    M Thomas De (Lord of Thomand, Connaught, Chancellor of Ireland) CLARE 1245-1287
    F Rohesia De CLARE 1252-1316
    F Isabel De (Lady Annabelle - 3rd Countess of Pembroke) CLARE 1226-1264 married in May 1240, Scotland, to Robert "the Competitor" De (SIR - 5th Lord of Annandale) BRUCE 1210-1295 with :
    M Robert De (Lord Annadale) BRUCE 1243-1304
    F Mary Clarissa De BRUCE 1255-1283
    Isabel (Fitzgilbert) (Countess MARSHALL) MARSHALL 1200-1239 married 30 March 1231, Bucks, Pennsylvania, USA, to Richard (Earl of CORNWALL) CORNWALL 1209-1272 with
    M Richard (SIR) (PLANTAGENET) CORNWALL 1234-1272 married before 1280, Cornwall, England, to Joan SAINT OWEN 1234-1308 with :
    M Edmund De (PLANTAGENET) CORNWALL 1280-1354
    F Sibyl MARSHALL ca 1201-1245 married 14 May 1219, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales, to William De (SIR - 5th Earl of Derby,) (Sheriff of Leicester) FERRERS 1190-1254 with
    F Maud De FERRERS ca 1215-1298 married in 1248 to William (Fortibus) De (SIR) VIVONNE 1215-1259 with :
    F Joan de ** (Countess of Chewton) VIVONNE 1235-1314
    F Margaret (Joan) De (to Wynter) FERRERS ca 1220-1267 married 5 December 1242, England, to Roger De Quincy ca 1215-1242/
    Margaret (Joan) De (to Wynter) FERRERS ca 1220-1267 married before 1245, England, to John De MOHUN ca 1220-1255 with :
    M John De MOHUN ca 1243-1279

    Margaret (Joan) De (to Wynter) FERRERS ca 1220-1267 married about 1256, Derbyshire, England, to Roger (SIR ) (MIDLANDS) WYNTER ca 1220- with :
    M Robert ** (Bedfordshire) WYNTER /1260-
    M Roger de ** (Suffolk - ??) WYNTER /1267-ca 1327
    M ** (Connection speculative) WYNTER /1268-
    F Isabel De FERRERS 1223-1252 married after 1247, England, to Reginald De MOHUN 1202-1256 with :
    F Isabel De MOHUN 1248-1280
    F Agatha De FERRERS ca 1225- married to Hugh De MORTIMER 1219-1274 with :
    M Robert De MORTIMER 1251-1287
    F Mary De MORTIMER 1260-1290
    M William De (SIR) FERRERS 1235-1287 married in 1262, Wootton Bassett, Wiltshire, England, to Anne le De SPENCER 1240/-1280 with :
    M ? ?
    F Anne De (to GREY) FERRERS 1268-1324
    M William De (SIR - to Wynter via VERDON) FERRERS 1272-1325
    M Robert De (6th Earl of Derby) (to NEVILLE) FERRERS ca 1239-1279 married 26 June 1269, Staffordshire, England, to Alianore De BOHUN 1240-1314 with :
    M John De (SIR - Baron of Chartley) FERRERS 1271-1312
    F Joane MARSHALL 1202-1234 married to Warin Munchensy 1192-1255 with
    F Joan MUNCHENSY 1222-1307 married to William (de Lusignan) (Earl of Pembroke) VALENCE 1225-1296 with :
    F Margaret De (Baroness de la ROCHE) VALENCE 1254-1315
    F Isabel De VALENCE ca 1262-1305

    Siblings
    M Richard III De (SIR) CLARE, MAGNA CARTA BARON ca 1153-1217 Married in 1180, England, to Amicie De CAEN 1160-1225
    F Joan De ( Baroness of Gamage) CLARE 1175-1222/ Married in 1196, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales, to Godfrey De (Sir) ( Lord of Gamage) GAMAGE 1176-1253

    Paternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
    M Gilbert De (1st Earl Pembroke) CLARE 1100-1148 married (1130)
    F Isabel De (Countess Pembroke and Buckingham) BEAUMONT 1086-1147
    M Richard (Strongbow) De ( 2nd Earl Pembroke, Lord Marshall) CLARE 1125-1176
    married (1171)
    3 children

    F Isabel De (Countess Pembroke and Buckingham) BEAUMONT 1086-1147
    married (1098)M Henry I (Beauclerc) (KING OF ENGLAND) NORMANDY 1068-1135
    F Constance Maude FITZROY 1098-
    married (1120)
    1 child



    Maternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
    M Dermot Dairmait Mac (King of Leinster) MURCHADA 1110-1171 married (1140)
    F Mor Tauthail Moringen Murchertaig (Queen of Ireland) O'TOOLE 1114-1191
    F Eva Aoife Mac (Countess Pembroke) MURCHADA 1141-1188
    married (1171)
    3 children
    F Urlachen Mac MURCHADA 1154-1200
    married (1171)
    2 children



    Notes
    Individual Note
    Source: Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=10154284&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt Birth date: 1172 Birth place: Pembroke, Wales Death date: 1220 Death place: Pembroke, Wales 1,7249::10154284
    Source: Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - Web: International, Find A Grave Index - Ancestry.com - Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. - 1,70699::0 1,70699::438790
    Source: Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - UK and Ireland, Find A Grave Index, 1300s-Current - Ancestry.com - Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. - 1,60526::0 1,60526::219175

    Death
    Age: 48


    Sources
    Individual:
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=8010
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=8010
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=8010
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Ancestry Family Trees - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com. Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. - This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created. - Ancestry Family Trees - http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/AMTCitationRedir.aspx?tid=18829447&pid=8010
    Birth, death:
    - Ancestry.com.au - http://www.Ancestry.com.au - Millennium File - Heritage Consulting - Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.Original data - Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Heritage Consulting.Original data: Heritage Consulting. The Millennium File. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: - 1,7249::0
    Note http://search.Ancestry.com.au/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=millind&h=10154284&ti=5544&indiv=try&gss=pt - Birth date: 1172 Birth place: Pembroke, Wales Death date: 1220 Death place: Pembroke, Wales - 1,7249::10154284
    - Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - Web: International, Find A Grave Index - Ancestry.com - Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. - 1,70699::0 - 1,70699::438790
    - Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - UK and Ireland, Find A Grave Index, 1300s-Current - Ancestry.com - Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. - 1,60526::0 - 1,60526::219175
    Burial:
    - Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - Web: International, Find A Grave Index - Ancestry.com - Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. - 1,70699::0 - 1,70699::438790
    - Ancestry.com - http://www.Ancestry.com - UK and Ireland, Find A Grave Index, 1300s-Current - Ancestry.com - Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. - 1,60526::0 - 1,60526::219175

    Family Tree Preview
    Ancestry Chart Descendancy Chart
    _____| 16_ Richard (Fitzgilbert) De CLARE 1030-1089
    _____| 8_ Gilbert (Fitzrichard) De (Some say - Lord of Chepstow) CLARE 1065-1114
    _____| 4_ Gilbert De (1st Earl Pembroke) CLARE 1100-1148
    / \ _____| 18_ Hugh De CLERMONT 1030-1101
    |2_ Richard (Strongbow) De ( 2nd Earl Pembroke, Lord Marshall) CLARE 1125-1176
    | \ _____| 20_ Roger De (SIR - Barbatus le Barber) BEAUMONT 1022-1094
    | \ _____| 10_ Robert De (SIR - 1st Earl Leics - Count Melun) BEAUMONT 1046-1118
    | \ _____| 22_ Hugh (The Great) (Count of Vermandois) CAPET 1053-1102
    |--1_ Isabel De CLARE 1172-1217
    | _____| 24_ Murchad Macdairmata MURCHADA 1032-1070
    | _____| 12_ Donnchad Enna Mac MURCHADA 1085-1115
    | _____| 6_ Dermot Dairmait Mac (King of Leinster) MURCHADA 1110-1171
    | / \ _____| 26_ Gilla Michil O'BRIEN 1055-1068
    |3_ Eva Aoife Mac (Countess Pembroke) MURCHADA 1141-1188
    \ _____| 28_ Gilla-Comgaill II (King of Ui Muriedaig) O'TOOLE 1055-1127
    \ _____| 14_ Mouirchertach (King of Ui Muiredaig) O'TOOLE 1089-1164
    \ _____| 30_ Loigsech (King of Loigsi) O'MORDA

    end of biography

    Isabel de Clare, suo jure Countess of Pembroke and Striguil (1172-1220) was a Cambro-Norman-Irish noblewoman, go to this link for further clarification ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambro-Norman, and one of the wealthiest heiresses in Wales and Ireland. She was the wife of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, who served four successive kings as Lord Marshal of England. Her marriage had been arranged by King Richard I.

    Daniel Maclise's painting of the marriage of Isabel's parents, Strongbow and Aoife of Leinster in August 1170, the day after the capture of Waterford.
    Isabel was born in 1172 in Pembrokeshire, Wales, the eldest child of Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (1130 – 20 April 1176), known to history as "Strongbow", and Aoife of Leinster, who was the daughter of Dermot MacMurrough, the deposed King of Leinster and Mor Ui Thuathail. The latter was a daughter of Muirchertach Ua Tuathail and Cacht Nâi Morda. The marriage of Strongbow and Aoife took place in August 1170, the day after the capture of Waterford by the Cambro-Norman forces led by Strongbow.

    Isabel's paternal grandparents were Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Beaumont. She had a younger brother Gilbert de Striguil who, being a minor, was not formally invested with either the earldom of Pembroke or of Striguil. It is unlikely that his father could have passed on the title to Pembroke as he himself did not possess it. When Gilbert died in 1185, Isabel became Countess of Pembroke in her own right (suo jure) until her death in 1220. In this way, she could be said to be the first successor to the earldom of Pembroke since her grandfather Gilbert, the first earl. By this reckoning, Isabel ought to be called the second countess, not the fourth countess of Pembroke. In any event, the title Earl was re-created for her husband. She also had an illegitimate half-sister Basile de Clare, who married three times. Basile's husbands were: Robert de Quincy; Raymond Fitzgerald, Constable of Leinster: Geoffrey FitzRobert, Baron of Kells.

    Isabel was described as having been "the good, the fair, the wise, the courteous lady of high degree".[2] She allegedly spoke French, Irish and Latin.[3] After her brother Gilbert's death, Isabel became one of the wealthiest heiresses in the kingdom, owning besides the titles of Pembroke and Striguil, much land in Wales and Ireland.[4] She inherited the numerous castles on the inlet of Milford Haven, guarding the South Channel, including Pembroke Castle.[5] She was a legal ward of King Henry II, who carefully watched over her inheritance.[6]

    Marriage

    The new King Richard I arranged her marriage in August 1189 to William Marshal, regarded by many as the greatest knight and soldier in the realm. Henry II had promised Marshal he would be given Isabel as his bride, and his son and successor Richard upheld the promise one month after his accession to the throne. At the time of her marriage, Isabel was residing in the Tower of London in the protective custody of the Justiciar of England, Ranulf de Glanville.[7] Following the wedding, which was celebrated in London "with due pomp and ceremony",[8] they spent their honeymoon at Stoke d'Abernon in Surrey which belonged to Enguerrand d'Abernon.[9]

    Marriage to Isabel elevated William Marshal from the status as a landless knight into one of the richest men in the kingdom. He would serve as Lord Marshal of England, four kings in all: Henry II, Richard I, John, and Henry III. Although Marshal did not become the jure uxoris 1st Earl of Pembroke, Earl of Striguil until 1199, he nevertheless assumed overlordship of Leinster in Ireland, Pembroke Castle, Chepstow Castle, as well as Isabel's other castles in Wales such as the keep of Haverford, Tenby, Lewhaden, Narberth, Stackpole.[10]

    Shortly after their marriage, Marshal and Isabel arrived in Ireland, at Old Ros, a settlement located in the territory which belonged to her grandfather, Dermot MacMurrough. A motte was hastily constructed, a medieval borough quickly grew around it, and afterwards the Marshals founded the port town by the river which subsequently became known as New Ross. The Chronicles of Ros, which are housed in the British Museum, described Isabel and Marshal's arrival in Ireland and records that Isabella set about building a lovely city on the banks of the Barrow.

    In 1192, Isabel and her husband assumed the task of managing their vast lands; starting with the rebuilding of Kilkenny Castle and the town, both of which had been damaged by the O'Brien clan in 1173. Later they commissioned the construction of several abbeys in the vicinity.[11]

    The marriage was happy, despite the vast difference in age between them. William Marshal and Isabel produced a total of five sons and five daughters.[12]

    end of biography

    Buried:
    Tintern Abbey (Welsh: Abaty Tyndyrn, About this sound pronunciation in Welsh (help·info)) was founded by Walter de Clare, Lord of Chepstow, on 9 May 1131. It is situated adjacent to the village of Tintern in Monmouthshire, on the Welsh bank of the River Wye, which forms the border between Monmouthshire in Wales and Gloucestershire in England. It was only the second Cistercian foundation in Britain, and the first in Wales. Falling into ruin after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century, the remains were celebrated in poetry and often painted by visitors from the 18th century onwards. In 1984 Cadw took over responsibility for the site.

    Photos, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tintern_Abbey

    Children:
    1. William Marshal, Knight, 2nd Earl of Pembroke was born 1190-1198, (Berkshire, England); died 6 Apr 1231, London, Middlesex, England.
    2. Maud Marshal, Countess of Norfolk was born ~ 1193, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 27 Mar 1248, Tintern Abbey, Chapel Hill, Monmouthshire, Wales.
    3. Isabel Marshal, Countess Marshall was born 9 Oct 1200, Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 17 Jan 1240, Berkhamsted Castle, Berkhamsted, Hertforshire, England.
    4. Sybil Marshal was born ~ 1201, (Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales); died 0Apr 1245.
    5. Eva Marshal, Countess of Abergavenny was born 0___ 1203, Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 0___ 1246.
    6. 47. Joan Marshal was born 0___ 1210, (England); died 0___ 1234, (England).

  7. 100.  Robert the Bruce, Knight, VII, Earl of Carrick was born 0Jul 1243, (Writtle, Essex, England) (son of Robert de Brus, V, Knight, 5th Lord of Annandale and Isabel de Clare); died Bef 4 March 1304; was buried Holm Cultram Abbey, Abbeytown, Cumbria, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale

    Notes:

    Sir Robert VI de Brus (July 1243 - soon bef. 4 March 1304[1]), 6th Lord of Annandale (dominus vallis Anandie), jure uxoris Earl of Carrick[2] (1271–1292), Lord of Hartness,[3] Writtle and Hatfield Broad Oak (Wretele et Hatfeud Regis), was a cross-border lord,[4] and participant of the Second Barons' War, Ninth Crusade, Welsh Wars, and First War of Scottish Independence.

    Of Scoto-Norman heritage, through his father he was a third-great grandson of David I. His ancestors included Richard (Strongbow) de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, King of Leinster and Governor of Ireland, and William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, regent of England, and Henry I of England.

    Life

    The son and heir of Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale and Lady Isabella de Clare, daughter of the Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, his birth date is generally accepted, but his place of birth is less certain. It has been speculated that he, rather than his first son, was born on the family estate at Writtle, Essex.[5][6][7]

    Legend tells that the 27-year-old Robert de Brus was a handsome young man participating in the Ninth Crusade. When Adam de Kilconquhar, one of his companions-in-arms, fell in 1270, at Acre, Robert was obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick. The story continues that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive until he agreed to marry her, which he did in 1271.[1][8] However, since the crusade landed in Acre on 9 May 1271, and only started to engage the Muslims in late June, the story and / or his participation in the Ninth Crusade are generally discounted.[5][9]

    What is recorded, is that:

    In 1264 his father, the 5th Lord of Annandale, was captured, along with Henry III, Richard of Cornwall, and Edward I at the Battle of Lewes, Sussex. Bruce negotiated with his uncle Bernard Brus, and cousin Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, both supporters of Simon de Montfort, over the terms of the ransom. Following the Battle of Evesham, in August 1265, both Bruce and his father profited from the seizure of the rebellious Barons' possessions, including those of Bernard. The younger Robert acquired lands in Yorkshire, Northumberland, and Bedfordshire.[10]

    Robert and his younger brother Richard are known to have received letters of protection, in July 1270, to sail with Edward for crusade that August, and are presumed to have taken the cross, with Edward, at Northampton in 1268. They were joined by their Father, who'd sought pardon from Alexander III, but their date of return from Acre is less certain, it may have been as early as October 1271, when the younger Robert is recorded as receiving a quitclaim in Writtle, Essex, and his mother a gift of deer, from the King, also in Essex.[10]

    In 1272 he married, without Scottish Royal consent, Marjory, countess of Carrick. As a result, she temporarily lost her castle and estates, that Oram described as poor, but regained them on payment of a fine.[11]

    Around this time his mother died, the date is unknown but on the 3 May 1273 his father married Christina de Ireby, the Widow of Adam Jesmond, the Sheriff of Northumberland, at Hoddam. The marriage added estates in Cumberland and dower land from her previous husband, to the Brus holdings. The younger Robert and his step-mother do not appear to have got on, with Robert recorded as trying to withhold dower lands, after his father's death in 1295.[10][12][13] This may be one of the reasons why the Father appears to have independently managed the possessions in the North, as well as intermittently holding the position of Constable of Carlisle, while Robert appears to have confined himself largely to the management of the southern and midland possessions, with his brother Richard who independently held Tottenham and Kempston, as well as commanding a Knight banneret for Edward. Richard is recorded as receiving a number of wards and gifts of deer and to have sought permission to empark the forest at Writtle at this time. Robert, while not part of Edward's household, became an envoy and mouthpiece for Alexander III at court, swearing fealty on Alexander's behalf, to Edward at Westminster, in 1277, as well as following Edward to Gascony[10] Robert is also recorded as following Alexander to Tewkesbury, in the autumn of 1278.[10]

    1281 He is part of the delegation to Guy of Dampierre, Count of Flanders, to arrange the marriage of Alexander, Prince of Scotland, to Guy's daughter Margaret (d. 1331). The couple married on 14 November 1282 at Roxburgh
    1282 He participates with his younger brother Richard, who commands at Denbigh, and is paid for his services in Edward's Conquest of Wales.[10][14]
    1283 June, he is summoned by writ to Shrewsbury, for the trial of Dafydd ap Gruffydd.
    In February 1284, Bruce attended to convention at Scone, where the right of succession of Alexander III's granddaughter, Margaret, Maid of Norway was recognized.[15] On 1 June 1285 the Earl & Countess, at Turnberry, grant the men of Melrose abbey certain freedoms, according to English law.[10]

    1286 He is witness, along with his son Robert, to the grant of the church of Campbeltown to Paisley Abbey.
    1290 He is party to the Treaty of Birgham.
    He supports his father's claim to the vacant throne of Scotland, left so on the death of Margaret I of Scotland in 1290. The initial civil proceedings, known as The Great Cause, awarded the Crown to his fathers 1st cousin once removed, and rival, John Balliol.
    1291 He swears fealty to Edward I as overlord of Scotland.
    1292 His wife Marjorie dies.
    November, his father, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale – the unsuccessful claimant – resigns his Lordship of Annandale, and claim to the throne to him, allegedly to avoid having to swear fealty to John.[5] In turn he passes his late wife's Earldom of Carrick, in fee, on to his son Robert.
    1293 January 1 – His warrener at Gt. Baddow, a Richard, is caught poaching venison at Northle.[10]
    1293 He sets sail for Bergen, Norway, for the marriage of his daughter Isabel to King Eric II of Norway, the father of the late Queen Margaret I of Scotland, son-in-law of King Alexander III, and a candidate of the Great Cause. Her dowry for the marriage was recorded by Audun Hugleiksson who noted she brought: precious clothes, 2 golden boiler, 24 silver plate, 4 silver salt cellars, 12 two-handled soup bowls (scyphus) to the Eric's second marriage.
    1294/5 He returns to England.
    In May 1295 his father, the 5th Lord of Annandale, died,[15] and on 6 October, Bruce swore fealty to Edward and was made Constable and Keeper of Carlisle Castle, a position his father previously held.[1]

    Refuses a summons to the Scottish host.
    Annandale is seized, by King John Balliol, and given to John "The Red" Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.
    Confirms, to Gisborough Priory, the churches of Annandale and Hart. Witnessed by Walter de Fauconberg and Marmaduke de Thweng.[10]
    Exchanges common pasture, for land held by William of Carlisle at Kinmount.[10]
    Exchanges land in Estfield, for a field adjacent to the prior of Hatfield Regis's manor at Brunesho End Broomshawbury.[10]
    Grants Robert Taper, and his wife Millicent, a messuage in Hatfield Regis, and via a separate grant 5.5 acres (22,000 m2) of arable land 1-acre (4,000 m2) of meadow, in Hatfield Regis, for 16s annual rent.[10]
    Grants John de Bledelowe, the former lands / tenement of Richard de Cumbes, in Hatfield Regis, for 1d annual rent.[10]
    Alters the terms of a grant to Richard de Fanwreyte, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle.[10]
    Alters the terms of a grant to Stephen the Tanner, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle.[10]
    Alters the terms of a grant to Willam Mayhew, of the tenement Barrieland, Hatfield Regis, to an annual rent of 5s and some services.[10]
    1296 Jan, He is summoned to attend to the King Edward at Salisbury
    26 March, his garrison repels an attack, led by John Comyn, the new Lord of Annandale, across the Solway on Carlisle Castle. Robert forces the raiders to retreat back through Annandale to Sweetheart Abbey.
    28 April, he again swears fealty to Edward I and fights for Edward, at the Battle of Dunbar Castle.
    August, with his son Robert he renews the pledge of homage and fealty to Edward, at the "victory parliament" in Berwick.
    Edward I denies his claim to the throne and he retires to his estates in Essex.[5]
    29 August – At Berwick, agrees the dower lands of his widowed step mother, Christina.[10]
    Annandale is re-gained.
    Marries an Eleanor.
    1298
    7 Jan – Transfers a grant of land at Hatfield Regis, from Walter Arnby to his son William.[10][16]
    29 May – Grants a John Herolff a half virgate of land in Writtle.[10][17]
    1299
    1 February – Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a John de Bledelowe, for 4s annual rent.[10][18]
    4 August – While resident at Writtle, he Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a Nicholas de Barenton, for 21s annual rent.[10][19]
    1301 November 26 – Grants, Bunnys in Hatfield Broad Oak and Takeley, to an Edward Thurkyld.[10][20]
    After 1301, Enfeoffments Writtle, in part, to a John de Lovetot and his wife Joan.[21][22]
    1304 Easter, dies en route to Annandale and is buried at Holm Cultram Abbey, Cumberland.[1]
    Following his death his Eleanor remarries, before 8 February 1306 (as his 1st wife) Richard Waleys, Lord Waleys, and they had issue. She died shortly before 8 September 1331.[1]
    Shortly after the Battle of Stirling Bridge (1297), Annandale was laid waste as retaliation to younger Bruce's actions.

    Yet, when Edward returned to England after his victory at the Battle of Falkirk, which one source accords to Robert turning the Scottish flank:[23]

    Fordun, John "Chronica Gentis Scotorum (Chronicle of the Scottish nation)", 1363, Translated from the Latin text by Felix J. H. Skene. Ed. by William F. Skene. 1872:

    CI - Battle of Falkirk. :— In the year 1298, the aforesaid king of England, taking it ill that he and his should be put to so much loss and driven to such straits by William Wallace, gathered together a large army, and, having with him, in his company, some of the nobles of Scotland to help him, invaded Scotland. He was met by the aforesaid William, with the rest of the magnates of that kingdom; and a desperate battle was fought near Falkirk, on the 22d of July. William was put to flight, not without serious loss both to the lords and to the common people of the Scottish nation. For, on account of the ill-will, begotten of the spring of envy, which the Comyns had conceived towards the said William, they, with their accomplices, forsook the field, and escaped unhurt. On learning their spiteful deed, the aforesaid William, wishing to save himself and his, hastened to flee by another road. But alas! through the pride and burning envy of both, the noble Estates (communitas) of Scotland lay wretchedly overthrown throughout hill and dale, mountain and plain. Among these, of the nobles, John Stewart, with his Brendans; Macduff, of Fife; and the inhabitants thereof, were utterly cut off. But it is commonly said that Robert of Bruce — who was afterwards king of Scotland, but then fought on the side of the king of England — was the means of bringing about this victory. For, while the Scots stood invincible in their ranks, and could not be broken by either force or stratagem, this Robert of Bruce went with one line, under Anthony of Bek, by a long road round a hill, and attacked the Scots in the rear; and thus these, who had stood invincible and impenetrable in front, were craftily overcome in the rear. And it is remarkable that we seldom, if ever, read of the Scots being overcome by the English, unless through the envy of lords, or the treachery and deceit of the natives, taking them over to the other side.

    This is contested as no Bruce appears on the Falkirk roll, of nobles present in the English army, and ignoring Blind Harry's 15th claim that Wallace burned Ayre Castle in 1297, two 19th Century antiquarians: Alexander Murison and George Chalmers have stated Bruce did not participate in the battle and in the following month decided to burn Ayr Castle, to prevent it being garrisoned by the English. Annandale and Carrick were excepted from the lordships and lands which Edward assigned to his followers, the father having not opposed Edward and the son being treated as a waverer whose allegiance might still be retained.

    Robert at that time was old and ill, and there are reports that he wished his son to seek peace with Edward. If not his son's actions could jeopardise his own income, which was primarily derived from his holdings south of the border (est. ą340 vs ą150[10]). The elder Bruce would have seen that, if the rebellion failed and his son was against Edward, the son would lose everything, titles, lands, and probably his life.

    It was not until 1302 that Robert's son submitted to Edward I. The younger Robert had sided with the Scots since the capture and exile of Balliol. There are many reasons which may have prompted his return to Edward, not the least of which was that the Bruce family may have found it loathsome to continue sacrificing his followers, family and inheritance for King John. There were rumours that John would return with a French army and regain the Scottish throne. Soulis supported his return as did many other nobles, but this would lead to the Bruces losing any chance of gaining the throne themselves. He died in Palestine and was buried at Holm Cultram Abbey.[15]

    Family

    His first wife was Margery of Carrick, 3rd Countess of Carrick (11 Apr 1254 – November 1292), the daughter and heiress of Niall, 2nd Earl of Carrick.[8] Carrick was a Gaelic Earldom in Southern Scotland. Its territories contained much of today's Ayrshire and Dumfriesshire. The couple married at Turnberry Castle in 1271 and held the principal seats of Turnberry Castle and Lochmaben.

    Their children were:

    Isabel Bruce (born c. 1272); married King Eric II of Norway in 1293; d. 1358 in Bergen, Norway.
    Christina Bruce (born c. 1273, Seton, East Lothian); married, firstly, Sir Christopher Seton. Married, secondly, Gartnait, Earl of Mar, in 1292 in Kildrummy, Aberdeenshire. Married, thirdly, Sir Andrew Murray, 20 September 1305, d. 1356/7, in Scotland. By her second marriage, she was the mother of Domhnall II, Earl of Mar.
    Robert I of Scotland (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329); married, firstly, Isabella of Mar; married, secondly, Elizabeth de Burgh.
    Neil de Brus (Niall or Nigel; born c. 1276); taken prisoner at Kildrummie, hanged, drawn and quartered at Berwick-upon-Tweed in September 1306.[8]
    Edward Bruce (born c. 1279); crowned 2 May 1316, "King of Ireland". Killed in battle, 5 October 1318.[8] Possible marriage to Isabel, daughter of John de Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl – parents of Alexander Bruce, Earl of Carrick; Edward obtained a dispensation for a marriage to Isabella of Ross, daughter of Uilleam II, Earl of Ross, on 1 June 1317.
    Mary Bruce (born c. 1282); married, firstly, Sir Neil Campbell; married, secondly, Sir Alexander Fraser of Touchfraser and Cowie.
    Margaret Bruce (born c. 1283); married Sir William Carlyle.
    Sir Thomas de Brus (born c. 1284); taken prisoner in Galloway, hanged, drawn and quartered 9 February 1307, Carlisle, Cumberland.[8]
    Alexander de Brus (born c. 1285); hanged, drawn and quartered 9 February 1307, Carlisle, Cumberland.
    Elizabeth Bruce (born c. 1286); married Sir William Dishington of Ardross, Fife.
    Matilda/Margery Bruce (born c. 1287); married Hugh / Aodh, Earl of Ross, in 1308 Orkney Isles, died after September 1323.
    He had no children from his second wife, Eleanor N (died between 13 April and 8 September 1331).

    Buried:
    Holmcultram Abbey (alternatively Holm Cultram Abbey or Holme Cultram Abbey) was a Cistercian monastery in what is now the village of Abbeytown in Cumbria, United Kingdom. It was founded in 1150 and dissolved in 1538. After the dissolution the church continued to be used as the parish church.

    History & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holmcultram_Abbey

    Robert married Margery of Carrick 0___ 1271, Turnberry Castle, Kirkoswald, Ayrshire, Scotland. Margery was born 11 Apr 1254, (Ayrshire) Scotland; died 0Nov 1292. [Group Sheet]


  8. 101.  Margery of Carrick was born 11 Apr 1254, (Ayrshire) Scotland; died 0Nov 1292.

    Notes:

    Married:
    Turnberry Castle is a fragmentary ruin on the coast of Kirkoswald parish, near Maybole in Ayrshire, Scotland.[1] Situated at the extremity of the lower peninsula within the parish, it was the seat of the Earls of Carick.

    Photo, history & source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turnberry_Castle

    Children:
    1. 50. Robert the Bruce, I, King of Scotland was born 11 Jul 1274, Turnberry Castle, Kirkoswald, Ayrshire, Scotland; died 7 Jun 1329, Manor of Cardross, Scotland; was buried Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.
    2. Isabel de Brus, Queen of Norway
    3. Christina Bruce
    4. Neil de Brus
    5. Edward Bruce, King of Ireland
    6. Mary de Brus
    7. Fraser de Brus

  9. 102.  Domhnall, I, Earl of Mar was born (Aberdeenshire, Scotland) (son of William, Earl of Mar and Elizabeth Comyn, of Buchan); died 1297-1302, (Aberdeenshire, Scotland).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Domhnall mac Uilleim (Anglicized: Donald, William's son)
    • Also Known As: Mormaer of Mar

    Notes:

    Domhnall I Earl of Mar - Domhnall mac Uilleim (Anglicized: Donald, William's son) - was the seventh known Mormaer of Mar, or Earl of Mar ruling from the death of his father, Uilleam of Mar, in 1276 until his own death somewhere between 1297 and 1302. Excluding Gille Christ he is counted as sixth Mormaer or Earl of Mar.

    In 1284 he joined with other Scottish noblemen who acknowledged Margaret of Norway as the heir to King Alexander.[1] Domhnall was later a strong supporter of the Bruce cause during the crisis of the late 13th century. He was at Norham in 1292, probably in the camp of Robert de Brus, then Earl of Carrick.

    He married to Helen (sometimes called Ellen), possibly the natural daughter of Llywelyn the Great of Wales, who herself had previously been married to Mormaer Maol Choluim II, Earl of Fife. By Helen, he had three sons, including his successor Gartnait, and two daughters. His daughter Isabella of Mar was the first wife of Robert I of Scotland and mother of Marjorie Bruce who married Walter, 6th High Steward, the parents of Robert II and the Royal Stewart Kings of Scotland.

    The last record of a living Domhnall comes from 1297, and the earliest record of his son Gartnait as Mormaer is from 1305, creating the range of Domhnall's possible year of death to somewhere in between these two points. However, a document dating to 1302,[2] containing terms of reconciliation between Edward I and Robert, stipulates that Robert should act as warden of Gartnait, implying that Domhnall had just died.

    end of biography

    Domhnall married Helen of Wales Aft 1266. Helen (daughter of Llywelyn The Great and unnamed partner) was born 0___ 1246, (Wales); died 0___ 1295. [Group Sheet]


  10. 103.  Helen of Wales was born 0___ 1246, (Wales) (daughter of Llywelyn The Great and unnamed partner); died 0___ 1295.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Elen ferch Llywelyn
    • Also Known As: Elen the Younger ferch Llywelyn
    • Also Known As: Ellen
    • Alt Birth: Bef 1230

    Children:
    1. 51. Isabella of Mar was born ~ 1277, Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland; died 12 Dec 1296, Manor of Cardross, Dunbartonshire, Scotland; was buried Paisley Abbey, Scotland.
    2. Gartnait, Earl of Mar was born (Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland).


Generation: 8

  1. 160.  William Comyn, Lord of Badenoch was born 0___ 1163, Altyre, Moray, Scotland (son of Richard Comyn, Lord of Tynedale and Hextilda of Tynedale); died Buchan, Scotland.

    Other Events:

    • Occupation: Sheriff of Forfar
    • Also Known As: Earl of Buchan
    • Also Known As: Lord of Kilbride

    Notes:

    William Comyn was Lord of Badenoch and Earl of Buchan. He was one of the seven children of Richard Comyn, Justiciar of Lothian, and Hextilda of Tynedale. He was born in Scotland, in Altyre, Moray in 1163 and died in Buchan in 1233 where he is buried in Deer Abbey.

    William made his fortune in the service of king William I of Scotland fighting the Meic Uilleim in the north. William witnesses no less than 88 charters of the king. William was sheriff of Forfar (1195-1211), Justiciar of Scotia (1205-33) and warden of Moray (1211-2). Between 1199 and 1200, William was sent to England to discuss important matters on King William's behalf with the new king, John.

    William was appointed to the prestigious office of Justiciar of Scotia, the most senior royal office in the kingdom, in 1205. Between 1211 and 1212, William, as Warden of Moray (or Guardian of Moray) fought against the insurgency of Gofraid mac Domnaill (of the Meic Uilleim family), who William beheaded in Kincardine in 1213.[1] Upon finally destroying the Meic Uilleim's in 1229, he was given the Lordship of Badenoch and the lands it controlled.

    From an unknown date, William held the title Lord of Kilbride.

    He helped oversee the construction of St Mungo's Cathedral in Glasgow and after his death, Marjory continued his work there.

    Earl of Buchan

    During his period as Warden of Moray, Comyn was so successful, it may have been the reason he received the hand of Marjory (aka. Margaret), Countess of Buchan, sometime between 1209-1212. Her father Fergus, Earl of Buchan, had no male heirs and so in marrying his daughter to William he ensured a suitable line for his titles before his death. Dying sometime around 1214 (perhaps earlier) William took over the management of the mormaerdom (earldom) of Bucham, by right of his wife.

    Family tree

    William (is believed to have) had six children through his first wife Sarah Fitzhugh and eight through Marjory, Countess of Buchan. The two branches would be associated with the Lordship of Badenoch through his first wife and the Earldom of Buchan through the second. For the historian Alan Young, William's life, and particularly his marriage to the Countess of Buchan, marks the beginning of the "Comyn century".

    NB. Children are ranked according to either accounts showing a specific rank in the order of Williams children's birth or according to the earliest available date the child was thought to have been born.

    father Richard Comyn (b.c.1115-1123 d.c.1179); mother Hextilda of Tynedale (aka. Hextilda FitzUchtred or Hextilda FitzWaldeve) (b.1112-1122 d.c. 1149-1189). Hextilda's first husband was Malcolm, 2nd Earl of Atholl, making their son Henry, 3rd Earl of Atholl, William Comyn's half-brother.

    first wife married 1193: Sarah Fitzhugh (aka. Sarah filia Roberti) (b.1155-1160 d.c.1204)

    Richard (b.c.1190-1194 d.c.1244-1249); married to unknown wife; father of John I Comyn, Lord of Badenoch (b.c.1220 d.c.1277)
    Jardine Comyn, Lord of Inverallochy (b. during or before 1190)
    Walter, Lord of Badenoch (b.1190 d.c.1258) married Isabella, Countess of Menteith
    Johanna (aka. Jean) (b.c.1198 d.c.1274); married c.1220: Uilleam I, Earl of Ross (aka. William de Ross) (b.c.1194-1214 d.1274)
    John Comyn, jure uxoris Earl of Angus (died 1242); married (c.1242); Matilda, Countess of Angus (aka. Maud) (b.c.1222, d.1261)
    David Comyn, Lord of Kilbride (died 1247); married Isabel de Valoigne (d.1253)
    second wife married c.1209-1212: Marjory (aka. Margaret), Countess of Buchan (aka. Margaret Colhan of Buchan) (b.c.1184 d.c.1243-1244)
    Idonea (aka. Idoine) (b.c.1215-1221); married 1237: Gilbert de Haya of Erroll (aka. Gilbert de la Hay) (d.1262)
    Alexander, Earl of Buchan (b.c.1217 d.c.1289-1290); married: Elizabetha de Quincy (aka. Isabel) (b.1220 d.1282)
    William (b.c.1217)
    Margaret (b.c. 1218-1230); married Sir John de Keith, Marischal of Scotland (b.1212 d.1270)
    Fergus (b.c.1219-1228 d.); married 1249: unknown wife; father of Margaret Comyn (b.c.1270)
    Elizabeth (b.c. 1223 d.1267); married: Uilleam, Earl of Mar (d.1281)
    Agnes (b.c.1225); married 1262: Sir Philip de Meldrum, Justiciar of Scotia (aka. Philip de Fedarg or Philip de Melgarum)

    William married Sarah FitzHugh 0___ 1193. Sarah was born 1155-1160; died ~ 1204, (Buchan, Aberdeenshire, Scotland). [Group Sheet]


  2. 161.  Sarah FitzHugh was born 1155-1160; died ~ 1204, (Buchan, Aberdeenshire, Scotland).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Sarah filla Roberti

    Children:
    1. 80. Richard Comyn was born 1190-1194, (Buchan, Aberdeenshire, Scotland); died 1244-1249.

  3. 172.  Roland of Galloway, Lord of Galloway was born (Galloway, Scotland) (son of Uhtred of Galloway, Lord of Galloway and Gunhilda of Dunbar); died 12 Dec 1200, Northampton, Northamptonshire, England; was buried Northampton, Northamptonshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Constable of the King of Scots
    • Also Known As: Lochlann Galloway
    • Also Known As: Roland fitz Uhtred

    Notes:

    Lochlann (or Lachlan) (died December 12, 1200), also known by his French name Roland, was the son and successor of Uchtred, Lord of Galloway as the "Lord" or "sub-king" of eastern Galloway.

    After the death of his uncle Gille Brigte in 1185, Lochlann went about to seize the land of Gille Brigte's heirs. In this aim he had to defeat the men who would defy his authority in the name of Gille Brigte's heir. He seems to have done so, defeating the resistors, who were led by men called Gille Pâatraic and Henric Cennâedig. Yet resistance continued under a warrior called Gille Coluim of Galloway.

    Lochlann's aims moreover encouraged the wrath of a more important political figure that any of the above. King Henry II of England was outraged. A few years before Gille Brigte's death, Henry had taken his son and successor Donnchad as a hostage. Hence Henry was the patron and protector of the man Lochlann was trying to disinherit. When King William of Scotland was ordered to visit Henry in southern England, William was told that Lochlann must be stopped. However, William and Lochlann were friends, and so in the end Henry himself brought an army to Carlisle, and threatened to invade unless Lochlann would submit to his judgment. Lochlann did so. As it transpired, Lochlann kept most of Galloway, and Donnchad was given the new "Mormaerdom" of Carrick in compensation.

    More than any previous Lord of Galloway, he was the loyal man and vassal of the King of Scotland. After all, he owed his lands to the positive influence of King William. Whereas Lochlann's grandfather, Fergus had called himself King of Galloway, Lochlann's favorite title was "Constable of the King of Scots".

    Lochlann had led William's armies north into Moireabh against the pretender Domnall mac Uilleim, who claimed the Scottish throne as a grandson of King Donnchad II of Scotland. Lochlann defeated him in 1187 at the Battle of Mam Garvia, a mysterious location probably near Dingwall.

    Lochlann, unlike his uncle Gille Brigte, welcomed French and English colonization into his eastern lands. In this, he was following his overlord, King William I of Scotland. Of all the Lords of Galloway, Lochlann is the least mentioned in the Gaelic annals, suggesting that he had lost touch somewhat with his background in the world of greater Irish Sea Gaeldom.

    In 1200, he was in the company of King William in England, who was giving homage to the new king, John. Lochlann used the opportunity to make legal proceeding in Northampton regarding the property claims of his wife, Helena, daughter and heiress of Richard de Morville. It was here that he met his death and was buried. Lochlann and Helena had a son Alan, who succeeded to Galloway.

    married Helen de Morville Bef 1185, (Galloway, Scotland). Helen was born (Scotland); died 0___ 1217, (Scotland). [Group Sheet]


  4. 173.  Helen de Morville was born (Scotland); died 0___ 1217, (Scotland).
    Children:
    1. 86. Alan of Galloway was born Bef 1199, (Scotland); died 0___ 1234, (Scotland); was buried Dundrennan Abbey, Dundrennan, Scotland.

  5. 174.  David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon was born 0___ 1152, (Scotland) (son of Henry of Scotland and Ada de Warenne); died 17 Jun 1219.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Dabid - Medieval Gaelic
    • Also Known As: Earl David
    • Also Known As: Prince David of Scotland

    Notes:

    David of Scotland (Medieval Gaelic: Dabâid) (1152 – 17 June 1219) was a Scottish prince and 8th Earl of Huntingdon. He was, until 1198, heir to the Scottish throne.

    Life

    He was the youngest surviving son of Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon and Ada de Warenne, a daughter of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey, and Elizabeth of Vermandois. His paternal grandfather was David I of Scotland. Huntingdon was granted to him after his elder brother William I of Scotland ascended the throne. David's son John succeeded him to the earldom.

    In 1190 his brother gave him 'superiority' over Dundee and its port. The same year he endowed Lindores Abbey in Fife and a church dedicated to St Mary in Dundee.[1]

    In the litigation for succession to the crown of Scotland in 1290–1292, the great-great-grandson Floris V, Count of Holland of David's sister, Ada, claimed that David had renounced his hereditary rights to the throne of Scotland. He therefore declared that his claim to the throne had priority over David's descendants. However, no explanation or firm evidence for the supposed renunciation could be provided.

    Marriage and issue

    On 26 August 1190 David married Matilda of Chester (1171 – 6 January 1233), daughter of Hugh de Kevelioc, 3rd Earl of Chester. He was almost thirty years Matilda's senior. The marriage was recorded by Benedict of Peterborough.[2]

    David and Matilda had seven children:

    Margaret of Huntingdon (c. 1194 – c. 1228), married Alan, Lord of Galloway, by whom she had two daughters, including Dervorguilla of Galloway.
    Robert of Huntingdon (died young)
    Ada of Huntingdon, married Sir Henry de Hastings, by whom she had one son, Henry de Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings.
    Matilda (Maud) of Huntingdon (-aft.1219, unmarried)
    Isobel of Huntingdon (1199–1251), married firstly, Henry De Percy and had issue and secondly, Robert Bruce, 4th Lord of Annandale, by whom she had two sons, including Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale.
    John of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon (1207 – 6 June 1237), married Elen ferch Llywelyn. He succeeded his uncle Ranulf as Earl of Chester in 1232, but died childless.
    Henry of Huntingdon (died young)[3][4]

    Earl David also had three illegitimate children:[5]

    Henry of Stirling
    Henry of Brechin
    Ada, married Malise, son of Ferchar, Earl of Strathearn

    After the extinction of the senior line of the Scottish royal house in 1290, when the legitimate line of William the Lion of Scotland ended, David's descendants were the prime candidates for the throne. The two most notable claimants to the throne, Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale (grandfather of King Robert I of Scotland) and John of Scotland were his descendants through David's daughters Isobel and Margaret, respectively.

    end of biography

    David married Matilda of Chester, Countess of Huntingdon 26 Aug 1190. Matilda (daughter of Hugh de Kevelioc, Knight, 5th Earl of Chester and Bertrade de Montfort, Comtess d'Evreux) was born 0___ 1171; died 6 Jan 1233, (Scotland). [Group Sheet]


  6. 175.  Matilda of Chester, Countess of Huntingdon was born 0___ 1171 (daughter of Hugh de Kevelioc, Knight, 5th Earl of Chester and Bertrade de Montfort, Comtess d'Evreux); died 6 Jan 1233, (Scotland).

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Maude de Kevelioc

    Notes:

    Matilda of Chester,[1][2] Countess of Huntingdon (1171 – 6 January 1233)[2][3] was an Anglo-Norman noblewoman, sometimes known as Maud and sometimes known with the surname de Kevelioc. She was a daughter of Hugh de Kevelioc, 5th Earl of Chester, and the wife of David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon. Through her daughter, Isobel, she was an ancestress of Robert the Bruce.

    Family

    Lady Maude was born in 1171, the eldest child of Hugh de Kevelioc (aka Hugh de Meschines), 5th Earl of Chester and Bertrade de Montfort, a cousin of King Henry II of England. Her paternal grandparents were Ranulf de Gernon and Maud (Matilda) of Gloucester, the granddaughter of King Henry I of England, and her maternal grandparents were Simon III de Montfort, Count of âEvreux and Mahaut.

    Lady Matilda's five siblings were:

    Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester
    Richard[4] (died young)
    Mabel of Chester, Countess of Arundel
    Agnes (Alice) of Chester, Countess of Derby
    Hawise of Chester, Countess of Lincoln.
    She also had a sister, Amice (or Amicia) of Chester, who may have been illegitimate.[2]

    Matilda's father died in 1181 when she was ten years of age. He had served in King Henry's Irish campaigns after his estates had been restored to him in 1177. They had been confiscated by the King as a result of his taking part in the baronial Revolt of 1173–1174. His son Ranulf succeeded him as Earl of Chester, and Matilda became a co-heiress of her brother.


    Dervorguilla of Galloway, a granddaughter of Matilda of Chester

    Marriage and issue

    On 26 August 1190, she married David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon, a Scottish prince, son of Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon, and a younger brother of Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I of Scotland. He was almost thirty years Matilda's senior. The marriage was recorded by Benedict of Peterborough.[5]

    David and Matilda had seven children:

    Margaret of Huntingdon (c. 1194 – after 1 June 1233), married Alan, Lord of Galloway, by whom she had two daughters, including Dervorguilla of Galloway.
    Robert of Huntingdon (died young)
    Ada of Huntingdon, married Sir Henry de Hastings, by whom she had one son, Henry de Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings.
    Matilda (Maud) of Huntingdon (-aft.1219, unmarried)
    Isobel of Huntingdon (1199–1251), married Robert Bruce, 4th Lord of Annandale, by whom she had two sons, including Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale.
    John of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon (1207 – 6 June 1237), married Elen ferch Llywelyn. He succeeded his uncle Ranulf as Earl of Chester in 1232, but died childless.
    Henry of Huntingdon (died young)[2][6]
    Her husband David had four illegitimate children by various mistresses.[5]

    On her brother Ranulf's death in October 1232 Matilda inherited a share in his estates with her other 3 sisters, and his Earldom of Chester suo jure. Less than a month later with the consent of the King, Matilda gave an inter vivos gift of the Earldom to her son John the Scot who became Earl of Chester by right of his mother.[7] He was formally invested by King Henry III as Earl of Chester[2] on 21 November 1232.[8] He became Earl of Chester in his own right on the death of his mother six weeks later.

    Matilda died on 6 January 1233 at the age of about sixty-two. Her husband had died in 1219. In 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, which caused the extinction of the legitimate line of William I, the descendants of David and Matilda became the prime competitors for the crown of Scotland. Through their daughter, Isobel, they were the direct ancestors of the renowned Scottish King, Robert the Bruce.

    References

    Jump up ^ Cokayne, G.E. et al, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume III
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Charles Cawley. "England, earls created 1067-1122". Medieval Lands.
    Jump up ^ Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999)
    Jump up ^ That Richard is a son of Earl Hugh, Matilda's father, is recorded in the Domesday Descendants.
    ^ Jump up to: a b Charles Cawley. "Kings of Scotland". Medieval Lands.
    Jump up ^ "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10777". Thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2008-11-08.
    Jump up ^ Burke, John, A general and heraldic dictionary of the peerages of England, Ireland, and Scotland
    Jump up ^ Earl of Chester

    *

    Children:
    1. 87. Margaret of Huntingdon, Lady of Galloway was born ~ 1194, Galloway, Wigtownshire, Scotland; died 0___ 1223.
    2. Isabella of Huntingdon was born 0___ 1199; died 0___ 1251.
    3. John of Scotland, 9th Earl of Huntingdon was born 0___ 1207; died 6 Jun 1237.
    4. Ada of Huntingdon was born (Scotland).

  7. 188.  John FitzGilbert was born 26 Nov 1105, (Wiltshire) England (son of Gilbert Giffard, Royal Serjeant and Mary Margarite De Venuz); died 29 Sep 1165, Rockley, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England; was buried Bradenstoke, Wiltshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: John Marshal
    • Also Known As: The Marshal of the Horses
    • Alt Birth: ~ 1105
    • Alt Death: 0___ 1165

    Notes:

    John FitzGilbert the Marshal of the Horses (c. 1105 – 1165) was a minor Anglo-Norman nobleman during the reign of King Stephen, and fought in the 12th century civil war on the side of Empress Matilda. Since at least 1130 and probably earlier, he had been the royal marshal to King Henry I. When Henry died, John FitzGilbert swore for Stephen and was granted the castles of Marlborough and Ludgershall, Wiltshire during this time. Along with Hamstead Marshal, this gave him control of the valley of the River Kennet in Wiltshire. Around 1139, John changed sides and swore for the Empress Matilda. In September 1141, Matilda fled the siege of Winchester and took refuge in the Marshal's castle at Ludgershall. While covering her retreat from Winchester, John Marshal was forced to take refuge at Wherwell Abbey. The attackers set fire to the building, and John lost an eye to dripping lead from the melting roof.

    In 1152, John had a celebrated confrontation with King Stephen, who had besieged him at Newbury Castle. After John had broken an agreement to surrender, Stephen threatened to kill his son, whom John had given as a hostage. John refused, saying he could make more sons, but Stephen apparently took pity on the young boy and did not kill him. The boy grew up to be William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, a legendary figure in medieval lore, and one of the most powerful men in England.

    The office of Lord Marshal, which originally related to the keeping of the King's horses, and later, the head of his household troops, was won as a hereditary title by John, and was passed to his eldest son, and later claimed by William. John also had a daughter, Margaret Marshal, who married Ralph de Somery, son of John de Somery and Hawise de Paynell.

    Family

    John was the son of Gilbert, Royal Serjeant and Marshal to Henry I, and his wife Margaret. After his father died in 1129 John inherited the title of the king's marshal. John married Aline Pipard whose father Walter Pipard had been a friend of John's father. John arranged an annulment of his marriage to Aline Pipard in order to marry Sibyl of Salisbury, the sister of Patrick of Salisbury, who had been a local rival of his, and a supporter of King Stephen, up to that point. John had two sons by Aline - Gilbert (d. 1166) and Walter (d. bef.1165). Walter predeceased his father and Gilbert died shortly after inheriting his father's lands.

    John's eldest son by Sibyl of Salisbury, also called John Marshal (1145-1194), inherited the title of Marshal, which he held until his death. The title was then granted by King Richard the Lionheart to his second son by Sybilla, William (1147-1219), who made the name and title famous. Though he had started out as a younger son without inheritance, by the time he actually inherited the title his reputation as a soldier and statesman was unmatched across Western Europe. John Marshal had four sons in total by his second wife. As well as John and William, there was Henry (1150-1206), who went on to become Bishop of Exeter, and Ancel, who served as a knight in the household of his kinsman, Rotrou, Count of Perche. There were also two daughters Sybilla and Margaret.

    References

    Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines 55-28, 66-27, 81-28, 122A-29
    Barlow, Frank. The Feudal Kingdom of England 1042-1216 London: Longman Group Limited, 1961. ISBN 0-582-48237-2
    William Marshal, Knighthood, War and Chivalry 1147-1219 Longman 2002 ISBN 0-582-77222-2

    end of biography

    Biography

    John Fitz-Gilbert, also called John Marshal, was the son of Gilbert Giffard, who was like John an hereditary marshal of the household of King Henry I. John and his father Gilbert, it was noted several generations later by King John, had successfully claimed the right to being "chief" marshall against competing claims from Robert de Venoix and William de Hasings.[1] By the time of John's children, the surname was being used as an early example of a surname, not only by his son and heir, but also by his younger sons.

    John's career coincided with a dark 19-year period in Anglo-Norman history, called "The Anarchy" (1135-1164). It was an interregnum following King Henry I's death with no clear male heir (his legitimate son had been lost at sea in 1620). Henry I's illegitimate son, Stephen, seized the throne, opposed by Henry's daughter-in-law, Empress Matilda, fighting for her (legitimate) son's rights (he became King Henry II in 1164). The Anglo-Norman nobility nearly wrecked the country in a lengthy civil war.[2]

    John's marriage to Aline Pipard was a casualty of this conflict. From 1135 to 1140 John loyally served King Stephen as Marshal of England, managing the Army's supplies and accompanying the King when he secured Normandy to his cause. John received three important castles in Wiltshire as his reward. With Hamstead Marshal, this gave him control of Wiltshire's strategic Kennet River valley. He was bitterly opposed by Patrick de Salisbury (also in Wiltshire), who supported Empress Matilda.[3].

    In February 1141, Stephen's army was defeated at Lincoln and the King taken prisoner, temporarily. John, who may have opposed Stephen's questionable military strategy, decided to change sides. Later that year, with great bravery, he helped Empress Matilda escape an ambush in Wiltshire, loosing an eye and being left for dead in the process. At the same time he came to a political/family agreement with his local enemy, the Patrick of Salisbury, by arranging to annul his first marriage to his distant cousin Aline Pipard (for "consanguinity" an often-used excuse by Medieval nobles at a time when divorce was impossible) and marry Patrick's spinster sister, Sybil.[4]

    Aline's sons' rights were maintained but they both died within a year of their father, leaving John's lands, and the "Marshal of England" office, to John's third son (first son by Sibyl), John Marshal, who exercised it under King Henry II until his death in 1192. King Richard (Lionheart) then passed the office to his younger brother, William, who had gone to Normandy as squire to his cousin William de Tancarville, High Chamberlain of Normandy. Though William had started out as a fourth son without any inheritance, by the time he became the Marshal of England, his reputation as a soldier and statesman was unmatched. He expanded the powers of the Marshal's office and was later Regent for Henry III when he inherited the throne as a boy[5].

    John Fitz-Gilbert Marshal was a ruthless Anglo-Norman baron with considerable daring, energy, and ambition. His abilities as a soldier and his love of military stratagy were well recorded as was his political savvy. Despite what some detractors wrote, he was also quite loyal by contemporary standards. During the Anarchy he only changed sides once, remaining faithful to Matilda and her son after 1141 and defending them skillfully and at his own peril. His son William inherited his father's skills, reportedly rescuing Queen Eleanor (of Aquitaine), Henry II's wife, after an ambush near Lusignan Castle in France in 1167. After his brother's death without issue opened the way for him to become Marshal of England, he also showed great political skills, including helping implement the Magna Carta of 1215 between King John and the Barons. Between them, this father and son, from a relatively-minor Norman house, marked their century and influenced the course of English history.[6]

    Burial: Bradenstoke Priory, Wiltshire

    John FitzGilbert the Marshal (Marechal) (c. 1105 - 1165) was a minor Anglo-Norman nobleman during the reign of King Stephen, and fought in the 12th century civil war on the side of the Empress Matilda. Since at least 1130 and probably earlier, he had been the royal marshal to King Henry I. When Henry died, John FitzGilbert swore for Stephen and was granted the castles of Marlborough and Ludgershall, in Wiltshire. Along with Hamstead Marshal, this gave him control of the valley of the River Kennet in Wiltshire.

    Around 1139, John changed sides and swore for the Empress Matilda. In September 1141, Matilda fled the siege of Winchester and took refuge in the Marshal's castle at Ludgershall. While covering her retreat from Winchester, John Marshal was forced to take refuge at Wherwell Abbey. The attackers set fire to the building, and John lost an eye to dripping lead from the melting roof.

    In 1152, John had a legendary confrontation with King Stephen, who had besieged him at Newbury Castle. After John had broken an agreement to surrender, Stephen threatened to kill his son, whom John had given as a hostage. John refused, saying he could make more sons, but Stephen apparently took pity on the young boy and did not kill him. The boy grew up to be William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, a legendary figure in medieval lore, and one of the most powerful men in England.

    The office of Lord Marshal, was an a hereditary title held by John's father, Gilbert Giffard, King's Marshal [7] and was passed to John, his eldest son, and then to John's eldest son also named John, who died in 1192. John's younger brother William (later Regent of England) then inherited the title.

    John the son of Gilbert, also had a daughter, Margaret Marshal, who married Ralph de Somery, son of John de Somery and Hawise de Paynell.

    John was the son of Gilbert Giffard (Royal Serjeant and Marshal to Henry I). In 1141, John arranged an annulment of his marriage to Aline Pipard in order to marry Sibyl of Salisbury, the sister of Patrick of Salisbury, [8] who had been a local rival of his, and a supporter of King Stephen, up to that point. John had two sons by Aline - Gilbert and Walter. Walter predeceased his father and Gilbert died shortly after inheriting his father's lands.

    John's eldest son by Sybilla of Salisbury, also called John Marshal (died 1194), inherited the title of Marshal, which he held until his death. The title was then granted by King Richard the Lionheart to John's second son by Sybilla, William, who made the name and title famous. Though William had started out as a younger son without inheritance, by the time he actually inherited the title of Marshal his reputation as a soldier and statesman was unmatched across Western Europe. John Marshal had four sons in total by his second wife. As well as John and William, there was Henry, who went on to become Bishop of Exeter, and Ancel, who served as a knight in the household of his kinsman, Rotrou, Count of Perche.
    Title of "Marshal"

    "Mareschal" is "Marshal" in from old French, the common language of the Anglo-Norman nobility of Medieval England. The title, which in Carolingian times had meant "horse servant". The position evolved into an official position and was imported from Normandy to England. John's father, Gilbert Fitz-Robert, was a marshal of King Henry I.

    Marshal was the title of the person in the king's household who maintained discipline at court; supplied receipts for payments, gifts and liveries from the king. He was over all servants of the court connected with the royal sports; over the king's bodyguard, and in charge of the horses. He was required to witness writs. It was an hereditary office. The Marshal took part in the ceremony of coronation. His sign of office was a baton bestowed by the king. [9]
    The Marshal, under the Royal Constable, was responsible for keeping order at the royal court, making billeting arrangements, tallying the household's expenditures, monitoring knights performing military service for the King, and insuring the imprisonment of debtors. Under John's son William, who was often simply called "The Marshal" the office became "Earl Marshal" and is still the seventh of the eight "great Officers of State" of the British monarchy, just below the Lord High Constable and above the Lord High Admiral.[10]


    Sources

    ? Round, J. H. (1911), The King's Serjeants & Officers of State with their Coronation Services. https://archive.org/stream/kingsserjeantsof00rounuoft#page/88/mode/2up
    ? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Anarchy
    ? http://www.geni.com/people/Aline-de-Pipard/6000000004382755262?through=6000000001353952871 and "John Fitz-Gilbert, the Marshal," © 1999 by Catherine Armstrong, at: http://www.castlewales.com/jf_gilbt.html
    ? See preceding note.
    ? "John Fitz-Gilbert, the Marshal," © 1999 by Catherine Armstrong, at: http://www.castlewales.com/jf_gilbt.html
    ? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Marshal,_1st_Earl_of_Pembroke and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Marshal_(Marshal_of_England)
    ? Medieval Lands
    ? Medieval Lands
    ? Dictionary of Medieval Knighthood and Chivalry page 326
    ? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_Marshal#Lords_Marshal_of_England.2C_1135.E2.80.931397
    http://www.castlewales.com/jf_gilbt.html - excellent narrative; well researched short biography, (c) 1999 by Catherine Armstrong.
    http://www.geni.com/people/John-FitzGilbert-The-Marshal-of-England/6000000006265484751?through=6000000002459854209
    Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines 55-28, 66-27, 81-28, 122A-29
    Barlow, Frank, The Feudal Kingdom of England 1042-1216 (London: Longman Group Limited, 1961). ISBN 0-582-48237-2
    William Marshal, Knighthood, War and Chivalry 1147-1219, Longman, 2002, ISBN 0 582 77222 2
    Richardson, Douglas, and Kimball G. Everingham. 2013. Royal ancestry: a study in colonial and medieval families. Salt Lake City, UT.: Douglas Richardson. Vol IV, page 34-35, cited by Mr. Marlyn Lewis, Our Royal, Titled, Noble, and Commoner Ancestors & Cousins, database online, Portland, Oregon.
    Medieval Lands, database online, author Charles Cawley, (Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, 2006-2013), England, earls created 1138-1143, Chapter 10, Pembroke: B. Earls of Pembroke 1189-1245 (MARSHAL), 1. John FitzGilbert "the Marshal"

    See also:

    Dictionary of Medieval Knighthood and Chivalry, Bradford B. Broughton, (Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, Inc., 1986).

    end of biography

    Buried:
    Bradenstoke Priory is a medieval priory in the village of Bradenstoke, Wiltshire, England. It is noted today for some of its structures having been used by William Randolph Hearst for the renovation of St Donat's Castle, near Llantwit Major, Wales, in the 1930s. ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bradenstoke_Priory

    John married Sibyl of Salisbury 0___ 1142, Wooten Basset, Wiltshire, England. Sibyl (daughter of Walter of Salisbury and Sibilla de Chaworth) was born 27 Nov 1126; died 0___ 1176, Old Sarum (Salisbury), Wiltshire, England. [Group Sheet]


  8. 189.  Sibyl of Salisbury was born 27 Nov 1126 (daughter of Walter of Salisbury and Sibilla de Chaworth); died 0___ 1176, Old Sarum (Salisbury), Wiltshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Sybilla Evreux

    Children:
    1. 94. William Marshal, Templar Knight, 1st Earl Pembroke was born 1146-1147, (Berkshire, England); died 14 Apr 1219, Caversham, Berkshire, England; was buried Temple Church, London, Middlesex, England.
    2. FNU Marshal was born ~ 1150.

  9. 190.  Richard de Clare, Knight, 2nd Earl Pembroke was born 0___ 1125, Tonbridge, Kent, England (son of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Beaumont); died 20 Apr 1176, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland.

    Richard married Eva Aoife Mac Murchada, Countess Pembroke 26 Aug 1171, Waterford, Ireland. Eva (daughter of Dermot Dairmait Mac Murchada, King of Leinster and Mor Tauthail Moringen Murchertaig O'Toole, Queen of Ireland) was born 26 Apr 1141, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland; died 0___ 1188, Waterford, Ireland; was buried Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales. [Group Sheet]


  10. 191.  Eva Aoife Mac Murchada, Countess Pembroke was born 26 Apr 1141, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland (daughter of Dermot Dairmait Mac Murchada, King of Leinster and Mor Tauthail Moringen Murchertaig O'Toole, Queen of Ireland); died 0___ 1188, Waterford, Ireland; was buried Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales.
    Children:
    1. Richard de Clare, Knight, 3rd Earl of Hertford was born ~ 1153, Tonbridge Castle, Kent, England; died 28 Nov 1217.
    2. 95. Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke was born 0___ 1172, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 14 Oct 1217, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; was buried Tintern Abbey, Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales.

  11. 200.  Robert de Brus, V, Knight, 5th Lord of Annandale was born ~ 1210 (son of Robert de Brus, 4th Lord of Annandale and Isabella of Huntingdon); died 3 May 1295, Lochmaben Castle, dumfries, Scotland; was buried Gisborough Priory, Cleveland, Yorkshire, England.

    Notes:

    Robert V de Brus (Robert de Brus), 5th Lord of Annandale (ca. 1210 – 31 March or 3 May 1295[1]), was a feudal lord, Justice and Constable of Scotland and England, a Regent of Scotland, and a competitor for the Scottish throne in 1290/92 in the Great Cause. His grandson Robert the Bruce eventually became King of Scots.

    Life

    Early life

    Robert was son of Robert Bruce, 4th Lord of Annandale and Isobel of Huntingdon. Widely known as Robert the Noble, he was also grandson of David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon and Matilda de Kevilloc of Chester, Great-grandson of Henry of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland and Ada de Warenne and Great-great grandson of King David I of Scotland and Maud, Countess of Huntingdon.

    In addition to Annandale, Robert was Lord of Hartlepool (otherwise known as Hartness) in county Durham and Writtle and Hatfield Broadoak in Essex, England. His first wife brought to him the village of Ripe, in Sussex, and his second wife the Lordship of Ireby in Cumberland.[2]

    His possessions were increased following the defeat of Simon de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham (1265), via a series of grants that included the estates of the former rebel barons Walter de Fauconberg, John de Melsa and his brother Bernard. These grants were possibly compensation for the ransom his son Robert, negotiated and paid to his brother Bernard, and nephew Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, for his release following his capture, at the Battle of Lewes (1264). Henry III also re-appointed Robert a Justice, and Constable of Carlisle Castle and keeper of the Castle there in 1267, a position he had been dismissed from in 1255. Robert sought pardon from Alexander and probably joined the princes Edward and Edmund on their August 1270-74 crusade, as Robert if not Richard possibly failed to attend, or returned early, as the younger Robert is recorded as receiving a quitclaim in Writtle, Essex in October 1271[3][4]

    In 1271-2, Robert obtained the hand of Marjorie of Carrick, the young widowed heiress of Niall of Carrick, 2nd Earl of Carrick for his son, also called Robert de Brus. Around this time his first wife Isabella de Clare of Gloucester and Hertford dies, the date is unknown as she's last recorded receiving a gift of deer from King Henry in Essex, in 1271, but on the 3 May 1273 Robert married Christina de Ireby, the Widow of Adam Jesmond, the Sheriff of Northumberland. The marriage added estates in Cumberland and dower land from her previous husband, to the Brus holdings. Following the marriage Robert appears to have restricted himself to the management of the family's northern possessions, leaving the southern to his sons'.[4]

    Robert Bruce was Regent of Scotland some time during minority of his second cousin King Alexander III of Scotland (1241–1286) and was occasionally recognised as a Tanist of the Scottish throne. He was the closest surviving male relative to the king: Margaret of Huntingdon's issue were all females up until birth of Hugh Balliol sometime in the 1260s. When Alexander yet was childless, he was officially named as heir presumptive, but never gained the throne as Alexander managed to beget three children. The succession in the main line of the House of Dunkeld became highly precarious when towards the end of Alexander's reign, all three of his children died within a few years. The middle-aged Alexander III induced in 1284 the Estates to recognise as his heir-presumptive his granddaughter Margaret, called the "Maid of Norway", his only surviving descendant. The need for a male heir led Alexander to contract a second marriage to Yolande de Dreux on 1 November 1285. All this was eventually in vain. Alexander died suddenly, in a fall from his horse, when only 45 years old, in 1286. His death ushered in a time of political upheaval for Scotland. His three-year-old granddaughter Margaret, who lived in Norway, was recognised as his successor. However, the then 7-year old heiress Margaret died, travelling towards her kingdom, on the Orkney Islands around 26 September 1290. With her death, the main royal line came to an end and thirteen claimants asserted their rights to the Scottish Throne.

    The Great Cause

    After this extinction of the senior line of the Scottish royal house (the line of William I of Scotland) David of Huntingdon's descendants were the primary candidates for the throne. The two most notable claimants to the throne, John Balliol and Robert himself represented descent through David's daughters Margaret and Isobel respectively.

    Robert Bruce pleaded tanistry and proximity of blood in the succession dispute. He descended from the second daughter of David of Huntingdon, whereas John Balliol descended from the eldest, and thus had the lineal right. However, Robert was a second cousin of kings of Scotland and descended in 4th generation from King David I of Scotland, whereas John Balliol was a third cousin of kings and descended in 5th generation from King David I, the most recent common ancestor who had been Scottish king. The ensuing 'Great Cause' was concluded in 1292. It gave the Crown of Scotland to his family's great rival, John Balliol. The events took place as follows:

    Soon after the death of young queen Margaret, Robert Bruce raised a body of men with the help of the Earls of Mar and Atholl and marched to Perth with a considerable following and uncertain intentions. Bishop William Fraser of St. Andrews, worried of the possibility of civil war, wrote to Edward I of England, asking for his assistance in choosing a new monarch.

    Edward took this chance to demand sasine of the Scottish royal estate, but agreed to pass judgment in return for recognition of his suzerainty. The guardians of Scotland denied him this, but Robert Bruce was quick to pay homage. All the claimants swore oaths of homage, and John Balliol was the last to do so. The guardians were forced to concede and were thus reinstated by Edward.

    Judgment processed slowly. On 3 August 1291 Edward asked both Balliol and Bruce to choose forty auditors while he himself chose twenty-four, to decide the case. After considering all of the arguments, in early November the court decided in favour of John Balliol, having the superior claim in feudal law, not to mention greater support from the kingdom of Scotland. In accordance with this, final judgement was given by Edward on 17 November. On 30 November, John Balliol was crowned as King of Scots at Scone Abbey. On 26 December, at Newcastle upon Tyne, King John swore homage to Edward I for the kingdom of Scotland. Edward soon made it clear that he regarded the country as his vassal state. The Bruce family thus lost what they regarded as their rightful place on the Scottish throne.

    Later years

    Robert, 5th Lord of Annandale resigned the lordship of Annandale and his claim to the throne to his eldest son Robert de Brus. Shortly afterwards, in 1292, the younger Robert's wife Marjorie of Carrick died and the earldom of Carrick, which Robert had ruled jure uxoris, devolved upon their eldest son, also called Robert, the future King.

    In 1292, Robert V de Brus held a market at Ireby, Cumberland, in right of his wife. The following year he had a market at Hartlepool, county Durham within the liberties of the Bishop of Durham.[5]

    Sir Robert de Brus died at Lochmaben Castle and was buried at Gisborough Priory in Cleveland.[5]

    Family and children

    He married firstly on 12 May 1240 Lady Isabella de Clare (2 November 1226 – after 10 July 1264), daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford and 5th Earl of Gloucester and Lady Isabel Marshal, with issue:

    Isabel de Brus (1249 – c. 1284), married (as his first wife) Sir John FitzMarmaduke, Knt., of Horden, Eighton, Lamesley, Ravensholm, and Silksworth, County Durham, Sheriff of North Durham, and Joint Warden beyond the Scottish Sea between the Firth of Forth and Orkney. He fought on the English side at the Battle of Falkirk, 22 July 1298, and was present at the Siege of Caerlaverock Castle in 1300. In 1307 he was commanded to assist the Earl of Richmond in expelling Robert de Brus and the Scottish rebels from Galloway. In 1309 his armour and provisions in a vessel bound for Perth were arrested off Great Yarmouth. He was governor of St. John's Town (Perth) in 1310 until his death. Isabel was buried at Easington, County Durham.[6]
    Robert VI the Bruce, 6th Lord of Annandale, Earl of Carrick (1253–1304)
    William de Brus, married Elizabeth de Sully, without issue
    Sir Bernard de Bruce, of Connington, married firstly Alicia de Clare and married secondly Constance de Morleyn, and had:
    Sir John Bruce, of Exton[disambiguation needed], married and had:
    Jane Bruce, married Sir Nicholas Green
    Richard de Brus (died ca. 26 January 1287), unmarried and without issue
    He married, secondly on 3 May 1275 at Hoddam, in the Diocese of Glasgow, Christina (died ca. 1305 or 1305), daughter and heiress of Sir William de Ireby, of Ireby, Cumbria. They had no issue.

    Despite claims by amateur genealogists, there is no evidence that Robert fathered other children.[7]

    *

    Buried:
    Gisborough Priory is a ruined Augustinian priory in Guisborough in the borough of Redcar and Cleveland and ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It was founded in 1119 as the Priory of St Mary by the Norman feudal magnate Robert de Brus, also an ancestor of the Scottish king, Robert the Bruce. It became one of the richest monastic foundations in England with grants from the crown and bequests from de Brus, other nobles and gentry and local people of more modest means. Much of the Romanesque Norman priory was destroyed in a fire in 1289. It was rebuilt in the Gothic style on a grander scale over the following century. Its remains are regarded as among the finest surviving examples of early Gothic architecture in England.[1]

    The priory prospered until the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1540, when it was abolished along with England's other monastic communities. The priory buildings were demolished and the stone re-used in other buildings in Guisborough.

    Image & History ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gisborough_Priory

    Died:
    Lords of Annandale

    By 1160, the Anglo-Norman de Brus (Bruce) family had become the Lords of Annandale. Robert de Brus Lord of Skelton in the Cleveland area of Yorkshire, was a notable figure at the court of King Henry I of England, where he became intimate with Prince David of Scotland, that monarch's brother-in-law. When the Prince became King David I of Scotland, in 1124, Bruce obtained from him the Lordship of Annandale, and great possessions in the south of Scotland. (de Brus was nevertheless buried at Guisborough, the place of his birth). By the 15th century the Lordship was in the hands of Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany. Following his death in 1485 it, and the castle of Lochmaben, were annexed to the Crown by Act of Parliament dated 1 October 1487.[4]

    Castles & Battles

    At some point in the 13th century the Bruces built a castle, probably a Keep, at Lochmaben, the remains of which now lie under a golf course. It is claimed that King Robert I of Scotland (Bruce) was born there, which is why the town adopted the motto "From us is born the liberator king" (in Latin) on its coat of arms. However, this claim is relatively late; it cannot be ruled out, but his birthplace was more likely Turnberry Castle. Bruce certainly battled the English over this area during the Wars of Scottish Independence.

    Images & History ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lochmaben

    Robert married Isabel de Clare 12 May 1240. Isabel (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, 4th Earl of Hertford and Isabel Marshal, Countess Marshall) was born 2 Nov 1226, Hertford, Hertfordshire, England; died 10 Jul 1264. [Group Sheet]


  12. 201.  Isabel de Clare was born 2 Nov 1226, Hertford, Hertfordshire, England (daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knight, 4th Earl of Hertford and Isabel Marshal, Countess Marshall); died 10 Jul 1264.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Isabella of Gloucester and Hertford
    • Also Known As: Lady of Annandale and Ireby

    Notes:

    Isabella de Clare (2 November 1226 - 10 July 1264) was the daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford and 5th Earl of Gloucester and Isabel Marshal. She is also known as Isabel de Clare, but this is however, the name of many women in her family.

    Family

    Isabella's maternal grandparents were William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and his wife Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke. Isabella's paternal grandparents were Richard de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford and Amice FitzRobert.

    Isabella was the fourth of six children, her brother was Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford. Her sister, Amice de Clare married Baldwin de Redvers, 6th Earl of Devon and was mother of Baldwin de Redvers, 7th Earl of Devon and Isabella de Fortibus, Countess of Devon.

    Marriage

    Isabella was married on 12 May 1240 (at age thirteen and a half) to Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale. Isabella brought to him the village of Ripe, in Sussex. Her husband was a candidate to become King of Scotland, after the death of the young Margaret, Maid of Norway. Her husband did not however succeed; Robert's rival, John Balliol was elected King of Scotland in 1292.[1]

    Robert and Isabella had up to six children:

    Robert (1243–1304)
    William, married Elizabeth de Sully, without issue
    Bernard, married firstly Alicia de Clare and married secondly Constance de Morleyn
    Richard (died before 26 January 1287)
    Isabella (1249 – c. 1284), married (as his first wife) Sir John FitzMarmaduke, Isabel was buried at Easington, county Durham.[2]
    John Balliol's time as King of Scotland did not last long, he died in 1314. Isabella's grandson, Robert the Bruce became King of Scotland. Isabella did not however get to see this day, she died in 1264, aged thirty seven. Her husband married a second time, to Christina de Ireby, this marriage produced no children.

    Despite claims to the contrary by amateur genealogists, there is no evidence that Isabella had other children.[3]

    Children:
    1. 100. Robert the Bruce, Knight, VII, Earl of Carrick was born 0Jul 1243, (Writtle, Essex, England); died Bef 4 March 1304; was buried Holm Cultram Abbey, Abbeytown, Cumbria, England.
    2. Isabella de Brus was born 0___ 1249; died ~ 1284; was buried Easington, County Durham, England.
    3. Mary Clarissa de Brus was born ~1260, Scotland; died <1283.

  13. 204.  William, Earl of Mar was born ~ 1163, Altyre, Moray, Scotland; died 0___ 1233, Buchan, Aberdeenshire, Scotland.

    William — Elizabeth Comyn, of Buchan. Elizabeth (daughter of William Comyn, Lord of Badenoch and Margaret Colhan of Buchan, Countess of Buchan) was born ~ 1223, Buchan, Aberdeen, Scotland; died 0___ 1267. [Group Sheet]


  14. 205.  Elizabeth Comyn, of Buchan was born ~ 1223, Buchan, Aberdeen, Scotland (daughter of William Comyn, Lord of Badenoch and Margaret Colhan of Buchan, Countess of Buchan); died 0___ 1267.
    Children:
    1. 102. Domhnall, I, Earl of Mar was born (Aberdeenshire, Scotland); died 1297-1302, (Aberdeenshire, Scotland).

  15. 206.  Llywelyn The GreatLlywelyn The Great was born ~ 1172, Dolwyddelan, Wales; died 11 Apr 1240, Aberconwy Abbey, Wales; was buried Aberconwy Abbey, Wales.

    Other Events:

    • Also Known As: Llywelyn ap Iorwerth
    • Also Known As: Llywelyn Fawr
    • Also Known As: Prince of Aberffraw and Lord of Snowdon
    • Also Known As: Prince of Gwynedd, and Powys Wenwynwyn

    Notes:

    Llywelyn the Great (Welsh: Llywelyn Fawr, [??'w?l?n va??r]), full name Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, (c. 1172 – 11 April 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd in north Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales. By a combination of war and diplomacy he dominated Wales for 40 years.

    During Llywelyn's boyhood, Gwynedd was ruled by two of his uncles, who split the kingdom between them, following the death of Llywelyn's grandfather, Owain Gwynedd, in 1170. Llywelyn had a strong claim to be the legitimate ruler and began a campaign to win power at an early age. He was sole ruler of Gwynedd by 1200 and made a treaty with King John of England that year. Llywelyn's relations with John remained good for the next ten years. He married John's natural daughter Joan in 1205, and when John arrested Gwenwynwyn ab Owain of Powys in 1208, Llywelyn took the opportunity to annex southern Powys. In 1210, relations deteriorated, and John invaded Gwynedd in 1211. Llywelyn was forced to seek terms and to give up all lands west of the River Conwy, but was able to recover them the following year in alliance with the other Welsh princes. He allied himself with the barons who forced John to sign Magna Carta in 1215. By 1216, he was the dominant power in Wales, holding a council at Aberdyfi that year to apportion lands to the other princes.

    Following King John's death, Llywelyn concluded the Treaty of Worcester with his successor, Henry III, in 1218. During the next fifteen years, Llywelyn was frequently involved in fights with Marcher lords and sometimes with the king, but also made alliances with several major powers in the Marches. The Peace of Middle in 1234 marked the end of Llywelyn's military career, as the agreed truce of two years was extended year by year for the remainder of his reign. He maintained his position in Wales until his death in 1240 and was succeeded by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn.

    Children

    Llywelyn married Joan, natural daughter of King John of England, in 1205. Llywelyn and Joan had three identified children in the records but in all probability had more as Llywelyn's children were fully recognised during his marriage to Joan whilst his father-in-law, King John, was alive. The identity of the mother of some of Llywelyn's children before this union is uncertain, but the following are recorded in contemporary or near-contemporary records.

    Dafydd ap Llywelyn (c. 1212–1246), son by Joan, wife of Llywelyn.

    Elen (Helen) ferch Llywelyn (c. 1206–1253), daughter by Joan. M. John Earl of Huntington m. 2nd Robert de Quincy 3rd Donald Malcolm Mar Earl of Mar.

    Susanna ferch Llywelyn, died after November 1228, daughter by Joan. Henry III King of England granted the upbringing of "L. princeps Norwallie et Johanna uxor sua et…soror nostra Susannam filiam suam" to "Nicholao de Verdun et Clementie uxori sue" by order dated 24 Nov 1228[273]. Her birth date is estimated on the assumption that Susanna was under marriageable age, but older than an infant, at the time.

    Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. 1196–1244), a son by Tangwystl Goch (d. c. 1198).

    Gwladus Ddu (c. 1206–1251), probable daughter by Joan.

    Angharad ferch Llywelyn (c. 1212–1256), probable daughter of Joan; married Maelgwn Fychan.

    Marared ferch Llywelyn (died after 1268), married John de Braose and secondly (about 1232) Walter III de Clifford. Marared had issue by both husbands.[64]

    Elen the Younger ferch Llywelyn (before 1230-after 16 Feb 1295) who married firstly Mâael Coluim II, Earl of Fife, son of Duncan Macduff of Fife & his wife Alice Corbet. She married secondly (after 1266) Domhnall I, Earl of Mar, son of William, Earl of Mar & his first wife Elizabeth Comyn of Buchan.

    Elen and Domhall's daughter, Isabella of Mar, married Robert, the Bruce, King of Scots. Isabella had one child by the King of Scots, Marjorie Bruce, who was the mother of the first Stewart monarch, Robert II of Scotland.

    Tegwared y Baiswen ap Llywelyn (c. 1215), a son by a woman named as Crysten in some sources, a possible twin of Angharad[65]

    Little is known of Llywelyn's mistress, Tangwystl Goch, except that she was the daughter of Llywarch "Goch" of Rhos.[66] Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. 1196–1244) was Llywelyn's eldest son and known to be the son of Tangwystl. He married Senena, daughter of Caradoc ap Thomas of Anglesey. Their sons included Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, who for a period occupied a position in Wales comparable to that of his grandfather, and Dafydd ap Gruffydd who ruled Gwynedd briefly after his brother's death.

    end of biography

    Llywelyn Ap Iorwerth, byname Llywelyn The Great (died April 11, 1240, Aberconway, Gwynedd, Wales), Welsh prince, the most outstanding native ruler to appear in Wales before the region came under English rule in 1283.

    Llywelyn was the grandson of Owain Gwynedd (d. 1170), a powerful ruler of Gwynedd in northern Wales. While still a child, Llywelyn was exiled by his uncle, David. He deposed David in 1194 and by 1202 had brought most of northern Wales under his control. In 1205 he married Joan, the illegitimate daughter of England’s King John (reigned 1199–1216). Nevertheless, when Llywelyn’s attempts to extend his authority into southern Wales threatened English possessions, John invaded Wales (1211) and overran most of Gwynedd. The prince soon won back his lands. He secured his position by allying with John’s powerful baronial opponents, and his actions helped the barons influence the king’s signing of Magna Carta (1215).

    Two years after the accession of King Henry III (reigned 1216–72), the English acknowledged that Llywelyn controlled almost all of Wales, but by 1223 they had forced him to withdraw to the north behind a boundary between Cardigan, Dyfed, and Builth, Powys. Many Welsh princes in the south, however, still accepted his overlordship. In his last years the aged Llywelyn turned his government over to his son David (prince of Gwynedd). When Llywelyn died, a chronicler described him as prince of Wales, which he was in fact, if not in law.

    end of biography

    Buried:
    Aberconwy Abbey was a Cistercian foundation at Conwy, later transferred to Maenan near Llanrwst, and in the 13th century was the most important abbey in the north of Wales.

    A Cistercian house was founded at Rhedynog Felen near Caernarfon in 1186 by a group of monks from Strata Florida Abbey. About four or five years later they moved to Conwy, and in 1199 were given large grants of land by Llywelyn the Great who had recently become ruler of Gwynedd. Llywelyn was regarded as the founder of the house, and thanks to his support it came to hold more land than any other Welsh abbey, over 40,000 acres (160 km˛). On Llywelyn's death in 1240 he was buried at the abbey, and his son and successor Dafydd ap Llywelyn was also buried here in 1246. In 1248 Llywelyn's other son, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, who had died trying to escape from the Tower of London in 1244, was reburied at Aberconwy after the abbot of Aberconwy, together with the abbot of Strata Florida, had arranged for his body to be repatriated from London.

    The abbot of Aberconwy was an important figure in the negotiations between Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and the English crown later in the century, and in 1262 was entrusted with the task of being Llywelyn's sole representative in negotiations.

    In 1282, Edward I of England surrounded Snowdonia with a massive army. On 11 December Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Tywysog Cymru, was lured into a trap and murdered.

    In 1283 King Edward I of England obliged the monks to move from Conwy to Maenan, further up the Conwy valley (53.1733°N 3.8123°W), so he could construct a castle and walled town at Conwy. The move had been completed by 1284, with Edward financing the building of a new abbey. In the 15th century the abbot, John ap Rhys, became involved in a dispute with Strata Florida Abbey and led some of his monks and some soldiers on a raid on that abbey. The abbey was valued at ą162 in 1535 and was suppressed in 1537.

    Little remains of the Maenan Abbey buildings, but the original abbey church in Conwy was adapted to become the parish church of St Mary & All Saints and although much rebuilt over the centuries some parts of the original church remain. The other buildings of the abbey are thought to have been located north and east of the church.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aberconwy_Abbey

    Died:
    Gwynedd, county of northwestern Wales, extending from the Irish Sea in the west to the mountains of Snowdonia in the east. It encompasses most of the historic counties of Caernarvonshire and Merioneth. Caernarfon is the administrative centre of the county.

    https://www.britannica.com/place/Gwynedd

    Llywelyn — unnamed partner. [Group Sheet]


  16. 207.  unnamed partner
    Children:
    1. 103. Helen of Wales was born 0___ 1246, (Wales); died 0___ 1295.